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International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Treatment seeking patterns of the COVID-19 first wave patients: a
           narrative study from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Nahida Sultana Kazi, Shahedul Halim Kazi
      Pages: 4648 - 4654
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 has already taken the lives of 4,088,281 people worldwide. To date, the deadly virus has killed 17,894 people in Bangladesh following a sharp increase in death per day. The current article focuses on the treatment-seeking patterns of COVID-19 patients during the first wave of the pandemic in the country. Methods: This is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents selected purposively. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed narratively. Results: The study shows that 28 out of 30 participants pursued treatments from home, whilst, two individuals with comorbidity got admitted to the hospitals for weeks. This indicates that there is an association between comorbidity and hospitalization of the COVID-19 patients. The study reveals that the use of telemedicine service amidst COVID-19 has initiated a new era of health-seeking among people in Bangladesh. Similarly, media and the internet played a significant role in the quick access to information about the pandemic as well as to decide on the response and healing patterns of the participants. Besides the pharmaceutical drugs, using herbs was a common remedial process among the patients in the study. Conclusions: Like other countries, people in Bangladesh are also puzzled about the coronavirus and its treatment procedures. A proper response to the current situation, an effective preparedness policy, and public awareness are crucial for tackling the further destruction resulting from a highly infectious disease. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Compliance to antihypertensive therapy and associated factors among
           adults’ hypertensive patients attending medical clinics in Kilifi County
           Kenya

    • Authors: John T. Moss, Harun Kimani, Isaac Mwanzo
      Pages: 4655 - 4665
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is both public health and medical problem worldwide. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy is key in avoiding hypertension complications. The purpose of this study was to establish compliance to antihypertensive therapy and associated factors among adults’ hypertensive patients in Kilifi county Kenya.Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional was undertaken in four public health facilities in Kilifi County Kenya. Two hundred and thirteen hypertensive patients were recruited in the study. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23 software. Chi-square test was utilized in establishing the relations, while logistic regression was adopted to determine independent risk factors for compliance.Results: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy was recorded in 31 (14.6%) of the patients. A statistically significant association was established between compliance to antihypertensive therapy and patients knowledge (p<0.001); age (p=0.024); education (p=0.04); income (p=0.013); duration on treatment (p=0.005); cost (p=0.029); health care provider advice (p=0.009); consistency of therapy (p=0.002); medicines availability (p=0.021); and health facility distance (p=0.013). Independent risk factors for compliance to antihypertensive therapy were the duration on treatment of (OR=0.383; 95%CI 0.151-0.972); Knowledge on hypertension (OR=2.715; 95%CI 1.598-4.615); Health care worker follow-ups (OR=0.452; 95%CI 0.282-0.726); and cost of medication (OR=2.682; 95%CI 1.134-6.345).Conclusions: Anti-hypertensive therapy compliance among patients was low. This could be attributed to factors that are socio-demographic, patient, and health service-related in nature. Prompt public health interventions that are patient-community centred are necessary to improve compliance to antihypertensive therapy. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Analysis and forecast of road traffic accident in Saudi Arabia from 1990
           until 2018

    • Authors: Nada A. Abouammoh, Norah A. AlRuwais, Noura A. Abouammoh
      Pages: 4666 - 4671
      Abstract: Background: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are an epidemic problem in Saudi Arabia, resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates. This paper investigates the increasing number of RTAs and their related injuries and mortalities in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This study was performed on the population of Saudi Arabia using secondary data from the general authority for statistics from 1990 to 2018. Correlation among the variables (RTAs, injuries, mortalities, and population) was conducted using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), and forecasts of their trends over the next ten years using linear regression was discussed.Results: Eastern, Makkah and Riyadh regions were the top three regions in the number of RTAs accounting for 69% of the total RTAs in Saudi Arabia. All regions have had a pattern of RTA rise from 1990 till 2014 that dropped in the last 4 years. Riyadh had the highest injury rate per 10,000 RTA, although it had the lowest RTA rate per 100,000 population in the period from 2010-2014. Mortality rate in Riyadh doubled between the years 2014 and 2018 while Makkah accounted for the highest RTA-related mortality rates. The correlation between RTAs and mortalities were the highest in the country (r=0.92). In 2030, the average annual increase in the rate of RTAs, related injuries, and related mortalities will be 3%, 2% and 2.1%, respectively.Conclusions: Decision makers in Saudi traffic and transportation department should continue monitoring accidents prevention strategies and their effect. Reasons behind high injury and mortality rates, despite the decrease in the rate of RTAs, should be investigated.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Factors associated with iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant
           women aged 15-45 years attending Naroosura health centre, Narok County,
           Kenya

    • Authors: Asenath S. Kotonto, Albert B. Wakoli
      Pages: 4672 - 4678
      Abstract: Background: Iron and folic acid are very important nutrients to mothers during pregnancy. Their deficiencies are risk factors for anaemia, preterm delivery and low birth weight. This study aimed to investigate the supplementation of iron and folic acid and the associated factors among pregnant women attending Naroosura health centre, Narok County, Kenya.Methods: This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Data collection took a period of one month where a total of 123 mothers participated. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Chi-square test was conducted to find associations at a significance level of 0.05.Results: Of the study participants, nearly a third (31.7%) took iron and folic acid supplements daily, over a half (57.7%) indicated that taking iron and folic acid supplements was important to them, about a quarter (24.4%) reported that use of iron and folic acid supplements reduces birth defects and about a third (32%) consumed foods rich in iron and folic acid. Supplementation of iron and folic acid was significantly associated with residence (ꭓ2=4.311, df=1, p=0.038), monthly household income (ꭓ2=10.870, df=4, p=0.028), reduced birth defects (χ2=6.131, df=1, p=0.013) and consumption of iron and folic acid rich foods (χ2=4.163, df=1, p=0.041).Conclusions: The intake as well as supplementation of iron and folic acid is still low. Therefore, both the intake and supplementation of iron and folic acid need to be scaled up.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Consequences and management of symptoms of menstrual cycle and association
           with a healthy lifestyle among educated females in Tangail region of
           Bangladesh: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Israt Jahan Ira, Sayema Arefin, Effat Jahan Eva, Shafayatun Nahar Tinu
      Pages: 4679 - 4684
      Abstract: Background: Menstrual cycle is a normal physiological incident in the life of a girl. Often it is not properly understanded or realised that, maintaining a proper hygiene and the symptom management play a vital role in leading a healthy life for a woman. The condition is even worse in developing countries. The aim of the study is to assay the effects, pattern of the cycle and symptom management among the educated female populations in Tangail region in Bangladesh.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Tangail with 305 participants. Data collection took place from October,2020 to December, 2020 following a structured questionnaire. The data obtained were analysed through SPSS 23.0 version.Results: Among the study population 61.5% were in the age range from 20-30 years. Most of the participants have done their post graduation (42.4%). The daily water intake is really important for a good menstrual cycle. 40.8% of the female take less than 2 litres of water which is alarming. 78.3% having their cycle regular with 68.8% of normal flow. 70.4% having their cycle for 3-5 days which is okay. 53.6% of the participants faces Premenstrual syndrome for which 12.2% take medications and 18.8% participants take medicine during menstruation. The study demonstrates a statistically significant association between the age and PMS as well as between the life stress of a women and PMS.Conclusions: The study's goal is to look into the effects and management of menstruation, as well as the demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. To ensure female's health, menstrual cycles must be maintained properly.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Insight into the knowledge, attitude and practices of hand hygiene with
           alcohol based hand rubs in a public sector tertiary care hospital of a
           developing country

    • Authors: Fizra Balkhi, Aamna Nasir, Ayesha Asghar, Farhan Patel, Marium Zafar, Anum Nasir
      Pages: 4685 - 4691
      Abstract: Background: Health care worker’s hands are mostly responsible for transmission of healthcare associated infections (HCAI). In such instances, alcohol based hand rubs have been endorsed by WHO as the gold standard for hand hygiene for visibly clean hands; whereas, for visibly dirty hands soap and water is recommended. In developing countries (like Pakistan), affected people frequently exceed 25%. However, limited infrastructure in these countries hinders the performance of hand hygiene, but the use of alcohol-based hand rubs in such adverse situations is a practical solution to these constraints.Methods: In January 2021, we initiated a 12 week cross-sectional study in a public sector tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. All participants were given a self-designed questionnaire with a consent form thereby giving us permission to use the data. Data was analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 23).Results: 84.3% of the participants had received prior instructions on hand hygiene; however 71.7% respondents did not have access to alcohol based hand rubs. When questioned if they followed WHO’s five moments of hand hygiene, only 50.5% use alcohol based hand rubs before patient contact; 88.6% used it after patient contact; 83.2% after body fluid exposure risk; 77% before an aseptic task and 78.6% after contact with patient’s surroundings.Conclusions: There is a dire need for concerned authorities to enforce proper hand hygiene in public hospitals of developing countries in order to curb health care associated infections and prolonged hospital stays.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of community-based disease surveillance systems for priority
           disease detection in Nairobi County Kenya

    • Authors: Annastacia Katuvee Muange, John Kariuki, James Mwitari
      Pages: 4692 - 4699
      Abstract: Background: Community based disease surveillance (CBDS) may be defined as an active process of community involvement in identification, reporting, responding to and monitoring diseases and public health events of concern in the community. The scope of CBS is limited to systematic continuous collection of health data on events and diseases guided by simplified lay case definitions and reporting to health facilities for verification, investigation, collation, analysis and response as necessary.Methods: A cross sectional study design, interventions study program was adopted to determine the effectiveness of CBDS in detecting of priority diseases. Purposive and random sampling methods was employed to select the respondents.Results: The results of the study assisted the Ministry of health to understand the effectiveness of Community based surveillance in detection of priority diseases and hence strengthen the community-based surveillance initiative. From the findings, the integrated disease surveillance data for five years from 2014-2018 shows, more cases of priority diseases reported in health facilities linked to a community unit trained on CBDS. Cholera (9/5), Malaria (4757/2789), Neonatal tetanus (27/3) respectively.Conclusions: The study concluded that, use of community-based surveillance system, improves detection of the notifiable diseases in the community. The study revealed that there is a gap on training of community-based disease surveillance system and therefore there is need for continuous refresher trainings on CBDS to the CHVs and CHAs to accommodate also the newly recruited.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Lumjung, Tanahun
           and Gorkha district of Nepal: a community-based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Gayatri Khanal, Niki Shrestha, Govinda Dhungana, Suneel Priyani
      Pages: 4700 - 4706
      Abstract: Background: The Maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Nepal had dropped from 444 per 1, 00,000 live births in 2005 to 239 per 1, 00,000 live births in 2016. However, the MMR of Nepal is still highest in the South Asian countries except Afghanistan. Although maternal mortality has declined noticeably in Nepal, there still persists a low proportion of institutional deliveries. The aim of the study was to assess the factors influencing the utilization rate of institutional delivery.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected village development committee of Lamjung, Tanahun and Gorkha district using semi-structured interview schedule. A random sample of 1410 married women who gave birth in the last two years were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the factors associated with institutional delivery.  Results: The prevalence of institutional delivery in three districts was 73.1%, highest in Lamjung (78.8%) and lowest in Gorkha (67.8%).  Employed women (aoR=1.7, CI=1.05-2.80), seeking antenatal check-up (aoR=5.8, CI=3.00-11.16), secondary (SLC) or above education (aoR= 3.3, CI=1.93-5.54), more than 20 years of age at marriage (aoR=1.5, CI=1.02-2.04), Kshetri by cast (aoR=1.7, CI=1.11-2.64) were statistically significant and associated with an increased rate of institutional delivery.Conclusions: Occupation, education, antenatal check-up, age at marriage, and ethnicity/cast are major factors for determining institutional delivery. The concerned authorities have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery in formulating the policy and plan for implementing safe motherhood delivery.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Impact of introduction of the anti-female genital mutilation law on the
           practice of female genital mutilation in Garissa County, Kenya

    • Authors: Yasmin H. Derowa, Eliphas Gitonga, George Otieno, Alison Yoos, Clayton S. Jisuvei
      Pages: 4707 - 4713
      Abstract: Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM), is a social traditional practice performed by cutting parts of the external female genitalia. Garissa county in north eastern Kenya has the highest prevalence of FGM in Kenya at 94%.  This practise was illegalised in Kenya in 2011. The aim of the study was to assess the successes of anti-FGM programs in Garissa County.Methods: This was a cross sectional study involving 108 participants of both genders and different age groups. Questionnaires were used in data collection. Obtained data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Chi square was used to compare characteristics between female participants who had undergone FGM and participants not circumcised.  Results: Of the 108 participants, 53.7% were females. The median age of participants was 23 years [Interquartile range (IQR])15-40]. The prevalence of FGM was 62% with the mean age at circumcision being 8.34 years (SD=2.69 years). Being of Muslim faith was associated with practice of FGM (p<0.001). There was high level of awareness of the anti-FGM law among youths at 84%. Two thirds of participants did not support FGM. Excision was the main type of FGM practiced. Among those circumcised, 14.7% were circumcised by trained nurses.Conclusions: Introduction of the anti-FGM law, and its advocacy by NGOs has led to a reduction in the practice of FGM in Garissa county. There is an increase in the medicalization of FGM in Garissa with evidence of the practice going underground. This study recommends NGOs to have a clearer focus on the method chosen for use in advocating for the abandonment of FGM.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • The rule of health education on the prospective grooms’ and brides’
           awareness in Tarakan city

    • Authors: M. Aris, Harris ., Anto J. Hadi
      Pages: 4714 - 4719
      Abstract: Background: This study was intended to assess the influence of the exclusive breastfeeding module on the awareness of prospective brides in Tarakan city.Methods: The quantitative approach with pretest and posttest was chosen as research method. The research subjects were prospective brides who were undergoing prenuptial guidance at the Ministry of Religion office in Tarakan city with a sample size of respondents (n=100). Before the module was developed, a survey was conducted as a research draft. The module is created in narrative form and is corrected by experts prior to testing. The exclusive breastfeeding module was spread after the pretest was carried out to measure the awareness of the prospective brides on exclusive breastfeeding. Data analysis was done with t test.Results: Characteristics of the male respondents in the reading exclusive breastfeeding module group were generally aged 25-30 years (52%) and the group listening to the lectures were generally aged 20-24 years and 25-30 years (32% and 32%). Meanwhile, the female respondents in the reading module group and the listening group were generally 25-29 years (40%) and 20-24 years (56%). Male respondents in the reading exclusive breastfeeding module group and the listening to lectures group were generally self-employed (76% and 88%). The male respondents’ awareness in the reading module group and listening to lectures group was statistically all significant with a p<0.05.Conclusions: Basically, all female respondents’ awareness in the reading module and lecture group was statistically significant with a p<0.05. Health education through reading exclusive breastfeeding modules and listening to lectures can increase the brides’ and grooms’ awareness of exclusive breastfeeding.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Severity and clinical causes of chronic kidney disease among outpatients
           from selected hospitals in Nairobi County, Kenya

    • Authors: Annastacia N. Mbithi, Harun M. Kimani, Alloys S. S. Orago
      Pages: 4720 - 4725
      Abstract: Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue with high prevalence (8% and 16%) among adults. The severity of CKD and associated clinical features are less characterized in Kenya. We set to determine severity and clinical features of CKD among outpatient attendees in selected hospitals in Nairobi county.Methods: In this hospital based analytical cross-sectional study design, we collected data from Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUHN) and Mater Misericordiae Hospital. We recruited 336 adult CKD outpatients aged 18 years and above attending nephrology clinics between January and July, 2020 using a simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect social-demographic data while data on severity and clinical features were retrieved from patient’s files of those who had given an informed consent. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using statistical package of social science version 26.0.Results: Majority of CKD patients (61.9%) had severe disease. Among patients with CKD, the following clinical features were statistically significant with severe disease; diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.43, 95% CI; 1.72, 5.67), glomerulonephritis (OR 2.52, 95% CI; 2.07, 4.05), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (OR 1.95, 95% CI; 1.87, 3.11), polycystic kidney disease (OR 1.26, 95% CI; 1.12, 2.61) and systemic lupus erythematosus (OR 1.16, 95% CI; 1.06, 1.39).Conclusions: Among outpatient attendees in Nairobi county, severe CKD is likely to be found in patients with diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, polycystic kidney disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, the patients with these features need proper follow up and treatment to slow down progression of CKD to severe stages. However, more studies are need to be done to ascertain that the clinical features are responsible for severe CKD.  
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Use of routine health information for decision making among health care
           workers in Marsabit county, Kenya

    • Authors: Mohamed Asafa Aila, Peter Kithuka
      Pages: 4726 - 4733
      Abstract: Background: In Kenya today, public health facilities at different levels collect a large amount of routine health (RH) data. However, with the introduction of district health information software (DHIS2), recent evidence has shown low levels of data are used by the targeted stakeholders in Kenya. Therefore, study aims to examine the association of human resource and information technology factors associated with the frequent use of RH data in decision-making among health-workers in Marsabit county.Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design. Researchers purposively stratified 201 health workers by cadre, then probability proportionate sampling was applied to get the required number from every cadre. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and entered into the SPSS software, descriptive measurement and Chi square test were used to analyze the data.Results: The majority (74%) of respondents had basic computer skills but 80% of respondent lacked training in health information management. The study found that training increases the likelihoods of healthcare workers utilizing RH data. The type of software (DHIS2 and MedBoss) in use had a significant association with the frequent use of RH data at a p (0.028<0.05).Conclusions: The study revealed that the health facilities lacked ample IT accessories even though internet and electricity connectivity was not limited, however, RHI use was not optimal in health facilities. The study found that the majority of respondents lacked training in RH data implying that training may influence the overall use of the routine data. The study also observed that RH data were used for decision-making frequently for a range of management functions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19 prevention: a survey of
           Sudanese people

    • Authors: Mohamed Ali Alzain, Najm Eldinn Elsser, Collins Otieno Asweto, Mohammed Mohamoud Alsese, Mohammed Ismail Humaida, Ahmed Kassar, Mohamed Osman Abdelaziz
      Pages: 4734 - 4741
      Abstract: Background: The awareness and belief of people on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention often influence their practices toward the disease. Therefore, it is essential to assess people's knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19 prevention; to inform policymakers.Methods: An online survey was conducted on 1455 Sudanese adults using a pretested questionnaire. Chi-square test, spearman’s correlation, and logistic regression were used to analyse the data using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version-25.Results: The study found relatively good knowledge, attitude, and practice on COVID-19 prevention with overall correct rates of 84.6%, 88.8 %, and 78.6%, respectively. Furthermore, knowledge was positively correlated with attitude (r=0.355, P<0.001). Participants with good knowledge were more likely to have a positive attitude and practice (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.08-1.71; OR=1.52; 95%CI:1.36-1.71), respectively than those with insufficient knowledge. While participants with a positive attitude were more than two times (OR=2.36; 95%CI:1.86-2.99) more likely to have good practice than a negative attitude. Moreover, females and married were more likely to have good practice (OR=1.37; 95%CI:1.10-1.69; OR=1.26; 95%CI:1.02-1.55), and positive attitudes (OR=1.39; 95%CI: 1.10-1.77; OR=1.45; 95% CI:1.15-1.84), respectively than their corresponding targeted counterparts. Furthermore, certain occupations (housewife, no worker, and employed) were more likely to have positive attitude and practice than the student (p<0.05). Besides, considerable participants had misconceptions regarding; effectiveness of antibiotics in combating COVID-19 (32%); almost two-thirds of participants either never wearing masks or sometimes.Conclusions: The finding concluded that relatively good knowledge, positive attitude, and desired practices against prevention of COVID-19. Therefore, a great emphasis on health awareness campaigns should focus on risk-taking practice and remove misconceptions.   
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Predictors of quality of life of Pakistani women with rheumatoid
           arthritis: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Sucheta Sharma, Srilatha Eapi, Abdul Muqtadir, Ammar Bokhari, Mehak Zulfiqar, Kinza Jiwani, Rahil Barkat
      Pages: 4742 - 4749
      Abstract: Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease indicated by stiffness, pain, inflammation, and impaired mobility. This results in joint impairment, poor workability, productivity, and afterward, it curtails the quality and expectancy of life of an individual. The aim of this research is to assess the quality of life of Pakistan women with RA and assess various factors affecting it.Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Orthopedics department of the Indus Hospital and Health Network, Karachi Pakistan, where we assessed quality of life in sample of women with RA. A consecutive sampling technique was used to enrol women with rheumatoid arthritis who were seen in the Orthopedics outpatient clinic during the study period (February to May 2021).Results: Of the 134 women with RA, 72.39% of women were unemployed, 54.48% of women had family monthly income of 16000 PKR or more and 44.03% of women reported at least one comorbidity other than RA. According to linear regression analyses, women having RA with severe disease activity tended to have tended to have low physical functioning, vitality, emotional wellbeing, social functioning, pain and general health as compared to patients with remission, low disease and moderate disease activity. Absence of family support in disease management can impact vitality and emotional wellbeing with decrease in scores of -85.20 and -120.66 respectively.Conclusions: Guidelines need to developed and implemented for assessing psychological domains of these patients for assessment of quality of life. This will help in maintaining and improving QoL of women with RA. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Household expenses in healthcare and its coping mechanism in rural Nepal

    • Authors: Aliza Shrestha, Susmita Nepal, Aassmi Poudyal
      Pages: 4750 - 4758
      Abstract: Background: In Nepal, the most frequent mode of payment for health care is household expenditure. It accounts for more than half of all health-care expenditures. In addition, the study intends to investigate household expenditure on health care and its coping mechanisms in Nepal's rural districts.Methods: This is a quantitative, cross-sectional study in which 410 households were chosen using a multiple sampling procedure. The research study region was chosen using a purposive sampling strategy. The two wards for the study were chosen by a lottery system. The estimated households were then chosen using a systematic random selection technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was utilized to gather data, and a face-to-face interview with the household head was undertaken to obtain the data. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze all of the data.Results: The overall household health expenditure in Miklajung rural municipality was determined to be 31.7% in the previous six months, with the biggest expenditure in medicine/drugs or pharmacies, followed by in-patient care and health treatment abroad. Income/savings was discovered to be a major coping mechanism used to deal with household expenditure and was found to be significantly associated in a bivariate analysis with type of illness, age, and more with a confidence interval of 95% in a bivariate analysis.Conclusions: At the conclusion of the investigation, we discovered that people spent the most money on medicines and drugs, followed by in-patient hospital care. According to the findings, a significant portion of the target group used their income and savings to cover unexpected healthcare costs.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Factors influencing upward referral system of patients in Nairobi County

    • Authors: Tenambergen Wanja, Kezia Njoroge, Epony N. Osoro
      Pages: 4759 - 4766
      Abstract: Background: The referral system forms main health systems coordinating a mechanism ensuring the harmonious movement of patients between different levels of health care institutions for effective and efficient service delivery. The study aimed at establishing the determinants of upward referral system of patients in Nairobi County. Methods: Cross-Sectional data collected from 204 respondents from 2May to 30June, 2021, through a structured questionnaire from level 3-5 public facilities in Nairobi County was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Doctors, nurses and clinical officers who have referred patients in the previous three months were included while those who had not were excluded.Results: Bivariate analysis results revealed that knowledge of referral system (r=179*, p=0.011) and complexity of patient disease (r=097, p=0.170) had positive and significant correlation with upward referral system. Multivariate analysis results showed that proximity to the referral health facility had positive and statistical significant (β4=0.640, p<0.002) to upward referral system.Conclusions: The results revealed that although healthcare workers know about the referral strategy, they lack full comprehension of the referral strategy. Patients are mostly referred when higher diagnostic equipment are needed and when the medical conditions are dire. The study recommends professional medical education to equip the human resources for health with the requisite knowledge on the referral system and establishment of effective communication systems between the lower levels health facilities and the higher or specialized facilities to ensure there a smooth referral system in Nairobi County.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Analyzing of implementation maternal audit program in community health
           center: a qualitative study

    • Authors: Fityah U. Atiyah, Sri Sundari, Elsye M. Rosa
      Pages: 4767 - 4775
      Abstract: Background: Maternal audits are part of quality control that is routinely carried out and aims as an essential learning material in evaluating maternal services in an area so that the expected outcome is a decrease in maternal mortality in an area. The maternal audit program that is carried out will undoubtedly benefit health facilities that provide services in the maternal sector, such as primary, secondary, and tertiary health facilities.Methods: This study used a qualitative case study method with a purposive sampling technique. The data collection technique was carried out by interviewed using the in-depth interview method, and triangulation was carried out using observation and document review.Results: The community health center has contributed to implementing maternal audits, starting from the data collection process, participating in district audit forums, and implementing the recommendations. Four factors influence the implementation of the maternal audit program at the community health center in reducing maternal mortality, namely the knowledge of health workers, the involvement of health workers in the community health center in the audit process, the recommendations for the results of the audit process and the implementation of follow-up on the results of the audit recommendations at the community health center.Conclusions: The maternal audit program can reduce maternal mortality and improve the maternal and child service system at the community health center level, although there are still several obstacles in implementing the recommendations of the audit results.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Demographic and KAP determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and vaccine
           refusal: a cross-sectional study in Indian population

    • Authors: Meghna Gupta, Rohit Goyal, Shruti Aggarwal, Mansunderbir Singh, Vitull K. Gupta, Nikita Garg
      Pages: 4776 - 4785
      Abstract: Background: Recent rise in vaccine non-acceptance is a threat to global health, especially with the ongoing   COVID-19 pandemic. Examining the intentions of the Indian population towards the COVID-19 vaccine and the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and vaccine refusal is of utmost importance.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey, using pre-validated questionnaires. Demographic and knowledge, attitude, and practice characteristics were collected, and a binary logistic regression was applied to analyse the association between these characteristics and the participants’ intention to for the COVID-19 vaccine. Reasons for vaccine non-acceptance were then determined using a pre-validated vaccine hesitancy questionnaire.Results: Out of the 1172 non-vaccinated participants, 190 (16.2%) refused vaccination, and 219 (18.6%) were hesitant. Adequate knowledge about the COVID-19 disease, made people less likely to be hesitant for vaccination (OR=0.39; 95% CI=0.27-0.57), and less likely to refuse it (OR=0.41; 95% CI=0.27-0.61). Females had a higher tendency to refuse the vaccination (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.02-2.14), or to be hesitant for it (OR=1.80; 95% CI=1.29-2.52). Social media played an important role in decreasing vaccination refusal (OR=0.40; 95% CI=0.22-0.73), when compared to evidence-based literature.Conclusions: Knowledge about the COVID-19 disease can help people make a more informed decision towards vaccination, and social media can be utilised as a medium to address the gaps in knowledge of the Indian population.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Relationship between internet gaming disorder and insomnia among medical
           college students of Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Karthikeyan E., Prasan Norman, Thirunaaukarasu D., Geetha M., Hareesh Kumar
      Pages: 4786 - 4791
      Abstract: Background: Excessive online gaming poses a big problem among the growing generation. It leads to poor quality of sleep among students.Methods: It is a cross-sectional study done among medical college students of a tertiary care hospital, Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu for a period of 6 months (May to October 2019). 376 students participated in this study. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire containing IGDS9-SF and ISI scales. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21.Results: Of the 376 participants, 220 (58.51%) were males and 156 (41.49%) were females. Prevalence of internet gaming disorder (IGD) was 4.25%. Among the 376 participants, 73(19.4%) had moderate severity insomnia. Correlation was significant between internet gaming and insomnia severity.Conclusions: The result of the study shows that prevalence of IGD was low among medical college students in the Kanchipuram district and there was medium correlation between IGD and insomnia. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A cross-sectional study on contributing risk factors and health seeking
           behaviour among diabetic patients attending the NCD clinic at urban health
           and training centre of a tertiary care institute in Durg District of
           Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: M. N. Alam, Shagufta Khatoon, Nirmal Verma, Laxmikant Umate
      Pages: 4792 - 4795
      Abstract: Background: About 422 million people worldwide have diabetes and 1.6 million deaths each year. Global target is to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity by 2025. In context of above background study was conducted with the aim and objective to determine the risk factor and health seeking behaviour among adult’s diabetics who visited urban health and training centre (UHTC) of a tertiary care Institution.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 adult’s diabetics who visited NCD clinic at UHTC, of a tertiary care institution from June 2020 to May 2021. Semi open questionnaire was used. Study setting was department of community medicine, Chandulal Chandrakar Memorial Medical College, Durg, Chhattisgarh. Ethical consent was taken from institutional ethical committee and written informed consent obtained from all the participants. Data analysis done using SPSS software. Statistical significance obtained using Chi-square test at p value <0.05.Results: About 81% of subjects had good drug compliance whereas 19% had poor compliance. About 5% had exclusively supply from hospital whereas 45% from both sources hospital and medicine shop and 50% from shop only. About 69% of subjects were involved in physical activities whereas 31% did not had any physical activities. About 45% were addicted to substance abuse. Prevalence of diabetes was maximum 38% in age group 50-60 years. The mean age of diagnosis of diabetes was 45.92±13.58 years.Conclusions: Diabetes was maximum in late adulthood and majority were utilising both medicine shop and hospital for health care. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Understanding the oral health beliefs and behaviours among the tribal
           population of Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka

    • Authors: Shibani Sushmitha Ray, Sunil Kumar Doddaiah, Chandan N., Narayan Murthy M. R.
      Pages: 4796 - 4800
      Abstract: Background: Regardless of the improvements in the field of healthcare, there is a section of people who live away from civilization known as ‘indigenous people’ or ‘tribals’. Information regarding oral health status is instrumental in the planning and implementation of oral health policies and programmes related to promotion of oral health. The aim of the study was to understand the oral health beliefs and behaviour of the tribal population of Chamarajanagar district.Methods: A cross‑sectional survey of 256 tribals of Chamarajanagar district was conducted. A modified WHO oral health questionnaire (2013) was utilized to collect the data. The recorded data was statistically analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.Results: Based on the age-category, majority of them belonged to the age group of 35-44 years. All the participants belonged to the sub-caste of Soligas. The results showed that the perceived barriers for seeking oral health care are high and poor utilization of the oral health care services were observed, but the participants had good knowledge regarding oral health which increases the cues for action.Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that the participants might have favorable compliance for oral health promotional programs.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Awareness about government maternal benefit schemes among pregnant women
           attending Anganawadi centres in North Karnataka

    • Authors: Kausar Mundargi, Vandana Hiregoudar
      Pages: 4801 - 4805
      Abstract: Background: During pregnancy and child birth women are very much vulnerable to sickness and complications. Maternal morbidity and mortality can be reduced by giving proper preventive and promotive health care specially by promoting early registration, regular antenatal check-ups and institutional deliveries. There is an improvement in care since last decade. Still there is a long way in achieving complete success out of these National programmes.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in six Anganawadi centres in rural field practice area of medical college for a period of 4 months from 1st June 2017 to 30th September 2017. Universal sampling was adopted to include all registered pregnant women. Informed consent was taken. A pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Appropriate descriptive statistics like proportion and percentage were used describe and to draw the inferences.Results: A total of 104 pregnant women were included. Most of them were in the age group of 20 to 30 years 76 (73.1%). More than half were in third trimester 60 (57.7%), seeking antenatal care from both government and private facilities equally. Awareness about various schemes ranged from minimum of 2 (1.9%) for JSSK to maximum of 102 (98.1%) for ICDS. ASHA workers 96 (92.3%) acted as source of information for majority of pregnant women followed by Anganawadi workers 88 (84.6%).Conclusions: Knowledge was adequate but not sufficient across all schemes hence more efforts should be done to overcome this discrepancy. Health care workers like ASHA and Anganawadi worker have put efforts in creating awareness. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Medical technology intervention in improving the quality of life among the
           type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar Doddaiah, G. Shwetha, Arun Gopi, M. R. Narayana Murthy, Anil S. Bilimale, Deepak Anil
      Pages: 4806 - 4811
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose with a disruption of fat and protein metabolism. Severe restrictions in diet, daily medications and other complications of diabetes can adversely affect an individual’s health related quality of life. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of educational intervention on quality of life (QOL) among the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Mysuru city.Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted from 1 November 2019 to 31 May 2020 among 138 diabetes patients at an urban health centre, Mysuru. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics was collected using a pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Assessment of QOL was done using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23 (licensed to JSS AHER).Results: The overall mean score of pre-test QOL of the study participants was 81.72±8.57 and post-test mean score was 86.43±6.322. It was observed that 68 (49.27%) participants had good total QOL score and 70 (50.72%) had poor total QOL score. Among all the 3 groups, group A showed improvement in QOL when compared to other 2 groups with 52.2% in post-test.Conclusions: Improved QOL was seen in educational intervention using smartphone app when compared to other two groups (handouts and control group). QOL is one of the important factors among T2DM patients and it is important to take effective measures to improve it along with focusing on behavioural changes and health education.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A novel approach to assess the effectiveness of medical technological
           intervention in the management of diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar Doddaiah, G. Shwetha, Arun Gopi, M. R. Narayana Murthy, Anil S. Bilimale
      Pages: 4812 - 4816
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading diseases in the current scenario due to lifestyle changes it causes premature illness and death across the world. Hence, the current study aimed at studying the effectiveness of medical technological education intervention in the management of diabetes mellitus.Methods: A quasi-experimental study of 138 diabetes mellitus patients at an urban health Centre, Mysuru was conducted from 1st November 2019 to 31st May 2020, information regarding socio-demographic characteristics was collected in a pre-tested proforma by interview technique and HbA1C levels was collected after taking consent from the study participants. The assessment of the effectiveness of medical technological education intervention was done by considering the improvement in mean HbA1C levels.Results: The comparison of HbA1C of group A, B and C before and after the educational intervention showed a reduction of mean HbA1C from 7.60% to 6.84% in group A which was significant statistically and in group B it has reduced from 7.30% to 7.14%, however in group C it has increased from 7.71%  to 8.50%.Conclusions: The medical technological education intervention using the smartphone application is effective when compared to traditional methods. It plays an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Childhood undernutrition inequalities in Empowered Action Group states of
           India: evidence from NFHS, 2006-2016

    • Authors: Anil Kumar, Bal Kishan Gulati, Jeetendra Kumar, Damodar Sahu, Rajaram Yadav, Anita Pal, M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao
      Pages: 4817 - 4830
      Abstract: Background: Child undernutrition is a major public health problem in many low and middle income countries and malnutrition alone accounted for 45% (3 million deaths annually) deaths among under-five children. Malnutrition is the concealed cause of one out of every two such deaths. A study was undertaken to examine the trends, determinants and socioeconomic-related inequalities in childhood undernutrition in empowered action group (EAG) states, India. The secondary data of the two rounds of National Family Health Survey, NFHS-3 (2005-06) and NFHS-4 (2015-16) comprising of 16,802 and 128,400 children aged 0-59 months respectively was analysed.Methods: Non-linear Fairlie decomposition was used to identify and quantify the separate contribution of different socioeconomic characteristics in gap of childhood malnutrion between 2006 and 2016.Results: Results show that the prevalence of undernutrition has decreased in EAG states during the last one decade, but the prevalence of wasting is remained almost same as 10 years back. The decomposition analysis shows that maternal education, household wealth and place of residence were contributing to socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition from 2006 to 2016.Conclusions: There is a need to adopt different strategies of health policy intervention. It is important to have policies towards improving female literacy in the EAG states because maternal education plays a vital role in child health and literacy rate is very low among women in EAG states. The existence of a functional health insurance system and increasing universal coverage are recommended to mitigate child undernutrition, so that the vulnerable and deprived populations who are not able to access health care facilities, can easily access health care services for early detection and treatment of undernutrition without any financial constraint.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Prognostic evaluation in head and neck cancer patients: a clinicoimaging
           tertiary care center study

    • Authors: N. Kavya Keerthika, D. Sri Veda, M. P. V. Prabhat, G. Sarat, Gunmeet Maini
      Pages: 4831 - 4836
      Abstract: Background: The occurrence of the head and neck cancers (HNC) is increasing day by day. These have been associated with multiple etiological factors, and early diagnosis has a prime role in the patient's prognosis and overall survival. Prognostic evaluation in head and neck cancer patients utilizing clinical incidence and imaging outcomes.Methods: The study sample included 217 confirmed HNC patients’ data obtained from the tertiary cancer care centre were analysed to assess the prognosis and be subjected to statistical analysis.Results: Out of all HNC, cancer pertaining to the lip and oral cavity was the most common variety with 65.89% and most of the HNC occurred in men of about 97%, suggesting a strong association with adverse oral habits.Conclusions: We conclude that the current scenario of HNC’s progression and treatment modalities in Andhra Pradesh were in comparison to the World Health Organization (WHO) data suggests an increase in the awareness of the etiological factors and the disease progression. Though various advanced imaging and treatment modalities are available, the patients' prognosis is untethered due to low socio-economic status in this region.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Compliance to infection prevention and control practices for prevention of
           SARS-CoV-2 transmission at tertiary care hospital in North Mumbai

    • Authors: Kinjal Patel, Suraj Purusottaman, Trupti Carval, Lekhan Narvekar
      Pages: 4837 - 4841
      Abstract: Background: Infection control practices played a major role in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings. Aim of the study was to know the compliance to infection control and prevention practices by healthcare workers in COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread in the hospital.Methods: An observational study was conducted at tertiary care hospital for a period of one month. All healthcare workers involved in patient care of COVID-19 and non COVID-19 was observed for their infection control practices. Areas were divided in two category, intensive care unit and indoor wards for audit. Environmental samples of various surfaces from intensive care unit and wards were taken and analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Results: Overall compliance to infection prevention practices were improved during pandemic. Hand hygiene compliance in intensive care unit and indoor wards of COVID-19 unit were 78.66% and 74.36% whilst in non COVID-19 units was 72.47% and 62.31% respectively. Compliance to revised biomedical waste (BMW) policy at COVID-19 unit were 85.20% and 71.49% in intensive care unit and ward respectively. However, at non COVID-19 unit, it was 65.22% and 57.60%. Nursing station and doffing area of ICU at non-COVID-19 unit showed presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus. While all samples collected from COVID-19 unit were negative.Conclusions: Infection prevention and control practices play a key role to curtail transmission of infection. Awareness among healthcare workers, hospital environment, and usage of personal protective equipment should be optimized even at non COVID-19 facility.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A study to assess the problems and coping strategies among people living
           with HIV/AIDS at ART centre, Capital Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

    • Authors: Priyanka Tudu
      Pages: 4842 - 4847
      Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the worst pandemics in today’s world that has a devastating physical and psychological effect. The virus has weakened the immune system of the body so much that they develop a number of different illnesses such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, persistent diarrhea and fever and skin infections.Methods: A quantitative research approach, descriptive survey research design was undertaken to assess the problems and coping strategies among HIV/AIDS patients. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the 100 HIV/AIDS patients. The study was conducted was at ART centre, Capital hospital Bhubaneswar. Data was collected through questionnaire by interviewing method.Results: The physical problems 76 (76%) had moderate problems and mean score (5.41±1.28), were psychological problems 60 (60%) had moderate problems and mean score (4.20±1.17) and financial problems 57 (57%) had moderate problems mean score (2.97±0.95). The coping strategies mean score (67.27±4.49). Chi square test was performed to find out the association between problems and coping strategies.Conclusions: The study was concluded with recommendation for descriptive study on large sample.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Impact of social isolation during COVID-19 on psychological well-being of
           the elderly: an Indian survey-based study

    • Authors: Rajni Sharma, Krishan Kumar, Lokesh Saini, Deepanshu Dhiman, Babita Ghai, Vikas Suri, Subh Mohan Singh, Ritin Mohendra, Pooja Tyagi, Vijay Prasad Barre, Nitin Gupta
      Pages: 4848 - 4856
      Abstract: Background: Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic the elderly population has started experiencing higher levels of anxiety both because of fear of contracting infection and due to restricted social life. Study was done to assess impact of lockdown on mental health of elderly.Methods: This was a retrospective and observational study. 106 participants were enrolled aged above 60 years. A Google survey form was sent to the participants for filling, accompanied by sessions with a clinical psychologist. The socio-demographic data and various psychological parameters were assessed.Results: Depression was most commonly reported (39.6%). Global satisfaction had a significant and positive correlation with both social security index (p=0.004) and social network scale (p=0.000).Conclusions: The prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression increased during lockdown. Overall satisfaction with life was reduced. Psychological counselling and support should be readily available to elderly. The problem associated with social isolation and lockdown may seem to be acute but can have worse psychological outcomes in long term. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards diabetes among type
           2 diabetes patients in rural Mysuru

    • Authors: Nishchitha Suresh, Sunil Kumar D., Chandan N., Narayan Murthy M. R.
      Pages: 4857 - 4861
      Abstract: Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered one of the most frequent disease in the world. Diet and its practice, sedentary way of life are the key factors for rapidly rising incidence amongst developing countries. It is better controlled when people are aware of the pitfalls of the condition and improve their nutritional knowledge, attitude, and habits as a whole. As well, as to encourage patients to improve their diet, an appropriate self-care practice and to enhanced a good quality of life.Methods: Across sectional study was conducted at rural primary health center, suttur, Mysore. Type 2 diabetes (having for >1 years) aged between 18-70 years formed the study population and whose consented were interviewed in details to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding diabetic diet, risk factors and symptoms. Analysis performed using IBM SPSS 23.0.Results: A total of 384 participants took part in study. The mean knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 3.15±1.84, 1.66±0.927 and 3.65±0.488, respectively. Among the study participants, 192 (50%), 269 (70.1%) and 248 (64.6%) had good knowledge, attitude and practices towards diabetes.Conclusions: It is one such type of disease which can be prevented at various levels by identifying predictors like BMI, physical activity, quantity of sleep, etc. Diabetic patients had poor dietary practices and consumed protective foods inadequately. Still there is a lot of gap in their knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes which have to be addressed them by educating them.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of nutritional status of children (12-36 months of age) in
           urban area of district Rohtak, Haryana: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Meenakshi Kalhan, Pankaj Kaushal, Vinod Chayal, Aman Sachdeva, Garima Yadav, Vinay Phogat, Kanika Bansal, Kanika Bansal, Anil Kaushik
      Pages: 4862 - 4867
      Abstract: Background: Children 1-3 years of age are most vulnerable to the vicious cycles of malnutrition, disease/infection and resultant disability all of which influence the present condition of a child at the microlevel and the future human resource development of the nation at the macrolevel.Methods: Urban field practice area attached to the department of community medicine, Pt. B. D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak being served by 14 anganwadi centres out of which 8 anganwadi centres were selected randomly. From each selected anganwadi centre, 22 children of 1-3 years of age group were selected by simple random sampling, thus, a sample of 176 children were included in the study.Results: Overall prevalence of undernutrition in our study was found as follows: wasted 14.1%; underweight 20.0%; stunted 24.1%. Inverse relation between prevalence of undernutrition and educational status of mother was observed. Children who were >3 in birth order had high prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight. Children with low birth weight were having higher percentages of wasting, stunting, and underweight. Children who took supplementary nutrition regularly from AWC were less likely to be undernourished.Conclusions: Every endeavor should be made to combat the outcomes of undernutrition through multipronged approach such as growth monitoring, nutritional supplementation etc., Also, present study findings reinforce the importance of proper infant and child feeding practices and appropriate maternal care in prevention of childhood undernutrition.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A cross sectional study on COVID-19 vaccine acceptances and barriers to
           vaccination in district Jhansi

    • Authors: Vimal Arya, Mahendra Chowksey
      Pages: 4868 - 4871
      Abstract: Background: The long-term control of the pandemic COVID-19 pandemic hinges on the uptake of vaccine and high immunization uptake is critical. Vaccine hesitancy is one of the top 10 threats to global health. Hesitancy will be a challenge to curbing this pandemic.Methods: A cross‐sectional study was done among the population in Jhansi where data was collected through an online questionnaire using Google forms and was distributed using social media platforms. Total of 220 data was collected.Results: 80.2% of the respondents were willing to get vaccinated. 78.9% of the respondents have taken previous vaccinations by the government. 70 of them trust government health care departments and media (82.2%) is the least trusted platform regarding vaccination. Majority agreed to the perceived benefits of COVID-19. 80.3% were willing to take free vaccination. 46.9% were willing to pay for COVID vaccine.Conclusions: The scenario in Jhansi was positive towards the vaccination drive and majority of them were willing to get vaccinated. But strategies must be made effective in terms of elevating the barriers to vaccination.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A study on adverse effect following immunization COVID-19 vaccination
           Covishield among MBBS student s of a tertiary care institution in a rural
           area of Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: M. N. Alam, Shagufta Khatoon, Nirmal Verma
      Pages: 4872 - 4875
      Abstract: Background: India has granted emergency use authorization to two COVID-19 vaccines, Pune based Serum Institute of India’s Covishield and Hyderabad- based Bharat Biotech International Ltd.’s Covaxin, for the vaccination drive. Once a vaccine is in use, it must be continuously monitored to make sure it continues to be safe. These data will add on in policy making and also help vaccine to be safely tracked throughout its use. In view of above background present study has been conducted to determine adverse effect following immunization.Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted among 400 MBBS students of a rural medical college in Chhattisgarh, India from January 2021 to March 2021. Approval was taken from institutional ethical committee and written informed consent was obtained from participants. A semi-open questionnaire was used to estimate the adverse effect following Covishield administration. Data was processed, analysed using SPSS software and information was obtained.Results: Study shows most common adverse effect was pain at injection site (86%), followed by fever (76%). Female received more (69%) treatment compared to male (31%). Almost 100% of subject experienced adverse effect following immunization (AEFI) following first dose administration whereas about 20% only experienced adverse effect following administration of second dose.Conclusions: Pain at injection site was most common adverse effect followed by fever. Adverse effect was four times more with first dose compared to second dose. Female received more treatment compared to male. Majority had fever and pain for 1-2 days only. Thus, it was concluded that vaccine have no serious side effect.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Anaemia in pregnancy: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Gautam Madhavrao Bhaware, Sujata Namdeorao Muneshwar, Rutuja Dinkar Pundkar
      Pages: 4876 - 4879
      Abstract: Background: Aim of the study was to find the factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. The main objective was to study the various sociodemographic factors leading to anemia and to assess the knowledge about anemia among pregnant females.Methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out at urban health centre, to determine the factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. A total of 100 pregnant females were registered. Demographic data was collected by interview method. A pretested and pre designed questionnaire was used for data collection. Hb was estimated using Sahli’s hemoglobinometer and females having haemoglobin less than 11 mg/dl were considered anaemic. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb) was 9.58+2.2g/dl. It was seen that diet, family size, education, social class, gravida and parity are associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusions: After adjusting for all the possible covariates there seems to be significant association between Hb levels and age group, education level, family size, diet, gravida and parity.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Study of knowledge attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among patients
           attending a tertiary care hospital in Durg district of Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Mohd Junaid, Swapnil Shinkar, Amol Patil
      Pages: 4880 - 4885
      Abstract: Background: Poor knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) patterns among patients might reflect the danger of possible high transmission of COVID-19 and the need for awareness campaigns. The need of the hour is to gauge the knowledge, awareness and practices of the people to help prevent the further outbreak of COVID-19.Methods: Questionnaire based cross sectional study was done for a period of 7 days to access the knowledge attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Durg, Chhattisgarh.Results: A total of 288 people participated in the study, majority of respondents were males 53% mean age was 39±15.9 years. Overall, 80.4% of the participants had good knowledge, 68.6% of the participants had a positive attitude, 83.8% of the participants were following good practices. Gender and income influenced knowledge scores, being significantly higher in males and higher income individuals (p value <0.05) while attitude and practices scores had no significant association with gender and income group (p value >0.05).Conclusions: Though the population demonstrated decent knowledge, appropriate practice, and positive attitude towards COVID-19 at the time of outbreak there is still need of on-going health education and awareness campaigns and need of policies and intervention that are more person centred. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella species
           isolated from various clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital
           Coimbatore

    • Authors: Vijayashree V., Saikeerthana D., Prabha P.
      Pages: 4886 - 4890
      Abstract: Background: The genus Klebsiella of Enterobacteriaceae family is ubiquitous in nature. They cause many nosocomial infections like pneumonia, urinary tract infections, wound infections, bacteremia and septicemia. Multidrug resistance is seen in Klebsiella which serves as the most common cause of increased morbidity and mortality. This study reveals the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Klebsiella species from various clinical samples. The primary objectives are as follows: To isolate and characterize Klebsiella species from various clinical samples. To study the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella isolates.Methods: This prospective study was conducted in our tertiary care hospital during the period from August 2019 to October 2019. A total of 3521 samples were tested during this period. The samples include blood, sputum, urine, and pus.Results: Out of the total samples tested,1106 samples were showing the growth of the organisms. Among this,351 were identified as Klebsiella species and the highest rate of isolation of Klebsiella species is from the sputum sample and also the same was reported high in medical wards. The study also shows that the isolation of Klebsiella species shows male preponderance when compared to females. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern was done by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method and the sensitivity was noted to be higher to amikacin and ciprofloxacin.Conclusions: Thus, this study shows the prevalence rate of Klebsiella species and sensitivity pattern of Klebsiella, which may help select appropriate antibiotics and prevent overuse and misuse of antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • COVID-19: impact on the mental health of university students

    • Authors: Priyanka Aswal, Parvesh Singh
      Pages: 4891 - 4894
      Abstract: Background: Ever since the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic, education institutions in the entire country were shut down. This shutdown of universities caused the students to stay at home which caused a detrimental impact on their mental health.Methods: This survey-based study aims to decipher the impact the lockdown has caused on the mental well-being of the students. The survey was conducted through a set of online questionnaires.Results: The results of the study show that the students suffered from various psychological problems. Anxiety and stress were the most prevalent amongst mental illnesses and were reportedly increased due to uncertainty about future prospects like job and graduation.Conclusions: The study confirms that the pandemic has had a negative impact on the psychological health of the patients and has amplified stress and fear amongst them. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Cross sectional study of depression, anxiety and stress due to COVID-19
           pandemic among undergraduate medical students from Maharashtra

    • Authors: Paras R. Waghmare, Ujwala U. Ukey, Sarita K. Sharma, Sumaiya A. Meman
      Pages: 4895 - 4901
      Abstract: Background: The ongoing pandemic due to novel corona virus has caused global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the great depression. Pandemic has led to essential supply shortage like daily needs medicine that led to haphazard among population. Worldwide increase in case numbers have increases anxiety among population and also increase the tremendous stress among students due to lack of educational activity. This affects psychology of students to move away from studies. Due to pandemic many students were unable to attend clinics that create anxiousness among them which led to anxiety and stress.Methods: The survey was conducted among the undergraduate medical students across the state of Maharashtra. The online semi-structured questionnaire was developed with the aid of Google form, among various undergraduate medical students by using DASS-21 scale.Results: In the present study, total 435 students responded and returned completely filled in questionnaire. Out of these 435 study participants, 213 (48.97%) were male students and remaining 222 (51.03%) were female students. Based on responses to the DASS-21 scale, study participants can be categorized as normal or with mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe depression, anxiety or stress.Conclusions: The present study concludes that psychological health of the undergraduate medical students who participated for the survey is involved to a sizeable extent. Depression and anxiety and some or other degree of stress was detected in the participants as a common finding. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Oral health status of the tribal population of Chamarajanagar district,
           Karnataka

    • Authors: Shibani Sushmitha Ray, Sunil Kumar Doddaiah, Chandan N., Arun Gopi, Narayan Murthy M. R., Anil S. Bilimale
      Pages: 4902 - 4908
      Abstract: Background: Regardless of the improvements in the field of healthcare, there is a section of people who live away from civilization known as indigenous people or tribals. Information regarding oral health status is instrumental in the planning and implementation of oral health policies and programmes related to promotion of oral health. The present study aimed to assess the oral health status of the tribal population of Chamarajanagar district.Methods: A cross‑sectional survey of 256 tribals of Chamarajanagar district was conducted. A modified WHO oral health assessment form 2013 was utilized and examined according to the WHO methodology 2013. The recorded data was statistically analysed using the statistical package for the social sciences version 24.Results: Based on the age-category, majority of them belonged to the age group of 35-44 years. All the participants belonged to the sub-caste of Soligas. The total decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) among the subjects was 5.5±4.14, 114 (44.5%) of them had gingival bleeding, 76 (29.7%) of them had pockets of 4-5 mm depth, 14 (5.5%) of them had pockets of >6 mm depth, 74 (28.9%) had loss of attachment of 4-5 mm, 16 (6.3%) of them had loss of attachment of 6-8 mm, 3 (1.2%) had leukoplakia, 1 (0.4%) had lichen planus, 12 (4.7%) had ulceration and 12 (4.7%) had abscess.Conclusions: This study showed that a majority of tribes used toothbrush and toothpaste to routinely clean their teeth. High prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases was observed among the participants.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Dietary pattern among type 2 diabetes in rural area of Mysuru

    • Authors: Nishchitha S., Sunil Kumar D., Chandan N., Arun Gopi, Narayan Murthy M. R., Anil S. Bilimale
      Pages: 4909 - 4913
      Abstract: Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered one of the most common diseases in the world. It has a complex aetiology that includes both irreversible and reversible risk variables. Diet and its practice, sedentary way of life are the key factors for rapidly rising incidence amongst developing countries. Different methodological approach, to construct their diet patterns and their composition bound to conclusions on healthy patterns for diabetics. The study aimed to assess the dietary pattern among type 2 diabetic patients in rural field practice area of department of community medicine, Suttur, Mysuru.Methods: The study was conducted at rural primary health center, Suttur, Mysore. 384 patients with type 2 diabetes (having for >1 years) aged between 18-70 years formed the study population. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain data about dietary practices and food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake.Results: Results revealed 70% were illiterates, 47.9% were between 1-3 years duration of diabetes and 97.4% followed both diet and oral medications. All of them consumed 3 meals a day. Dietary practices incorporated due to diabetic state were: cereals (100%) and fruits (166.6%), meat and poultry (200.6%) weekly.Conclusions: It is one such type of disease which can be prevented at various levels by identifying predictors. Diabetic patients had poor dietary practices and consumed protective foods inadequately. Dietary practices did not change markedly except for reduction in cereals, and fruits.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Public knowledge, attitude, practice towards acceptance of COVID-19
           Vaccine: a prospective cross-sectional study in Bangalore

    • Authors: Aileen J., Sneha Mukherjee, Seema Bista, Manasa Reddy, Chitrasree S., Nikhil Nandaragi
      Pages: 4914 - 4918
      Abstract: Background: The world health organization has declared COVID-19 outbreak a global health emergency which has severely affected the health-care system, social networking and economic growth throughout the world. The aim of this study was to develop awareness strategy on knowledge, attitude and perception regarding COVID-19 vaccine among the general public in selected urban area of Bangalore.Methods: The survey was conducted among 400 respondents of Hebbal constituency, Bangalore, Karnataka (India) through a structured; open and close-ended questionnaire. Content validation was done to assess the validity and factor analysis for reliability. Collected data was analyzed by using ANOVA for testing the quantitative variables (age, gender, education level, employment status) and qualitative variables (knowledge, attitude and perception).Results: Our results indicate that there is difference of opinion in the aspect of knowledge and perception among various age groups.Conclusions: The study concluded that there is a sound knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine among the age group of 18-35 years whereas in the age group above 35 years, there is inadequate knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine facts and myths. Therefore, there is high need to create awareness and provide adequate information to the general public.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices towards anemia among late adolescent
           girls of JSS schools and colleges of Mysuru, India: a cross-sectional
           survey

    • Authors: Satendra Kumar Verma, Rufia Shaistha Khanum, Sunil D. Kumar, Narayanmurthy M. R.
      Pages: 4919 - 4922
      Abstract: Background: Anemia is a serious issue globally affecting all age groups. Anemia can be both acute and chronic. The most common cause is undernutrition which is a common issue in underdeveloped countries. Knowledge about anemia, attitude, and practices are important to decrease the burden of anemia. The community should be educated about the causes and prevention of anemia. Despite various measures like WIFS, POSHAN abhiyan, and National iron plus initiative, etc., there is still a long way to go to improve the nutritional status of adolescents and curb nutrient deficiency disorders.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in JSS schools and pre-university during February 2021. The sample size was 292, but a total of 300 girls in the late adolescent age group were included in the study. A structured proforma was used to collect data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices towards anemia. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequencies, and percentages were calculated.Results: Mean age of the participants was 16.8±1 years. The knowledge about anemia was poor, positive attitudes and good practices were noticed among the participants.Conclusions: Anemia is a huge problem among adolescent girls. The awareness is poor regarding the disease and its effects. The community is ignorant about the detrimental effects of anemia. Hence appropriate health interventions targeting women and children are needed to see any positive changes in their status.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of lifestyle diseases and their
           risk factors among women in the urban field practice area

    • Authors: Mungara Suma Bhavana, Sunil D. Kumar, N. Chandan, Derangula Lokesh, M. R. Narayanamurthy
      Pages: 4923 - 4927
      Abstract: Background: The number of people suffering from lifestyle diseases is increasing over the world, causing significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Changes in behaviour and the adoption of healthy lifestyle practises can help prevent or reduce the progression of lifestyle diseases. Many patients, however, lacked the knowledge, attitude, and practise of healthy lifestyles.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the 329 participants in the urban field practice area of the department of community medicine, JSS medical college, Mysore, with study duration of 6 months. A house-to-house survey was performed to recruit study participants using convenient sampling. participants will be interviewed by using the pre-designed, pre-tested and structured questionnaire which includes socio-demographic profile, dietary patterns, physical activity, type of personality, history of stress, history of tobacco and alcohol consumption, family history of lifestyle diseases like HT, DM etc.Results: Among 329 study participants 306 (93%) have practice of doing physical exercise, 328 (99.7%) decreased salt/oil intake, 329 (100%) stopped smoking/alcohol consumption, 329 (100%) check BP regular, 327 (99.4%) check blood sugar regularly, 328 (99.7%) stopped eating junk food/cool drinks, 329 (100%) take medicationsConclusions: Healthy practices need to be subsidized with the aid of using the dependent periodic medical exam. There need to be an emphasis on incorporating bodily workout within side the day by day routine, consumption of healthful diet, and decrease/cessation of alcohol and tobacco consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge attitude and practice regarding breast feeding mothers of
           Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Santosh Kumar Barman, Seema Barman, Ashok Kumar Patel, Navin Kumar
      Pages: 4928 - 4932
      Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding is a basic human activity, vital to infant and maternal health and it has massive economic value to households and societies. It has been proved that early initiation of breastfeeding lowers the risk of postpartum hemorrhage and anemia to the mothers, boosts their immunity and reduces the incidence of certain diseases like diabetes and cancer. In this study we assess the socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice of the mothers regarding breast feeding.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. It was conducted for a period of nine month from July 2019 to March 2020 at Government Allopathic Medical College, Banda. Total 160 children in the age group of 0-6 months came at immunization clinic of pediatric OPD.Results: Total numbers of children studied during the study period were 160 out of which 54.37% were male and 46.62% were females. Maximum number of mothers (38.75%) belong to the age group of 25-30 years followed by 21-25 years (26.87%). 38.12% of the mothers start breastfeeding within one hour, 46.87% between 1-6 hour and 60% of the mothers breastfed their babies on demand.Conclusions: The participants had good knowledge and attitude regarding breastfeeding but there was a noticeable deficit in the use of this knowledge in the breastfeeding practices which points towards the gap in the education and counselling of women regarding breast feeding.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A study of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
           

    • Authors: Prabhjot Singh Dhillon, Vishal Sharma, Manpreet Kaur Brar, Durgesh Thakur, Rupali Rishu, Rishu ., Rinkal Kansal
      Pages: 4933 - 4937
      Abstract: Background: Infection is one of the major problems encountered in hemodialysis patients. The mortality rate among the patients undergoing hemodialysis remains unsatisfactorily high. Hemodialysis patients have higher nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus than the healthy population. In long-term hemodialysis patients, colonization is a significant problem and is associated with an increased risk of the bloodstream infections. The antimicrobial resistance to this pathogen is increasing rapidly, and the consequences of methicillin resistance for the outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus infections are drastic.Methods: Two swabs were collected from anterior nares of patients undergoing hemodialysis, and then these swabs were transferred to microbiology laboratory for processing. Isolated strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Methicillin resistance was detected by using cefoxitin disc. Inhibition zone diameters were measured as per CLSI criteria. Vancomycin screen agar test was done. Brain heart infusion agar plates containing 6 µg/ml of vancomycin were used. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as reference strain.Results: It was observed that 38% (38/100) of the hemodialysis patients were carriers of S. aureus followed by CoNS, followed by aerobic spore bearers. All the S. aureus isolates (100%, 38/38) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA).Conclusions: Staphylococcal nasal carrier status in hemodialysis patients along with antibiotic susceptibility testing should be done in routine and infection control practices should be followed to prevent the transmission of MRSA among chronic hemodialysis patients.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Utilization of diabetic retinopathy screening among diabetic patients at a
           tertiary care hospital in Kerala, India

    • Authors: Sona Sabitha Kumar, Lathika Vasu Kamaladevi, Sruthi Mankara Valsan
      Pages: 4938 - 4943
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes is a major public health concern that affects nearly 463 million (9.3%) of global adult population. Diabetic retinopathy, which affects around 35% of all diabetic patients, is the fifth leading cause of preventable global blindness. This study was done to determine the status of diabetic retinopathy screening and the factors that influence its uptake among diabetic patients attending a tertiary care setting in Kerala, India.Methods: 200 patients with diabetes mellitus on physician care were enrolled for a questionnaire-based survey which collected information on patient demographics, education, occupation, patient’s awareness of retinopathy, screening, diabetic blindness and their source of such knowledge.Results: 83% were aware that diabetes can result in vision loss. 61% were aware that diabetic blindness is preventable. 42% patients were aware of screening options for retinopathy. The awareness of retinopathy screening was significantly associated (p=0.0001) only with duration of diabetes.Conclusions: Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients in Kerala was sub optimal. Better patient education and use of mass media can increase awareness on diabetes retinopathy screening programs. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Indian diabetes risk profile of employees in a tertiary care facility in
           north Maharashtra: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Shyam V. Ashtekar, Aryaman Singh, Manasi S. Padhyegurjar, Sidrah M. Shaikh, Abhimanyu R. Kapse, Devendra R. Thorat, Rahul R. Bele, Pushpak D. Dhatare, Ashhar Ahmed Sharif, Abhimanyu Rajput
      Pages: 4944 - 4949
      Abstract: Background: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in India calls for screening of at-risk adults. Objectives were to assess IDRS (Indian diabetes risk score) of T2D in staff in tertiary care hospital, and to assess covariates random blood sugar (RBS), BMI, skinfold thickness (SFT), pre-existing T2D in the employees.Methods: In this cross sectional study, IDRS was used to assess all staff in a tertiary care institute. Anthropometric measurements, BP and RBS were done. Information on parental T2D, cereal intake and weekly physical activity (PA) was obtained in interview.Results: 370 subjects (F-117, M-273) with mean age 30.81 (7.99), BMI 22.89 (14.13) years were screened. Subjects in moderate and sedentary work were 185 each, 15% women and 39% men had higher waist size. Total 5.4% subjects had T2D including known diabetics. RBS in women and men was 113.1 (27.87), 114.7 (27.66), with IDRS score high in 29 (7.84%) and moderate in 144 (38.92%). Parental T2D was present in 19.5% subjects. IDRS risk was strongly associated with type of work (Chi-square 79.0283, df=4, p=0.00). Multiple logistic regression for IDRS risk outcome showed association of age (OR 1.4), BMI (OR1.3), parental T2D (OR 9.6) with highly significant p values. Multiple linear regression for RBS outcome was associated with age (OR 1.3) and BMI (OR 1.4) but the results were statistically not significant.Conclusions: Pooled IDRS risk was present in 47% subjects despite younger age of study population. Improvements in physical activity and reduction in waist size is the need of the hour.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Clinical profile and outcome of traumatic brain injury in children:
           record-based descriptive study

    • Authors: Lekha Bhupendra Rathod, Umakant G. Shidam, Ruchir Kesaria, Sanket Mohata, Prashant Lakhe, Sanket Prabhudesai, Mala Jha
      Pages: 4950 - 4954
      Abstract: Background: Paediatric head injury is considered to be a major public health problem and is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality in severe cases. The present study aimed to explore the demographics, mechanism of injury and clinical aspects of injury in children in a peripheral hospital attached to tertiary care centre.Methods: Electronic medical records of all paediatric patients aged ≤12 years with traumatic brain injury admitted during one-year period from January to December 2018 were reviewed. Epidemiological and clinical data of paediatric patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were analysed using SPSS version 20.Results: The medical records of 203 paediatric patients with TBI were analysed. The majority of the injury occurred in patients belonging to age-group 1-6 years. The number of male children outnumbered (58.1%) that of female children (41.9%). Fall from height was the most common mode of injury, followed by fall from a staircase. As per the Glasgow coma scale, 4% patients had severe head injury. Vomiting and headache was the most common symptom at admission (50.2%), a subdural hematoma was the most common lesion seen on computed tomography scans; frontal bone was the most common site of skull bone injury. Cutaneous injuries associated with contused lacerated wounds were the most common external injuries, 92.1% completely recovered with conservative management.Conclusions: Increasing incidence of paediatric trauma suggests the need for supervision during play and identification of environmental risk factors for such injuries. Parental advice and supervision is recommended to prevent accidental falls.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Cause of amblyopia in adult patients: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Abdul Waheed, Nitika Kumari, Jamshed Ali, Gaurav Dubey, Vibha Kumari, Ragni Kumari, Yasmeen Shahid
      Pages: 4955 - 4959
      Abstract: Background: Amblyopia has been defined as a decrease of visual acuity for which no causes can be detected by the physical examination of the eye, caused by vision deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction. This study aims to determine the cause of amblyopia in adult patients at HAHC hospital South Delhi.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period from January 2018 till March 2018 among the patients in HAHC hospital. A comprehensive eye examination was used to analyse the visual condition.Results: Amblyopia was diagnosed in 42 participants, with age-and gender-adjusted prevalence of 3.2%. Of these, 1.9% were unilateral cases, and 1.3% were bilateral cases. A major cause of amblyopia in this population was a refractive error, hence using spectacle correction and vision therapy for its initial management.Conclusions:  This study has provided causes of amblyopia in an adult population. Amblyopia is a frequent cause of lifelong unilateral visual impairment.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of nutritional status of adolescent school going boys of
           Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Neetu S. Pathania, Rajib Biswas
      Pages: 4960 - 4966
      Abstract: Background: Given the paucity of data on the nutritional standard of the Himachali children, the present study was conducted to assess the physical growth and malnutrition of adolescent school-going boys of Himachal Pradesh within the age group of 15-17 years.Methods: Boys were selected from both government and private schools of the non- hilly regions of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh. Height, weight, and BMI were determined. Stunting was evaluated from height-for-age Z-score, and thinness, overweight, and obesity were estimated from BMI-for-age Z-score using the WHO recommended cut-off values.Results: Mean height varied between 167.2 to 168.7 cm. Weight varied between 52.4 to 56.1 kg with a corresponding BMI between 18.7 to 19.7 kg/m2.The overall prevalence of stunting and wasting were 5.7% and 15.8% respectively. The coexistence of stunting and wasting was not found in any of the age groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.Conclusions: Himachali boys appeared to be taller than most of the Indian population of boys of similar age groups. Prevalence of the different categories of over nutrition and undernutrition were also lower as compared to that obtained for other Indian studies on adolescent boys. The existence of overweight and obese individuals points towards the double burden of malnutrition. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Predictors of recovery from COVID-19: a retrospective study in one of the
           aspirational district of India

    • Authors: Gurmeet Katoch, Ekta Sharma, Rajesh Guleri
      Pages: 4967 - 4972
      Abstract: Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third corona virus that has emerged among the human population in last two decades. The main aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and recovery predictors of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients admitted at COVID health facilities.Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted from April 2020 to September 2020. The categorical and continuous variables were expressed as frequency, percentages and as mean and standard deviation respectively. Pearson chi square test and multivariable logistic regression were applied to ascertain the associations. Mean recovery time was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis.Results: The mean age of participants was 36.8±17.54 years with a male preponderance. The age group of 20-39 years was the most affected group (43%). Age and pre-existing co morbidities were found to be significant factors affecting the recovery duration of patients. Mean recovery time with respect to age groups and gender was 15 and 18 days respectively. Mortality rate of 2% was recorded.Conclusions: In conclusion, COVID-19 affects a wide-range of population. Although age was not found to be a significant factor for acquiring the disease, however younger age group was significantly associated with early recovery. Considering our findings, we suggest additional measures to protect the vulnerable population.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • An assessment of alcohol consumption using the alcohol use disorders
           identification test: self-report version questionnaire among students
           pursuing professional courses

    • Authors: Huma Khan, Saurabh Mishra, Abhinav Pandey, Abhinav Pandey, Abhijeet .
      Pages: 4973 - 4975
      Abstract: Background: Harmful use of alcohol is accountable for 7.1% and 2.2% of the global burden of disease for males and females respectively. Alcohol is the leading risk factor for premature mortality and disability among those aged 15 to 49 years, accounting for 10% of all deaths in this age group. Objectives of current study were to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption students pursuing professional courses and to know the factors associated with alcohol consumption among study participants.Methods: Current study is a cross sectional study with sample size of 410 (male: 49%, female 51%). The alcohol use disorders identification test self-report version by WHO was taken as study tool. Data Collection was done online through Google forms and data analysis was done using SPSS trial version.Results: Mean age of the participants was 21.95±3.03 years. Prevalence of alcohol consumption was found in 17.1% study participants.Conclusions: Alcohol use varies among different academic streams across varied socio demographic backgrounds. Interventions including in campus counselling are need of the hour.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Burden and treatment seeking behaviour in chronic kidney disease patients:
           a cross-sectional descriptive study

    • Authors: Bindiya Dhania, Ashok Kumar, Nipin Kalal, Nitin Kumar Bajpai
      Pages: 4976 - 4981
      Abstract: Background: CKD is a debilitating condition accountable for high morbidity and an overall burden on society and Government. The study objectives were to assess the burden and treatment seeking behaviour of CKD patients and to determine the association of demographic variables with burden and treatment seeking behaviour in CKD patients.Methods: A Descriptive survey research design was conducted on CKD Patients. 220 CKD patients were selected and a self-structured burden rating scale was used to assess the level of burden and treatment seeking behaviour checklist was used to find out the level of treatment seeking behaviour in CKD patients. Data were collected through face to face or telephonic interview by using non-probability convenient sampling technique.Results: Among 220 patients, majority of CKD patients had hypertension as comorbidity. More than half of CKD patients had moderate level of burden. CKD patients had highest burden in emotional domain. Majority of CKD patients ‘feel muscle cramps’ in level of burden. More than half of CKD patients had fair level of treatment seeking behaviour. CKD patients had highest treatment seeking behaviour in personal domain. There was significant association of burden and treatment seeking behaviour with demographic variables.Conclusions: Majority of CKD Patients had moderate level of Burden and fair level of treatment seeking behaviour. It was found that there was a significant association of burden and treatment seeking behaviour with demographic variables. The health care seeking behaviour of CKD patients drive them to come for treatment. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Nutritional status of mid-day meal program on government and private
           school students: a comparative study

    • Authors: Sunitha H. D. Souza, Prashanth Shetty, Geetha B. Shetty
      Pages: 4982 - 4986
      Abstract: Background: Mid-day meal scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India, designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children. Malnourished children will not attain optimum potential for growth and development and this affects their physical capacity to work and physiological changes in the later phase of life. The food that we eat affects the nutritional status; hence the study was evaluated to find the nutritional status of the mid-day meal program in school going children.Methods: Total of 100 subjects were selected into 2 groups, 50 students from government schools and another 50 from private schools. Government school groups received mid-day meal scheme and private school students brought their personal lunch. Anthropometric and haemoglobin evaluation was done.Results: The study showed that mid-day meal effects on nutritional status and one meal gives a calorific value of 357.6 and there was a significant difference between the distribution of MUAC (CM) during pre and post nutritious period in government school students. There was no significant difference between the other anthropometric measurements like height, weight and TSFT and hemoglobin values.Conclusions: Study showed that mid-day meal affects nutritional status. A balanced freshly cooked meal in the noon is healthier and nutritious impacting the school children’s academic performance.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Awareness of nursing assistants regarding COVID-19 epidemiology and
           preventions: a hospital based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Arunima Baby Sasikala, Pranav V. Vasisht, Indu D., Sorna P. N., Malathi M.
      Pages: 4987 - 4992
      Abstract: Background: COVID-19 is a disease caused by a beta coronavirus belonging to the larger family coronaviruses. It is very important that health care workers have adequate knowledge regarding COVID-19 and epidemiological characteristics for disease prevention. This study was meant to assess awareness of nursing assistants working in a tertiary care institution in Kerala regarding COVID-19 infection, modes of transmission, symptoms, isolation, and preventive measures instituted for self-protection and hospital sanitation. The objectives of this study was to assess the awareness including the knowledge attitude and practices of hospital staff about basic infection control practices and epidemiological characteristics.Methods: The study was conducted in medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. Study objective was to study awareness of nursing assistants working in the hospital about COVID-19 preventive measures and epidemiology. Participants selected by simple random sampling with sample size 100. Data was collected using semi structured questionnaire was entered into MS Excel and analysis done using appropriate statistical software. Total score calculated for each of the questions for each participant by summing up the responses for each choice in the question, individual domain and grand total scores calculated. Finally a grand total was calculated for each participant.Results: Out of total participants 77 (68.8%) scored between 35-49 (good), 36 (31.2%) (average) between 18 and 34, and 0 below 18 (poor).Conclusions: The results obtained indicate the nursing assistants had good knowledge about COVID-19 epidemiology which will prevent hospital infections of COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Ten years risk assessment of cardiovascular events among adult population
           visiting urban health and training centre of a tertiary care institution,
           Farrukhabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: M. N. Alam, Shagufta Khatoon
      Pages: 4993 - 4996
      Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally, four out of five CVDs deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes, and one third of these deaths occur prematurely in people under 70 years of age. In view of above background study conducted with the aim and objective to determine Ten years risk assessment of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or stroke) among adult population visiting UHTC of a tertiary care Institution, Farrukhabad, UP, India.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using World Health organisation (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) tool at urban health and training centre (UHTC) of a tertiary care institution at Farrukhabad, UP from August 2017 to January 2018.  Sample size was 400 (n=4pq/l2). Ethical clearance was obtained from institutional ethical committee and written informed consent obtained from the participants. Data analysed using SPSS Software. Chi-square test used to observe level of significance at p<0.05.Results: Majority (69.5%) have less than 10% risk for CVD whereas 10.5% have 10-20% risk, 8% people have 20-30% risk, 6.25% have 30-40% risk and 5.75% people have ≥ 40% risk. Majority (58.75%) belong to young adult. About 7.75% people were diabetic and 11.25% were smoker. Concerning serum cholesterol, 49% had 5 mmol/l, 42% had 4 mmol/l, 0.75% had ≥8 mmol/l. Statistically significant association observed between socio-economic status (SES) and cardiovascular event when chi-square is 95.344, and p<0.00001.Conclusions: About 1/3 population have risk above 10%. Mostly middle-income group are on risk.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Effect of coffee in prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    • Authors: Anuj Gupta, Joshika Agarwal, Rajni Gupta
      Pages: 4997 - 5000
      Abstract: Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease which is also known as metabolic associated fatty liver disease is characterized by accumulation of fat in liver without any underlying clear etiology such as chronic alcohol abuse. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee in prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its effect on various biochemicals like lipids, ESR, CRP, ferritin etc.Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care public sector hospital. The study was conducted among 300 patients. 150 had confirmed diagnosis of NAFLD through ultrasound abdomen and 150 had normal liver on ultrasound abdomen. Both study groups were asked to fill a predetermined questionnaire which included questions on amount of coffee and other caffeinated beverages, physical activity, and demographic data. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Study compared the effect of coffee on prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We found that subjects who did not drink coffee had more odds of developing NAFLD as compared to those who did. Inflammatory markers and lipid profile were found to be lower in those who drank coffee as compared to those who did not.Conclusions: Based on multiple studies done on mice and rat at molecular level and our study, we conclude that various components present in coffee play a significant role in preventing NAFLD, liver fibrosis and even liver cancer. Coffee has also shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and lowers lipid level in blood.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice study about antibiotics usage among
           medical undergraduates of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Haryana,
           India: an observational cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Khajan Singh, Brijesh Kumar, Mahender Singh, Preeti .
      Pages: 5001 - 5005
      Abstract: Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) has now become a global health problem. It has significantly increased the mortality and morbidity related to infectious diseases as well as the economic burden due to these infections. There is global consensus on development of new strategies for prevention of antibiotic abuse and hence decreasing the prevalence of ABR. Medical students should be given more education during their undergraduate training regarding antibiotic resistance and appropriate prescribing. Therefore, this study was planned to assess Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about antibiotics usage among medical undergraduates.Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was done among 2nd year undergraduate medical students of NC Medical College and Hospital, Israna, Panipat. Data was collected through specifically developed structured questionnaire from 130 students. The data was entered in MS excel 2010 and statistical analysis was done using MS excel 2010 and IBM Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.0.Results: 93.07% (n=121) of the students were aware that antibiotic resistance has become an important and serious global public health issue. The attitude of the students about antibiotic use and resistance was found to be casual and negligent. 21.53% (n=28) of study participants believed that they should take antibiotics when they have cold to prevent from getting a serious illness. 38.46% (n=50) of students considered taking antibiotics whenever they had fever.Conclusions: This study provides useful information about the knowledge, attitudes and the practices of 2nd year undergraduate medical students about antibiotic resistance and usage.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • An assessment of knowledge and awareness on hepatitis B and hepatitis C
           viruses among police trainees attending police training college, Ongole,
           Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Devarakonda Venkateswarlu, Burri T. Rao, Devarakonda Manasa, Ravi Y. Chowdhary
      Pages: 5006 - 5012
      Abstract: Background: HBV and HCV are blood borne viral diseases, and knowledge about modes of transmission and preventive aspects can help in reduce the risk of getting liver diseases and mainly transmitted through transfusion of contaminated blood and blood products. The knowledge regarding HBV and HCV infection studied in many professional groups, but few surveys are available among the police professionals. The study was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding Hepatitis B and C viruses’ transmission among these police trainees, and to find out the awareness regarding symptoms, signs, complications and importance of Hepatitis B vaccine.Methods: A cross sectional observationalstudywasconductedamongthepolicetraineesattendingdistrictpolicetraining college, Ongole, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. Information about socio demographic characteristics, basic knowledge about hepatitis B and C viruses, its modes of transmission, prevention, symptoms and signs and also complications, Hepatitis B vaccination were also assessed from all these police trainees. The data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed.Results: Among total police trainees 61.8% belong to upper middle class, 62.4% were degree holders and most of them belonging to Krishna (32.2%) district. About 59% of police trainees aware about hepatitis B virus infection and 67% know about hepatitis C virus infection. 67.2% were listen about availability of hepatitis B vaccination, none of the participants were aware about hepatitis B vaccine zero dose schedule.Conclusions: Efficient health programme managing departments must take the responsibility for HBV education, transmission, testing, vaccination accessibility and availability.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Development of medical aptitude amongst fresh medical entrants by way of
           relevant teaching learning sessions:a cross sectional pre-post study

    • Authors: Ranu Rawat, Parmal Singh
      Pages: 5013 - 5019
      Abstract: Background: Medical Science is still one of the most sought after professions. The possession of an aptitude for the profession is a pre requisite, considering its strenuous demands from the candidate. Presently, there is no mechanism in place in India to assess aptitude in students prior to medical college entry. The aims and objectives of the study were to assess the baseline medical aptitude in the new medical entrants, to Introduce Teaching Learning Sessions for Development of Medical Aptitude in new Medical Entrants, to assess the post T/L session medical aptitude in the new medical entrants.Methods: A cross sectional, one group pre- post study was undertaken amongst 150 fresh MBBS students of Adesh Medical College and Hospital, Shahabad, after approval from the IEC. A pre-tested and pre-validated semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection both at baseline and after relevant Teaching learning sessions. Data collected was analyzed by using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Version 21.Results: The overall mean aptitude value before and after the T/L session was 102.98±8.47 and 114.51±8.60 respectively (p<0.001). Also, there was increase in the proportion of students having average and above average aptitude and decline in those having below average aptitude in the post T/L sessions as compared to the baseline levels.Conclusions: It can be concluded that medical aptitude can be built up in the new medical entrants by making them aware about it through well crafted teaching learning sessions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Emerging problem to health care workers in form of virus and fungus combo:
           a tertiary care centre experience

    • Authors: Vimla Beniwal, Surender kumar Beniwal, Jaishri Murli Manoher, Hari Ram Jat
      Pages: 5020 - 5028
      Abstract: Background: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis has reached epidemic proportion during second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in India. In this study we aimed to understand the demographics, presentation, temporal sequence, risk factors and outcomes to undertake measures for prevention and treatment and benefit of administering liposomal amphotericin via retrobulbar injection in addition to systemic antifungals in the setting of rhino-orbital-mucormycosis.Methods: Study of patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis managed or co-managed by ophthalmologists in our centre from April 2021 to June 2021.Results: Male predominance and more than 75% associated with COVID-19 infection. Common risk factors associated were DM and corticosteroids use. Unilateral involvement was common (82.4%). Most common primary symptom and sign of ROCM is orbital/facial pain (68.4%) and ptosis (84.2 %) respectively. retro bulbar amphotericin B injections had slight improvement in vision (25%), ptosis (37.5%) and extra ocular movement (25%) with few complications. Surgical management were PNS debridement (42.1%), exenteration added in 17.5 % and with above procedure additional maxillectomy needed in 14%. 22.8 % cases were succumbed by disease while 40.1 % of live patients needed orbital exenteration.Conclusions: ROCM has visible signs and symptoms, help us in early diagnosis as compared to mucormycosis at other anatomical sites and should be known to all ophthalmologists. Early diagnosis by involving root level health worker and creation of standard treatment guideline on emerging heath problem is an urgent need. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A prospective study to assess the social stigma, perceived stress and
           psychological distress among security guards during COVID-19 pandemic in
           All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

    • Authors: Sheenu Ahlawat, Poonam Joshi, Cecilia Mary Susaimuthu, Prabudh Goel, Rakesh Lodha, Vishesh Jain, Pratap Sharan
      Pages: 5029 - 5035
      Abstract: Background: People working in the health sector were being labelled, stereotyped, discriminated against, stigmatized, and treated indifferently in the early phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To assess social stigma, perceived stress, and psychological distress among hospital security guards during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: A prospective study was conducted among security guards, working in a tertiary care health facility, during the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected using an online Google form. The stigma, perceived stress, and psychological distress were assessed using standardized tools.Results: The mean age of 280 (males: 219, 78.2%) guards enrolled in the study was 37.13±9.1 years. The mean stigma, stress, and psychological distress scores among security guards were 28.76±11.9, 17.64±6.4, and 4.35±2.8, respectively. A significant correlation was found between perceived stigma and psychological distress (r=0.197, p=0.009) and perceived stress and psychological distress (r=0.302, p=0.001). The predictor of perceived stress among the security guards were gender, [β=1.88; (1.13, 2.63), p=0.001] and loss of job by the family member during pandemic [β=2.8 (4.56, 1.03), p=0.001], similarly the predictors of psychological distress were gender and COVID positive status [β=0.06 (0.10, 0.33), p=0.001].Conclusions: The majority of the security guards had moderate to high perceived social stigma, and moderate level stress during the COVID-19 Pandemic and a few being psychologically distressed requiring referral to experts. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of a tertiary care institute as per Kayakalp Programme
           guideline in the Sub Himalayan region: a descriptive study

    • Authors: Resham Singh, Saurabh Rattan, Nidhi Chauhan, Priyanka ., D. S. Dhadwal
      Pages: 5036 - 5039
      Abstract: Background: Cleanliness and hygiene in hospitals are critical to preventing infections and also provide patients and visitors with a positive experience and encourages molding behavior related to clean environment. Comprehensive sanitation and proper biomedical waste management is a critical factor in preventing iatrogenic causation of disease in addition to promoting health and cure. Hospitals of all levels of healthcare are assessed under the kayakalp programme every year.Methods: Observational cross sectional study was done in the Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla in the month of April 2018 using kayakalp assessment checklist for tertiary care hospital.Results: Scores under various thematic areas was less than the required scores for qualifying for further peer and external assessment.Conclusions: The results compiled were appraised to the authorities of the IGMC Shimla for necessary improvements in different thematic areas of Kayakalp.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • COVID-19 and all-cause-mortality; differential trends between countries
           and selected states of India

    • Authors: Jaideep C. Menon, Rakesh P. Suseela, Omesh K. Bharti, Kaushik Mishra, Basanta Swain, Sunil Raina, Denny John, Chandrasekhar Janakiram, Amitava Banerjee
      Pages: 5040 - 5044
      Abstract: By 22nd January 2021, the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus had infected over 98 million and 10.6 million individuals globally and in India, with 1.7 million and 153, 067 deaths, respectively. Case Fatality rates (CFR) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) have varied significantly between countries. In order to understand the true impact of the pandemic, we should report coronavirus (COVID-19) mortality in the context of all-cause and non-COVID-19 mortality, and compare with previous years. The consequences of the pandemic have been, and will be, different in different settings within and across countries. To compare the all-cause mortality in the year 2020 with previous years in three selected states of India correlate it to the burden of COVID19 and compare all-cause mortality between three states of India to four high income countries. We provide quantitative data in three states across India (Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Odisha) and compare with high-income countries to illustrate the importance of context-specific data monitoring and public health responses. There was a 1.9% increase in deaths, with 2.8% decrease in births in 2020, compared to 2019 in Himachal Pradesh, 13.3 and 9.2% decrease in Kerala and 16.7% and 21.4% decrease in Odisha. There was a direct correlation of all cause mortality to CFR on comparison between three states of India and despite the enormous burden of COVID19 in India all-cause mortality was lower compared to previous years in addition to the CFR due to COVID 19 being lower than in selected HICs.  
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Ogilvie’s syndrome following cesarean delivery: a case report

    • Authors: Maheen Zaidi, Syeda Kashaf Zaidi, Mohammad Yasir Umer, Hanaa Tariq, Syed Uzair Mahmood
      Pages: 5045 - 5048
      Abstract: Ogilvie’s syndrome (OS) or acute pseudo-obstruction of the large bowel, is a rare condition and the true incidence is unknown. We present a case of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (OS) post cesarean section in a 35-year-old patient with fetal distress, following cesarean delivery at term under general anesthesia. On the second postoperative day, she complained of abdominal distension, pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating and no passage of stool. As the patient's condition did not improve, she continued to have persistent abdominal distention. A plain abdominal film was taken and abdominal ultrasound was done, which showed massive gaseous distention of the bowels without fluid level. At laparotomy, a huge distended gut, pussy flakes on intestine, and massive dilatation of the whole colon were found. Postoperatively, the patient was managed with fluids, antibiotics, nutritional support, etc., along with the standard guidelines for management of peritonitis. The patient recovered and was discharged after 1 day of intensive care unit management to the ward. The need for awareness about the syndrome and early diagnosis is emphasized. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Causes of primary tooth avulsion and replantation treatment

    • Authors: Ameera Ibrahim Amer, Balges Mohammad Alrowili, Raghad Naif Aljohani, Mona Dabshi Alanazi, Basmah Mustafa Ageel, Rawan Hussein Alhasawi, Iradah Abas Alsbban, Haifa Saeed Alanazi, Sultan Ali Alrashdi, Reem Ibrahim Alkhateeb, Rand Baher Aldamanhori
      Pages: 5049 - 5053
      Abstract: During primary dentition, the etiology changes by age group. For instance, traumas secondary to collisions and falls are attributable to early movement within the first six years, while accidents secondary to frequent playing are the main reason within the following nine years, and violence is the most common etiology until the age of 25 years old. Previous studies have estimated that traumas from falls, sporting activities, bicycling, traffic accidents, and violence were the most common causes of dental injuries in children. Iatrogenic causes also contribute to 0.04-12% of dental injuries, including avulsions. According to the current evidence, whether to use reimplantation or not is still controversial and further investigations are needed. Among the various case reports, damage to the permanent successors, root resorption, clot formation, and pulp necrosis were documented as potential complications and adverse events with intended reimplantation. However, many techniques were reported to overcome these problems. Besides, favorable outcomes following reimplantation could be hypothetically obtained as sound articulation, proper mastication, and proper dentition. Therefore, this encourages reimplantation, however, further evidence is still needed to validate the proposed advantages and disadvantages of the approach.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Types, characteristics and environmental degradation of composite
           materials

    • Authors: Thuraya Abdulrahim Basudan, Ghaith Zaki Alsanad, Thamer Saud Alhur, Ahmed Abdulaziz Altamimi, Khalid Abdulrahman Alobaid, Obaid Abdulrahman Alobaid, Nasser Fayez Aldhumayri, Khalid Abdulaziz Alrafie, Turki Mamdouh Alharbi, Ali Abdullah Abuhabshah, Farah Ahmed Sindi
      Pages: 5054 - 5059
      Abstract: Research has offered many advances in the dentistry field and variable types of dental composites have been widely validated to be effectively used with many favorable outcomes. Among the differently reported composites, hybrid ones are the most commonly reported and used in clinical settings. However, the characteristics of these composites vary hugely based on the materials and the environmental factors that they might be potentially exposed to. In this literature review study, we have discussed the types and characteristics of the dental composites, elaborating the effect of different environmental factors on the degradation of the different composite materials. Our results indicate that dental composites are hugely affected by environmental factors as temperature, moisture, chemical reactions and impact blunt. Furthermore, enhancing the quality of the materials by using more flexible approaches might enhance their quality in achieving better outcomes. Moreover, research should be directed within this area to improve the functions of the dental composites and improve the quality of life for the corresponding patients. Composites based on nanotechnology seem promising. However, these are not adequately investigated, and further research is encouraged for adequate validation.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Review on mucormycosis in the oro-facial region: an overview

    • Authors: Yogashree Sonawane, Ankeeta Ahire, Ananya Saha
      Pages: 5060 - 5063
      Abstract: The study aims to identify the clinical manifestation of mucormycosis in the oro-facial region to distinguish the role of meticulous intraoral examination for early and timely diagnosis based on the review of reported cases, to propose the role of diabetes mellitus as a predisposing risk factor for mucormycosis in the oro-facial region, to propose the association of traumatic incidents like tooth extraction as a risk factor for mucormycosis in immune-compromised individuals and to perceive the use of amphotericin-B in its treatment. A systematic review was conducted on an electronic database, Google Scholar to analyze the existing data for the clinical manifestation of mucormycosis in the orofacial region. Out of the existing literature on this topic for various timelines, a period of 10 years from 2011 to 2021 was selected for the study. The sample size was calculated taking into consideration the 99.99% confidence interval. The data was extracted from these relevant articles in Microsoft Excel, showing remarkable conclusions. Mucormycosis does not show stereotypical clinical manifestations and thus the diagnosis of mucormycosis has to be confirmed through culture studies and histopathological or radiological ways. Diabetes Mellitus serves as a predisposing factor for mucormycosis in the oro-facial region other than the COVID-19 infection and immune-compromised conditions. Amphotericin-B was a drug of choice for the treatment of mucormycosis by many practitioners. The only hindrance to its usage being its nephrotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Indications, advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of Invisalign
           aligners

    • Authors: Mohamed A. A. Hosny, Fahad S. Alasmari, Nada M. Alsaidi, Hanin M. Alsharif, Sewar A. Alshareef, Nora F. Aldwyyan, Rahaf Y. Alahmadi, Ruba A. Almutairi, Bashayer M. Almutairi, Ghufran S. Alhemaidi, Ebtihal T. Alahdal
      Pages: 5064 - 5068
      Abstract: As a result of the increasing demands to enhance esthetics among the different community populations, many efforts have focused on innovating other substitutes to increase patients’ satisfaction and to obtain better clinical outcomes. Among the variously proposed candidates, clear aligners are now commonly reported and used within clinical settings. Additionally, technological advances are also significant in this field. In this literature review, we aim to discuss the indications, advantages, disadvantages and the effectiveness of Invisalign braces. Typically, the ideal patients that are indicated to receive Invisalign systems are adult patients with either incisor flaring, spacing, crowding, infra- or supra-positions. Although time-consuming, Invisalign systems are reported with reduced adverse events and toxic reactions with the gingival tissue, minimizing the risk of developing periodontal diseases. However, Although Invisalign modalities are associated with fewer adverse events and reduced gingival inflammation and plaque formation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the outcomes might be similar when patients with fixed appliances are educated about properly conducting oral hygienes. Besides, improved healing of the periodontal ligament was also reported with the modality. Therefore, better clinical outcomes are expected with the modality. Furthermore, studies have also demonstrated similar effectiveness between Invisalign and fixed appliances while the most accurately obtained tooth movements with Invisalign might include retrusion, rotations, fan-type expansions and protrusions. Further investigations are urgently needed for further validation of the current evidence.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of different induction agents used for rapid sequence
           intubation

    • Authors: Enass Farouk Aboshoushah, Aisha Yahya Saddeek, Wail Mohammad Alanazi, Mohammed Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Raneem Abdulhamid Alrahwan, Nojoud Adnan Khayat, Muqrin Safar Alotaibi, Khaled Nasser Alharbi, Ahmed Mohammed Kurdi, Shouq Sulaiman Alrumayh, Rimaz Mohammed Alassiri
      Pages: 5069 - 5074
      Abstract: Securing the airway is the first step that clinicians take care of for clinically unstable patients. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) has been reported by many clinicians to effectively achieve this. Many agents have been reported in the literature as effective induction agents for RSI. In this literature review, we have discussed the efficacies of the different induction agents that are commonly reported in the literature for RSI. Furthermore, RSI is done by paralytic and sedative agents that rapidly render the patient flaccid and unconscious to facilitate the emergent approaches to achieve successful tracheal intubation and minimize adverse events. We have discussed the efficacies and adverse events of benzodiazepines and barbiturates, ketamine, propofol, and etomidate. Each of these modalities has its advantages and adverse events, and clinicians should choose what is best for their patients based on the aforementioned discussion for each drug modality. We recommend that further investigations might be needed for further optimization of the induction agent and the relevant doses.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Acceptability and awareness of intrauterine contraceptive device among
           reproductive age women

    • Authors: S. Ramkumar, S. Vijayalakshmi, R. Soundararajan, M. Elakkiyachelvi, E. Elakkiya, S. Fathima
      Pages: 5075 - 5078
      Abstract: Contraception is the intentional prevention of conception through the use of various devices, sexual practices, chemicals, drugs or surgical procedures. An effective contraception allows a physical relationship without fear of an unwanted pregnancy and ensures freedom to have children when desired. In this article we are going to see their utilization and awareness about usage of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). 
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Role of counseling in the prevention of childhood obesity

    • Authors: Abdulaziz Habib Alradha, Maha Aid Aljumaie, Reem Basher Alanzi, Bushra Haider Alqurashi, Faris Saleh Aldhawi, Nura Saleh Alqayawi, Mariah Omar Alahmadi, Raneem Ibrahim Farran, Wed Ahmed Alayyafi, Razan Abdulshakur Niyazi, Sumih Abdullah Alsadq
      Pages: 5079 - 5083
      Abstract: Children tend to gain weight and develop obesity by the age of 9 months old. Therefore, it is essential to apply early interventions as early as this period because childhood obesity does not usually spontaneously resolve by age. Medical counseling with obese children and their caregivers is an essential interventional approach that can enhance the quality of care and the related outcomes. In this literature review, we have discussed the role of professional counseling in the management of pediatric obesity. Healthcare professionals can help caregivers to establish proper dietary intake with specific amounts of calories based on the administered food items per day to maintain healthy dietary habits. Taking care of any associated morbidities should also be considered. For instance, adequate care should be provided for obese children with DM to help them maintain optimal blood glucose levels by using healthy diets, exercising, and taking blood glucose-lowering medications. However, precautions should be considered as these patients might be subjected to hypoglycemic attacks as a result, which might increase their morbidity and mortality. Children and caregivers' education is a critical approach to enhance compliance and increase awareness of the management and interventions. Finally, further efforts should also be directed to the healthcare givers to make them more aware of the benefits of sticking to the guidelines and the importance of counseling in prevention and management.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Anemia prevalence and factors associated among pregnant women in India

    • Authors: N. H. Simon, Ajoke Akinola, Neha Dinesh Kumar
      Pages: 5084 - 5088
      Abstract: The objective of this review is to evaluate the prevalence of anemia and factors associated with Anemia among pregnant women in India. A search was conducted through electronic databases PubMed, google scholar and l Medline, non-electronic databases were also search for articles published between 2017 to 2021. PRISMA guided the reporting of items. All articles were included in qualitative analysis. A total of nine (9) studies (N=7,29,485) conducted among pregnant women in India were included in this review. The overall prevalence of anemia ranged from 23.16% to 81.8%, mild anemia reported in three studies ranged from 35.0% to 60.6%, moderate anemia from 8.0% to 49.5% and severe anemia ranged from 1.4% to 6.9% only. Education status of both wife and husband, maternal age, occupation, income, residence, dietary habits, parity, child spacing, attendance of ANC services and interventions nutrition programs were the main factors associated with the hemoglobin status of the pregnant women. The prevalence of anemia was high among the study participants. Sociodemographic factors were associated with Hb levels of the women. Efforts should be made to encourage women to attend antenatal services (ANC) and nutritional programs should also cover pregnant women.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers:
           screening, risk factors and treatment

    • Authors: Rahmathulla Safiyul Rahman, Badr Mohammed Beyari, Kawlah Essam Samarin, Khalid Mohammed Alamri, Marwan Abdulaziz Bader, Rashed Abdullah Alnemer, Eman Abdulrahman Baothman, Asaad Abdellahi Bilal, Hadil Ali Alkahmous, Arwa Abdulhadi Alshehri, Mona Yousef Alsalamah
      Pages: 5089 - 5093
      Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen of clinical significance within the community and healthcare settings. It has been reported with a variety of infections, including endocarditis, bloodstream infections, pneumonia, joint and bone infections, and soft tissue and skin infections. Although many efforts have been exerted to eradicate the rates of infections and studies have reported a decreasing pattern in the prevalence rates over the years, it has been demonstrated that MRSA represents a significant challenge to the healthcare systems and the affected patients. In this literature review, we have provided a discussion regarding the risk factors, screening, and treatment of MRSA among healthcare workers (HCWs) based on the evidence obtained from the current relevant studies in the literature. HCWs are at increased risk of MRSA colonization, and many risk factors have been identified. These mainly include poor hygiene practices, chronic skin diseases, and having a history of working in an MRSA-endemic country. Decolonization practices are the main line of treatment of MRSA colonization among HCWs because antibiotic therapy is usually of limited use because of the increasing resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Applying adequate interventions as taking care of hand hygiene and using alcohol-based disinfectants is recommended to achieve better outcomes. Increasing awareness among HCWs is also a potential approach to achieve better management.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Coronavirus disease 2019: an overview

    • Authors: Ajna Prahalad, Varun Soti
      Pages: 5094 - 5100
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused over four million deaths worldwide and continues to affect millions across the globe. This review aims to provide an overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the progress made to counter COVID-19 through therapeutics and immunizations. We searched preclinical and clinical COVID-19 literature published between January 2018 through June 2021 on PubMed. The medical subject headings used in the literature search were COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Treatment, Remdesivir, Cytokine Storm, Hydroxychloroquine, Epidemiology, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Receptor, Vaccines, and Mitigation. There is credible evidence that shows that the spike protein in the SARS-CoV-2’s structure is crucial for the host to be infected. It spreads through different modes, primarily through aerosols and carriers. Pathophysiologically, SARS-CoV-2 triggers a cytokine storm leading to systemic inflammation, which can be fatal. Although treatment with Remdesivir and Dexamethasone and massive vaccinations have significantly reduced the mortality rate, COVID-19 remains a significant threat. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2’s different strains, notably the Delta variant, demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic is not over. More vaccine distribution and increased efforts in developing anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, social distancing, masking, and practicing good hygiene will be crucial in defeating COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Efficacy and clinical outcome of zirconia and stainless-steel crowns in
           pediatric dentistry

    • Authors: Ameera Ibrahim Amer, Mohammed Hussain Aljoudi, Amin Nasser Abu Mansur, Alhassen Abdurabu Jafer, Riham Adel Showlag, Bassam Mohammed Hakami, Mohammed Ali Assiri, Saba Mohammad Alshareef, Ghidaa Mohammad Alharbi, Alaa Abdulkareem Rubehan, Awadh Owaidh Alazmi
      Pages: 5101 - 5105
      Abstract: Crowns are used to manage many issues related to the primary teeth as pulpal therapy, such as developmental defects, restorations, fractured teeth, in cases of increased risk of severe dental caries, increased risk of failure of direct restorations. It also can be used as space maintainers abutments, and in cases where extensive tooth wear was present. Among the variously reported crowns, zircona, and stainless-steel crowns are commonly used in clinical settings. In this literature review, we have discussed the clinical outcomes, efficacy, stainless steel crowns, and other parameters for zirconia in pediatric patients. Many advantages and disadvantages were reported for both modalities among studies in the literature. The main disadvantage of using stainless steel crowns is their associated poor esthetic problems. However, the previous issues with their potential toxic effects have been resolved as a result of the recent metallic composition of these crowns. On the other hand, zircona crowns have been reported with many favourable clinical outcomes and increased parent satisfaction. Nevertheless, high cost and increased operation time might be the only limitations for using these modalities in clinical settings.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices pertaining to healthy lifestyle in
           prevention and control of chronic diseases: a rapid review

    • Authors: Saba Naaz
      Pages: 5106 - 5112
      Abstract: With the emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), healthy lifestyle has become critical to not only reduce the burden of NCDs, but also to prevent complications and severity of these diseases. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) pertaining to healthy lifestyle play an important role in determining the occurrence and progress of NCDs. KAP elements are interrelated and dependent on each other. While awareness campaigns provide necessary information to people on healthy lifestyle, how well this information is utilised is a grey area. The objective of this rapid review is to understand the relationship between KAP elements pertaining to healthy lifestyle among individuals who are at risk of developing NCDs and those who are living with NCDs. For this purpose, a rapid review of articles available on Google scholar and Pubmed was conducted. Articles focusing on KAP elements pertaining to healthy lifestyle from the year 2015-2021 were reviewed. Findings from the reviewed studies suggested that people have knowledge about the harmful effects of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol. People have a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle, however, being knowledgeable and having a positive attitude did not translate into practicing healthy lifestyle due to multiple barriers to translate existing knowledge into practice. Since practice scores are poor among people, existing behaviour change strategies must be re-examined. An epistemological analysis of existing human behaviour with identified barriers and facilitators to adopt healthy lifestyle can help in formulating sustainable and effective social and behaviour change interventions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Rotary endodontic files versus manual files for root canal treatment

    • Authors: Wael Hisham Rajkhan, Abdullah Hussain Alasmari, Abduljalil Bader Alhadi, Abrar Zainalabiddin Alharbi, Nwaf Mohammed Khwaji, Remaz Fahad Alannaz, Hassan Awadh Alshehri, Abdulaziz Ali Almalaq, Wasim Ghazi Alharbi, Anwar Fawzi Alhindi, Sarah Hatab Alanazi
      Pages: 5113 - 5118
      Abstract: Many studies have been published to compare the efficacy of root canal filling with either rotary and manual instrumentation. The most commonly reported factors included instrumentation, obturation time and to obturation quality. Besides, the different studies in the literature have used different assessment tools and parameters of their outcomes. In addition, to using different rotary instrumentation techniques. In thisliterature review, we have formulated strong evidence regarding the effectiveness of rotary and manual instrumentation files for root canal filling based on the findings from the current studies in the literature. Our results indicate the effectiveness of rotary instrumentation in reducing the root canal instrumentation time and enhancing the obturation and filling quality as compared to the manual instrumentation techniques. Our findings also indicate the potential variability in the effectiveness between the different rotary instrumentation techniques. However, it was not an area of concentration among the different studies in the literature. Thus, to formulate such evidence, further relevant investigations to this topic might be required. Finally, we recommend that rotary endodontic files should be indicated for the root canal filling settings to obtain better outcomes and alleviate the associated quality of work.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge and consumption of probiotics and prebiotics in India: a
           narrative review

    • Authors: Arshia Shireen, Mitravinda Aneesh
      Pages: 5119 - 5126
      Abstract: In this narrative review, we discuss existing literature on the knowledge, consumption, and factors influencing the consumption of probiotics and prebiotics in India. We also examined the current nature of the probiotics and prebiotics market in the country. There were only a handful of studies on the knowledge and consumption of probiotics and prebiotics among Indians, mainly conducted in urban areas and middle to high-income households. Limited research showed that the knowledge of probiotics had increased appreciably in the past decade, while there is still poor technical knowledge among Indians. Simultaneously, prebiotics is an unfamiliar concept to the general public. Younger individuals are more aware than their older counterparts. The probiotics market in India offers several milk-based beverages, yogurt, and curd, while few non-dairy beverages are available from overseas. The prebiotics market in India has several powder formulas and some chewable tablets. The consumption of probiotics and prebiotics is limited to popular foods like curd, probiotic drinks, buttermilk, and milk, wheat, onion, tomatoes respectively. The modern Indian diet lacks traditional probiotic and prebiotic sources despite their presence in several regional cuisines. Furthermore, awareness of these foods and the knowledge and belief in their health benefits are the most influential factors in their consumption. Contrarily, the perception of not requiring these foods for the maintenance of good health prevents their consumption. Improving awareness and knowledge while offering diverse gut-healthy foods in all strata of Indian society can increase the utilization of these foods and improve general health and prevent chronic diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Epidemiology, etiology, types and outcomes of dental neglect in children

    • Authors: Mohanad Abdulwahab Alsaadi, Mohammed Ali Assiri, Mohanad Abdullah Alhedbany, Fadiyah Falah Alanazi, Lujain Khalil AlShaikh, Afnan Suliman Alblewi, Malak Fahd Shaoush, Saba Mohammad Alshareef, Khadijah Mustafa Saidi, Sara Abdulmajeed Alkhars, Ghufran Abdulmohsen Bukhamis, Ghaidaa Mohammed Maarouf
      Pages: 5127 - 5132
      Abstract: Dental neglect is a common condition among children and it can be associated with several adverse events as dental caries, dental pain and inflammation, infections, trauma, bleeding and other complications that might result from inadequate administration of adequate prevention and treatment modalities. However, many children and parents are not adequately aware of these events and the potential diseases that might be associated secondary to them. Dental neglect is a common condition that might affect children of different age groups and might also extend to adult groups and is affected by the demographics and socioeconomic characteristics of the affected populations. Furthermore, the etiology of dental neglect is variable and parenteral, child and clinical care should all be integrated to achieve better oral health. Many adverse events have been reported as dental caries and other periodontal diseases that might have a significant impact on the affected teeth and the succeeding permanent ones, which might impact the quality of life in the affected children. Accordingly, dental neglect should be given full care to enhance the outcomes of oral health in children.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Social behavioral change communication - an approach to vaccine hesitancy

    • Authors: Suthanthira Kannan S., Swetha Rajeshwari, Aarthy Ramasamy
      Pages: 5133 - 5136
      Abstract: While the proportion of a population needed to be vaccinated against COVID-19 to achieve herd immunity has not yet been established, addressing COVID-19-related vaccine hesitancy is expected to lead to greater numbers of vaccinated individuals, in turn resulting in fewer COVID-19 cases, reduced infection transmission and fewer deaths. Reasons for vaccine hesitancy are influenced by a spectrum of factors from individual belief system to external sources of information. We need to adopt a multi-pronged approach which involves socio demographic domains to achieve herd immunity.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Medical and surgical outcome of retropharyngeal abscess and its prognosis

    • Authors: Ashwag M. Alwagdani, Saga K. Alwabel, Batool H. Alyami, Abdullah A. Rajkhan, Abdulaziz A. Alshehri, Mohammed S. Aloufi, Hamza A. Alandijani, Bassam R. Alsaeedi, Roqia M. Alshaikh, Abrar A. Aldhammen, Rashed A. Alnemer
      Pages: 5137 - 5141
      Abstract: Although retropharyngeal abscess is not a common condition, it can impact the quality of life of the affected patients, and can even be life-threatening. Asphyxia, upper respiratory tract obstruction, and respiratory distress might then develop secondary to this abscess which continues to grow even larger increasing the seriousness of the complications. Surgical incisions and long-course medical and antibiotic therapies have been described in the literature for the management of retropharyngeal abscess. In this study, the literature review discusses the surgical and medical treatment of retropharyngeal abscesses and the predicted prognosis of the disease after treatment based on evidence obtained from studies in the literature. Early presentation and management are important in achieving better outcomes and enhancing the prognosis. Therefore, patients should be aware enough of the symptoms that might suggest the presence of a retropharyngeal abscess. Using intravenous antibiotics can achieve favorable outcomes. However, some adverse events might be associated and the treatment might not be completed as a result of reduced patient compliance. Surgical management is also efficacious and can be done by different approaches as discussed earlier. Nevertheless, it can also be associated with some complications. Therefore, providing optimal care for these patients should be considered in all scenarios to enhance the prognosis.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Feasibility and outcomes of the removable prosthesis in medically
           compromised patients

    • Authors: Abdullah F. Al-Hussain, Yahya S. Aljabri, Khalid A. Sindi, Abdulaziz Y. Thobab, Abdullah A. Khormi, Faisal A. Daghreeri, Raghad M. Bediwi, Fawaz S. Alolaywi, Nadia H. Habbal, Shoroq M. AlQahtani, Sana F. Alkhamis
      Pages: 5142 - 5147
      Abstract: Increasing awareness about providing the necessary care of oral health is essential for patients with a removable prosthesis. The awareness is less interested in dental disorders, being busier with the systemic ones. Planning prosthetic management should only be done after a thorough evaluation of the underlying systemic conditions because the treatment plan might vary accordingly. Previous studies have demonstrated that many systemic diseases are associated with removable prosthesis (RP) procedures. We aim to discuss the feasibility and outcomes of the removable prosthesis for medically compromised patients, including many conditions as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, renal, hematological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal disorders and immunocompromised patients. Taking adequate care of oral hygiene practices is recommended for these patients. In addition, it is necessary to have frequent care, but short follow-up visits to make sure that the modalities are still valid for additional use, and to investigate for potential complications and adverse events. Adequate prophylaxis against some diseases might also be the only convenient solution. Therefore, proper management of the medical condition might be associated with the enhanced success of the modality with favorable outcomes and better quality of life. Making unified protocols to deal with these patients is also suggested to enhance the practice among the different clinical settings.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • The COVID-19 variants: an overview

    • Authors: Anuj K. Pandey, Sidharth S. Mishra, Yogesh wadgave, Nidhi Mudgil, Sonal Gawande, Vijay B. Dhange
      Pages: 5148 - 5153
      Abstract: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was initially noticed in a seafood market in Wuhan city in Hubei Province of China in mid-December 2019 which has now spread to 223 countries/territories/areas worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) under International Health Regulations (IHR) has declared this outbreak as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on 30th January 2020 subsequently declared a pandemic on 11th March 2020.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • COVID-19 and thrombosis

    • Authors: Kavita Verma, Anjali Sharma, Shahzad Sarosh Bulsara
      Pages: 5154 - 5155
      Abstract: The first case of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) was reported in China and undoubtedly today this disease has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the world. There are heaps of complications related to COVID-19 namely acute respiratory failure, acute liver and kidney injury, bacterial and fungal infections, and septic shock. Vascular thrombosis is another burden that COVID-19 is pilling on to the load of its complications. Venous thromboembolism namely deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism; pulmonary microvasculature thrombosis and systemic arterial thromboembolic events like limb ischemia, myocardial ischemia/infarction and cerebrovascular thrombosis are being increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Second wave of COVID-19 pandemic is depressing: is there any hope'

    • Authors: Gaurav Govil, Lavindra Tomar, Pawan Dhawan
      Pages: 5156 - 5156
      Abstract: We read the article detailing the impact on the mental health amongst the residents of Assam during COVID-19 lockdown with a lot of anguish and concern. The rise of second wave of COVID-19 pandemic is more unforgiving due to the high infectivity of the double mutant variant. The deadly cost of ignorance has compounded the misery aggravating the mental imbalance.Hope seems elusive during the evolving crisis with highly constrained healthcare infrastructure, resources and high fatality.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2021)
       
 
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