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International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Impact of child nutrition training for mothers on the nutritional status
           of children: a propensity score matching approach

    • Authors: S. M. Ashraf Hossain, Md Elias Hossain
      Pages: 4304 - 4312
      Abstract: Background: Since mothers are the primary caregivers of children under five, their nutritional status depends on their mothers' capacity to feed and nurture them properly. However, mothers' poor child-feeding practices can also lead to child malnutrition. Mothers' nutritional education and childcare habits can improve children's health through child nutrition training. This study examines how child nutrition training for mother affects children's nutritional status in the impoverished Northern Bangladesh.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, total of 300 mothers have been interviewed and data on demographic, socioeconomic, and child-specific related issues are gathered using simple random sampling from the study areas. The data comprise both treatment and control groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) method is applied to examine impact of child nutrition training for mothers on nutritional status of children in terms of stunting, wasting, and underweight.Results: Empirical results of PSM revealed that the children whose mothers have received trainings have lower prevalence of stunting (0.357 SD), wasting (0.646 SD), and underweight (0.935 SD) as suggested by the average treatment effect on the treated.Conclusions: In summary, this study found positive impact of child nutrition training programs. Therefore, it suggests that the government and NGOs should formulate better and expanded programs focusing on training mothers for the betterment of children’s nutritional status.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222995
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Reference values for babies' pulse oximetry recordings, highlighting
           the impact of cesarean sections and COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Heba Safar, Wesam Eldeeb
      Pages: 4313 - 4319
      Abstract: Background: With a focus on the consequences of caesarean delivery as a result of mother stress and the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic as a source of maternal stress, the study sought to identify reference values for pulse oximetry recordings among both healthy full-term neonates  and preterm and unhealthy neonates.Methods: A comparative study of 170 neonates admitted to the Fayoum university NICU after being born in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology. Collected pulse oximetry readings at predetermined intervals was done. Patients were classified into group I (before 1st wave of COVID-19 pandemic) and group II (during 1st wave of COVID-19 pandemic).Results: The 5th and 95th percentiles of SpO2 after 1 minute after birth were (65% to 90%), with a mean of 77%, according to the study of 146 full-term healthy newborns. SpO2 readings were (89% to 97.1%) with a mean of 92% after 5 minutes, and finally (90% to 98%) with a mean of 93% after 10 minutes. Statistically significant lower means of SpO2 were found during 1st wave of COVID-19 pandemic after 10 minutes of delivery, and for Apgar score after 1 and 5 minutes of delivery. There was a negative impact of cesarean section delivery on gestational age.Conclusions: This research reveals that after 10 minutes of delivery, a Spo2 recorded range of 90 to 98 for full-term healthy neonates and a mean of 86% for preterm and ill neonates may be appropriate. The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had a deleterious impact on neonates' SpO2 recordings and Apgar scores, according to the study. There was a gestational age effect associated with caesarean delivery.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223186
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Factors influencing exclusive breast feeding among women attending
           maternal and child health clinic at Kyanamira health centre 111, Kabale

    • Authors: Topher Byamukama, Patience Akandind
      Pages: 4320 - 4325
      Abstract: Background: There is an increasing trend of mothers failing to exclusively breastfeed their babies and this has led to an increasing number of malnourished babies worldwide. This study was aimed at determining the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding in Kyanamira HC III.Methods: A systematic random sampling technique was used to get all the 175 study participants.Results: 64% of the study participants were aged between 20 and 30 years, and 86.6% of them were peasants. The study found out a strong negative statistical association between community perception and exclusive breast feeding (p=-0.141, r=0.182), and majority of the mothers (62.6% do not support Exclusive breast feeding. There was no positive significant value related to exclusive breastfeeding in our study.Conclusions: Factors that are negatively influencing exclusive breast feeding in Kyanamira HC III are social, cultural and maternal physiological factors
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223187
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • India’s performance in achieving the targets of sustainable development
           goal-3 and the national health policy 2017 based on NFHS data

    • Authors: Shewli Shabnam, Suman Singh, Souvik Mondal, S. Maniruzzaman
      Pages: 4326 - 4333
      Abstract: Background: India is committed to pursue the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the UN agenda 2030. Our objective is to evaluate India’s required progress rate for achieving the health-related targets under SDG 3 and the national health policy of India 2017.Methods: The data were collected from the reports of NFHS-4 and NFHS-5. Targets were taken from the United Nations SDG 2030 and the national health policy of India, 2017. When target is 100 percent, the annual rate of progress = [(Xt1 – Xt0)/ 100- Xt0] * [1/ (t1 – t0)]. Here t0 is the survey period of NFHS-4 and t1 is the survey period of NFHS-5. Xt1 and Xt0 represent the indicator’s values for the corresponding years. The rate of progress necessary to meet the target by the target year (α) = (Xtg – Xt1) / Xt1 where Xtg is the achievable value of an indicator in the target year and Xt1 is the value of the base year.Results: The required rate of progress to achieve the targets of SDG-3 was considerably higher than the current rate in case of neo-natal mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, standard antenatal care visits, HIV/AIDS awareness, and households using clean energy for cooking and having health insurance. The targets of infant mortality rate and MMR of national health policy of India 2017 have not been achieved.Conclusions: Government should immediately intervene where the required rate of progress to achieve the health-related targets of SDG-3 and national health policy of India, 2017 is considerably lagging.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223206
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Are we contented with achieving universal health coverage in treating
           dengue patients in Sri Lanka'

    • Authors: Nadeeka D. Perera, Shamini Prathapan, Amala De Silva, Dulshika A. Wass, Ananda Wijewickrama
      Pages: 4334 - 4340
      Abstract: Background: The preventive and curative services for dengue illness cause a significant financial burden on the state health sector. Household costs and out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) too are important cost components embedded with dengue illness. The objective was to estimate the household costs and out-of-pocket expenses incurred due to dengue infection among adults who received institutional care in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from July to December 2018. Fifty patients recruited from dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) categories. Adults residing in the Colombo district for more than six months prior to dengue illness were recruited based on systematic sampling. Data was collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the day of discharge from the hospital and followed up for two weeks. Unit cost per patient was calculated. Household costs were calculated for 3 phases: ambulatory, during, and post-hospitalization. These components were described using mean, median, standard deviation and inter-quartile range, and OOPE.Results: The median age in the DF group was 38.5 years and in the DHF group was 28.5 years. The average household cost was US$ 127.69 (SD=93.32) and US$ 134.71 (SD=94.31) for DF and DHF patients respectively. Among DF patients 98.03% were borne using OOPE and among DHF patients it was 95.57%.Conclusions: If an adult member is hospitalized with dengue infection the OOPE is high, which is nearly 25% of a family’s monthly income. Strengthening dengue control programme is the key to universal health coverage (UHC). 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223199
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Impact of associated factors in adolescent’s psychosocial problems in
           Banepa: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Nishal Shrestha, Janak K. Thapa, Pramodh Chaudhary, Raj K. Sangroula
      Pages: 4341 - 4350
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is the lifespan between childhood and adulthood from ages 10 to 19 years. Psychological problem is a state of emotional and behavioral disorders, including depression, anxiety, aggression, educational difficulties, etc. The study aimed to assess the impact of associated factors on adolescents’ psychosocial problems.Methods: Analytical cross-sectional and quantitative method was used. The study population was adolescents in grades 8 and 9. Purposive sampling was used to select the schools and the census technique was used to collect the data from respondents. A structured questionnaire was designed and administered to study participants. Data collected from respondents were analysed and expressed using Epidata 3.1 and SPSS 26.Results: The study shows that the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents was 32.4%. The adolescent age group was greatly dominated by the age group 14-15 years (72.1%) and most of the respondents were female (52%). There was a significant association between the bad relationships with siblings (OR=5.840, 95% CI=1.820-18.735, p value=0.003), neighbors (OR=4.46, 95% CI=1.36-14.60, p value=0.013), classmates (OR=3.630, 95% CI=1.060-12.424, p value=0.040) and fine relationship with teachers (OR=5.091, 95% CI=2.223-11.658, p value<0.001) and those not satisfied with pocket money (OR= 2.833, 95% CI=1.227-6.544, p value=0.015) with the psychosocial problem.Conclusions: The update and revision of mental health policy and increment in the allocation of the health budget are crucial for improving mental health. The school can help by introducing child to parent approach to decrease the prevalence of psychosocial problems through a different awareness program and proper knowledge.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223190
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • The impact of cancer on employment among cancer survivors

    • Authors: Maryam Jafari Bidgoli, Allen C. Goodman
      Pages: 4351 - 4358
      Abstract: Background: This study investigates the short- and long-term effects of cancer on the probability of working and hours of work among male and female cancer survivors.Methods: We used 1996-2010 data from the Health and Retirement Study and estimate the cancer effect on employment status and work hours among cancer survivors. In addition to the incidence of cancer, we control demographic and financial characteristics. The sample comprises 7,551 individuals. The prevalence estimate of cancer was 4.3% for males (N=562) and 5.2% for females (N=855). The average time since diagnosis was 5.07 years (SD=5.6; range: 1-38) for males and 7.76 years (SD=7.72 range: 1-40) for females.Results: Female and male cancer survivors experience different labor market outcomes following diagnosis. For females, two years or less since diagnosis, the probability of working was eight percentage points (p<0.01) less than that for the control group. For males, there was a seven-percentage point (p<0.01) reduction between three and five years since diagnosis. Employed men, two years or less since diagnosis, worked 2.76 hours (p<.10) less per week; employed women, three to five years since diagnosis, worked 4.70 hours (p<0.05) less per week. For married men, the availability of a spouse’s employer-provided health plan decreased the probability of working by nine percentage points. For married women, this effect was stronger by 15 percentage points.Conclusions: The reduction in work following a cancer diagnosis causes survivors to experience a greater economic burden. Policymakers should formulate policies to decrease this economic burden.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223191
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Spike in peptic ulcer disease in pregnancy in a rural community of Enugu
           state, southeast Nigeria: is this an epidemic'

    • Authors: Emmanuel I. Umegbolu
      Pages: 4359 - 4362
      Abstract: Background: Pregnancy is said to increase susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, probably due to decreased cell-mediated cytotoxic immune response. Despite this, evidence from epidemiological studies suggest an alleviation of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) during pregnancy. One study found the incidence of PUD among pregnant women to be as low as 0.005-0.03%. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of PUD in women who attended ante-natal clinic in Cottage Hospital Inyi, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA), Enugu State, in 2021.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 435 pregnant women, aged 18- 40 years in 2021 in Inyi, Oji River LGA of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. Through purposeful sampling, 57 women were selected. From each of these patients, a stool sample was collected and examined using immunochemical fecal occult blood test. A horizontal line on the test strip signified a positive result, while its absence negative result. Data were analysed as proportion and Chi- square using MaxStat (version 3.6) statistical software. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant.Results: The incidence of PUD in the pregnant women was 13%; 4.8% in primigravidae, and 8.2% in multigravidae. The association between PUD and parity was not significant (p value =0.89).Conclusions: The incidence of PUD in pregnancy (13%) was much higher than ever had been reported in the past, being slightly higher in multigravidae than primigravidae. Health education on lifestyle modification and environmental sanitation could help in tackling this problem. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223192
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Association of infectious disease history with wasting among Indonesian
           toddler in coastal areas

    • Authors: Nova Hellen Kapantow, Ralph Kairupan, Yulianty Sanggelorang
      Pages: 4363 - 4367
      Abstract: Background: Wasting prevalence in Indonesian toddler has been decreasing from 2013 to 2018 (12.12-10.19%), but this number remains in medium category according to WHO. Identification of risk factors by looking at infectious disease history as the cause of wasting can provide information to appropriate intervention. This research aimed to analyze the association between infectious disease history with wasting in toddler.Methods: This research was an observational analytic study with cross sectional approach, which was carried out for 6 months, from April to October 2021. The sample population was children aged 36-59 months, who lived with their mothers in the coastal areas of the Siau Tagulandang Biaro Regency, North Sulawesi Province. Sampling was done by purposive sampling to get 221 samples. Data collection using questionnaires by interview, secondary data in the maternal and child health (MCH) book, and anthropometric measurements namely body mass index by age, for wasting variables.Results: The results showed the history of infectious disease (p value =0.045; OR=3.491) and mother’s education (p value =0.025) have significant relationship with wasting among Indonesian toddler. The results of the analysis on history of exclusive breast feeding, birthweight, immunization status and father’s education, showed no significant relationship with wasting (p>0.05).Conclusions: Wasting among toddler can be prevent by controlling many factors, such as keeping them safe from infectious diseases, also ensure that every mother and mother-to-be gets a proper education.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223193
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Interventional behavioural change communication on HIV and aids related
           high risk behaviour among fishermen in Homabay and Siaya Counties, Kenya

    • Authors: William Kala Akobi, John Paul Oyore, George Ochieng Otieno
      Pages: 4368 - 4375
      Abstract: Background: Risky sexual behaviors such as sexual concurrency, sexual networks (fish for sex exchange) and unprotected sex, have been reported as the main cause of STIs/HIV infections among the fisher folks. Behavioural change mechanisms such as condom use, and abstinence are some of the interventions used in the prevention HIV/AIDS spread in Kenya.Methods: This was a follow up study on a three tie quasi-experimental study involving 246 randomly selected fisher folks in Mbita and Usenge along Lake Victoria. The study had three phases. baseline, intervention and endline. The survey used questionnaires to collect data among respondents. Using a sample frame in the beach management unit offices, fisherfolks were identified and invited to participate. Consent was obtained from participantsResults: Various variables were influenced by behavior change communication strategies used. These includes use of condom every time of sexual encounter p>0.000, risk associated with non-condom use p>0.004, stopping using condom and fear of getting HIV/AIDS p>0.009, Sexual intercourse without condom use is dangerous p>0.000, whether remembering to use condom every time of sex is difficult P.0.000, whether they are keeping many sexual partners p=0.004, receiving fish/money in exchange for sex in last six months p=0.006.Conclusions: Multiple sexual partners, non-condom use, fish for sex, alcohol consumption and circumcision were significantly associated with risky sexual behavior among the Fisherfolks, therefore other existing interventions need to be intensified to supplement behavior change communication to curb sexually transmitted diseases and further spread of HIV and AIDS.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223194
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Epidemiological characteristics of the healthcare workers morbidity during
           the COVID-19 pandemic, Central Bosnia Canton, Travnik, Bosnia and

    • Authors: Sead Karakas, Almedina M. Hadzihasanovic, Ermina Kukic, Mateja Ibrisimbegovic
      Pages: 4376 - 4383
      Abstract: Background: Healthcare workers at all levels of the healthcare system are at the front line of the response to the COVID-19 epidemic and are consequently more exposed to risk of infection. To examine the characteristics of the healthcare workers morbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic in the area of Central Bosnia Canton.Methods: This research includes all healthcare workers of this Canton (n=2276) in the period from March 2020 to March 2022. A total of 666 health workers tested positive (RT-PCR method) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) in healthcare institutions.Results: The average age of the patients was 45.16 (±11.93) (range 18-77 years old), with a median of 45 years old. Of the total number of positive patients, 68.2% were women, 165 or 24.77% were doctors, and 57.80% were other medical workers. Interactions with infected colleagues accounted for 28.4% of infections, 22.2% of infections occurred during patient care, 36.3% outside a healthcare facility, and in 13.1% the mode of infection was not confirmed. Due to the severity of the clinical status, a total of 74 people were hospitalized with a hospitalization rate of 11.11 (95% CI 8.78-13.87). The second positivity of the test (by RT-PCR method) was after 12.34 months from the first infection (mean=12.34: SD±4.270; median=13).Conclusions: High rates of morbidity among healthcare workers certainly have a significant, long-term impact on the healthcare provision, especially in healthcare systems where there is a pronounced lack of professional workers. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223195
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Morbidity pattern at the National Youth Service Corp camps in Nigeria

    • Authors: Airenakho Emorinken, Onosegbe Aikhuomogbe, Bezaleel Eigbe, Sarah Usman, Cynthia Isuekebhor
      Pages: 4384 - 4390
      Abstract: Background: The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) was designed to foster shared bonds among Nigerian youths and promote national unity. The orientation course is one of the program’s key initiatives. Even though camping promotes socialization and self-confidence, campers may be exposed to a variety of diseases and injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of diseases seen in the NYSC orientation camps.Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in NYSC orientation camps in Delta, Abia, and Katsina States. The demographic information and diagnoses were extracted from the camp clinics' registers. The data was analysed with SPSS, and the level of significance was set at p<0.05.Results: A total of 2231 cases were seen. There were 299 cases (13.4%) seen in Delta state camp, 1076 (48.2%) from Abia, and 856 (38.4%) from Katsina state. There were more males (51.7%) than females (48.3%). The mean age was 25.10±2.67 years. The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (23.4%), malaria (22.5%), acid-peptic disorders (12.1%), gastroenteritis (6.9%), musculoskeletal disorders (4.7%), and allergic diseases (4.7%). Fatigue/myalgia, headache disorders, and malingering accounted for 4.3%, 3.8%, and 1% of cases, respectively. Bronchial asthma and sexually transmitted infections were significantly more common in females than males (p<0.001).Conclusions: This study indicated that orientation camps are home to a variety of diseases, with upper respiratory tract infections and malaria being the most prevalent. This information is essential for resource allocation, planning, and policy formulation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223196
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Knowledge, attitude, and perception of monkeypox among medical/health
           students across media space in Nigeria

    • Authors: Stephen E. Ugwu, Sodiq A. Abolade, Augustine S. Ofeh, Temitope B. Awoyinka, Bartholomew O. Okolo, Eunice T. Ayeni, Eniola O. Kolawole
      Pages: 4391 - 4398
      Abstract: Background: Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the Monkeypox virus (MPXV). Although monkeypox existed and declined in the past, its re-emergence is simultaneous with the rise in cases recently.Methods: This study utilized a non-interventional, anonymous, self-administered web-based survey through a descriptive cross-sectional design to collect data from medical/health students (undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate students). The E-questionnaire was administered from 22nd July to 5th August through social media, and the data collected and extracted through an excel spreadsheet was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0.Results: A total of 203 respondents were obtained from 22nd July to 5th August, out of which 109 (53.7%) were females, 92 (45.3%) were males with 18-25 years (63.5%), 25-30 years (26.6%), <30 years (7.4%) and <18 years (2.5%) age groups. Of the total respondents, 94.1% have heard about monkeypox before, 59.1% believed that monkeypox could be managed, 80.8% believed that monkeypox is zoonotic but can be transferred from human to human, and the majority (60.1%) are aware of the symptoms of monkeypox.Conclusions: Medical/health students across social media show a relatively high knowledge of the Monkeypox virus with significant knowledge gap regarding the evolving epidemiologic and clinical manifestations, and the variety of components implicated in monkeypox transmission. Nonetheless, the knowledge is to be sustained and reinforced through continued awareness on social media and in rural areas with a high percentage of basic internet coverage and literacy. In order to direct proper surveillance, data collecting, readiness, and response operations, public health/surveillance capacities in Nigeria must be urgently developed.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223197
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • The design of growth and development children's monitoring
           application: a user-centered approach

    • Authors: Tri Siswati, Nurhidayat ., Tjaronosari ., Herni Endah Widyawati, Muhammad Primiaji Rialihanto
      Pages: 4399 - 4404
      Abstract: Background: Due to pandemic COVID-19, intergrated health services post (Posyandu) was disrupted affecting child growth monitoring. A minimum monitoring approach for the health of children is required. The objective of this study was to design a growth and development children's monitoring application.  Methods: We applied research and development methods to define and design the app. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted to identify user need, including storyboards, content, features, flow, and performance of android application. We also collaborate with technology information expertise to design an app. The research was carried out in Yogyakarta from May to June 2021.Results: The result showed that users needed a comprehensive app based on Android with a minimum data storage space including growth and child development monitoring, considering storyboard design, menu interface, nutritional and developmental children's milestones, interpretation, and recommendation. The growth monitoring interface includes identity, a child’s health history, and anthropometry, while the development monitoring interface contains stimulation and the child’s developmental achievement. We also provide interpretation and recommendations according to children's health.  Conclusions: As a conclusion, we indicate that by following the proposed user-centered framework, we successfully design android applications to monitor growth and development in children, namely DEPA 2.1, abbreviation of design and development of anthropometry and development children's applications. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223198
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Junk food consumption among school-age adolescents in Kanakasundari rural
           municipality, Jumla

    • Authors: Upendra Karki, Janak K. Thapa, Raj K. Sangroula, Pramodh Chaudhary, Salina Thapa, Arati D. Shrestha, Pabitra Balampaki, Alina Thapa, Dipak Karki, Deependra K. Thapa
      Pages: 4405 - 4411
      Abstract: Background: Junk foods typically contain high calories from sugar or fat with little protein, vitamins, or minerals. This study was conducted to determine the consumption and prevalence of junk food consumed among school-age adolescents. The main aims of this study were to find out the junk food consumption among school-age adolescents (5-18) in Kanakasundari rural municipality.Methods: This was analytical cross-sectional research. The total sample size for the study was 280. Purposive sampling was used to select the schools and census was used to select the students from the schools. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire in Nepali version was used to collect the data and the collected data were entered and analysed in SPSS using simple statistical methods.Results: Among the 280 respondents, the mean age was 15.17 years. The consumption of junk food among adolescents was 45 percent among males and 55 percent among females. Religion (p=0.011) and type of family (p=0.034) were significantly associated with junk food consumption. The participants following Hindu religion were 3.43 times more likely to be consume junk food (COR=3.430, 95% CI=1.256-9.366) as compared to non-Hindu. Participants residing in joint family were less likely to consume junk food (COR=0.490, 95% CI=0.252-0.954) as compared to nuclear family.Conclusions: Majority of children consumed junk food regularly; the majority preferred it for taste and some were influenced by advertisements. There is a great need to maintain healthy eating habits among adolescents to decrease the health risk associated with frequent junk food.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223189
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among bank
           employees in Chidambaram: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Rajkumar S., Annie I. K., John William Felix A.
      Pages: 4412 - 4416
      Abstract: Background: The job nature of a bank employee is both sedentary and stressful. High level of mental stress places them at a higher risk of developing non communicable diseases like diabetes and hypertension. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among bank employees.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 bank employees using a semi structured questionnaire. Risk factors like extra salt intake, lifestyle factors like smoking, alcohol, physical activity were taken into account.Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.93±8.657. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 19.5% (52) out of which 5.2% (14) were known cases of hypertension. A significant association was found between extra salt intake, smoking, alcohol and hypertension.Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension among bank employees in Chidambaram is low compared to the studies among bank employees in other parts of the country. Extra salt intake, smoking, alcohol and stress levels were found to be the significant factors associated with hypertension.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222961
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Indian diabetic risk score as a screening tool for assessment of diabetes
           in urban and rural areas in Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: P. K. S. S. Usha Sri, B. T. Rao, S. Appala Naidu, K. Mokshanand, N. Naga Lakshmi, M. Divya Keerthi
      Pages: 4417 - 4424
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in Andhra Pradesh and Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a cost-effective tool for screening of undiagnosed diabetic individuals in the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the sensitivity and specificity of IDRS method as a screening tool in community as well as to determine the importance of stress scale in relation with diabetes.  Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2022 to May 2022 among 18 years and above residing in select areas of Prakasam and Visakhapatnam districts. House to house survey was done for collecting data on IDRS with pretested questionnaire. Cohen's perceived stress scale was used to assess the level of stress.  Results: Out of 200 study subjects, 53.5% were males, mean age was 40.13±15 years and 23% were illiterate. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 21.0%, as per IRDS, 20.5% were in low-risk category. 44.5% and 31.5% were in moderate and high-risk category respectively. No physical exercise- 45 (71.7%), consumption of non-vegetarian food- 43 (65%), low consumption of fruits- 47 (74.6%) among high-risk category. Sensitivity of IDRS was 50.6%, specificity 71.6%, positive predictive value 33.8% and negative predictive value 86.3%. Mean perceived stress score was found to be 19.5±4.03.Conclusions: This study estimated the usefulness of Indian diabetes risk score for identifying high risk diabetic subjects in Indian urban population so that proper intervention can be done to reduce the burden of disease. Stress may be included in the IDRS.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222993
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Tiffin habits of school children

    • Authors: Premlata Mital, Ribhu Hooja, Nupur Lauria
      Pages: 4425 - 4429
      Abstract: Background: The “mid-day meal scheme” is the popular name for the school meal program of India, through which meal is provided to school children studying in the government and government aided schools. In non-government schools, children carry tiffin’s from home. Often, due to lack of time and/or knowledge of the parents and students, the contents of the food are not as per a balanced diet. The objective of the study was to analyse and compare the tiffin habits of primary and senior school children.Methods: This was a clinic-based study. Parents of 300 school going children were asked about tiffin habits of their children in a predesigned questionnaire. Data was analysed and conclusions drawn.Results: Most children carried tiffin to school on the majority of days. There was no statistical difference between primary or older children in their tiffin contents. Very few primary school children had a say in the content of tiffin. The senior students spent money in canteen on more days per week, whereas most primary class students spent only once a week or for treats.Conclusions: It is crucial for schools to establish food committees in school that suggests and   monitors tiffin policies and meal plans based on nutrition.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222962
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Prevalence of depression among elderly in an urban setting of Southern

    • Authors: Remya Girijammal, Sara Varghese, Retheesh K. Haridasan, Pankajakshan V. Indu
      Pages: 4430 - 4435
      Abstract: Background: The reported prevalence of depression by WHO in the elderly varied between 10% to 20% in various societies. Some of the 121community-based studies in India had reported a prevalence of 13 to 43% depression in elderly. Kerala had a 12.8% of geriatric population according to census 2011. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of depression among geriatric population in an urban area which comes under Thiruvananthapuram Corporation, Kerala state, India.Methods: Study design is cross sectional. Elderly over 60 years were interviewed using PHQ -9 questionnaire. Depression is diagnosed when the total score is equal to more than 5 in PHQ-9 questionnaire.Results: Total 405 elderly were included in the study. 195 (52%) were females and   213 (48%) were males. The prevalence was found to be 37.3% (CI, 30.78-43.98). Among them mild and moderate depression accounted for majority of cases (35.7%) than severe depression (1.5%). Bivariable analysis yielded factors such as previous history of mental illness, family history of mental illness, stress and absence of recreation that were associated with the development of depression. Family history of mental illness (adjusted OR 4.59) and stress (adjusted OR 7.43) were emerged as predictors of depression in this study in multivariable analysis.Conclusions: Prevalence of depression in elderly was found to be 37.3% (30.78-43.98) in an urban population of Sothern Kerala. In logistic regression analysis family history of mental illness and stress were emerged as independent predictors of depression among elderly.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • The study to understand management of constipation and prescription
           pattern of laxative therapy

    • Authors: Kajal Shilpi, Amit B. Jain, Dixit Patel
      Pages: 4436 - 4443
      Abstract: Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic profile and prescription pattern of laxative therapy in chronic constipation (CC) patients.Methods: This real-world, retrospective, SMART-2 study was conducted at various centres in India between April 2021 and March 2022.Results: Data of a total 12,080 patients diagnosed with CC were analysed. The mean age of patients was 53.84 years and majority (63.62%) were males. Most reported influencing lifestyle parameters included ‘not very active’ or ‘lightly active’ lifestyle (78%) and non-vegetarian diet (67%). Squatting (56.89%) was the common mode of defecation. As per the Bristol stool criteria, the most common stool consistency observed was type 2 (sausage-shaped but lumpy) (25.49%) followed by type 1 [separate hard lumps, like nuts (hard to pass)] (22.92%). As per the Rome IV diagnostic criteria, straining (44.62%) was the most common symptom. Faecal evacuation disorder was present in 52% of the patients. Common associated conditions were diabetes (35%) and hypothyroidism (12.9%). Antihypertensive drugs (23.7%), iron supplements (13.5%) and opiates (10.7%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs in patient’s medication history. Lactulose solution (65%) was the most prescribed drug for CC. Quality of life was adversely impacted in every one out of five patients.Conclusions: Chronic constipation is more common among males and is influenced by lifestyle parameters. It is associated with comorbidities like diabetes and hypothyroidism. Antihypertensives, iron supplements and opiates are commonly noted in medication history for CC patients. Lactulose solution is the most common prescribed pharmacotherapy for the relief from constipation. Chronic constipation increases distress level among the patients.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222994
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Prescribing patterns of systemic antifungal medications in Indian patients
           with invasive fungal infections: a multicenter retrospective study

    • Authors: Lav Patel, Shreekant Sharma, Deepak Bunger
      Pages: 4444 - 4448
      Abstract: Background: Objectives of the study was to describe the utilization pattern of systemic antifungal agents in Indian patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs).Methods: This real-world, multicenter (127 centers), retrospective analysis included data of patients receiving systemic antifungal medications at various centers across India. The study data was collected between April 2021 and March 2022.Results: Data of a total of 323 patients was analyzed. The mean age of patients was 54±13.52 years. There was male preponderance seen in this study (72.4%). Diabetes was the most common comorbidity (36.8%) followed by concomitant diabetes and hypertension (31.9%), hypertension (9.6%) and hematological malignancies (9.6%). The most common indication occurring in >10% of the patients and for whom systemic antifungals were used included pulmonary mucormycosis (33.1%) followed by invasive candidiasis (16.1%), sepsis (13.3%) and fungal pneumonia (11.8%). In total 323 patients, the most common antifungal drug prescribed was posaconazole (38.6%) followed by anidulafungin (32.8%), caspofungin (10.5%), fluconazole (9.3%) and micafungin (8.7%). Posaconazole was most commonly used for pulmonary mucormycosis (84.8%), fluconazole for sepsis (33.3%), caspofungin for fungal pneumonia (23.5%) and anidulafungin (33.1%), and micafungin (39.3%) for invasive candidiasis.Conclusions: This study provides real-world evidence on the demographics of Indian patients with IFIs and utilization pattern of systemic antifungals by health care physicians in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222967
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Gender bias experiences among rural adolescent girls

    • Authors: Anju Damu Ade, G. Visweswara Rao, M. Sunitha Manyam
      Pages: 4449 - 4457
      Abstract: Background: Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. For a girl child, life is a constant fight for survival, growth and development from the time she is conceived till she attains 18 years. Objectives were to study the socio-demographic profile of the rural adolescent girls to study gender bias experiences among rural adolescent girls and to assess association between sociodemographic characteristics and gender bias. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in three secondary rural government schools among rural adolescent girls in the age group of 12 to 16 years. Study participants were interviewed. Results: Total respondents were 157.29 (18.5%) said they don’t get immediate treatment for their health issues. The 153 (97.5%) respondents said their parents support them for their education. The 12 (7.6%) girls said their parents ask them to eat food after males in their families.145(92.45%) didn’t find any discrimination regarding food with them. The 92 (58.6%) said parents force them to do domestic work. The 87 (55.4%) of the respondents said relatives ask them to sit properly and not according to their comfort. Only 19 (12.1%) said parents tell them to do puja regularly and keep fasting for religious reasons. The 88 (56.1%) respondents said that they have restrictions in going out. The 51 (32.5%) respondents said they have been verbally abused or beaten.Conclusions: Gender bias still exists among rural community. It is critical to intervene during early adolescence if gender equity is to be established. Promoting gender equality and empowerment of girls will help to diminish gender inequity in the long-term.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Attitude and adherence to COVID preventive protocols of MBBS and BSc
           nursing students in West Bengal: a multicentric cross sectional study

    • Authors: Abhishek Ghosh, Saumya Sarkar, Kushal Banerjee
      Pages: 4458 - 4462
      Abstract: Background: COVID-19 is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease is transmitted from human to human by respiratory droplets. Poor hand hygiene, poor cough etiquette, social gathering is responsible for spreading the disease. Droplet spread can be checked by proper wearing of face mask, frequent washing of hands, covering coughs and sneezes, social distancing, avoiding ill-ventilated areas. It is not easy to educate common people and change their health-related behaviours within a very short period of time. But medical students and nursing students are expected to be more stringent in adhering to these behaviours compared to common people. We aimed to evaluate the attitude and adherence to the SARS-COV-2 corona virus preventing health related behaviours of the MBBS students and nursing students and to evaluate similar behaviours in their family members.Methods: Cross sectional questionnaire based observational study among MBBS and BSc nursing students of 2 medical colleges at West Bengal, India.Results: 320 MBBS and BSc nursing students participated in the study. Majority of the subjects followed COVID protocol according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines but there were some lapses in attending protocols for social gathering, proper use of masks and proper hand hygiene and using public transports while attending examinations.Conclusions: Majority of the subjects followed COVID protocol but some more education is still needed, especially proper hand hygiene, proper use of masks and avoiding social gatherings. This is needed so that they can impart better education to the society.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222968
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia among non-pregnant and
           non-lactating women from low-income families in two selected districts of
           Madhya Pradesh state of India: a random forest analysis

    • Authors: Ranjan Kumar Jha, Sucharita Dutta, Ritu Ghosh, Archana Mishra, J. C. Reddy, Suresh Lakshminarayanan, Aarati Pillai, Suvabrata Dey, Manoj Kumar Raut
      Pages: 4463 - 4471
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia is one of the most common public health challenges. The objective of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among non-pregnant and non-lactating women (NPNLW) (15-49 years) from low-income families and to assess the associations between socio-demographic and economic factors, and the prevalence of anaemia.Methods: Primary data of non-pregnant and non-lactating women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) from low-income families collected from two selected districts of Madhya Pradesh state, India were used. Inferential statistical tools like; multiple binary logistic regressions and random forest analysis were adopted to assess the socio-demographic and economic factors associated with anaemia.Results: The results revealed that prevalence of anaemia in both the districts are quite high at 60.8% (95% CI: 58.6%, 62.9%) in Vidisha to 63.7% (95% CI: 61.6%, 65.7%) in Raisen with mean haemoglobin levels of 11.27±1.92 g/dl in Vidisha to 11.24±1.70 g/dl in Raisen, which is close to <12 g/dl cut-off based on WHO categorization. It was also found that those who are from the scheduled caste and other castes were less likely to be anaemic compared to those who were from scheduled tribes in Vidisha district. Majority of women not consuming iron supplements were found to be anaemic.Conclusions: Education was observed to be the most predominant factor inversely associated with anaemia. Age and the type of household were also found to be associated factors. Along with supplementation and nutrition education, fortification of foods is also recommended in addressing the anaemia burden.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223200
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Role of women in reproductive decision making and inter-personal
           communication regarding reproductive health

    • Authors: Shipra Garg, Dinesh Kumar, Savita Prashar
      Pages: 4472 - 4477
      Abstract: Background: Reproductive health of women plays a key role in overall development of a country. Lack of decision-making by women in reproductive health matters may lead to an unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion and other adverse reproductive health outcomes.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among married women with at least one child aged 18-49 years in Punjab, India. Study variables included socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health characteristics, contraceptive choices, interpersonal communication and interpersonal relationship with spouses.Results: Among all surveyed married women, only 51 (58.6%) women reported to be physically and mentally ready for their marriage. 50 (57.5%) of women reported using condoms, while about one-third of the women were not using any kind of contraceptive method. 62 (75.5%) women reported decisions to be taken jointly for child health care. Place of delivery was reportedly discussed 78 (88.6%) by women with their spouses. Interpersonal communications were rated as either very good or good by 72 (81.8%) women. Also, women who were more educated than their spouses were less likely to be satisfied with inter-spousal communication. No significant association was observed between higher education of women than their spouses and active role in taking various decisions by women.Conclusions: Women should be encouraged to take her own reproductive and health related decisions and other family members should support her. Efforts to increase awareness for sexual and reproductive issues should be initiated from adolescence phase.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223201
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Quality of reproductive health care provided by community health centers
           of a district located in western India- a mixed method study

    • Authors: Shobha Misra, Niraj Desai
      Pages: 4478 - 4483
      Abstract: Background: Under National Rural Health Mission in 2007, Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) were introduced to strengthen health care services. As majority of health infrastructure is in existence before introduction of IPHS, there was scant information available on assessment of these standards. This study was carried out with the objective to assess quality of reproductive health care provided by community health centers (CHC).Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013. All of the 17 community health centers from 12 talukas of the district were studied. Data collection was carried out by administering pilot tested checklist and interviewing clients.Results: All the CHCs had adequate infrastructure. Highest score was obtained for input (64%). The overall score in process section was 45%. None of the CHCs had a full-time anesthetist, physician, public health programme manager or public health nurse. At only three CHCs, general surgeon was available. Availability of MOs was 85% and Pharmacist was 88% respectively.Conclusions: Deployment and availability of specialist is the need of the hour. Adequate emphasis needs to be given to processes and outputs as well, apart from inputs. Public private partnership can be explored for better utilization of services. There is a need of up gradation of existing CHCs keeping in the view of IPHS norms.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223202
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Perception on COVID-19 vaccines among the employees of Annamalai
           University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Abinayaa V., P. Kalyani, John William Felix A.
      Pages: 4484 - 4489
      Abstract: Background: The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) was declared global pandemic in March 2020. Globally, this disease has caused more than 5.1 million deaths. Vaccines against COVID-19 considered as the most efficient way to stop the spread of this disease. The perception about the COVID vaccine has a greater impact on the vaccination against this disease. The objective of this study is to assess the Level of perception on COVID-19 vaccines and to find out the factors associated with level of perception on COVID-19 vaccines.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 651 employees of Annamalai University during the month of October 2021 to March 2022. A pretested semi structure questionnaire was used to collect the data. Collected data was entered in Microsoft excel and analysis was done using statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0.Results: Out of 651 participants, 69.4% were males, 84% were married, 34.4% i.e., 225 participants belong to 41-50 age category. With mean age 41.78±9.708. 26.8% had a favorable perception towards vaccine. The level of perception is significantly associated with educational status and vaccination status of the study participant.Conclusions: 45% of the participants had neutral level of perception on the COVID-19 vaccines. The educational status of the participant and favourable perception on the COVID-19 vaccines have the influence on the COVID vaccination status. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222983
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Impact of COVID-19 on routine immunization at immunoprophylaxis clinic of
           tertiary care center of central India: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Sukanya S. Kamble, Shubhra S. Joshi
      Pages: 4490 - 4492
      Abstract: Background: The global COVID-19 pandemic is overstretching existing health systems. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the world to implement drastic prevention methods based on limiting population movements that have an impact on public health policies such as vaccination. This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on routine immunization at an immunoprophylaxis clinic of the tertiary care centre.Methods: a record-based cross-sectional study was carried out during the 4 months, (February to May) 2020 in the Immunization Clinic of Tertiary Care Center of central India. Vaccines included in the study were OPV, IPV, ROTA, PENTA, MR, and DPT. Data analysis was done by using software open EPI, p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: The study showed a prominent decline in the percentage of children who came for immunization during the period of lockdown due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. This downward trend continued from the month of February, as the months progressed and till May arrived, the fraction of children vaccinated in 2020 as compared to 2019 saw a very significant reduction, (p<0.000). individual vaccine-wise immunization status of under 5 children also shows a downward trend in the year 2020 as compared to the year 2019.Conclusions: There was a sharp decline in the utilization of immunization services in a tertiary care center in central India.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223203
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Blood pressure control among hypertensive patients of tribal origin
           attending a primary care centre in Kerala

    • Authors: Jasmi Raju, Aswathy Sreedevi, Navami Sasidharan, Sanjeev Vasudevan
      Pages: 4493 - 4498
      Abstract: Background: High blood pressure increases the risk for significant health issues including heart attack and stroke. According to studies, the tribal population in India is likewise going through a transformation and has increasing prevalence of high blood pressure. Therefore, this study was done with the objective to determine the proportion of hypertensives with uncontrolled blood pressure among persons of tribal origin attending a primary care centre in Kalpetta, Wayanad, Kerala. To study the factors responsible for the control of hypertension. To assess the adherence to anti-hypertensive medicine using the Morisky Green Levine Scale (MGLS).Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amrita Kripa Charitable Hospital, Kalpetta, among 167 adult hypertensives of tribal origin. A semi-structured questionnaire and MGLS were used for data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.Results: The proportion of uncontrolled hypertension among the tribal population was found to be high (70.7%). There was a significant association with uncontrolled hypertension and lower education (p value 0.036) and also with alcohol (p value 0.007). Among participants with uncontrolled blood pressure, poor adherence was found to be 31.7% while 68.3% of participants had good adherence. Alcohol consumption (aOR- 4.10, 95% CI 1.12-14.98) and lower education (aOR-6.74, 95% CI 1.28-35.46) were independent predictors of uncontrolled hypertension on multivariate analysis.Conclusions: Seven in ten hypertensives attending the primary care centre had uncontrolled hypertension. Larger studies among persons of tribal origin are necessary at the community level through reducing alcohol use is imperative. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223204
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Knowledge, attitude and perception of health care providers and their
           patients regarding “Telemedicine” for otorhinolaryngeal care during
           the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Nishikanta Pradhan, Nishant Panda, Snigdha Singh, Manas R. Rout, Kabikanta Samantaray
      Pages: 4499 - 4505
      Abstract: Background: Telemedicine aids health care facilities in implementing response on otorhinolaryngeal care during the pandemic while also maintaining provision for essential health services. This study was taken up to highlight perception of doctors and patients and implementation benefit and drawbacks of telemedicine, despite the continuous effort to help reduce ailments of the patients via reduction in the in-person care during pandemic. Objectives were to assess knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) among doctors and patients regarding telemedicine during COVID-19 pandemic. To determine the gaps and challenges experienced by the health care providers and the patients by telemedicine consultation.Methods: Cross sectional study conducted among the 18 doctors and house surgeons in department of otorhinolaryngology, KIMS Bhubaneswar and 486 patients who availed telemedicine for consultation from these health care professionals. A semi structured, mixed questionnaire was used. First phase of study was when patient contacted the doctor over phone, second was when doctor called up the patient for follow up and third was when both the doctors and patients were contacted to take their feedback on the study and assess their KAP on telemedicine. Data was analysed using SPSS-23 and Pearson’s correlation was used to determine any association.Results: 81%, 78.5% and 65.2% HCPs had good knowledge, attitude and perception score regarding telemedicine while among the patients the scores for good knowledge, attitude and perception were 42%, 21.4%, 15.4%, respectively. 88% HCPs and 84.8% patients were satisfied with e-health and were willing to continue this technology.Conclusions: The traditional clinic consultation has been modified during the pandemic to prevent and control transmission of the infection though it has both merits and demerits.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223205
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Technostress in medical and allied field: an empirical study among under
           graduate public health science students of Purbanchal University
           affiliated colleges in Kathmandu

    • Authors: Alina Thapa, Deependra K. Thapa, Raj K. Sangroula, Salina Thapa, Arati D. Shrestha, Pabitra Balampaki, Upendra Karki, Pramodh Chaudhary, Janak K. Thapa
      Pages: 4506 - 4513
      Abstract: Background: Technostress among students may lead to a higher burden on higher education institutions through a decrease in productivity, dropouts, and deviation from academic work. Students have a different set of characteristics, which makes them an interesting group to be studied. The aim of the study was to find out the status of technostress among respondents.Methods: Analytical study was conducted among 460 undergraduate public health science students of Purbanchal University in Kathmandu valley. The census method was used for data collection. Standard questionnaires and IDI guidelines are used as data collection tools. Data entry was done in Epidata and analysis was done in SPSS.Results: Mean value of 460 respondents was 22.61. Positive correlation was observed between the technostress and stress (p=0.01), depression (p=0.01), and anxiety (p=0.05). Academic productivity has positive correlation with stress (p=0.05) and depression (p=0.05). Stress was significantly associated with grade (p<0.001), depression was significantly associated with grade (p=0.003), techno overload (p=0.004), techno invasion (p=0.023), and anxiety was significantly associated with age (p=0.008), grade (p=0.009), techno overload (p=0.023), techno invasion (p=0.016), techno complexity (p=0.023).Conclusions: The study showed a positive association between technostress and academic qualification. There is a need for an awareness program on technostress and mental health to provide comprehensive knowledge on mental health. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223188
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Predictors of diabetes-specific knowledge and attitude among people
           residing in the urban settlement of Jodhpur

    • Authors: Mamta Patel, Deepti Mathur, Rashmi Kaushal, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Nitin Joshi, Akhil Dhanesh Goel, Pankaj Bhardwaj, G. S. Toteja
      Pages: 4514 - 4520
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes has progressively increased in India and around the world over the last quarter-century, with India accounting for a significant portion of the worldwide burden. Researches show that diabetes mellitus related complications can be reduced by early diagnosis of the disease and appropriate treatment. This study aimed to investigate diabetes-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in adults in the high-income, middle-income, and low-income groups in families of Jodhpur and to create awareness among the community about diabetes.Methods: With the use of an adequately constructed and validated questionnaire, the current cross-sectional study was conducted on the general population of Rajasthan. The questionnaire was pre-tested and pre-validated. The data were statistically analysed using SPSS.Results: There were 53.3% males and 46.8% females who were enrolled in the study. The mean knowledge score was 8.82±3.467 and the mean attitude score was 3.62±1.439. Respondents who were educated at least till high secondary or above were significantly more knowledgeable and with more attitude scores as compared to people who were either illiterate or educated only up to secondary.Conclusions: We discovered a reasonable gap between knowledge, attitudes, and practices, thus formulating and implementing strategies to transform positive attitudes into helpful practices is the need of the hour.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223207
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Prevalence of hypertension and its associated modifiable risk factors
           among rural and urban adults of field practice area of Jhalawar Medical
           College, Jhalawar

    • Authors: Hemant Kumar Bindal, Lakhan Singh, Vinod Kumar, Deepak Kumar Dubey, Uma Shankar Shukla, Asif Ahmed Qurishi
      Pages: 4521 - 4527
      Abstract: Background: The behavioral and biological risk factors, with a predisposition to the development of high blood pressure, are use of tobacco and alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, increased fat, sodium intake, low fruit and vegetable intake. HT is called a “silent killer”. Majority of people with hypertension are unaware of the problem because it may have no warning signs or symptoms. Objectives were assessment of the prevalence of hypertension and associated modifiable risk factors among adults in the practice area of rural and urban area of Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar.Methods: The present observational cross-sectional study was conducted on adults of rural and urban dwellers of field practice area of Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar. By stratified random sampling method, 1418 participants were selected and included in our study during the study period that fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria.Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension found was 18.6%. In the present study, the association of hypertension with risk factors like tobacco use, BMI, and waist hip ratio was found to be significant in rural areas. While in urban areas, the prevalence of hypertension was found to be statistically significant with calorie intake, tobacco use, and BMI and waist hip ratio. The risk factor for calorie intake was found to have an insignificant association with rural areas.Conclusions: The present study revealed that around one fifth of adults had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in urban areas than in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223208
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Quality of life and disability: a study on bipolar disorder patients in

    • Authors: Sarada Prasanna Swain, Sushree Sangita Behura, Manoj Parida
      Pages: 4528 - 4534
      Abstract: Background: Throughout the world bipolar disorder is one of the leading causes of mental disability. But there are only few literature studies found on quality of life (QoL) and disability of patients with bipolar disorder. The study aims to assess inter-relationship between QoL and disability of patients with bipolar I disorder in remission and to assess the pathways of help seeking behaviors by the family members of bipolar I disorder patients.Methods: This study involves non-experimental research design with purposive sampling method. A total of 62 participants from clinical group (outpatient department of mental health institute (Centre of excellence), S. C. B. medical college) and 48 participants from matched healthy control group included. World health organization quality of life assessment (WHO-QoL) Bref Odia version and WHO disability assessment schedule (WHO DAS) 2.0 used.Results: Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found in all the four domains of QoL. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found in cognition, mobility, life activity and participation in society domains of WHO DAS. There were significant negative correlations found in different domains of QoL and disability. A majority of family members consulted mental health professionals directly as the first modality of treatment.Conclusions: Both the QoL and mental disability burden are equally affected in chronic suffers of bipolar I disorder, which requires mental health intervention at earliest as possible.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223209
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Study of knowledge, attitude, and practices of biomedical waste management
           among healthcare workers in tertiary care government hospital in western

    • Authors: Abhishek A. Gawande, Ramakant M. Gokhale, Akhil A. Soni, Nithes Ram
      Pages: 4535 - 4540
      Abstract: Background: Bio-medical wastes produced in the course of health care activities has a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste among healthcare workers. Studies in India and other developing countries have shown lack of knowledge and poor practice of biomedical waste (BMW) management.Methods: This was an observational hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study group included 210 healthcare workers, which includes doctors, interns, nursing staff, laboratory technicians, and class IV workers. Study was done by using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2016.Results: The majority of doctors (92%), interns (90%), nursing staff (93%) had adequate knowledge about BMW management, but lab technicians and class IV workers (70%) had poor knowledge. Among all health care workers (HCW), 50% of HCW attended the training for biomedical waste management, 46% of the HCW thought that BMW management is an extra burden on work. Except for nursing staff (100%), other healthcare workers (>55%) do not follow the color-coding of BMW.Conclusions: The study emphasizes the need to conduct periodic training among all healthcare workers about all aspects related to bio-medical waste management.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223210
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Quality of life, stress, occupation status of immigrants: predictors of
           psychological health condition among the gulf return migrants in India

    • Authors: Snigdha Banerjee
      Pages: 4541 - 4548
      Abstract: Background: The instances of mental health problems are much more frequent among migrants who have faced adversity at the destination as they employed in precarious or insecure jobs. Those who returned as a failure, feeling valueless upon return and lack of suitable job at the place of origin triggered the feeling of distress among the returnees. Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to examine the quality of life, occupational status and its impact on psychological health condition of the gulf return migrants in India.Methods: 330 gulf returnees were interviewed with the help of a structured interview schedule and in-depth interviews were also conducted. Binary logistic regression has been used to determine the significant predictors of self-rated psychological health condition among the return migrants. For this purpose, the self-reporting questionnaire used to understand the mental health status.Results: High prevalence (60%) of mental health distress among the returnees was observed. Factors such as age at the time of return, typology of returnees, feeling sick in the destination country, duration of stay in destination, occupational status after return and reasons for return were found to be significant predictors of mental health distress.Conclusions: The returnees deal with significant mental health distress. Special attention should be paid on this issue. Migrants should access post return counselling related to job market and mental health services in origin.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223211
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students towards electronic
           learning in a tertiary care centre in central India: a cross-sectional

    • Authors: Shreshtha Pandey, Sandeep Bhelkar, Uday W. Narlawar
      Pages: 4549 - 4554
      Abstract: Background: Medical education is constantly growing at a rapid speed and to keep the upcoming doctors in par with the competitive world e-learning has become a necessary tool. In pandemic situations like COVID-19, instructors must deliver lectures safely as well as ensure the integrity and continuity of the medical education process. Online classes became a key component in the continuity of education. It is therefore important to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of medical students regarding electronic medical education.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 325 undergraduate medical students and interns in a tertiary care centre in central India using probability proportional to size sampling. The study involved a KAP questionnaire towards e-learning that was distributed as Google form by means of social media.Results: Study participants belonged to the age group of 18-30 years. 54% were male and 46% were female. 95.4% study participants used smart phones for medical education. 89.1% used online applications and platforms for medical education purposes. 84.6% used the internet regularly in your studies. 60.3% disagreed that e-learning can cover practical aspect of medical education.Conclusions: Study results show that medical students had optimistic attitude, good knowledge and practice towards electronic learning. E-learning is a useful tool to ensure continuity of medical education as well as helpful in minimizing the effects of pandemics like COVID-19 on medical education and on the progression of training. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223212
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • 3D radiographic assessment of impacted maxillary canine in orthodontic
           population of Bihar: a CBCT retrospective study

    • Authors: Anjali Kumari, Prabhat Kumar Singh
      Pages: 4555 - 4558
      Abstract: Background: this study was conducted with an objective to assess the pattern of distribution of impacted maxillary canine in orthodontic Bihar population using CBCT.Methods: The study included CBCT scans of total 1080 patients in the age group of 13-40 years who came for orthodontic correction in Buddha Institute of Dental sciences and Hospital. The scans were evaluated for the presence of any impacted maxillary canines from July 2021 to July 2022.Results: Out of 1080 scans, in the age range of 13-40 years, the prevalence of impacted maxillary canine was 2.77% in Bihar population.  Out of these 30 impacted maxillary canines, 19 impactions were present in females and 11 were in males. Out of 30 subjects, 21 had unilateral impactions and 9 had bilateral impactions. The incidence of mesioangular impactions (type II) were maximum (46.7%) followed by horizontal impaction (type IV) was 23.3%.Conclusions: The incidence of maxillary canine impaction in Bihar population was 2.7% and the type of impaction which was commonest was mesioangular impaction (Type II), which was in the accordance with many other studies. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223213
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on utilization of massive open online courses
           among medical students in Tamil Nadu- a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Nawin J. Vignesh, Mohan Bharathi, Mythili Jawaharlal, Milanee Mohanty, Mercy Alfred
      Pages: 4559 - 4565
      Abstract: Background: The massive open online courses are one of the blooming and innovative teaching-learning methodologies in the field of medical science. The current study aimed to assess the utilization of massive open online courses among medical students in Perambalur during the COVID-19 lockdown.Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students using a structured questionnaire from June 2021 to November 2021. The questionnaire focused on knowledge and perception about MOOC, motivators, and barriers to enrolment in MOOC and the level of satisfaction in MOOC courses. Following assessment, univariate and bivariate analysis of data was performed using statistical software and the results were summarized.Results: The mean age of medical students were 21 years and most of the students were in the first (28.2%) and second year (21.9%). 55.7% of medical students had heard about MOOC and 69.1% of students had enrolled on any one of the online courses. Among those enrolled, 271 students (60.6%) completed the course. The year of study was significantly associated with enrolment to MOOC (p=0.007). The mean age of enrolled students (20.6 years) was lower compared to those not enrolled (20.93 years).Conclusions: The knowledge and perception among medical students about MOOCs were optimal but utilization and course completion were not satisfactory when the students near their undergraduate course completion. Based on government action, it is evident that MOOC will be one of the major teaching-learning methodologies in the near future and this study will serve as a guiding tool to identify the major motivators and barriers to the utilization of MOOC among medical students.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223214
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Water quality and burden of jaundice with drinking water sources: a study
           from Haryana, India

    • Authors: Naresh Kumar, Sayan Sarkar, Govind Mawari, Mradul Kumar Daga, Swati Shree, Ujala Pathak, Nishant Garg, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh, Tushar Kant Joshi
      Pages: 4566 - 4570
      Abstract: Background: Both anthropogenic and natural processes contribute to the contamination of freshwater sources. In developing countries like India, contaminated drinking water is a source of many diseases. Among anthropogenic factors, industries are an important contributing factor to water pollution. Hence, it is important to analyse water quality and investigate the prevalence of jaundice with different drinking water sources.Methods: A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Faridabad. A total of 688 people were randomly selected using convenient sampling, with consumers from all four types of water sources i.e., surface, hand pump, wells, and municipal water. Water samples were analysed for various physio-chemical parameters to understand water quality. The impact of this water pollution on the health of candidates was assessed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The outcome variables like jaundice were considered to see if an association with the drinking water source was present.Results: Most of the water parameters were within acceptable ranges set by WHO except total dissolved solids (TDS). Majority of subjects who reported jaundice were consuming water from municipal source. Jaundice was found to be statistically significant with p<0.05.Conclusions: The results show that there is significant water pollution present in Faridabad. The possible explanation for the high prevalence of symptoms among those using municipal water is likely because of contamination with sewage lines. This may be the result of old, rusted pipelines lying close to sewer lines. This calls for an urgent intervention by the authorities.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223215
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of generalized anxiety disorder among adult
           COVID-19 survivors in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Arumugam V., Annie I. K., John William Felix A.
      Pages: 4571 - 4579
      Abstract: Background:  The infectious disease pandemic (COVID-19) has not only affected the physical health but also the psychosocial health of the infected population by increasing anxiety and stress. Our aim of this study is to estimate the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among the COVID-19 survivors in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu.Methods: A community -based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 330 COVID-19 survivors in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu during December 2021 to May 2022. A predesigned and pretested, semi-structured proforma was used to collect data about the basic socio-demographic variables and COVID-19 infection related variables. A standardised 7 item GAD scale (GAD 7) was used for screening symptoms of anxiety. The presence of symptoms of anxiety was defined by a GAD 7 score of 8 and above.  A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Out of 330 study participants, 15.8% of them had symptoms of anxiety with GAD 7 score of >8. We found significant level of anxiety with age, female gender, marital status, socio-economic status, and presence of co-morbidity, Similarly, COVID-19 related factors like duration of hospital stay, family members either being affected or died due to COVID-19 infection were significantly associated with high level of anxiety.Conclusions: During this COVID-19 pandemic, the symptoms GAD was much higher among the COVID-19 survivors. A timely diagnosis and management are essential, by creating awareness at all levels of health care personal in the health system.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222969
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Knowledge and attitudes regarding effect of diabetes mellitus on eyes and
           community-based screening for diabetes, hypertension, and visual
           impairment in central India- a community-based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Shibal Bhartiya, Tarundeep Singh, Nishant Kumar, Tarundeep Singh, Saranya Rajavel, Sathiabalan Murugan
      Pages: 4580 - 4587
      Abstract: Background: Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This study was planned to assess knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus and their views and perspectives on diabetes and diabetes related eye diseases and to screen for diabetes, hypertension, and visual impairment in central India.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during annual holy celebrations in the metropolitan city of Mumbai. A large cohort underwent habitual visual acuity assessment (HVA), diabetes screening by random finger prick blood sugar, blood pressure screening. A questionnaire survey was administered to every 5th participant who registered for the free screening. All the variables were analysed using descriptive statistics to calculate frequencies, mean, range and chi-square test was used for analytical statistics.Results: A total of 6300 participants were surveyed. More than two third of the study participants (79.5%) know about diabetes and raised blood sugar level causes problem. Around 87.3% had good knowledge about diabetes. Around 42.7% of the study participants never had eye examination in their lifetime. Nearly 40% of participants were screened positive for hypertension and 23.9% had raised blood sugar level. Unfortunately, 6.0% had visual impairment on visual acuity examination.Conclusions: Despite our study shows that majority of the participants had knowledge about diabetes mellitus and importance of eye screening, only half of the people with diabetes mellitus underwent routine eye examination or screening.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223216
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Self-medication practices among adults of north Karnataka

    • Authors: Farheen Fathima, Arpitha V. S., Rakesh Nayak
      Pages: 4588 - 4594
      Abstract: Background: Self-medication is on rise landing up in drug resistance. This study assessed the knowledge, practice and attitude of self-medication among both urban and rural adults of north Karnataka.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2020 to November 2020. A total of 200 adults were selected considering 100 each from urban and rural areas by convenient sampling technique. Random houses were visited and individuals meeting the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria were interviewed after taking informed consent. All health care professionals were excluded from the study. A pre-tested questionnaire consisting of demographic information and questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication was used to collect the data.Results: Our study found that 37% and 70% of participants from rural and urban Dharwad respectively practiced self-medication. Majority of those who self-medicate were educated in both rural and urban areas. 5.5% and 11.5% of rural and urban residents respectively self-medicated with antibiotics. A significant proportion of those who self-medicated from both study areas were in managerial and above positions (21.6% from rural and 25.7% from urban Dharwad). Majority of them used painkillers for self-medication.Conclusions: The prevalence of self-medication was high among urban residents compared to rural area. A significant association was found between self-medication practices and education, occupation and socio-economic status. Thus, knowledge must be increased among people regarding the dangers of self-medication and issues addressed to avoid it from happening by passing laws that avoid easy sale and availability of medicines. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223217
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Prevalence of developmental anomalies among infants 0-12 months in Mehsana
           district, north Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Charmi Patel, Shoba Fernandes, Yash Bafna, Darshan Patel, Dimpal Parmar, Dharati Patel
      Pages: 4595 - 4600
      Abstract: Background: Developmental anomalies like Epstein pearl, Bohn’s nodule, gingival cyst, mucocele, natal teeth, tongue tie (TT), lip tie manifest in the neonate. A majority of them are benign and asymptomatic commonly resolving without any intervention. Some anomalies may require surgical intervention to avoid breast-feeding difficulties. Extensive clinical examination and knowledge of various lesions are essential for accurate diagnosis, management and parental advice. Aim was to determine the prevalence of developmental anomalies among infants (0-12months) and its effects on breastfeeding.Methods: After approval of IRB (Institutional Review Board), multistage sampling was performed to include the population of Mehsana district by dividing the district into 3 zones (north, central, south). 480 Infants were included and examined in the study according to selection criteria. Infants with cleft lip palate were excluded from the study. Intraoral examination was performed and assessment of TT, lip tie was done using Hazelbacker (HB) criteria and Kotlow’s classification. Informed written consent was obtained from parents. Mothers were asked about difficulties during breastfeeding via questionnaire. The option for surgical intervention was given to the parents when indicated.Results: A total of 480 infants (male 297 and female 183) were examined. The prevalence of Epstein pearls was 39.4%, Bohn’s nodule 6.5%, mucocele 1.5%, gingival cyst 0.4%, TT 5.2%, class III and class IV lip tie 94.1%, natal teeth 0.4%. The total, 14.8% infants who had lip tie, struggled to latch on to the breast while nursing which was statistically (0.02) significant.Conclusions: The prevalence of class III and class IV lip tie (94.1%) and Epstein pearls (39.4%) was high as compared to other developmental anomalies among the infants of Mehsana district.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223218
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Association between depression and suicidal ideation among people living
           with HIV

    • Authors: Anuradha Gautam, Chandra Mauli Mishra
      Pages: 4601 - 4606
      Abstract: Background: Psychological illnesses among PLHIV may cause poor engagement to their HIV care and it may lead to poor treatment outcomes. Therefore, early detection of depression and suicidal behaviour is important for timely intervention to improve mental health and HIV/AIDS-related treatment outcomes. So, the AIM of the study was to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation with suicidal ideation among PLHIV.Methods: This was a cross-sectional and facility-based study, 205 PLHIV were recruited by using systematic random sampling from ART plus centre, Lucknow. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the nine-item patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) tool. Data were analysed using Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression in SPSS version-23.Results: The results revealed that the prevalence of depression among study participants was 36.6%, in which about more than half (56.0%) were females and about 54.4% females had suicidal ideation. In the multivariate logistic analysis, gender; AOR=3.07, 95% CI (1.53-6.14), category; AOR=3.66, 95% CI (1.60-8.34), type of family; AOR=0.26, 95% CI (0.12-0.58), socio-economic status; AOR=7.93, 95% CI (2.32-27.06) and PLHIV on co-trimoxazole prophylactic treatment; AOR=0.47, 95% CI (0.23-0.99) were significantly associated with depressionConclusions: The results signify the psychological morbidities of illness among PLHIV, so without good mental health care, people with HIV may fail their treatment, which also affects their health.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223219
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Knowledge and perception towards COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional
           survey among a selected rural community in Karnataka

    • Authors: Ravindra Salkatte, Deepak Anil, Sunil Kumar D., Sayana Shiyas
      Pages: 4607 - 4612
      Abstract:  Background: The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 a pandemic that has become a significant public health burden across the world. In rural India, where 68 percent of the population resides, it will be crucial in containing the pandemic. Recognizing the importance of rural populations in COVID prevention, this study was carried out to assess the knowledge and behaviour of a selected rural population in response to COVID-19.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to April 2021 among patients attending the  Hadinaru primary health care centre. The sample size calculated was 415. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered face to face to each participant.Results: A total of 415 valid questionnaires were obtained. 86.99% of participants knew about at least one covid associated symptom and 96.87% knew about the mode of transmission. Around 84.82% of participants reported face masks as the best mode of prevention of COVID-19 while 88.43% of subjects were using them regularly. Hand sanitization was followed by 86.26% of subjects while only 20% followed social distancing. The education of participants was a key determinant for use of face masks, hand sanitizers and social distancing as preventive tools.Conclusions: In general, participants had good knowledge about the disease and a positive attitude towards protective measures. Although the government has made significant efforts to raise public awareness of the disease and stop its spread, more work needs to be done to support and educate the lower socioeconomic strata.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223220
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Impact of metaverse in health care: a study from the care giver’s

    • Authors: Shaliet Rose Sebastian, Bichu P. Babu
      Pages: 4613 - 4616
      Abstract: Background: Metaverse means a world in which virtual and reality interact and coevolve, and social, economic, and cultural activities are carried out in it to create value. The application of metaverse in the field of healthcare can help improving access to healthcare services by overcoming the physical barriers between hospitals and patients, thereby enhancing overall patient satisfaction, particularly in small towns and cities. Objective was to assess the perceptions of doctor interns on the impact of metaverse in the health care field.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among medical graduates doing internship in Pathanamthitta district, central Kerala. A semi structured pilot-tested structured questionnaire was shared among the study participants via a chain-referral procedure. The quantitative data collected was analysed using the software statistical package for social sciences. The responses on participants’ perceptions collected were analysed using the inductive approach of thematic analysis and classified into themes and subthemes.Results: Out of the study participants, 37.6% (150) considered metaverse to be the future of internet. Augmented reality and its applications in real life were the factors that excited a vast majority of the study population. Study participants expressed concerned about data privacy, cyber risks and vulnerabilities.Conclusions: The introduction of metaverse is also not without early challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223221
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Fetal complications associated with GDM: a matter to worry'

    • Authors: Priyanka Singh, Pranita Somani
      Pages: 4617 - 4621
      Abstract: Background: The consequences of GDM to the fetus are more serious than those to mother. Amongst fetal effects, incidence of fetal macrosomia is increased in women with GDM and DM type 2. Study was conducted to study prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus using diabetes in pregnancy study group India (DIPSI) criteria in our hospital and to study fetal outcome in pregnancy with Gestational diabetes mellitus.Methods: Case control study was conducted on 500 females between 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. 31 (6.2%) were diagnosed as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). 31 other pregnant females between 24-28 not having diabetes were taken in control group. Follow up of all pregnant females was done. Babies were evaluated for any gross anomaly, birthweight of babies were taken, APGAR score was noted.Results: Maximum females (38.7%) with GDM were in age group of 25-29 years. Mean Basal Metabolic Index in GDM was 26.74 while in NGDM it was 22.48. Perinatal loss in GDM was 90.3%. Post-partum haemorrhage was seen in 9.7%. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in GDM was seen in 12.9%. Macrosomia was seen in 16.1%, preterm delivery in 9.7%, APGAR score <7 at 5 min in 6.5%, birth injury in 3.2%GDM. Mean weight in GDM was seen in 2.944 kgs and NGDM in 2.726 kgs.Conclusions: Postpartum screening should be at regular interval to detect recurrence of future diabetes. With effective screening and management of GDM, from “diabetes capital of the world,” we (INDIA) can lay claim to be “diabetes care capital of world.”
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223222
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • An exploratory study to understand water, sanitation, and hygiene
           practices and their perceived impact on health status amongst women of
           reproductive age residing in an urban slum of New Delhi, India

    • Authors: Sumaira Khan, Vishal Kumar, Nilesh Gawde, Antaryami Dash
      Pages: 4622 - 4628
      Abstract: Background: Disadvantaged urban slums in India are prone to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) inadequacies. Due to biological necessities and sociocultural context of India, women remain one of the most vulnerable groups prone to the negative consequences of WASH inadequacies. This study explored the WASH practices among women residing closer to the community-managed toilet (CMT) in the slum locality of South-West Delhi to determine critical linkages to WASH inadequacies that can be used to improve accessibility, usage, and care provided by the CMT. Objectives of the study were to understand the WASH practices and the perceived physical and psychosocial impact on women residing closer to the CMT.Methods: Qualitative study using thematic content analysis. Fee-list interviews and FGD were conducted to collect data to explore the perceived health effects of WASH practices among the women of the community.Results: We found that WASH practices are defined by concerns across multiple dimensions and can lead to adoption of harmful coping strategies. An interplay of sociocultural, infrastructural and household and community level factors acts as mediating factors to limit the usage of WASH facilities which may seemingly look available and accessible to women in disadvantaged urban locations.Conclusions: Access to improved WASH facilities does not imply usage and women are disproportionately burdened by WASH inadequacy. Practices such as reduced eating at night to avoid open defecation and fear of violence threaten women’s physical and psychosocial health and well-being. Priority public health attention should be given to the linkages between women’s health and inadequate WASH practices.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223223
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Antibiotic self-medication-prevalence and trends among adults attending an
           urban health centre in South Kerala

    • Authors: Jathavedus Mohanlal, Sharon Raj Eliza, Aswathi Nair, Angitha Anilkumar
      Pages: 4629 - 4633
      Abstract: Background: Antibiotics acts as an essential tool, especially in the developing world where infectious diseases are the major cause of mortality. But widespread inappropriate use of antibiotics has been identified as the major reason for antimicrobial resistance. Objectives were to estimate the prevalence of antibiotic self-medication among adults attending an urban health centre in South Kerala and to assess the trends of antibiotic self-medication in the study groupMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among community dwelling adults attending the health centre which covers the urban field practice area of Pushpagiri institute of medical sciences, Tiruvalla. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire from adults aged 18 years and above using consecutive sampling methodResults: Out of 236 participants, 138(58.5%) were females and 98 (41.8%) males. The mean age of the study population was 50.10±18.27 SD. Overall prevalence of antibiotic self-medication among the study group was 12.7%. In our study, age group (p<0.001), education (p<0.001) and socio-economic status (p<001) were significantly associated with antibiotic self-medication. The most common drug among study population was azithromycin (66.7%).Conclusions: Even though the overall prevalence of antibiotic self-medication was low among community dwelling adults in South Kerala, higher rates were seen in a certain stratum of the population. The study necessitates the need for better understanding of the effects of antibiotic self-medication which can be done through effective strategies like behavior change communication and promoting further research into the cause and effects of antibiotic self-medication
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223224
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Feasibility and outcomes of using a novel artificial intelligence enhanced
           breast thermography technique, Thermalytix, in screening for breast
           abnormalities at primary health centres at the community level in South

    • Authors: Geetha Manjunath, Himanshu Madhu, Nirmala Buggi, Anasuya Suggaiah, Revathi Muthanna, Charitha Gangadharan, Jilsy M. Joy, Sathiakar Collison, Lakshmi Krishnan
      Pages: 4634 - 4640
      Abstract: Background: Women from low-income families have poorer health-seeking behavior, particularly when it comes to cancer screening. A community health initiative was launched by Niramai in collaboration with city officials in Bangalore as a pilot to increase awareness and make breast health screening available to all. This study describes a community-level breast screening for underprivileged women in south India adopting Thermalytix, a thermography-based artificial intelligence device.Methods: This observational study was conducted at 25 municipal primary health centers where women over 18 years of age were enrolled. The project started on 14 November 2017 and is ongoing. Procedures include a brief meeting on camp procedures, identification of eligible candidates, health education, and Thermalytix testing.Results: A total of 6935 women underwent artificial intelligence (AI)-powered Thermalytix screening in 25 Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) hospitals. The median age was 42 (range 18-86) of the 5248 women enrolled as per inclusion. Among the 5248 women recruited, 62 (1.18%) women were detected with some abnormalities in Thermalytix. Out of the women who underwent follow-up investigations (11/62), eight were positive on radiological evaluation, further histopathological evaluation confirmed one ductal carcinoma in situ.Conclusions: Community participation with the engagement of the local government health officials enabled us to develop screening strategies for underprivileged women. Thermalytix could be a potential screening tool in resource-constrained settings and the portable equipment enabled easy movement across different primary health centers (PHCs). Since it is a privacy-aware test, there was less refusal to participate in the test.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223225
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of rural population towards COVID-19
           appropriate behaviour in pandemic situation: a cross-sectional study in
           central India

    • Authors: Kirti Chaudhary, Amey Dhatrak, R. Naveen Shyam Sundar, Sneha B. Suresh
      Pages: 4641 - 4647
      Abstract: Background: India is facing a third wave of infection of coronavirus. For controlling the pandemic, it’s very crucial that everyone should follow the control measures which is ultimately depended upon the factors like knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of people towards coronavirus according to KAP theory. At such a critical moment to manage the COVID-19 pandemic in India arises an urgency for understanding people's awareness of COVID-19. So, we plan to present a study in view of investigating the KAP for COVID-19 in rural populations during the outbreak of COVID-19 disease.Methods: A cross-sectional design with a cluster sampling method from the field practice area of a rural medical college was selected. Participants were above 18 years. Data collection was done after taking informed consent. Data were analysed with R studio software with appropriate statistical tests.Result: A good knowledge of COVID-19 was found in rural population. Majority of population has good knowledge about COVID-19 epidemiology, signs, and symptoms. Good knowledge corresponds to appropriate behaviour and proper practices in population. Overall participants were confident that India will win war against COVID-19.Conclusions: Our study findings suggested that the rural population of India with a comparatively high level of education, specifically Health care services people, had proper knowledge, cheerful way of attitude, and appropriately practicing measures towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 cases. Whereas age, gender, and socioeconomic status didn’t show any significant association with the knowledge score. We conclude that KAP towards COVID-19 by vulnerable populations warrants special attention for research.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223226
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • A study on over-the-counter drug use in community pharmacies

    • Authors: M. Kumaraswamy, Jithin ., Haritha K., Jithin T. John
      Pages: 4648 - 4654
      Abstract: Background: The usage of over-the-counter (OTC) medications has steadily increased in recent years. Improper use of OTC medications might result in health and other drug-related issues. Easy access to OTC medications has become a more critical concern in developing countries. Objective of the study was to assess the OTC drugs dispensed in community pharmacies.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in selected community pharmacies. To evaluate the OTC drugs dispensed; 700 participants were polled using questionnaires through a validated data collection form, and a patient interview respectively. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were performed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) (version 20). The Chi-square test was used to test for significant differences between groups (p<0.05).Results: A total of 700 patients were recruited for the study to assess the use of OTC drugs. Analgesics/NSAIDs are the most often used OTC medications, accounting for (30.4%), followed by antacids (15.7%). The primary sources of information to purchase OTC medications were taken from community phapharmacists1.6%). Recurrence of minor ailments (68%) is the major influencing factor for OTC drug purchase, whereas (80.9%) agree that OTC medication is cheaper and more convenient.Conclusions: As per the findings of the study; OTC medication dispensing is prominent, and there is a need for awareness programs to ensure rational drug usage.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223227
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Sleep disturbances and its associated factors among the college students
           in Tamil Nadu- a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Rama Swathika N., Kalyani P., John William Felix A.
      Pages: 4655 - 4661
      Abstract: Background: The key building block of good health is sleep. According to sleep foundation the term sleep disturbance is defined as a disruption in sleep that causes arousal or awakening. Sleep disturbances is a widespread common health problem among university students who are entering into adulthood. The present study was done with the objective of finding the prevalence of sleep disturbances among the college students studying in university of Tamil Nadu.Methods: This was a cross sectional study done among 536 participants, whose sleep disturbances were assessed using pre-tested, pre-designed questionnaire. Descriptive and Analytical statistics were used. Analytical statistics was done using Chi-square test and binominal logistic regression.Results: Out of 536 students, 299 (55.78%) were suffering from sleep disturbances among which 70.9% were females and 83% of them had less than 1 hour time gap between screen time and their regular sleep. There was a significant association between sleep disturbances and repeated worrying about lots of tests, feeling lost something in life, felt badly about pandemic/online teaching, felt isolated and often taking food out of hostel/home.Conclusions: This study showed that majority of college students suffer from sleep disturbances, as their stress levels goes up and their physical activity goes down.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223228
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Emotional quotient vs. intelligence quotient to achieve professional
           excellence in life: a systematic literature review

    • Authors: Manushi Srivastava, Shweta Jaiswal
      Pages: 4662 - 4665
      Abstract: In the last few decades, the concept of emotional quotient has received more considerable attention than intelligence quotient. In fact, emotional quotient was projected as a solution to a myriad of problems faced in work, education and health domains. This is so because high EQ helps to build relationships, reduce team stress, defuse conflict and improve job satisfaction. The present study is based on systematic literature review with the aim to assess importance of EQ in achieving professional excellence in life. The search span was from year 1990-2020. A total of 60 research articles were excluded and 659 records were screened at this stage. Finally, after screening and eligibility process 10 studies included in data extraction. According to available literature, previous researchers assumed that having a high IQ ensured success in professional life, but people are now struggling miserably in the workplace, despite having a high IQ and excellent analytical skills. Later, it was realised that IQ alone does not guarantee success in life. Therefore, EQ becomes a best predictor of the success and now researchers are focusing on the emotional aspect which helps an individual to be sensitive about his/her emotions as well as the emotions of others. Through the EQ a person builds up the ability in the self-adaptation for solving the pressure of life in the competing status of an individual and enhancing communication and decision-making power. The important aspect about emotional quotient is that, unlike IQ, it can be improved throughout life.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223229
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Sprengel shoulder: a case report

    • Authors: Bipul Kumar Das, Debajani Deka, Suyashi Sharma
      Pages: 4666 - 4668
      Abstract: Sprengel shoulder is a rare deformity of shoulder girdle of unknown etiology. Eulenburg in 1863, had first reported this rare congenital anomaly of the scapula. Sprengel described it in 1891, and hence this deformity got its’ name. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported for this abnormality. Abnormal descent of the scapula during 9th to 12th weeks of gestation leads to this congenital anomaly. It is a cosmetic deformity. Elevation of scapula is the characteristic feature. A lump at the back of the neck with restricted movements of the shoulder and or arm are the presenting finding. The affected scapula is rotated on its sagittal axis. The superior and the vertebral border comes nearer to the medial line and to the axilla respectively. Severity of this deformity varies widely being almost invisible when covered with clothes to the shoulder being elevated over 5 centimeters along with the presence of webbing of neck. This congenital deformity can be associated with other musculoskeletal abnormalities such as Klippel-Feil syndrome, scoliosis and rib anomalies. In 30% of cases of Sprengel shoulder, an omovertebral cartilaginous, fibrous or bony bar connecting superomedial border of scapula to spine, transverse process or lamina of cervical vertebra can be seen and this causes restriction of movements around the shoulder girdle. Surgical management is considered in severe cases. Surgical management involves excision of the protruding portion of scapula and inferior translation of scapula. This enhances shoulder functions as well as general appearance of the patient.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Diagnosis, complication and treatment of acute salbutamol toxicity

    • Authors: Maryam Abdullah Baik, Hassan Mohammed Alessa, Amnah Hassan Mohammed, Ibtihal Faisal Al Eid, Hanan Abdullah Almowallad, Yaqoub Yousef Alkhallafi, Somayya Khalid Khan, Ziad Abdulmoti Alruwaithi, Osamah Ali Albader, Abdulaziz Salah Al-Din Mahfouz, Fatemah Abdul Ameer Alshammaa
      Pages: 4669 - 4673
      Abstract: Salbutamol is a well-known example of a short-acting beta agonist that is used as therapy for managing asthma, bronchospasm and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Short-acting beta agonist without a controller should only be taken into consideration as needed if symptoms are minimal and there is no asthma-related awakening. Salbutamol's maximal efficacy is based on how it is administered and the formulation that is utilized. Inhaled salbutamol is a first-line treatment for the majority of patients because it provides quick bronchodilation and typically relieves bronchospasm within minutes. Salbutamol immediately relieves the symptoms of acute asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and boosting airflow. Patient experiences immediate relief from coughing, wheezing, tightness in the chest, and shortness of breath. Salbutamol's fast alleviation of symptoms may encourage abuse and overuse, especially in adolescents. On the basis of clinical and laboratory results, the diagnosis of salbutamol toxicity can be formed. The management is primarily supportive and includes stopping the harmful agent and using beta blockers to relieve symptoms. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about diagnosis, complication and treatment of acute salbutamol toxicity. Salbutamol overdose may cause tremors, hyperglycemia, lactic acidosis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment for patients with severe symptoms include administration of beta-blockers if there are no contraindications also potassium supplementation, activated charcoal and gastric lavage among commonly used therapeutic strategies. Although salbutamol toxicity is uncommon still the physicians shall be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of salbutamol toxicity due to its widespread usage.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222970
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Neurological complications of COVID-19 in children and its effect on the
           quality of life

    • Authors: Soha Jameel Ashoor, Luay Abdullah Alqurashi, Mariam Ali Hussain, Bassam Wadi Alanazi, Thamer Hassan Aljabr, Abdullah Hassan Albareqi, Mohammad Omar Algabri, Najwa Fahad Alkhameesi, Arkan Adnan Alhassan, Nour Mohammad Hussain, Gadeer Abdulhadi Albannawi
      Pages: 4674 - 4678
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019, a pandemic that recently enveloped the world is a highly transmissible respiratory disease leading to 2,409,011 deaths in 2021. The most prevalent clinical symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and other respiratory issues. Coronavirus disease 2019 exhibits various neurological manifestations and complications which are quite rare in children. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about neurological complications of Coronavirus disease 2019 in children. Coronavirus disease 2019 is linked to neurological complications in children, including headaches, encephalopathy, and certain other neurological disorders. Involvement of the nervous system in coronavirus infection is either immediate, during the progression of the disease, after recovery, or as part of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease in new-borns and infants with neurological complications vary and can affect the whole neuraxis, affecting the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both. In addition, children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome and coronavirus had severe neurological complications such as encephalitis, epilepsy, coma, dementia, dysgeusia or ageusia, aseptic meningitis, stroke, dysarthria, dysphagia, cerebellar ataxia, axial hypotonia, and drowsiness. Seizures in children are normally reported when they are suffering from fever due to viral infection. Neurological complications in children are rare and limited literature is available in this regard. More comprehensive, clinical follow-up studies can significantly contribute to understanding the relationship among coronavirus disease effects and neurological complications among children.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222972
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Evaluation, complications and treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis

    • Authors: Omar Ali Khatab, Moataz Ali Bajaber, Nada Talal Alharbi, Naif Talal Alharbi, Nada Aouda Alshahrani, Nariman Ayman Fageeh, Ahmed Zuhair Salman, Samar Mohammed Al Omran, Amal Faleh Alshahrani, Abdulgader Jamal Mira, Faris Ayman Marouf
      Pages: 4679 - 4683
      Abstract: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a disease which commonly affects people of all ages and significantly impacts the quality of life. The clinical symptoms of CRS, which is defined by a chronic inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa, include persistent rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, sinus pressure, and a diminished sense of smell that lasts longer than 12 weeks. CRS can be categorized into two groups: CRS with nasal polyps and CRS without nasal polyps. Inflammatory, environmental, and host factors are responsible for causing CRS although the mechanism is debatable. Diagnostic examination including anterior rhinoscopy, endoscopy or radiography, ideally from sinus computed tomography, can aid in confirmational diagnosis of CRS. The objective of the treatment is to improve mucociliary clearance, nasal drainage and outflow, reduce local infection and inflammation, and facilitate topical medicament access. Nasal saline irrigation and intranasal corticosteroid sprays are the first-line treatments. Antibiotics may be helpful for patients who have symptoms of a superimposed, acute active sinus infection. Endoscopic sinus surgery may be useful if medical therapy is ineffective. Referrals to otolaryngologists should be made for patients who are not responding to first-line medical therapy. CRS if not treated timely can further lead to complications including development of various diseases such as asthma breathing issues, smell disorders and certain bacterial and fungal infections. Effective treatment of the CRS is hence needed. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about evaluation, complications and treatment of CRS.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Inhalation anaesthetics: types, mechanism of action and adverse effects

    • Authors: Ahmed Fouad Bogari, Ibrahim Abdulkareem Aldakhil, Maram Fahad Alsuwaidan, Nawaf Meshal Alhassani, Dhari Ali Alroudan, Omar Eid Aljuaid, Mohammed Ali Alqarni, Osama Ali Alzahrani, Areej Jafar Alolayan, Zahra Hassan Abu Jawhar, Ahlam Essam Saba, Sultan Mohammed Badri
      Pages: 4684 - 4688
      Abstract: Inhalational anesthetics have been used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia for more than 150 years. These anaesthetic agents are commonly used in the surgical and clinical practice solely and as a conjugant with other anaesthetics. Since inhalational anaesthetic agents develop amnesia, loss of awareness, and reduce reactions to painful surgical stimuli, they are an essential part of general anaesthesia. The choice of anaesthetic agent is based on the procedure's duration and type, patient characteristics, the attending anaesthesiologist’s preferences, and occasionally on institutional protocols. These medications are administered to the patient through the anesthetic circuit using a special vaporizer. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about inhalation anaesthetics: types, mechanism of action and adverse effects. Nitrous oxide is one of the earliest anaesthetic agents while isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane are three commonly used inhalational anaesthetics. The low-solubility inhalation anaesthetics desflurane and sevoflurane have several clinical advantages over isoflurane, including rapid induction and faster recovery after prolonged treatment. However, isoflurane can sometimes be used effectively enough to match the induction and recovery times of other drugs. Inhalation anaesthetics work by suppressing inhibitory signals such as chloride channels and potassium channels and enhancing excitatory signals such as acetylcholine, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, glutamate and serotonin in the central nervous system. Certain side effects including nausea, vomiting, malignant hyperthermia, post-operative cognitive impairment is associated with their use. More research is needed to further enhance the safety profile of available inhalation anaesthetics and can further lead to discovery of new, safe anaesthetics.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223230
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Types of upper and lower respiratory tract infection in pediatrics

    • Authors: Kholoud Abdullah Hothan, Mohammed Ali Alawami, Eman Abdulrahman Baothman, Fatima Ali Alghanem, Diana Mohammed Al-Haddad, Ruqyah Ibrahim Al Daerwish, Zainab Ahmed Albetiyan, Ghadeer Ali Alghanem, Khulood Abdullah Bayazeed, Ghadeer Ali Al Yusuf, Anwar Mohammed Aljurfi
      Pages: 4689 - 4693
      Abstract: The most prevalent diseases in infants and children, are respiratory infections including the common cold, acute rhinosinusitis, acute otitis media, flu-like illness, acute bronchitis, and pneumonia. Despite being mostly innocuous, they have a large negative impact on society and are a leading source of morbidity and mortality globally. They are further divided into two classes upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about types of upper and lower respiratory tract infection in paediatrics. The common upper respiratory tract infections include acute pharyngitis which is usually self- limiting and benign and is mostly caused by viruses while inflammation of the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is a sign of acute rhinosinusitis. Common colds frequently come with uncomplicated rhinosinusitis, which does not have any clinically visible spread of the inflammation outside the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. A viral or bacterial infection of the middle ear causes acute otitis media. Bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia are lower respiratory infections common among children. More than one-third of children develop bronchiolitis in the first two years of life, which is the most common reason for hospitalization in the first year of life. The hospitalization rate for children has increased from 1% to 3% over the past 30 years while pneumonia is a significant contributor of morbidity and mortality among under 5 years children. Early diagnosis and prompt management can lead to better health outcomes among children. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223231
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Types and importance of human papilloma virus vaccine and methods in
           promoting it for cervical cancer prevention

    • Authors: Amaal Abdo Dahab, Saeed Mohammed Dream, Bandar Ibrahim Mokli, Ahmed Ibrahim Alkhawaji, Rami Ali Shebaily, Nawaf Khalid Andijani, Zakia Isam Ibrahim, Saud Abdullah Alhasoun, Raghad Ali Alsufyani, Tala Wajdi Jowharji, Baraa Abdulrhman Abdulrahim
      Pages: 4694 - 4698
      Abstract: Cervical cancer continues to be a significant global challenge as it is the fourth major cause of mortality among women. Cervical cancer is primarily caused by repeated human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Although the incidence and death of cervical cancer have declined in high-income nations, the disease still places a heavy burden on low- and middle-income countries. HPV-16Cervical cancer continues to be a significant global challenge as it is the fourth major cause of mortality among women. Cervical cancer is primarily caused by repeated human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Although the incidence and death of cervical cancer have declined in high-income nations, the disease still places a heavy burden on low- and middle-income countries. HPV-16 is responsible for 50% while HPV-18 is responsible for 10% of cervical cancer cases. The introduction of HPV vaccines is limited in developing areas with greater need, despite the fact that they offer a potential alternative for disease control. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about types and importance of HPV vaccine and methods in promoting it for cervical cancer prevention. Three HPV vaccines for prevention of cervical cancer are available including a quadrivalent vaccine that protects against 4 HPV types, and the second is a bivalent vaccine that protects against 2 high-risk oncogenic HPV types and third is a 9-valent vaccine. All three vaccines provide comparable coverage. Preventative vaccinations against the virus, given to women before HPV infection, have proven to be efficient and have the potential to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Thus, it is advised to immunize girls aged 9-14 years. The development of the HPV vaccine has made primary cervical cancer prevention possible. Health promotion and education can potentially contribute to increasing the awareness of community regarding cervical cancer prevention and can lead to better utilization of HPV responsible for 50% while HPV-18 is responsible for 10% of cervical cancer cases. The introduction of HPV vaccines is limited in developing areas with greater need, despite the fact that they offer a potential alternative for disease control. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about types and importance of HPV vaccine and methods in promoting it for cervical cancer prevention. Three HPV vaccines for prevention of cervical cancer are available including a quadrivalent vaccine that protects against 4 HPV types, and the second is a bivalent vaccine that protects against 2 high-risk oncogenic HPV types and third is a 9-valent vaccine. All three vaccines provide comparable coverage. Preventative vaccinations against the virus, given to women before HPV infection, have proven to be efficient and have the potential to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Thus, it is advised to immunize girls aged 9-14 years. The development of the HPV vaccine has made primary cervical cancer prevention possible. Health promotion and education can potentially contribute to increasing the awareness of community regarding cervical cancer prevention and can lead to better utilization of HPV vaccine.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223232
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • A study on rice and buckwheat based diet and its role in celiac disease:
           an overview

    • Authors: Junaid Abid, Muhammad Usama Ayub, Saleha Ahmed, Hafiz Umair Ali, Maria Zeb, Rana Shahzaib Zahid, Shahrukh Khan
      Pages: 4699 - 4704
      Abstract: Celiac disease results in inflammatory damage to the small intestine mucosa that is immunologically mediated. The nutritious value of the diet and how well it treats diseases like gluten sensitivity have drawn the attention of health professionals. By reviewing the literature we aim to prepare a clear image of the current justifications behind the use of gluten-free diets for celiac disease, as well as the role of rice and buckwheat based gluten-free diet and its development. Rice and buckwheat flours don’t possess gluten, therefore can be used in gluten-free products formulation and are suitable and safe ingredients for celiac patients. Both rice and buckwheat have prominent nutritional value with number of health benefits and has been used since long period of time in gluten-free and non-gluten-free diets. Different processing strategies have also been developed to reduce the gluten content of flours that include gluten and enhance the rheological characteristics of products that don't contain gluten. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223233
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Role of primary care physician in health promotion and education

    • Authors: Marwah Yakoop Abdullah, Samaher Ali Alshehri, Haneen Ali Mahnashi, Saeed Saad Alshahrani, Shahad Saad Alkhaldi, Saad Munawwikh Alshammari, Renad Sultan Alotaibi, Razan Muneer Qutub, Abdullah Yahya Jamhan, Sarah Abbas Alhussain, Ahmad Khaled Abdulqader, Moaid Khalid Binmahri
      Pages: 4705 - 4709
      Abstract: Undisputedly, healthy behaviours and lifestyles have a positive impact on health outcomes, and its individual, social, environmental, and cultural determinants are well understood. Primary care physicians can effectively intervene with patients to encourage healthy behaviour through numerous chances. Regular clinical practice includes health promotion as a necessary element.  Health systems can support a person's health requirements through primary health care, including illness prevention, treatment, palliative care, and more. This approach also guarantees that the delivery of healthcare is centred on patients' needs and supports their preferences. Regular care must incorporate health promotion strategies if the healthcare system is to be effective. Giving individuals the information, they need to improve and take better control of their health is the goal of health promotion. Primary care physicians are the immediate contact with the community which makes them the ideal candidates for health promotion and education. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about the role of primary care physician in health promotion and education. Health promotion and education is necessary for the prevention of diseases as it aids in educating population regarding diseases and risk factors. Also, because of its accessibility to care and continuity of treatment, primary healthcare is in a prime position to potentially intervene to modify unhealthy habits. Primary care physicians being first line of contact plays a key role in this regard. Although further research is needed for the implementation of health promotion and education strategies by primary care physicians. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223234
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Oral health needs of the geriatric patients and the role of mobile

    • Authors: Mazin Ghasan Alsaadi, Abdulmajeed Hameed Alsolami, Elyas Majed Hamed, Zuhair Khalid Alshamrani, Hazim Yousef Alharbi, Hassan Hamoud Almahyawi, Raed Mohammed Ameen, Osamah Abdullah Basudan, Reem Mohammad Turkistani, Waleed Abdulrahman Bashnaini, Mohammed Adel Turkistani
      Pages: 4710 - 4714
      Abstract: In today’s times, elderly individuals are keeping their natural teeth for longer owing to the rising popularity of fixed dental restorations and dental implants. It is seen that access to oral health care reduces and dental demands rise as people get older and more dependent on medical attention. For a high quality of life in terms of dental health, it is critical to have a functional dentition. A skilled oral health care provider is required for the geriatric population due to complex connections between dental health, some systemic illnesses, and medication side effects. For more than a century, there have been mobile dentistry services available as a way to help the underserved in society. Initially geared towards children, these services are now frequently used by adults and the elderly, particularly those in nursing homes, people with special needs, and those who have disabilities. When treating dependent elderly patients, it has been shown that home dental treatment is more economical than traditional dental care. Four distinct mobile dental service models by which a dental healthcare professional contacts a patient include the mobile dental vehicle model, portable equipment model, fixed equipment model, and the hybrid model. The services provided by the public sector in most countries employ a range of models, including the hybrid model, portable equipment, and fixed equipment, but the private sectors mostly use portable equipment to provide a mobile dental service. Dental care provided by university-based services ranges from routine to complicated procedures, whereas basic, routine care is mostly offered by the commercial sector. Mobile and portable dental models offer a practical substitute for typical dental clinic visits or when the fixed setup is not present. Mobile dental services also have shown utility for data gathering, strategy creation, and investigations on the potential effects of preventative and oral treatment provided by these services.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223235
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Susceptibility of periodontitis and its impact on patients with
           inflammatory bowel disease

    • Authors: Ayman M. Albalbisi, Saad A. Alshamrani, Mohammed J. Al Bu Eid, Mesfer S. Alalyani, Najat R. Al-Mousa, Mamdouh A. Alshammari, Ali S. Alqahtani, Amjad M. Alqahtani, Abdulrahman M. Alqahtani, Saud A. Alqahtani, Mohammad A. Hilmi
      Pages: 4715 - 4719
      Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontitis are chronic, progressive, inflammatory diseases with similarly complex pathogeneses that include dysbiotic microbiota and dysregulated immune-inflammatory responses, and both are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. This review aimed to provide an overview of the emerging evidence dealing with the susceptibility of periodontal disease and its impacts on patients with IBD by explaining the risk factors, possible pathogenic interactions, and disease activity by reviewing recent literature from open-source journals on the same topic. There seems to be an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with IBD when compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in ulcerative colitis (UC) than Crohn’s disease (CD). In addition, both greater severity and extent of periodontitis have been found in IBD patients when compared to healthy controls. Age, gender, lifestyle or environmental factors, and smoking history were the associated risk factors. In conclusion, the findings suggest that patients with IBD be kept under close surveillance to prevent periodontitis and/or mitigate its progression. Oral health education and effective treatment are required for IBD patients. However, we still need more data derived from human studies to confirm the results. Thus, mechanistic studies are warranted to clarify this possible bidirectional association.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223236
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Clinical indications, complications, and outcomes of internal bleaching

    • Authors: Anwar R. Alanazi, Ohood A. Albalawi, Saeed O. Alasmari, Sakhr A. Almulhim, Safaa S. Altowejri, Naser M. Marzok, Majed A. Alqarani, Sohair A. Alsaiad, Wael A. Al Shehri, Fares R. Alanazi
      Pages: 4720 - 4724
      Abstract: Different bleaching treatments may be used to try to remove intrinsic stains and more tenacious extrinsic discoloration. Intracoronal tooth whitening, sometimes known as non-vital tooth whitening can be used to whiten teeth. By oxidizing the organic discoloration in the tooth, the bleaching treatment lightens the color of the teeth. The underlying etiology of the discoloration affects the effectiveness and efficacy of tooth bleaching. Internal bleaching is a minimally invasive and cost-effective dental technique that doesn't alter the tooth's size or position on the dental arch. Trauma can cause a tooth to become nonvital and lose its natural color without ever requiring endodontic treatment. In these situations, the first course of treatment should be a root canal. We can move forward with the internal bleaching technique if the tooth has had endodontic treatment. Before placing all ceramic restorations, an interior bleaching may occasionally be required too. Pulp chamber origin discoloration is an indication for internal bleaching. Inflammation-mediated external root resorption known as cervical root resorption can occur after trauma and after intracoronal bleaching. Another internal bleaching issue was the coronal fracture, which is thought to have been brought on by desiccation or changes to the physicochemical properties of the dentin and enamel. The absence or minimal color difference between the treated and untreated teeth has traditionally been considered a sign of immediate treatment efficacy.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223237
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Pontic design and its effects on the health of the gingiva

    • Authors: Meisan Ali Bukhari, Ali Mohammed Aldossari, Ibrahim Mohammed Alyami, Abdullah Hassan Al Shari, Abdulmunem Abdulaziz Al Huwaidi, Salman Youssef Alzaid, Ali Mohammad Alqahtani, Mohammed Ibrahim Musayri, Yahya Mohammed AlShahrani
      Pages: 4725 - 4730
      Abstract: A pontic is an artificial tooth that substitutes a lost natural tooth, preserves its function, and typically fills the space left by the actual crown. Sanitary/hygienic and modified sanitary/hygienic designs do not contact the alveolar mucosa. On the other hand, ridge lap, modified ridge lap, ovate, modified ovate, and conical are designs that maintain contact with the mucosa. The ideal biological properties to be taken into consideration while designing pontics are periodontal health, access for oral hygiene, no food trapping and occlusal harmony. Accumulation of dental plaque has been implicated in the onset of gingival and periodontal disease as well as caries in the vicinity of the fixed restoration. The connection of the pontic to the supporting crowns must be constructed in such a way as to make a flushable area in the direction of the gingiva, in order to ensure that this area can be cleaned by toothbrushing and flossing but not the large triangular spaces that make it easy for food particles to cling. Modified ridge lap and ovate types, out of all the pontic shapes described below, exhibit convex cleansable faces. Ovate pontics are most effective for use in anterior regions, while the modified ridge lap design can be utilized predominantly in fixed partial denture designs posteriorly. The important etiological factor for gingivitis, periodontitis and peri-implantitis is bacterial colonization which is impacted by the individual's immunologic response and genetic predisposition in addition to dental care practices and pontic design. It is believed that no matter what the material of the pontic is, it must provide a highly polished intaglio surface to help floss slide through and make contact with the full base of the pontic in order to minimize plaque accumulation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223238
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Classification and management of hypersensitivity reactions

    • Authors: Maryam Abdullah Baik, Ali Naji Al Nihab, Abdulmanem Mohammed Al Aman, Ameen Ridha Al Ghareeb, Mohammed Hashim Alaish, Ashraf Hassan Al Awani, Ahmed Mansour Al-Jadher, Faisal Mohammed Al Muaddi, Ali Hussain Al-Shehab, Tayseer Ali Al Tufaif, Hussain Ahmad Alsheef
      Pages: 4731 - 4736
      Abstract: An inappropriate or excessive immune response to an antigen that has unfavourable effects is referred as a hypersensitivity reaction. People who have experienced at least one prior exposure to the antigen are more likely to have the symptoms. Nearly 60 years ago, Gell and Coombs first classified hypersensitivity reactions into four broad categories. Many forms of hypersensitivity reactions frequently occur at the same time, especially in allergic disorders. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about the classification and management of hypersensitivity reactions. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, which is associated with the high-affinity receptors of basophils and mast cells mediates type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. These receptors are cross-linked by allergens, which release mediators that elicit urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M attach to self-antigens on cell surfaces in type II reactions, which can lead to phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity that is complement-directed and antibody-dependent all of which can lead to tissue damage. Immune complexes of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M with antigens, which deposit in tissues and directly harm organs, mediate type III reactions. T cells mediate type IV reactions which are delayed responses. In every case of allergic hypersensitivity, the trigger must be stopped right away. Antihistamines, glucocorticoids, and epinephrine are used to treat acute responses Some potential management techniques include drug allergy testing, graded challenges, desensitization, and/or choosing an alternative, non-cross-reactive substance. Further clinical research is however needed for the elaborated study of hypersensitive reactions and development of preventive strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222971
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • COVID-19 and cerebrovascular stroke: a mini review

    • Authors: Debajani Deka, Rupsekhar Deka
      Pages: 4737 - 4741
      Abstract: The novel corona virus has shown accelerated effect on stroke and stroke care. Worlds stroke organization has reported a decline in stroke admission due to use of FAST tool and usage of thrombolysis and thrombectomy. FAST stands for F=facial weakness, A=arm weakness, S=slurred speech T=time to call 911 in USA, 120 in China, 999 in England, 112 in EU. In case of 911, 9=word nine (slurred speech), 1 one arm weakness, 1=one side facial weakness. It has a record that 72% of the confirmed stroke patients had speech disturbance, 62% had facial drooping, and 87% had arm weakness. The most appropriate way to diagnose stroke is motor dysfunction or slurred speech than facial drooping. Articles have been selected from Google scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Scimago, and Publon. Studies on stroke from these articles has shown that speech disturbance has a worse outcome after stroke compared with individuals where speech is unaffected. The incidence of speech disturbance is as high as 84.4% in stroke patients, and a speech disturbance persists at discharge in 75.8% of patients who survived their stroke. Therefore, presence or absence of speech disturbance has predictive value for outcome of a stroke patient. D dimer is very important haematological marker to diagnose Disseminated intra vascular   coagulation (DIC). Again, it is known that sepsis is a common cause of DIC. This biomarker is released when a fibrin blood clot undergo degradation. Tassiopoulos et al mentioned about anticoagulant administration according to D-dimer level can improve respiratory or kidney function in a COVID-19 patient.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222986
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Schools as stakeholders in health promotion: a review before and in the
           midst of the pandemic COVID-19 with reference to India and Odisha state

    • Authors: Sonali Kar, Ansuman Kar, Snigdha Singh
      Pages: 4742 - 4748
      Abstract: Schools are educational hubs, which in developed countries have been very aptly used for the health promotion of simple endemic diseases and advocating levels of prevention. The infrastructure and in-depth curriculum are often instrumental in targeting good knowledge of health and disease, which can be achieved at an early age. Thus, this helps in curbing the transmission and addresses preventive strategies. In India, which strongly represents the developing world; even though the schools do not impress in terms of infrastructure, the integration with the health sector is remarkable at the programmatic and health policy level. The article essays the roles for which schools have been used appreciably, more in the context of safety during trying conditions, and takes a sneak peek into the newer roles and challenges poised during the pandemic of COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223239
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Industrial trans-fat: a cause of concern for Indian population

    • Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Nawin Jai Vignesh K., Anbuselvi ., Anudharani ., Angeeth .
      Pages: 4749 - 4753
      Abstract: The trans-fats are a form of unsaturated fatty acids which contain one or more unconjugated double bonds in the trans-configuration. Trans-fat is found in natural sources such as dairy products and meat but the quantity of trans-fatty acid in natural sources is meagre. Most commonly they are found in industrial food products like bakery products, cookies and snacks. Several studies have identified increased industrial trans-fat consumption as harmful to human health. The major effects are on the cardiovascular system and central nervous system. To reduce the trans-fatty acid consumption, the global and national organizations have proposed various approach and strategies like WHO ‘Replace’ action plan strategy, implementation of trade policies and guidelines, work-site intervention strategies, improvements in hydrogenation technology, labeling of food products, behavioural change communication for population. Trans-fatty acid consumption is a modifiable risk factor. Planning and implementation of government policies and guidelines for reduction of trans-fatty acid levels in food product can have a significant impact. But behavioural change among general population is the key to reduce trans-fatty acid consumption. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223240
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Identifying individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes using risk assessment
           tools: an overview

    • Authors: Deepak Anil, Sunil Kumar D., M. R. Narayana Murthy
      Pages: 4754 - 4761
      Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic disorder that arises mainly due to unhealthy lifestyles in genetically susceptible individuals and has affected over 460 million people worldwide. Hence, alternative ways of identifying individuals at risk for developing diabetes are needed. Risk assessment tools can be useful for identifying and segmenting those at higher risk. The goal of this article is to assess various diabetes risk models that have been established in general populations to predict future diabetes, and to compare the technology behind their development and validation. PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched from inception to 10th November 2021. Studies that reported the use of risk assessment tools to identify individuals at risk of diabetes were included. Of the 9045 articles identified, 28 were included. This study includes six diabetes risk assessment tools, all of which were developed using logistic regression analysis. The most commonly included variables were age and a family history of diabetes. All six tools were subjected to external validation. The risk scores exhibited an overall strong predictive capacity for the population it was developed. However, the external populations had a lower discriminatory performance, implying that risk scores may need to be verified within the group in which they are meant to be utilised. Further, developing the risk tools using modifiable diabetes risk factors and biochemical tests can be more useful for predicting future diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223241
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Community based medical education in medical curriculum

    • Authors: V. Pragadeesh Raja, M. Shivasakthy, Lavakumar S.
      Pages: 4762 - 4764
      Abstract: Community-based education (CBE) is now recognized as an important addition to the methods available in medical education, because the skills of graduates are needed in the community more than in the tertiary hospital. The purpose of the current review was to explore the importance of the community based medical education in present competency based medical education. A total of 24 articles similar to the current study objectives were identified initially, of which 4 were excluded due to the unavailability of the complete version of the articles. Overall, 14 articles were selected based on the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. Keywords used in the search include community based medical education and community oriented medical education. The collected information is presented under the following subheadings, namely reasons for medical institutions involved in community based medical education, taxonomy of CBE, challenges in the implementation of community based medical education, steps for implementation the community based medical education, benefit to students. Taxonomy of community based medical education divided into three categories, primarily service-oriented research oriented and training focused. When implementing the community based medical education so many challenges faced some of the challenges are transport problem, no cooperation among the community leaders and no interested among the students. In CBME students an opportunity to learn and work with other health professionals in, for instance, primary care units. Faculties have responsibility to move the medical education settings from hospital to community based medical education.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223242
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Are citizens of Delhi willing to stop using private vehicles for their
           daily office commute in order to reduce air pollution and related
           ailments' A protocol for a contingent valuation study

    • Authors: Shomik Ray, Ranjana Singh, Sukanya Pathak
      Pages: 4765 - 4773
      Abstract: Background: Increased vehicular traffic is associated with higher levels of air and noise pollution which in turn causes high morbidity and mortality. Governments, including Delhi have invested high amounts in setting up and running public transport systems in order to rationalize road usage and limit vehicles on road. This study proposes to assess the willingness of the citizens to give up their private vehicles in favor of public transport and will provide specific policy recommendations.Methods: This study will be conducted in Delhi/NCR along the Delhi metro route. A systematic review and cross-sectional community survey will be carried out to meet the study objectives. Data will be captured through computer aided personal interviews (CAPI) using contingent valuation methods (CVM). This study will provide information on the perceptions and attitudes of commuters towards the current public transport system and the economic value placed by them on private transportation and provide an estimate of the welfare gain associated with it. Specific objective wise outputs have been framed. This will be the first study using contingent valuation methods (CVM) in a similar setting in India.Conclusions: The result will provide an evaluation of the public transport system of Delhi NCR from a user perspective. The willingness to pay values will provide a monetary value to the health benefits arising from shift from private to public modes of transport along with workable models of interventions for policy makers. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223243
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Composite healthcare for transgender under PM-JAY: a significant step
           towards inclusive society

    • Authors: Sushree Nibedita Panda, Manish Barik
      Pages: 4774 - 4774
      Abstract: Transgender people have a different gender identification than those who had male and female anatomies at birth. Male to female (MTF) and female to male (FTM) are all included in the transgender category, as well as transgender males and females.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223244
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Influenza in India-can COWIN model help'

    • Authors: Malathi Murugesan
      Pages: 4775 - 4775
      Abstract: Globally, the Influenza virus contributes a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population causing 10% of respiratory hospitalization in children <18 years of age.1 Influenza virus hits India mainly in June-September and November-February.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223245
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Malaria vaccine in India: need and choice

    • Authors: Rajaram Saranya, Chandar Sahanaa, Roselin Mohandass
      Pages: 4776 - 4777
      Abstract: Malaria is a major public health problem in India. India’s varied geography and diverse climatic conditions from tropical monsoon in the south to temperate in the north, favor the distribution of vectors and species of the malaria parasite. Malaria in India takes several forms, including forest/ tribal malaria, urban malaria, industrial malaria, and plains malaria. P. falciparum and P vivax species contribute to the majority of malarial cases and deaths in India.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223246
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
  • Scrub typhus: a re-emerging threat in India

    • Authors: Sushree Nibedita Panda, Manish Barik
      Pages: 4778 - 4779
      Abstract: Scrub typhus is an acute infectious disease of varying severity caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and was originally identified in Japan in 1899. It is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family. Humans unwittingly serve as hosts for this zoonotic disease. People of all ages, including children, are affected. While scrub typhus is geographically restricted to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk, and almost a million cases are reported each year.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223247
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2022)
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