Publisher: Medip Academy   (Total: 12 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Acculturative status, age, and hypertension among African American women

    • Authors: Fern J. Webb, Christina Jones, Ross Jones, Kristen Morga, Lori Bilello, Jagdish Khubchandani
      Pages: 2083 - 2089
      Abstract: Background: Understanding culture’s impact on hypertension (HTN) is important since its prevalence in African American women (AAW) in the United States is among the highest. It is therefore important to know if younger AAW have similar acculturation status as older AAW when developing culturally relevant interventions.  The objective of this study was to examine the association between acculturation status and age, determining whether acculturation status and age are significantly associated with hypertension among AAW.Methods: Acculturation status, age, and HTN were analyzed using data from the listening to our voices study (LOVS), a population-based observational study of 294 AAW conducted throughout Florida. LOVS was promoted via African American women research assistants trained to inform and recruit AAW living in Ft. Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, and Tampa.Results: Findings demonstrate that AAW held traditional values regardless of age. Moreover, AAW of younger ages had higher average acculturation scores compared with older AAW indicating stronger agreement with traditional values, practices and beliefs. Acculturation subscale scores were not associated with HTN. AAW with HTN scored higher on the traditional food subscale compared to AAW without HTN.Conclusions: These findings indicate the significance of considering the beliefs, values, and practices of AAW when developing health interventions. Health interventions developed should be tailored toward AAW of varying ages to incorporate activities relevant to their cultural beliefs, values and practices.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Profile of use of benzodiazepines and mental distress in patients cared in
           a public health unit

    • Authors: Livia de Oliveira Kawano, Edimar Cristiano Pereira, Glaucia Luciano da Veiga, Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves, Ligia Ajaime Azzalis, Fernando Adami, Luiz Vinicius de Alcantara Sousa, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca
      Pages: 2090 - 2098
      Abstract: Background: Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs especially used in the treatment of insomnia and anxiety. The short-term use is considered safe, but the long-term treatment is associated with drug dependence and loss of efficacy due to the development of tolerance. Given the lack of mental health management services in primary healthcare, benzodiazepines have been prescribed to be used for undetermined periods of time, resulting in distress for patients and representing an important issue in the public health context.Methods: This is a transversal study with a descriptive quantitative approach, which aimed to characterize the profile of patients served by the Basic Health Unit Pharmacy Taboão in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil, and correlate the different studied variables with the mental distress of these patients. A questionnaire including demographic, socioeconomic and physical and mental health variables was applied to the pharmacy customers.Results: It was revealed that among female patients (p=0.042, β=0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98), suicidal ideation (p<0.001, β=1.53, 95% CI: 1.22-1.92), perceptions regarding their own health condition (p<0.001, β=0.48, 95% CI: 0.34-0.67), occurrences of polypharmacy (p=0.137, β=1.19, 95% CI: 0.94-1.50), knowledge on the risks associated with the use of benzodiazepines (p=0.176, β=0.85, 95%CI: 0.067-1.07) and engagement in physical activities (p=0.685, β=0.93, 95% CI: 0.68-1.27) are significantly associated with mental distress.Conclusions: Therefore, after these findings were obtained, errors that contribute to the occurrence of this scenario were identified and possible strategies to deal with the issue were suggested.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Efficacy of home visits by public health providers for high-risk pregnant
           women in Egypt

    • Authors: Eman M. Khalil, Sayed M. S. Abdelgayed, Rasha S. Elbahrawe, Ahmed M. Abbas, Marwa Yahia, Hamada A. A. Ali
      Pages: 2099 - 2103
      Abstract: Background: Home visits programs aim to improve care management for high-risk pregnant women. Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA), are crucial indicators of child development and health. The present study evaluates the efficacy of home visits by public health providers for high-risk pregnant women in Egypt to prevent adverse pregnancy outcome.Methods: This is a cohort study using administrative data collected in obstetrics department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University. All women with high risk pregnancy were followed by home visits by public health providers.Results: Birth outcomes were documented and evaluated. Women from the home-visit group had a heavier birth weight 2752.85±286.571, longer gestational age 38.36±1.257, less LBW infants 52 (18.6%), less preterm birth 22 (7.9%), and less SGA infants 27 (9.6%) compared to participants who did not receive the home-visit program.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Egypt might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA. This study adds to the evidence of the effectiveness of population-based home-visit programs as a public healthcare measure.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Role of health care workers in the care and support of women living with
           HIV/AIDS experiencing intimate partner violence: the case of women
           attending care and treatment clinic in Singida region, Tanzania

    • Authors: Agnes L. Kosia, Tumaini Nyamhanga, Gasto Frumence, Deodatus Kakoko, Ave Maria Semakafu
      Pages: 2104 - 2110
      Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is behaviour within intimate relationship that causes physical, sexual and psychological harm. Health care workers (HCW) have a big role to play for women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) who are experiencing IPV. The understanding and perception of IPV towards health care workers is very important in the provision of integrated holistic care.Methods: This was a qualitative study where data was collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions for 24 HCW, working at a care and treatment clinic and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Content analysis was used to analyse the data.Results: The study findings showed that HCW had their own meaning and understanding of IPV that was when a male partner does something wrong to his female partner which was associated with beating, use of abusive language and refusal to provide basic needs. HCW had various roles in caring and supporting women LWHA experiencing IPV. They provided emergency medical services, health education which helped them to cope with their HIV/AIDS disease, counselled on the importance of adhering to their antiretroviral treatment medications and referral services which helped them to address their IPV as women LWHA.Conclusions: The study concluded that HCW had a very important role to play in care and support of women LWHA. They needed more training on IPV so that they will be able to provide care and support to all women living with HIV/AIDS experiencing IPV and the community at large.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Medical laboratory professional’s week in Rwanda: a field report from
           the Simbi and Maraba communities

    • Authors: Pierre Gashema, Patrick G. Iradukunda, Musafiri Tumusiime, Jean D. Harelimana, Gad Rutayisire, Stuart T. Nyakatswau, Oswald Samjeh, Andrew Muhwezi, Ivan E. Mwikarago, Fiston Gitema, Ella L. Ndoricyimpaye, Pierre Rugimbanya, Edgar Gatete, Tafadzwa Dzinamarira, Nadine Rujeni, Claude M. Muvunyi
      Pages: 2111 - 2115
      Abstract: Background: In response to the need for interventions that facilitate the accessibility of medical services in poor communities, an outreach activity was organized in semi-rural areas of Maraba and Simbi sectors located in Huye district, Southern province of Rwanda. The outreach was undertaken by health sciences students and involved the screening of hypertension, risk of diabetes, hepatitis, anemia, eye disease, and HIV.Methods: Clinical assessments and rapid laboratory diagnostic assays were used to screen invited residents from the two selected communities. An observation research was conducted from May 21 to 25 May, 2018, at Maraba and Simbi sector located in Huye district, Southern province, Rwanda. We employed a purposively sampling technique for participants' recruitment in the outreach. The outreach was conducted as part teaching program and community engagement, and was endorsed by college of medicine and health sciences and all the subjects voluntarily participated in this exercise; the ethical approval was not applicable for this outreach activity. Results: The total beneficiaries from those sectors were 1427 citizens of whom females predominated at 72%. During the screening, hypertension was found to be high at 47.8% among adults. Anemia which mostly presumes iron deficiency was observed at 32.5% among under 15 years old children and at 15% in pregnant women. The vision impairment and cataract were observed at 5.66 and 19.59%, respectively. The assessed viral infection indicated a rate of 0.56% for HIV, 1.03% for HBV, and 7.17% for HCV. High blood glucose was found in 10.4% of the screened population.Conclusions: The findings highlight a high burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in rural communities and call for further investigations and interventions to align with the sustainable development goals (SDGs), particularly access to affordable health services. Furthermore, the success of this outreach highlights the potential contribution of health care trainees in achieving these goals and calls for integration of such interventions in the health education curriculum.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Prevalence and death rate of COVID-19 in some selected countries and its
           socio-economic impacts in Khulna division of Bangladesh

    • Authors: M. Sohidullah, Shahidur R. Khan, Ashiqul Alam, Nahid Rahman, Swarup K. Kundu, Arifur Rahman
      Pages: 2116 - 2123
      Abstract: Background: 2019-nCoV has been declared by WHO as a global pandemic in March 2020. The present study was undertaken to find out the global as well as local prevalence, and death rate of COVID-19.Methods: A developed questionnaire was used in Khulna division of Bangladesh to record the percentages of people who were mask user, involved with different risk groups, harmed by socio-economic impacts of COVID-19, involved with the issue of government taking measures for controlling COVID-19. Some of the highly risk countries of the world were selected for recording the data.Results: As of October 20, 2020, we found USA, and Bangladesh at 1st and 17th position respectively in terms of global prevalence of COVID-19. We found Dhaka at 1st position in terms of division wise prevalence in Bangladesh. In terms of death rate of COVID-19, Mexico reported 10.10% death rate by securing 1st position. We recorded the data related with percentages of people who were involved with mask using and risk groups like hypertension, diabetes, respiratory illness, smoking; harmed by socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 that changed their lives, believers of different levels on government taking measures for controlling the spread of COVID-19 from Khulna division.Conclusions: The findings of this research work would certainly help the government of highly risk countries as well as Bangladesh to take appropriate measures to control COVID-19. Moreover, it will be helpful for the government of Bangladesh to take necessary steps to mitigate the socio-economic crises existing among the people.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Magnitude and determinants of self-referrals among women seeking skilled
           birth attendance services: a cross-sectional hospital-based study in
           Marsabit County, Kenya

    • Authors: Joseph O. Adoyo, Eliphas G. Makunyi, George O. Otieno, Alison Yoos
      Pages: 2124 - 2131
      Abstract: Background: Self-referral to higher-level hospitals by women seeking skilled birth attendance services reflects in part their non-adherence to established referral pathways. This choice results in an inappropriate utilization of resources within health system. The Kenya Health Sector Referral Strategy aims at optimising the utilization and access of facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with self-referral among women seeking skilled birth attendance services in Marsabit County between 1st and 31st Oct 2019.Methods: A cross-sectional study was adopted at the maternity department in the selected public hospitals in Marsabit County, by use of interviewer-administered questionnaires to collect information from 161 women, through systematic sampling between 1st and 31st Oct 2019. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to test for factors associated with self-referral at 95% confidence interval.Results: Of the 161 women interviewed, 47.2% (n=76) were self-referrals. The odds of self-referral to the higher level health facilities were more likely among women: - aged 25-29 (AOR 5.174, CI 1.015-26.365, p-value 0.048); those referred for other ANC services (AOR 4.057, CI 1.405-11.720, p-value 0.010); and those, - who visited the referral facility before for delivery (AOR 5.395, CI 1.411 – 20.628, p-value 0.014). However, self-referral were less likely among women who perceived privacy and confidentiality of services at the referral hospitals (AOR 0.370, CI 0.138-0.990, p-value 0.048).Conclusions: Almost half of women seeking skilled birth attendance were self-referrals, relates to a possible implication on an unprecedented increased workload at referral hospitals and underutilization of primary health facilities.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • COVID-19 risk behaviors in humanitarian settings: a cross-sectional study
           among conflict refugees in Uganda

    • Authors: Stephen Lawoko, Gloria Seruwagi, Denis Muhangi, Eric A. Ochen, Betty Okot, Eric Lugada, Andrew Masaba, Dunstan P. Ddamulira, Brian Luswata, Catherine L. Nakidde, Felix Kaducu
      Pages: 2132 - 2143
      Abstract: Background: Worldwide, behavioral change interventions are at the core of prevention efforts to contain the novel Corona Virus (COVID-19). While the evidence base to inform such interventions in the general population is growing, equivocal research in humanitarian populations is lacking. The current study describes the nature, extent and predictors of COVID-19 risk behaviors among conflict refugees in Uganda in a bid to inform prevention strategies for humanitarian settings.Methods: Cross-sectional survey data on COVID-19 risk-behaviors, demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and clinical variables was gathered from 1014 adult refugees drawn from 3 refugee settlements in Uganda, using two-staged cluster sampling. Data was analyzed using t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Multivariable Linear Regression.Results: Many refugees (25-70%) were involved in hygiene, congestion and nutritional/physical activity related risk behaviors likely to contribute to community transmission of COVID-19. Refugees living in rural settlements, of male sex, young age and low socio-economic status were at heightened risk of exposure to COVID-19 risk behaviors. Physical activity and healthy nutritional practices reduced the likelihood of COVID-19 risk behavior. Indulgence in COVID-19 risk behaviors increased the risk of developing COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusions: COVID-19 risk behaviors among conflict refugees in Uganda are multifaceted in nature, widespread in extent and associated with symptom development, signaling for high risk for COVID-19 transmission in humanitarian settings. The data on predictors of COVID-19 risk behaviors have unmasked underlying inequalities, holding promise for development of evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of most vulnerable clusters in the refugee community.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Bacterial association in urinary tract infection and their drug resistance
           among patients in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Noor E. Farjana, Md A. Islam, Tamanna Zerin, Mosammat A. Begum
      Pages: 2144 - 2149
      Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common infection worldwide and drug resistance makes the treatment more difficult which may lead to complications along with extended hospital stay. Therefore, this study was designed to find out the prevalence of UTI, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates collected from patients of UTI.Methods: This study was conducted among 1,760 suspected UTI patients from January 2019 to November 2020. Urine samples from mid-stream were transferred to microbiology laboratory following microbiological standard protocol. Microbial identification was performed by microscopy, colony morphology, and biochemical characteristics. Antibiogram was pursued following the standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.Results: Our study showed almost 30% of samples were positive and E. coli was found as the highest predominating organism (50.09%) followed by Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., and Citrobacter spp. The percentage of infection in females was 65.28% which is higher than males. The highest prevalence of UTI has been observed in females aged 21-30 years and males aged 31-40 years. However, E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest resistance against Amoxiclav whereas, Klebsiella spp. showed it against co-trimoxazole. Citrobacter spp. showed 100% resistance towards Amikacin, cefixime, nalidixic acid, co-trimoxazole, amoxiclav, ceftazidime, and Enterococcus spp. showed against nalidixic acid and amoxiclav. Moreover, 95.8% isolates collected were resistant towards 3 or more than 3 antibiotics which is very alarming.Conclusions: Changing trend in antibiotic sensitivity profile of the isolates needs to be monitored as there is limited availability of newer drugs.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Level of awareness of the benefits, socio-demographic and cultural factors
           influencing exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending MCH clinic in
           Tudor sub county hospital

    • Authors: Consolata Mandi Machila, Jane Karonjo, Dominic Mogere, Peterson Kariuki
      Pages: 2150 - 2154
      Abstract: Background: Knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among women is essential when promoting optimal breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of life and continuation of breastfeeding and adequate complementary foods for up to two years of age or beyond.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. This study utilized a mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative).Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was low at 33.6%. Data revealed that 60.9% of respondents were knowledgeable on the benefits of EBF, while 38.6% were not knowledgeable, the rest of the respondents did not respond or their answers were not valid.Conclusions: Women's knowledge on benefits EBF and intention to practice it is still low. There was significant difference in the participants place of residence (rural versus urban).
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Optimization of SARS-CoV-2 laboratory testing in a rural healthcare
           facility in the United States

    • Authors: Tanvi S. Bharathan, Austan J. Trale, Tashi Bharathan, Nichol L. Dienes, Jackie Sansig, Steven Wilson, Narayanaswamy Bharathan
      Pages: 2155 - 2164
      Abstract: Background: The diagnostic testing for SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) presented a profound challenge to the entire world, dominating the concern of most governments and public health systems, particularly rural community hospitals in the United States. Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Indiana Regional Medical Center (IRMC) began on site, same-day COVID-19 testing in efforts to not only combat the challenges that health providers faced in rural Indiana community but also help to strengthen global diagnostic capacity.Methods: Clinical samples were collected as dry swabs from the nasopharyngeal (NP) regions and processed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The crude RNA was directly tested using real-time (RT) reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) with PrimeDirect probe RT-qPCR Mix (Takara Bio USA) and optimized with probe-primer sets [Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT)].Results: Validation experiments with dry swabs from NP clinical samples showed no difference in the testing accuracy to those collected in viral transport medium or universal transport medium. Extraction of COVID-19 RNA in PBS reduced processing time of a batch of 50 NP clinical samples from 6 hours to an hour. This allowed for rapid diagnostic testing of nearly 200 clinical samples per day. Optimization of analytical variables helped to detect virus loads up to 2.0 copies/μl during routine diagnostic testing.Conclusions: During an infectious outbreak, the ideal response by public health authorities is rapid testing. The collaboration between IUP and IRMC attests to the importance of teamwork between local initiatives to detect and prevent further spread within a rural community.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Predictors of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among patients at a tertiary
           hospital in South-South Nigeria

    • Authors: Dennis O. Allagoa, Peter Chibuzor Oriji, Ebiye S. Tekenah, Lukman Obagah, Chidiebere Njoku, Adeniyi Stephen Afolabi, Gordon Atemie
      Pages: 2165 - 2172
      Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was said to have emerged from a livestock market in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The objective of this study was to determine the predictors and willingness of patients to accept the COVID-19 vaccine.Methods: This survey was carried out at the federal medical centre, Yenagoa between 4t January and 15 February 2021. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 1,000 consecutive patients that presented to the various out-patients departments of the hospital. Written informed consent was obtained. Data collected with a predesigned questionnaire were analysed using statistical software (SPSS for windows® version 23, SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA).Results: Out of 1,000 participants, only 246 (24.6%) were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. About 2 in every 5 participants were unwilling to take the vaccine due to trust issues. Lack of trust in the manufacturers and government were the reasons given by 43.4% and 41.8% of participants, respectively. All sociodemographic factors were significant predictors of willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine. The male participants (OR=2.34; p=001) were 2 times more willing than women to receive COVID-19 vaccine.Conclusions: The willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccine is low here. The highest predictor of willingness to accept the vaccine was the male gender and this is quite significant in our environment where decision-making in the family lies mostly on the man.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Exploration of traditional beliefs about human immunodeficiency virus and
           associated stigma among black Africans in the UK: a pilot study with
           implication for practice in Africa

    • Authors: Aaron Akpu Philip, Samantha Davis, Candidus Nwakasi, Victor Oti Baba
      Pages: 2173 - 2179
      Abstract: Background: In the UK, black Africans account for the most affected ethnic population with HIV. Black Africans hold traditional beliefs which have been reported to cause certain misconceptions about the cause of HIV. Also, despite being in a developed country like the UK, it has been noted that Black Africans still hold these beliefs. This study was aimed at exploring the influence of traditional beliefs about the cause of HIV and HIV related stigma among Black Africans in the diaspora.Methods: Semi structured interviews were conducted among six individuals (M-4, F-2), three of which were people living with HIV (PLHIV). Participants were selected purposively. The study included male and/or female English-speaking Black Africans who were 18 years+ and not born in the UK but had migrated to live there.Results: The resulting data was analysed thematically, and three themes were developed: “…God created disease as a punishment for mankind…”: Punishment from God, “…witches, they can make HIV…”: HIV as related to witchcraft and “hanging on to traditional beliefs thus mistreating people with HIV”: Traditional African beliefs cause stigma.Conclusions: The main finding of this study reveals that participants who are knowledgeable about HIV still hold traditional beliefs about HIV. These beliefs are reported to exacerbate stigma against PLHIV. The study recommends that traditional beliefs should be prioritised when planning HIV prevention programs.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Medical and obstetric factors associated with preterm deliveries among
           women of childbearing age at Pumwani maternity hospital, Nairobi County,

    • Authors: Daniel K. Mwangi, Stanley K. Waithaka, Alfred O. Odongo
      Pages: 2180 - 2185
      Abstract: Background: The rate of pre-term birth (PTB) in Kenya stands at 12.3%. Preterm deliveries are associated with high neonatal mortality and have a huge financial burden on the parents and the government. Prematurity is also associated with chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension in adult life. The study objective was to determine the medical1and obstetric factors1associated1with preterm deliveries among women of childbearing age (15-49 years) at Pumwani maternity hospital (PMH).Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 191 mothers of reproductive age (15-49 years) who delivered at PMH during the study period. Data was collected using a questionnaire and a data abstraction tool. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize categorical variables. Chi-square was used to test for the strengths of associations. Prevalence adjusted odds ratios (PAOR) were used to estimate the strengths of associations.Results: The study found that the association between past pregnancy (p=1.0), history of surgery (p=1.0), medication (p=1.0), urinary tract infection (p=0.453), miscarriage (p=1.0) and chronic disease (p=0.395) and preterm delivery among women of child bearing age (15-49 years) at PMH was not statistically significant. The association between premature delivery (p=0.021), parity (p=0.000), premature rapture of membranes (PROM) (p=0.000), antepartum hemorrhage (APH) (p=0.045), cervical incompetence (p=0.001), pre-eclampsia toxemia (PET) (p=0.000), and placenta abruption complications (p=0.009) and preterm delivery was statistically significant.Conclusions: The association between premature delivery, parity, PROM, APH, cervical incompetence, PET and placenta abruption complications and preterm delivery was statistically significant.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Burundi: analysis of the 2016-2017 Burundian demographic and health survey

    • Authors: Masabarakiza Prosper, Nsanzabera Charles
      Pages: 2186 - 2196
      Abstract: Background: Access to antenatal care and postnatal care services has a great deal of impacts on major causes of high maternal, neonatal and child mortality rates. This study was aimed to identify factors affecting the use of antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) services.Methods: The study used data from the nationally representative 2016-2017 Burundi demographic and health survey (DHS). A total of 8,660 mothers who gave birth within five years preceding the 2016-2017 Burundi DHS were included in this study. Logistic regression statistical analyses were used to identify factors associated with the use of the first ANC visit, the use of 4 ANC services and the use of PNC services in Burundi.Results: Using logistic regression the determined factors such as birth order (AOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.51-1.73), place of delivery (AOR 0.63; 95% CI 0.54-0.76), mothers’ education (AOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.38-0.57) and husband’s education level (AOR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.94) were associated with the use of early ANC. Factors such as birth order (AOR 1.79; 95% CI 1.67-2.30), the exposure to media(AOR 1.11; 95% CI 0.98-1.30), women’s education (AOR 0.58; 95% CI 0.46-0.73), residence(AOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.69-1.01) and the birth interval(AOR 1.45; 95% 1.32-2.00) were associated with the four ANC. Women’s education (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.40-0.70), and health insurance coverage (AOR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.96) were associated with the receiving of PNC.Conclusions: Health promotion targeting women’s education, husbands’ education and behavioural change communication in rural areas are vital for increasing their awareness about the importance of antenatal services.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • The occurrence of self-reported illnesses and their analyses into
           influenza-like and gastrointestinal syndromes in a rural community in
           Western Kenya, 2019

    • Authors: Reagan N. Chweya, Susan N. Mambo, John M. Gachohi
      Pages: 2197 - 2205
      Abstract: Background: Data-driven population studies focusing on clinical symptoms and syndromes with the potential to improve diagnostic strategies are rare in Africa. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of influenza-like illness (ILI) and gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes in a rural community in western Kenya.Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected data on self-reported symptoms experienced during the week preceding the study and clustered them into syndromes using case definitions in western Kenya. The study randomly enrolled 92 households and recruited 390 subjects aged between 5 and 83 years. On one hand, reporting at least any four prespecified respiratory-related symptoms attained influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome while on the other, gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome constituted the reporting of at least any three of prespecified GI system symptoms. Data on individual and household-level independent variables were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we assessed relationships between the occurrence of these syndromes and the independent variables at a significance level of p≤0.05.Results: Respectively, 27% and 9% of subjects attained ILI and GI syndromes. Twenty-four subjects attained both syndromes. Visiting outside the local sub-county of residence was associated with attaining ILI (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.4, 3.7) and GI syndromes (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.6, 6.9). Besides, the absence of active medical insurance was independently associated with attaining GI syndrome (OR=0.12, 95% CI 0.02, 0.94).Conclusions: Study findings suggested the existence of a higher burden of ILI relative to GI syndrome making the study area critical for investigating disease exposures related to visiting outside the study area and the link between medical insurance and ill health occurrence.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Model of health service effectiveness in public health center based on
           dimensions and measuring indicators

    • Authors: Diding Sarifudin, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Agus Suwandono
      Pages: 2206 - 2211
      Abstract: Background: Moreover, the effectiveness of the outputs was measured and the effectiveness model was completely implemented to include the input and process. However, the results obtained from measuring the input and process element were not documented effectively, thereby, leading to the use of a perception proxy which is the measurement power on the effectiveness. This research was, therefore, conducted to produce a model of health service effectiveness in public health centers based on dimensions and measuring indicators.Methods: This research was conducted quantitatively using a cross-sectional approach. The study population includes the employees of public health centers in Cirebon Regency out of which a sample of 212 respondents. The data obtained were subsequently analyzed using SmartPLS.Results: The effectiveness was measured using 5 dimensions including inputs dimension which consists of utilization of budget and human resource (2 indicators), process dimension which consists of improvement efforts (2 indicators) and innovation efforts (4 indicators), and output dimension which consists of employee satisfaction (3 indicators) and program (1 indicator). Most of the respondents, represented by 60.3%, stated that health services at the public health center were effective.Conclusions: The health service effectiveness model in the public health center was formed by five dimensions and twelve measuring indicators.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Study on internet usage and internet addiction of medical students in
           universities of Myanmar

    • Authors: Khin May Oo, Pa Pa Soe, Win Myint Oo
      Pages: 2212 - 2219
      Abstract: Background: Internet is relatively new technology that can provide up to date knowledge in education. Even though the significant advantages, abuse of internet results in addiction disorder especially younger age. The aim of this study was to determine the internet utilization and internet addiction (IA) of third year medical students in medical universities of Myanmar.Methods: This was cross-sectional descriptive study in which the questionnaire mainly based on a questionnaire, IA test score. Total 412 medical students from medical universities were enrolled in the study.Results: This study shows 80.83% of students used internet more than five hours and 99.51% used internet every day. Common activities were social media 93.93%, entertainment 94.17%, watching movies 90.78%, communication 87.86% respectively. Among the reasons of use, education (p=0.003), shopping (0.002) and due to free wi-fi (p=0.006) were found to be significantly associated with IA. The majority (47.33%) was moderately addicted, (45.39%) was mildly addicted and 1.7 % was severely addicted. There was significant relationship between IA and time for more than five hours per day. Higher level of prevalence of IA was using online for watching movies, blogging, study information. Among the reasons of internet use, education, shopping and due to wi-fi were significantly associated with IA (p<0.05).Conclusions: IA is growing problem and medical students are vulnerable for IA and so necessary preventive measures are vital to provide safe usage of internet.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Bargaining with social construction of gender identities: transgender
           realities in Cumilla, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Shamema Nasrin
      Pages: 2220 - 2227
      Abstract: Background: This study explored the agency of intention of transgender women within everyday forms of resistance (thought, desire, intension, and communication) against the rigorous binary biological composition and gender identities in Bangladesh's social context. Transgender women ask society to take distinct and subjective gender identities thoughtfully and uphold their right to make a transition. Transgender women go through the psychological narrative where a specific sex organ does not outline the intact gender identifications. They want to be accepted, understood and supported by establishing their inner gender identities endeavored to their agency and deconstruction of customary gender identities. Methods: The study was conducted at Kaptan Bazar, Cumilla Sadar in Cumilla, Bangladesh; twenty in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were adopted to gather primary data. The study participants engaged with various projects and contributed health services and social counseling to other transgender and male sex workers.Results: The result considered transgender womans agency grounded in internal sharing, communication, daily activities, and viewpoints of identity position. Informal, undeclared thoughts, actions, and experiences portrayed numerous connections to their agency of intention. Encounters of participants presented a profound explanation of everyday resistance.Conclusions: The agency of intention of transgender women may create a dialogue against socio-cultural prejudice and structural injustice; simultaneously, it can intersect a better consequence in proper contexts.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Health status of primary school children: study in urban slums of Lucknow

    • Authors: Neeti Verma, Prashant Kumar Bajpai
      Pages: 2228 - 2232
      Abstract: Background: Children are the wealth of any nation because they constitute one of the population's essential segments. Through school health services, morbidity patterns and nutritional status deficiencies are detected early and controlled to get a healthy and economically productive future generation. The present study was undertaken to assess the health status of primary school children in slum areas of Lucknow and find the morbidity pattern of the study population.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 760 students of primary schools. A pre-designed, pre-tested, and semi-structured questionnaire was used as a study tool.Results: Most of the subjects 362 (47.7%) were in age group of 7-9 years, and were distributed almost equally in the classes from 1st to 5thstandard. About one fourth (26.8%) school children were underweight, whereas 5.6% school children were found overweight. Girls (34.0%) were found underweight more than the boys (20.8%). In contrast, more boys (8.8%) were overweight than girl students (2.6%).Conclusions: The common infirmities found were underweight (26.8%), dental caries (6.1%), anemia (14.9%), pediculosis (17.2%) and ear discharge (2.2%). Proper knowledge regarding and the creation of awareness amongst the school children, their families, about the causes and ill effects of the various morbidities are essential. Emphasis should be given to school children regarding prevailing morbidities amongst them by class teachers. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A study on demographic and obstetric profile, its relation with present
           antenatal practices and prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending
           tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Nitin A. Lodha
      Pages: 2233 - 2238
      Abstract: Background: Antenatal care is the care of a woman during pregnancy. The primary aim of antenatal care is to achieve at the end of pregnancy a healthy mother and a healthy baby. To improve maternal health, barriers which limit access to quality maternal health services must be identified and addressed at all levels of health system. Objectives were to determine demographic and obstetric factors affecting utilization of ANC service and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women.Methods: This is cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in tertiary care hospital, using structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married pregnant women age between 18-45 years, who visited ANC clinic. Total 170 pregnant women visited hospital during a period was included in study. Data was analysed using MS excel and Epi info. Chi –square test was applied.Results: Maximum number of study subjects (42.9%) from age 23-27 years. 66.5% were Hindu, 56.5% study subjects from joint family. 14.7% were illiterate. 45.3% were primigravida, 54.7% were multigravida. 71.1% study subjects were from third trimester of pregnancy. 94.7% were taken at least one dose of Tetanus Toxoids. Iron folic acid tablets were taken by 87.6%. Prevalence of anaemia was 55.8%.Conclusions: Majority of pregnant women came for antenatal check-up, but regularity was not seen in most of cases. The presence study has brought out no significant socio-cultural barrier like women’s literacy, socio economic class and parity of women affecting the utilization of services.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Family planning practices and prehospital care received by women seeking
           abortion services in a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Upasana Deb, Narendra K. Tiwary
      Pages: 2239 - 2244
      Abstract: Background: The study was carried out in the department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at RG Kar Medical college and Hospital, among 114 attendees seeking induced or spontaneous abortion. The aim of the study was to assess their socio demographic characteristics, elicit their family planning knowledge, practices and prehospital care received by them before coming to this institute.Methods: An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a predesigned, pretested schedule using systemic random sampling technique among women seeking abortion services at a tertiary care centre.Results: Out of the 114 interviewees, 53 (46.5%) underwent induced abortion and rest had spontaneous abortion. Statistically significant difference was found between the mean age of induced and spontaneous abortion seekers. Majority i.e. 28 (52.8%) of induced abortion seekers first sought help at illegal abortion service providers. Statistically significant difference was found in duration of marriage, gravidity and number of living children between induced and spontaneous abortion candidates. Contraceptive knowledge and practice were found to be higher among induced abortion seekers.Conclusions: This study clearly shows the need to focus on unmet need for family planning services including safe abortion services at pre-tertiary hospital level. The Government needs to stop advertisement and sale of over the counter abortifacients which is proving to be a menace to women’s health. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Oral hygiene status and its association with oral hygiene practices among
           school going children of rural and urban areas in Kamrup district, Assam

    • Authors: Sulekha Doley, Manvi Srivastava
      Pages: 2245 - 2250
      Abstract: Background: Oral hygiene, a state in which the surfaces of all the teeth are plaque free, is highly important in the promotion of oral health and also for good health in general. The aim of the present study was to assess the oral hygiene status among 13-14 years old school children in rural and urban areas in Kamrup Metropolitian (M) district, Assam.Methods: A total 1501 school children in the age group of 13-14 years were included in the study and oral hygiene status was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) given by Greene and Vermilion 1964. The children were asked to fill in the basic information in the proforma by themselves. The following statistical tests were used unpaired t test, Chi square test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, post-hoc Bonferroni test to compare the oral hygiene status among the different age groups, gender and location.Results: The OHI-S values were found to be more among the males (2.72±1.50) as compared to the females (2.31±1.48) and the difference was highly significant (0.0001). The rural population and urban population constituted 50% of the total study sample each. Mean values of OHI-S index were more among rural children as compared to children residing in urban areas. The mean values showed that the p value was highly significant.Conclusions: Oral hygiene status was found to be poorer among rural school children compared to urban school children. Oral hygiene worsened as age advanced and found to be poorer in males than females. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Health profile of workers in an industrial area of Thrissur district: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ruth Abraham, Ruth Abraham, Sajna Mathumkunnath Vijayan
      Pages: 2251 - 2256
      Abstract: Background: Rapid unplanned industrialization is creating serious problems for the human environment. Worse and directly affected in this process are the industrial workers. The purpose of the study is to assess the health profile of workers in an Industrial area of Thrissur district and to compare the morbidity profile of industrial workers from native Kerala and migrants.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the industrial area of Thrissur district for a period of six months. Cluster sampling was done. Among the total industries in the industrial area of Thrissur, one industry was selected using the lottery method. All the workers in that industry were included in the study. After establishing a rapport, data was collected using a semi-structured interview schedule from the participant using questionnaires.Results: Among 246 workers interviewed, 79.3% were males. 43.9% of participants were from Kerala, 37.4% Orissa, 10.4% Bihar and the rest from other states of India. 30.9% of participants were obese, 17.9% overweight and 8.5% underweight. Other morbidities were refractory error (46.7%) and hypertension (30.5%). Overweight and obesity were significantly more among workers from native Kerala compared to migrants (p=0.001). History of injuries was reported by 10.6% of workers.Conclusions: The high proportion of obesity and hypertension detected among workers was alarming. Interventions at various levels (host, vector, and environment) are likely to produce a lasting impact on industrial worker's health.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Role of training to reduce stress among health professionals during COVID
           19: an analytical study in Meerut

    • Authors: Anuradha Dave, Kaynat Nasser, Bhawna Pant, Sanjev Dave
      Pages: 2257 - 2260
      Abstract: Background: A healthy job is likely to be one where the pressures on employees are appropriate in relation to their abilities and resources, to the amount of control they have over their work, and to support they receive from people who matter to them. Experiencing an infectious disease outbreak can cause fear, anxiety and stress.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Subharti Medical College, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut in the month of September 2020–October 2020 on 127 health care professional (69 doctors and 58 nurses) who were interviewed randomly working in the level III COVID hospital using professional stress score by David Fontanna.Results: Training received by the doctor and nurses during COVID-19 pandemic for infection prevention was more significantly associated with mild professional stress (p<0.00) than moderate professional stress (p<0.027).Conclusions: Training showed positive impact by enhancing their confidence level to manage stress during pandemic situation.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Basic first aid and life support: are the schools prepared' a
           descriptive study

    • Authors: Mayuri Verma, Sunil Agrawal, Palack Agrawal
      Pages: 2261 - 2265
      Abstract: Background: First aid is the immediate assistance provided to a sick or injured. Children spend most of their daytime in schools and are at greater risk of accidents and injuries. National disaster management guidelines 2016 recommends that school teachers and students be trained in first aid and basic life support (BLS). This study was undertaken in schools to assess the awareness of high school students and teachers about first aid and BLS, accompanied by demonstration and hands-on training.Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study. All students of class 11th and 12th and teachers of three cantonment schools in New Delhi were included. Knowledge was assessed using a questionnaire comprising 20 multiple choice questions. 377 questionnaires were analyzed.Results: Mean knowledge score=10.96, SD=2.87. 67.6% participants had a score <12 (60%), 29 (7.7%) had good knowledge, 214 (56.8%) average (11-15) and 107 (35.5%) poor (≤10).Conclusions: There was low level of awareness about correct first aid and BLS. First aid training should be incorporated as a part of school curriculum. Repeated reinforcement of knowledge and skills is essential.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Perception, practices and preparedness of the adult population in response
           to SARS CoV-2 pandemic in India

    • Authors: Arpita Jain, Manju Toppo, Devendra Gour, Shipra Verma
      Pages: 2266 - 2271
      Abstract: Background: COVID-19 infection is a highly contagious disease and has affected a large population. As COVID-19 is a new disease and is having the most devastating effects globally, its emergence and spread, causes confusion, anxiety and fear among the general public. Objectives of the study were to know the preparedness measures adopted by the community by large in the beginning of epidemic of COVID-19 and to find out the perceptions and behavioral change of the community regarding COVID-19.Method: A cross sectional survey was conducted amongst the residents of India from 11th April 20 to 30th May 20. It was an online study. An online semi-structured questionnaire having both open and close ended   questions was developed by using Google forms, with a consent form appended to it. Data was collected in Google form and was reentered in MS excel and analyzed using EPIINFO.Results: Out of 301 study participants majority i.e., 162 (53.8%) of them were male. Majority of the participants were in the age group of 21-30. Occupation status of the respondents revealed that doctor accounted for 125 (41.5%). Only, 24 (8%) had chronic illness. Awareness regarding COVID-19 was 297 (98.7%).Conclusions: Perceptions have a great role in behavioral change.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Trends in abortion services and sociodemographic profile of women those
           availed abortion services at Parivar Seva clinics in India

    • Authors: Neelima Thakur, Pragti Chhabra
      Pages: 2272 - 2278
      Abstract: Background: Despite the law for termination of pregnancy, women continue to have illegal or unsafe abortions leading to incomplete abortions in India. The aim of the paper is to identify the trend of abortion services, clients treated for safe and incomplete abortion their client characteristics in the Parivar Seva Sanstha clinics. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the available data from 31 Parivar Seva clinics India. Retrospective study carried out in 31 clinics of the Parivar Seva Sanstha in 11 states. Data of women who were treated for medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) and other abortion between the periods of January 2018 to December 2019 was obtained from the records for analysis. Proportion of MTP and other abortion for different categories was computed and Chi square test was applied to study the association.Results: More than forty thousand women availed abortion services from the clinics every year. The frequency of incomplete abortion increased from 34.7% to 38.1% from 2018 to 2019. Young women, women of Muslim religion, higher income group, who reached the clinics from long distance, with no parity and no previous history of abortion had more probability of availing services for incomplete abortion as compared to MTP. Majority of women were seeking MTP and incomplete abortion services in their first trimester only; about two thirds (61.4% and 66%) of these had surgical abortion in first trimester. Majority (86.1% and 87.5%) of women obtained MTP services up to 12 weeks of gestation.Conclusions: There is urgent need to create awareness and educate the women regarding safe abortion, access of family planning, legality of abortion, medication outside the health facilities. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Assessment of health problems and healthcare expenditure, utilization of

    • Authors: Kanchan Thakur, Raveen ., Sita ., Suresh Kumar, Vineeta Sharma, Shankar Prinja, Sushma Kumari Saini
      Pages: 2279 - 2286
      Abstract: Background: Non-communicable diseases account for high burden of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Increased burden and need of long-lasting medical care pose adverse financial implications on poor households. It becomes even more difficult in the absence of any financial risk protection (FRP). In that case the families are forced to manage health care expenditures from the money needed for their routine daily expenses thus increasing Out of pocket expenditures. Objective of the study was to assess the morbidity burden, and out of pocket (OOP) expenditure on healthcare; assess the utilization of health care insurance schemes.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Dhanas Village Chandigarh using systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected by interviewing the participants as per interview schedule on disease patterns, OOP expenditures, and coping methods used for   incurring health care expenses.  From total 419 selected families, one adult member from each family was interviewed at their own house setting.Results: A low insurance coverage (20.5%) was reported and among insured 66.2% had availed benefits. The illness rate was found to be 14.2% and hospitalization rate was 3.7%. The endocrinal disorders were most prevalent among the residents. One third (36.5%) of households had faced catastrophic expenditure for outpatient and 10% for the inpatient care. The salary was leading source of expenditure.Conclusions: There is low insurance coverage and high catastrophic expenditure among the households.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Epidemiological and demographic characteristics of dengue and chikungunya
           infections over five years from 2014-2018, in Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Dhanalakshmi Velusamy, Suriakumar Jayakumar, Varatharaj Ramakrishnan, Rajamannar Veeramanoharan, Bhavna Gupta, Rajaiah Paramasivan, Vasanthapriyan Moongilpatti Ramasamy
      Pages: 2287 - 2292
      Abstract: Background: An epidemiological, demographic and seasonal trend analysis of dengue and chikungunya seroprevalence was performed in five districts of Tamil Nadu during 2014-2018.Methods: Serum samples from the suspected patients were screened using IgM antibody ELISA.Results: Dengue and chikungunya seropositivity ranged from 17.9-68.2% and 14.9-58.3%, respectively. Dengue cases were reported in all the years with a spike in 2017. Highest number of chikungunya cases was in 2018. Dengue cases peaked in the cooler months following monsoon while chikungunya data for seasonal trend analysis was not sufficient. Both viral infections were found common in the people >12 years, however, the difference of cases between males and females was not statistically significant.Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that both chikungunya and dengue are actively circulating in the state and the state health department needs to direct their efforts not only to control the spread but also on the future preparedness to prevent outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Comparison between body mass index and mid upper arm circumference for
           classifying nutritional status of pregnant women: a prospective cohort

    • Authors: Ekta Chhillar, Manju Puri, Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Praveen Kumar
      Pages: 2293 - 2298
      Abstract: Background: BMI is used to assess nutritional status of pregnant women however weight gain during pregnancy confounds the nutritional status later in pregnancy. Unlike weight, MUAC does not undergo significant change as the pregnancy advances. We aim to compare the changes in BMI and MUAC in pregnant women over various trimesters to assess whether change in MUAC is less compared to weight.Methods: In this prospective observations study, BMI and MUAC measurements were taken of 300 pregnant women during different trimesters. Chi-square tests were conducted to assess associations between socio-demographic indicators and nutritional status. Correlation coefficients were calculated between BMI and MUAC over three trimesters. ANOVA tests were conducted on BMI and MUAC to assess their respective mean differences over three trimesters.Results: Mean difference of 0.43 cm (3.2%) was noted in MUAC compared to 5.32 kg/m2 (23.14%) in BMI from first to third trimester. No significant differences were observed in mean MUACs between first and second (p=0.326) and second and third trimesters (p=0.143) but, it was significantly different between first and third trimesters (p=0.003). Significant differences were observed in mean BMIs between first and second (p=0.05), second and third (p<0.001) and first and third trimesters (p<0.001). Correlation between BMI and MUAC were positive and significant in all three trimesters.Conclusions: Positive correlations were found between BMI and MUAC. Less change was observed in MUAC than BMI over three trimesters. MUAC seems to be a reliable tool for assessing nutritional status of antenatal women.  
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • An epidemiological study on knowledge, attitude and practice of married
           women about menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    • Authors: Nimmy N. John, Riya Juan, Manchu S. Danam
      Pages: 2299 - 2303
      Abstract: Background: Women all over the world now have to spend almost 1/3rd of their lives in menopausal years. Therefore, menopause now is a concerning matter to maintain and improve women’s health. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is an effective treatment for menopausal symptoms. This study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude and practice toward menopause HRT among women. Objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to menopause and HRT among women.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in May 2020 to July 2020 in a rural area of Ernakulam district of Kerala, India. 150 women were interviewed using a predesigned, pretested questionnaire.Results: In the present study, 42.6% of menopausal women had knowledge of menopausal symptoms. 31.3%, 38% and 26% knew that menopause increases risk of cardiovascular, osteoporosis and breast cancer respectively. 16.6% think menopausal women should consult a physician, only 42% of menopausal women are aware of HRT. 60.6% think menopausal symptoms affect quality of life. 50.6% think that menopause means end of sexual life. 42.6% think that absence of menstruation is a relief. 48.6% think physical changes of menopause are inevitable, hence acceptable. 35.3% had consulted a physician at the onset of menopause. 80% preferred natural approaches when compared to HRT. 76% and 86% think that HRT has many complications and side effects hence should be avoided respectively.Conclusions: The study concluded that the knowledge and attitude of the participants towards menopause and HRT was poor in the study population.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Situation analysis of medical laboratories in primary health centres

    • Authors: Radhika S. Suberi
      Pages: 2304 - 2308
      Abstract: Background: This study was conducted with the objective to assess the medical laboratories attached with primary health centres (PHCs) focusing on the current needs, gaps and to understand the utilization pattern of the laboratory services. There are hardly any relevant studies that are known to have investigated the functioning of laboratories attached with PHCs based on quality of service they are providing.Methods: This study was a cross sectional study based on observations and assessment made at 33 randomly selected medical laboratories attached with PHCs in Ahmedabad district, Gujarat. Checklist adapted from National Quality Assurance Standards (NQAS) and Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) were used as a tool for data collection.Results: Though all the laboratories have been found to be functioning effectively based on the indicators in this study, some of the laboratories were not performing basic important tests like rapid plasma reagin (RPR) (18%) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbSAg) (21%). None of the laboratories attached to the PHCs under study performed Widal test. There was very low utilization of urinary pregnancy test (UPT) (1.81%) in the first quarter of the year.Conclusions: Although most of the indicators reflect satisfactory performance of the laboratories, there exists certain gaps and needs that are essential in provision of quality laboratory services in the primary level of health care. The laboratory information management system (LIMS) was the major issue in the laboratories. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A cross-sectional study on determinants of immunization coverage in urban
           area Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: D. P. Lakshmi Priya, P. Kalyani, B. Sindhu Bala
      Pages: 2309 - 2313
      Abstract: Background: Immunization is one of the cost effective measures preventing approximately 2 to 3 million deaths in young children every year. Inspite of the progress in vaccination coverage challenges still remain for underserved and inaccessible children. It is therefore essential to evaluate the immunization coverage at periodic intervals and improve coverage in vulnerable areas.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 152 children aged 12 to 42 months in urban Chidambaram from September to October 2018. We collected details regarding immunization from vaccination card or mother’s recall. A pretested semi-structured proforma was used to collect sociodemographic variables. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version.Results: Complete immunization coverage was 80.3% and 19.7% were partially immunized. Lack of awareness is the major reason for failure of full immunization (63.3%). Immunization coverage was higher when parents studied up to higher secondary or graduates (mother 91.3%, father 87.5%, p value 0.01), father do skilled jobs (91.9%, p value 0.02), among first birth ordered children (88.3%, p value 0.01), children born in healthcare facility and among mothers who received antenatal care during pregnancy (80.8% each, p value 0.04).Conclusions: Lack of awareness, parents’ literacy and occupation, place of birth, antenatal services and number of children in the family are important determinants of immunisation coverage. Apart from strengthening of infrastructure for better delivery of mother and child health services other issues also need to be addressed for better immunization practices.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Symptoms and perceptions of risk factors among cancer patients attending a
           tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh, North India

    • Authors: Dinesh Kumar, Naveen K. Goel, Munesh K. Sharma, Awadhesh K. Pandey
      Pages: 2314 - 2320
      Abstract: Background: With growing incidence of cancer, it is of prime interest to study views of cancer patients regarding their perceptions regarding cancer cure and its risk factors. The objective of the study was to explore opinions of cancer patients regarding the disease and perceived risk factors of various cancers.Methods: Results of present study are based on part of detailed findings of ICMR sponsored project wherein perceptions and beliefs of cancer patients were explored by interview method.Results: Study included 1117 new cancer patients including 501 (44.9%) males and 616 (55.1%) females representing different socio-economic classes. Spectrum of cases showed breast cancer (18.3%), head and neck cancer (10.2%) and cervical cancer (9.1%) as three major types of cancers. About 43% respondents were of the opinion that cancer can be curable and 15.0% thought it was due to displeasure of God. Symptoms of cancer perceived by them included mainly weakness and fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss, indigestion or difficulty in swallowing as reported by 729 (65.3%), 568 (50.9%), 341 (30.5%) patients, respectively. Varied perceptions of patients regarding risk factors for different types of cancers were also reported.Conclusions: The study reported several misconceptions regarding cancer and risk factors perceived by cancer patients. There is an urgent need of health education to be made an integral part of cancer cure to avoid those misconceptions of patients prevent the disease and for better treatment outcomes. More in-depth studies are required to explore further opinions and to ascertain the findings.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the use of personal protective
           equipment during COVID-19 pandemic among health care workers at a tertiary
           health care center

    • Authors: Jatin V. Badgujar, Gaurav M. Sharma, Nisha R. Relwani, Omprakash S. Rohondia, Tanvi D. Patole, Anjali S. Puntambekar
      Pages: 2321 - 2330
      Abstract: Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during COVID-19 pandemic among health care workers.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among health care workers (HCW) including junior and senior resident doctors and nursing staff working at a tertiary health care center. A pre-designed, pre-validated, semi-structured questionnaire regarding the use of PPE was distributed online to eligible HCW and their responses were recorded electronically between 14 April 2020 and 20 April 2020. The survey questionnaire consisted of questions based on demographic and background characteristics along with KAP; knowledge (K1-K6), attitude (A1-A3) and practices (P1-P4).Results: A total of 423 out of 475 eligible participants successfully submitted their responses and were included in the present study which included junior resident doctors (55.70%), senior resident doctors (19.60%) and nursing staff (24.60%). The mean total knowledge score was 4.169±1.006 with an overall correct response rate of 75.8%. The result of one way ANOVA indicated that there is significant difference in the mean total knowledge score according to designation (F=6602, p<01) with improved knowledge score seen in HCW with higher designation. Majority of HCW had positive attitude and appropriate practices regarding the use of PPE.Conclusions: Optimal use of PPE is crucial to avoid transmission of infection in health care setting. Assessment of KAP of HCW regarding the use of PPE can help hospital authorities to introduce educational programs accordingly to gaps identified in the survey. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Associates of prevalence of depression among urban elderly of Kendujhar
           district: a study in Odisha, India

    • Authors: Debasmita Barik, Bharati Panda
      Pages: 2331 - 2337
      Abstract: Background: There is wide variation in the estimated prevalence of depressive disorder among older in India. The estimated prevalence of depression in India is ranging from 6 to 80% depending on various factors of population studies. The present research is an attempt to assess the factors associated with depression among elderly in urban area.Methods: A descriptive study was carried out among older in urban area of Kendujhar district of Odisha, India with sample size 150 by random sampling method. A pre-structured questionnaire containing socio-demographic data sheet and geriatric depression scale (GDS) was used.Results: The overall depressive symptom among elderly was reported to be 66%. Socio-demographic factors such as 70-75 age group, female sex, illiteracy, low education, widowhood and no personal income were significantly associated with depression (p<0.05), where no significant association existed between depression and family income as well as family type. The results showed high significant association of meditation, yoga and exercise with depression. Activity such as marketing and record keeping were positively associated with depression (p<0.05), where no significant association of depression with gardening, cooking and cleaning (p>0.05). Health problems such as weakness, leg pain, knee pain and medical illnesses such as cataract and tuberculosis were positively associated with depression. The findings show depression was not significantly associated with gardening, cooking, cleaning back pain, shoulder pain, headache and asthma (p>0.05).Conclusions: A majority of participants are having depression (66%). There is need to identify and diagnose the problems of aged in urban area and start treatment earlier as possible.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • State led innovations for achieving universal health coverage in a low
           resource setting Odisha, India: opportunities and challenges

    • Authors: Sarit K. Rout, Upasona Ghosh, Amrita Parhi, Sudhashree Chandrashekhar, Shridhar M. Kadam
      Pages: 2338 - 2345
      Abstract: Background: Odisha, a developing state of India, has introduced an innovative scheme known as Biju Swasthya Kalyan Yojana (BSKY), which aims at providing free health care to all the people. This paper examines the scope, key features, challenges and potentiality of BSKY to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) in Odisha.Methods: We reviewed policy documents and conducted qualitative interviews with key state government officials and other stakeholders to understand implement processes and constraints.Results: The scheme intends to provide free health care to all people in public health care institutions and additionally, 71 lakh poor households can avail health care services from the empanelled private hospitals with financial coverage up to 5 lakhs per family and women members up to 10 lakhs annually. This is implemented in assurance mode by merging state-run schemes- Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), Biju Krushak Kalyan Yojana (BKKY) and Odisha State treatment fund (OSTF). The implementing agency is introducing several measures to control unnecessary health care utilisation and cost. Gate keeping mechanism and reserved packages by public hospital are major initiatives in this direction. Further, efforts to settle claims on time and IT related challenges are teething problems of the scheme. The findings further suggest that public expenditure on health stands at 1.3% of GSDP and inadequate human resources and health infrastructure are affecting service delivery.Conclusions: Achieving UHC with such a low public spending on health and different service delivery constraints looks ambitious. Odisha may learn from other countries to implement UHC phase wise.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Awareness about breast feeding practices and vitamin A deficiency among
           mothers in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    • Authors: Vasantha Rao Sappati, Sannapaneni Krishnaiah, Suneetha Sapur
      Pages: 2346 - 2354
      Abstract: Background: To assess the awareness about breast feeding practices and to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about the signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and vitamin A rich foods intake among mothers of children below 5 years in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India.Methods: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted on 284 mothers (age range 14 to 36 years) during June 2011 and September 2011. A combined simple and systematic random sampling strategy was used to select mothers from one tribal, rural and semi urban area with a representative sample of the Srikakulam district. A standardized structured questionnaire that was developed and validated by the National institute of nutrition, Hyderabad was utilized for this study.Results: The awareness of vitamin A and night blindness was 68.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 62.9–74.0) (n=195) and 93.7% (95% CI: 90.2–96.2) (n=266) respectively. The knowledge of signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was nil among illiterate mothers and low among literates; with primary education, adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06) and with secondary education, OR: 0.19 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.62) compared to mothers with graduation and above.Conclusions: There is a need to increase the awareness and knowledge about VAD among mothers with children below 5 years in the southern state of AP.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Study of risk factors associated with breast cancer: a case control study

    • Authors: Ashok R. Jadhao, B. K. Sharma, Sanjivani A. Jadhao, Hitesh C. Tayade
      Pages: 2355 - 2363
      Abstract: Background: Developing countries are facing double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Omran gave epidemiological transition theory, which can be seen in India also. Lifestyle changes made Indian prone to non-communicable diseases. Cancer is among the most common non communicable diseases in India. Breast cancer contributes one fourth of all cancer burden in India. It is noted that more number of cases are being seen in 25 to 40 years age group. Objective of the study was to study risk factor associated with breast cancer.Methods: Hospital based case control study was conducted in tertiary cancer centre from July 2017 to December 2019. Sample size of 96 cases was calculated, though 100 cases was interviewed and similar number of age group matched controls was selected. Sociodemographic, past history of benign breast lesion, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, waist to hip ratio and reproductive risk factors was assessed.Results: The significant risk factors on multiple logistic regression were (adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI) age at menarche ≤11 years (1.16, 1.025–1.451), waist to hip ratio more than 0.85 (1.61, 1.473–1.963) and history of abortion (1.14, 1.006–1.366).Conclusions: Women with early age of menarche, higher waist to hip ratio and history of abortion were found to be at higher risk of developing breast cancer. Annual screening of high risk women, teaching self-breast examination to all women and promoting physical activity to maintain waist to hip ratio less than 0.85 should be done.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A community-based study on the awareness and prevention of
           hypercholesterolemia in adults

    • Authors: Kunalika Bhatia, Puja T. Patel, Biplob K. Das
      Pages: 2364 - 2369
      Abstract: Background: Intake of unhealthy junk food results into long standing health issues and the research in this paper is focused towards analyzing the knowledge of non-medical population about hypercholesterolemia and to upgrade their education concerned with healthy lifestyle modifications and essential safety measures identified with elevated cholesterol levels and related diseases.Methods:  It was a prospective pre-and post-education interventional study carried out on 400 non-medical students at PES degree college Bangalore. A self-managed survey was conveyed to participants using a validated questionnaire during their usual college hours. The data analysis was done utilizing Microsoft excel tool.Results: Out of 400 participants in pre-education interventional study awareness about hypercholesterolemia was found excellent in 129 subjects, average in 243 subjects and poor in 28 subjects, where as in post-education interventional study awareness about hypercholesterolemia was found to be excellent in 355 subjects average in 44 subjects and poor in 1 subject.Conclusions: The significant increment was found in the degree of information among the participants. All over the study was an achievement and the objective of the examination was satisfied. Few participants showed lack of interest however spreading awareness and instructing about wellbeing viewpoints can bring the distinction just if the picked-up information is executed in everyday life.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Physical health impairment, disability and suicidal intent among self-harm
           survivors in South India

    • Authors: Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi, Steven Jones, Lou Taylor, Somashekar R., Santhosh Nagaraj, Bharath D. U., Murali Krishna
      Pages: 2370 - 2377
      Abstract: Background: Suicide is major public health concern in India. There are limited data examining the relationship between health impairment, disability and severity of suicidal intent. The aim of the study was to examine the associations of health impairment and disability with severity of suicidal intent among survivors following an act of self-harm.Methods: A pilot exploratory study of 453 self-harm survivors from a specialist hospital in South India. Socio-demographics, physical health impairment, disability (WHO Disability Schedule-II), suicidal intent, (Pierce suicide intent scale) and mental disorders were studied.Results: Arthritis was the most common physical impairment among self-harm survivors followed by gastrointestinal, sensory impairment and difficulty with mobilization. Nearly 10% of participants had some degree of functional impairment, with 38% experiencing severe physical pain in the week prior to self-harm. Past history of depression treatment, age, education and occupation influenced positively PSIS scores. There were significant associations between suicidal intent and disability.Conclusions: Indian self-harm survivors indicated complex relationships between physical health, disability and suicidal intent. Understanding these associations may help to develop suicide prevention strategies. Our findings suggest a need for integrating a comprehensive of physical health assessment in self harm survivors.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Accessibility issues of persons with disabilities due to COVID-19 pandemic
           in Nagpur region

    • Authors: Avinash Gawande, Abhijit V. Raut, Sanjay Pusam, Trupti Prabhune
      Pages: 2378 - 2382
      Abstract: Background: Since the first case of COVID-19 in late January 2020, India has become one of the hardest hit countries by COVID-19 in world. According to 2011 census, the number of PwDs in India is roughly 2.2% of total population which is approximately 26.8 million. They are more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection due to their disability and lack of accessibility to protect them.Methods: A cross sectional, mixed-methods approach, using a purposive sampling technique, a quantitative survey were adopted for the study.Results: The study showed that 99% of the participants have access to regular updated knowledge of COVID-19. 74% participants faced scarcity of protective measures, 35% faced scarcity of ration supply, 48% PwDs faced major issues to access screening, testing and treatment facilities in suspected COVID-19 cases. 43% PwDs faced scarcity of access to assistive services and devices. 40% faced issues to get their regular medicines and necessary items like catheters. 86% of the participant faced financial crises due to loss of employment and businesses. Around 16% amongst them faced severe crises which was not possible to manage.Conclusions: Facing COVID-19 situation is extremely stressful for PwDs. This study was conducted for short period of 4 months so it gives a snapshot of impact of COVID-19 on accessibility issues of PwDs.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Pharmacoepidemiological assessment of endocrine disorders in a tertiary
           care teaching hospital

    • Authors: Binu K. M., Jenil Johny, Doddayya Hiremath
      Pages: 2383 - 2387
      Abstract: Background: The endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism along with world’s ageing population has increased the burden of health care systems. The present study aimed to assess the prescribing pattern of drugs in endocrine disease like diabetes and thyroid disorder and to evaluate the drug use in given healthcare against programmed criteria and standards.Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in 220 patients over six months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients who are diagnosed with endocrine disorder in various (general medicine, surgery and Orthopedics) inpatient departments of study hospital.Results: A prospective observational study was carried out by reviewing prescriptions of 220 patients with lifestyle disorders such as, DM (120), hyperthyroidism (50) and hypothyroidism (50). In diabetes, most of the patients were prescribed with biguanides 75 (47.17%) followed by sulfonylureas 56 (35.22%), alpha-glycosidase inhibitors 20 (12.58%), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors 5 (3.14%), meglitinides 2 (1.26%) and thiazolidinediones 1 (0.63%). Most of the prescription containing insulin Actrapid and insulin Mixtard 14 (82.35%) followed by insulin Actrapid and insulin NPH 2 (11.76%), insulin Mixtard and insulin Glargine 1 (5.89%). In hypothyroidism most of the patients were prescribed with propylthiouracil 28 (56%) followed by methimazole 26 (44%). Levothyroxine is the best choice of drug for hypothyroid disorder.Conclusions: Our study found that treatment and management of endocrine disorders were not rational. There is a need of clinical pharmacist involvement for a better patient care in these disorders.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Clinical profile and outcome of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019
           (COVID-19): a large-scale observational study from Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Senthil Raj K., Adithyan Geetha Suresh, Selvavinayagam T. S., Shruthee Suresh Geetha, Vinay Kumar K., Viduthalai Virumbi B., Saravana Kumar Nithyanandham, Sarath Palani
      Pages: 2388 - 2393
      Abstract: Background:  This study aims to assess the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Tamil Nadu, India and to identify the associated prognostic determinants.Methods: Facility-level observational data pertaining to the case investigation of 15045 lab confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported in Tamil Nadu from March to June 2020 was used for the purpose of the study. The demographic and clinical profile of the COVID-19 confirmed cases and age-sex specific estimates of severity of illness were analysed. Determinants of prognosis were tested for statistical significance using Chi square and Student t test as appropriate.Results: The mean age was 40±7 years with a male predilection. Thirty six percent of the cases were symptomatic, with fever being the predominant symptom, followed by cough and breathlessness. The Case ICU rate and Case Fatality rate were found to be 6.2% and 2.9% respectively. Increasing age, male sex and underlying comorbid illness were found to significantly affect prognosis in these patients. However, it was observed that females experienced higher risk of severe illness and fatality in the younger age groups.Conclusions: While the observed findings reiterate the prognostic significance of age, gender and comorbidity as evidenced by other studies, the increased risk of severe illness and fatality among younger females provides a new direction for further research from a socio-epidemiological perspective.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Assessment of status of psychological well-being and its determinants
           among adolescent school students residing in Raipur city, Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Shweta Shalini, Shubhra A. Gupta, Mini Sharma, Smita Verma, Nirmal Verma
      Pages: 2394 - 2400
      Abstract: Background: Psychological well-being is a multidimensional concept, including both individual capacities of the adolescents and social competencies. Good overall adjustment and a sense of psychological well-being are very crucial factors for the adolescent’s positive contribution to the society. The objective of this study was to assess the status of psychological well-being and its socio-demographic determinants among adolescent school students of Raipur city.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was done on 576 adolescent school students of Raipur city to assess their psychological well-being using Ryff’s scale of psychological well-being along with their socio-demographic characteristics. Association and regression analysis were done.Results: Overall, 79.9% of study subjects were scored as having average psychological well-being followed by 20.1% study subjects having good psychological well-being according to Ryff’s scale. Study subjects with female gender, studying in english medium, private school, following non-state board syllabus, belonging to unreserved category, having educated father or mother, working father or mother, at least one parent working at distant place, residing in joint family whose parents are living together, who gets attended by someone after returning from school are having higher psychological well-being than the other group.Conclusions: Socio-demographic determinants has a significant role to predict the psychological well-being of the study subjects. These determinants are mostly non modifiable displaying the need for integrating key behavioural factors on positive health promotion policies and programs.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Body image issues among school going adolescent girls in a rural area of
           Haryana: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Vinay ., Neelam Kumar, J. S. Malik, Aman Sachdeva
      Pages: 2401 - 2405
      Abstract: Background: Adolescent girls in today’s world are extremely conscious of perceptions of a perfect body. With the growing sense of thin ideal body image during adolescence, they try to lose body weight to attain the perfect body size. The emphasis on thinness and on an ideal female body shape and size is physically and psychologically detrimental to the health of many young women. This study was carried out with objective to find the prevalence of body image issue among adolescent girls in rural area.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in block Lakhanmajra, district Rohtak, Haryana. Adolescent girls in age group 13-19 years studying in class 8 to class 12 in 10 government and private senior secondary schools of Lakhanmajra block were included in the study. The total sample of 500 students was included in the study. A pre-designed pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule was used, and the responses were recorded by the investigator herself.Results: The findings of the present study show that 20.2% adolescent girls did not like their appearance when they look in the mirror and thus had body image dissatisfaction. 88.0% adolescent girls were satisfied with their weight and 12.0% were dissatisfied. 80.0% of the study subjects who were dissatisfied with their body weight had normal age specific BMI values. Only 20% of the adolescent girls who were not satisfied with their weight were underweight or overweight.Conclusions: More worries and less satisfaction about body image are found in girls. The relatives, the media, the peers and the community all have an impact on body shape satisfaction. But the greatest influence is that of the media and the community through standardising a thin ideal for female beauty.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • COVID-19 lockdown impact on physical activity and anxiety levels among
           physiotherapy practitioners, teaching faculty and students in Mumbai: a
           cross-sectional web-based e-survey study

    • Authors: Farzan Kamdin, Kruti Khemani, Annamma Varghese
      Pages: 2406 - 2413
      Abstract: Background: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread rapidly throughout the world leading to an emergency global pandemic. Among the varied affected sections of the population and healthcare, physiotherapy is no exception. To what extent, both the physical activity and anxiety levels have been affected amongst the physiotherapy practitioners, teaching faculty and students is not completely known. Hence, this study was undertaken.Methods: Among a potential 400 participants, 357 responded (response rate=89.25%). Cross-sectional web based open e-survey was sent using google forms via emails and social media platforms such as Whatsapp, facebook, instagram and linkedin messenger. The primary outcome measures were international physical activity questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) for self-reported physical activity and general anxiety disorder (GAD-7) questionnaire for measuring self-reported anxiety.Results: Out of the 357 participants, 40 were inactive (<600 METs/week), 175 were minimally active (600-3000 METs/week) and 142 were health enhancing physically active (>3000 METs/week). The GAD-7 score showed a significant proportion of participants (74%) to have mild to moderate anxiety and only 26% had moderately severe to severe anxiety. Physiotherapy students were found to do least amount of physical activity in a week (mean METs/week of 2590) and were also more anxious with an average GAD-7 score of 7.7. Practicing physiotherapists and teachers had better scores of 3285 and 3028 METs/week and also better mean GAD-7 scores at 6.4 and 5.3, respectively.Conclusions: The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the physical activity levels and mental wellbeing of physiotherapy students more than the physiotherapy practitioners and teaching faculty.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A study to assess the knowledge and practices of menstruation among rural
           adolescent girls

    • Authors: Bhavana R. Hiremath, Deepti Shettar
      Pages: 2414 - 2418
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is phase of maturations where an individual experiences drastic changes in growth and development. Age group 10-19 years is defined as adolescent age by World health organization. In developing countries, this is the period when many children drop-out of school and miss out on education. Among adolescent girls’ menstruation is a major life changing event. We conducted this study among rural adolescent girls to know their knowledge, attitude and practices towards menstruation. We also educated all girls on physiology and hygienic practices during menstruation.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls attending our out-patient clinic in the rural area. All girls were interviewed to assess their knowledge and practices towards menstruation. Informed consent was taken from all girls before stating the study. Data presented in form of frequency, percentages. Chi-square test was applied to analyze for association.Results: 87% were students, 88% adolescent girls belonged to Below Poverty Line (BPL) families. 98% adolescent girls had attained menarche before 15 years of age, 27% adolescent girls had dysmenorrhea presenting as pain in abdomen region. Sanitary pad was being used by only 64% adolescent girls, of whom, 59.4% change sanitary pad twice daily, 75% dispose it by burning. Overall, 36% adolescent girls used cloth, of whom, 41.7% changed cloth twice a day, 69.4% adolescent girls wash and burn the cloth. Among adolescent girls still studying in school 71.2% used sanitary pads which was statistically significant.Conclusions: Education is essential to empower girls to take informed decisions. On receiving adequate information on menstruation, girls were willing to adapt healthy hygienic practices. Hence, health education activities should be started at all schools so as to inculcate good practices early in life.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Second-hand smoke exposure prevalence among smokers versus non-smokers and
           relative change at sub-national level in India: a secondary analysis from
           Global Adult Tobacco Survey 1 and 2

    • Authors: Sakshi Supehia, Shivam Kapoor, Pranay Lal, Rana J. Singh, Anushikha Dhankhar
      Pages: 2419 - 2426
      Abstract: Background: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been linked to the expanded risk of ill-effects on health every year. This study compared prevalence rates of SHS exposure between smokers and non-smokers within three different settings and states/union territories (UT) in India, during the period 2009-10 and 2016-17.Methods: The data from two rounds of nationally representative cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-10 and 2016-17 were used. Further, the sociodemographic variables associated with exposure to SHS at different settings were analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. All statistical inferences were based on a significance level of p<0.05.Results: Although there was a significant decrease in overall prevalence of SHS exposure among smokers and non-smokers at home, government offices, restaurants and, public transportation and slight decrease in health care facility (p<0.05); increased level of exposure was observed at workplace which was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of exposure to SHS varied significantly between smokers and non-smokers and differed greatly among states/UT as assessed by the relative change between GATS-1 and GATS-2. While Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and, Odisha were among the best-performing states; Jammu and Kashmir, Chhattisgarh and, Madhya Pradesh were the worst-performers.Conclusions: The results confirmed that the prevalence rates of SHS exposure among non-smokers, were much higher as compared to smokers in all different settings along with state-wise disparities. This calls for the Policymakers for targeted effective enforcement of tobacco control laws, leading to a reduction in the consequences of SHS exposure.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Correlation of COVID-19 antigen test and CBNAAT results at a single
           tertiary care hospital in North India: an experience

    • Authors: Surbhi Gupta, Anju Shukla, Poonam Singh, Areena H. Siddiqui
      Pages: 2427 - 2430
      Abstract: Background: Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is considered gold standard in the molecular diagnosis of CoV-2 infection but since it is costly, labor intensive and needs technical expertise, rapid chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of specific antigens to SARS CoV-2 have been devised. Objectives of this study was to compare the results of Antigen test and NAAT for CoV-2 infection carried out during the months of July and August 2020 by single tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh and to determine the utility of rapid antigen test in the SARS CoV-2 diagnosis.Methods: All the patients who came to our hospital seeking admission during July 2020 and August 2020 were included in the study. A total of 1000 patients were included in this study.Results: Out of a total 1000 cases which were included in the study, 769 cases (76.9%) were found to be SARS CoV-2 negative by both antigen and CBNAAT, 100 cases (10.0%) were SARS CoV-2 positive by both antigen and CBNAAT tests. But in 131 cases (13.1%), antigen was not able to pick up the disease. It was also found that the Cycle Threshold (Ct) value for the discordant group was higher (Mean E= 28, Mean N2=33) when compared to the group where antigen was positive.Conclusions: The present study establishes the role of rapid antigen tests in contributing to the quick, point of care diagnosis of SARS CoV-2. These assays are safe, simple, and fast and can be used in local clinics and hospitals. These tests are very important for real-time patient management and infection control decision.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A cross-sectional study on awareness and perceptions regarding taxation
           and health warnings and factors influencing decreased consumption of sugar
           sweetened beverages among medical students of Bhopal, India with respect
           to future implementation of such policies

    • Authors: Soumya K. Mandal, G. Revadi, Darshan Parida, Sembagamuthu Sembiah, Anindo Majumdar
      Pages: 2431 - 2440
      Abstract: Background: Consumption of excessive sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to non-communicable diseases. It is imperative to understand the perceptions regarding taxation and health warnings amongst the medical students, since they are important stakeholders and as there is some evidence that the government may introduce these soon. Objective was to document the awareness and perceptions about taxation and health warnings on SSBs and the predictors of decreasing consumption of SSBs with regards to their future implementation.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among all the undergraduate medical students of a premier teaching hospital of central India during October and November 2019. A web-based self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection using Kobo toolbox. Data were analysed using the SPSS software version 24 (IBM SPSS).Results: About three fourths of the study participants were not aware of any taxes on SSBs and had never seen any health warning on SSB packaging. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that those aged ≥ 20 were not in favour of decreasing SSB consumption if health warning is present. Participants who were females, whose fathers were professionals, had consumed SSB in the previous seven days, were aware of taxes and those with inadequate sleep were not in favour of decreasing SSB consumption if taxes are increased.Conclusions: There is a need to include health education regarding the harmful effects of consumption of SSBs and to make aware of the benefits of the taxes and warning labels beginning from school days and continued during medical schools.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Outcome of hypoxic COVID-19 patients treated with dexamethasone-based
           treatment protocol in a designated COVID center

    • Authors: Adarsh M. B., Anitha Abraham, Kavitha P., Meera M. Nandakumar, Raman Swathy Vaman
      Pages: 2441 - 2446
      Abstract: Background: Managing severe COVID-19 is a difficult situation in resource limited settings. With the inclusion of steroid based treatment guidelines, this can be made feasible in such settings.Methods: This was a hospital record based retrospective cohort study done at a designated COVID hospital. Data of all patients who were 18 years and above, hypoxic and required initiation of dexamethasone-based protocol were analysed. Hypoxia was defined as a finger pulse oximeter value less than 95%. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who required a referral to the higher centre or died in hospital.Results: 109 patients with hypoxia with a mean age of 55.2±13.5 years and a median symptom duration of 4 days were analyzed. Seventy-eight (71%) patients were male and 81 (74.3%) had other comorbid illnesses. Of the 109 patients, 5 (4.6%) patients died in hospital, 22 (20.2%) patients were referred to higher center for further management and 82 (75.2%) patients could be treated and discharged. Those who were referred or died had lower SpO2, reduced time to initiation of protocol, more severe pneumonia, lower absolute lymphocyte count and lower platelet count. New onset diabetes was detected in 20 (18.3%) patients.Conclusions: Detection of hypoxia early and initiation of dexamethasone-based treatment protocol with timely referral of worsening patients can help to improve outcome in COVID-19 patients. This model can be effectively constructed in limited resource settings and can be of much help to the struggling health infrastructure.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Outlook of first year medical students in a Government Medical College in

    • Authors: Manasa K., Mythily M. R., Mudassir Azeez Khan
      Pages: 2447 - 2450
      Abstract: Background: The medical field has been one of the top choices for students. It is one of the promising career choice but along with it the students have to go through long period of course and hard work. The aspirations and perception of students are important to make necessary changes in curriculum and work settings which in turn leads to quality output.Methods: The study was conducted among the first year medical students in the government medical college Mysore. The proforma included details about demographic characteristics and influencing factors to choose medical field.Results: Among 143 students, 97 were males and 46 females. 91 students entered the course in first attempt and 52 students in the subsequent attempts. The most important influencing factors to enter medical field were doing service, passion for the profession and parents wish.Conclusions: Self interest in medical field was main reason for joining course. Majority of the students were happy, proud but also felt fear and anxiety on joining the course.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Incubation period of COVID-19: analysis of COVID-19 cases admitted in a
           tertiary care center, northern district of Kerala, India

    • Authors: Anitha Subhadra Saraswathy, Rameela Sanya, Jayasree Anandabhavan Kumaran
      Pages: 2451 - 2454
      Abstract: Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) started as pneumonia of unknown cause detected first in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and spread as a pandemic affecting more than 200 countries worldwide. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, breathing difficulty and tiredness. The median incubation period is about 5 days as per current understanding. The present study was done to estimate the median incubation period of COVID-19 cases admitted in a tertiary care center in north Kerala.Methods: This cross-sectional study included COVID-19 cases admitted in a tertiary care center during three months study period.Results: The median incubation period of COVID-19 was estimated to be 4 days (interquartile range 7). It was also found that females, those persons with comorbidities and those who got infected by local transmission had a longer mean incubation period compared to males, those without comorbidities and imported cases, respectively.Conclusions: The median incubation period of COVID 19 was estimated to be 4 days. Factors like presence of comorbidities, gender, type of transmission were found to affect incubation period, but further studies are needed to have a thorough understanding.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Awareness of health insurance policies among cardiac patients visiting a
           tertiary care cardiac hospital in South India

    • Authors: Archana S. Krishnan, Jawahar S. K. Pillai, Ramkrishna Mondal
      Pages: 2455 - 2459
      Abstract: Background: Healthcare expenditure is becoming a point of discussion in the recent past. Cardiac problems are the major non-communicable disease burden in the society. Health insurance play a major role to share individual health risks and there by provide better access to health care. In this study an attempt was made to find out the level of awareness of health insurance policies among cardiac patients in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were surveyed using a pretested questionnaire comprising of thirty different questions related to health insurance. Simple statistical test and Chi square test was used to assess the association between the variables.Results: Only 41% were aware of health insurance among non-insured patients (n=100). It was found that only 16.7% (N=20) had chosen insurance policy and reason for having taken insurance was to cater to the huge medical expenses (14.2%). 45% patients were opted Insurance due to low premium and good reputation. Majority (42.5%) meet their medical expenses from salary. It was found that majority (55%) were satisfied with the insurance.Conclusions: It is found that less than one fifth of the patients opted for health insurance policy, which is very low. The level of awareness about insurance among the non-insured is also very poor. Study concluded that the awareness of health insurance is very poor especially in rural and semi-rural areas. Continuous awareness creation is needed to enhance the health insurance benefits and various features.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • An epidemiological study of the prevalence and determinants of overweight
           and obesity in women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) group in an
           urban slum

    • Authors: Pratibha U. Mulik, Sudam R. Suryawanshi
      Pages: 2460 - 2464
      Abstract: Background: After comparing data of NFHS-3 and 4, prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of an urban population almost doubled in 10 yr. So, the causes of increasing prevalence need to be studied as public health concern. Objective of the study is to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity among reproductive age group (15-49 years) of women in an urban slum of Mumbai.Methods: Total 220 women were selected among 11 sectors from A to K by simple random method and data collected by using validated questionnaire. WHO’s classification was used to classify as overweight and obese.Results: Out of 220 women participated in study, 14 (6.36%) were obese, 75 (34.09%) were overweight according to BMI and 17 (7.7%) were found to be obese according to waist to hip ratio. From the present study it was seen that age group of the women, socio economic class, education, history of hypothyroidism, family history of obesity, types of work women do, hours of television watching, calorie and fat intake, had a significant relationship with BMI, whereas physical exercise they used to do and tendency to sleep in the afternoon and hours of sleep in the night had non-significant relationship with BMI.Conclusions: Obesity and overweight is found to be a growing public health problem and can be preventable. Interventional measures include developing healthy eating habits, regular moderate physical exercise, sleeping habits, health camps for screening of overweight and obesity.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Facts and prevailing myths on COVID-19 among the general public, India: a
           cross-sectional survey

    • Authors: Keval Singh Meena, Saugandhika P. Nambiar, Yogita Kumari, Hepsi Bai Joseph, Asha P. Shetty
      Pages: 2465 - 2468
      Abstract: Background: COVID-19 is not a new disease for this world, but it shows alarming effects globally, and its sudden increase in incidence and spread is causing misperception and fear among the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the myths about COVID-19 among the general public, India.Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenient sampling technique to assess the myths on COVID-19 among 367 general public, India. The material used to collect the data was sociodemographic proforma and a structured questionnaire with 20 dichotomous questions with ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ option covering the transmission treatment and prevention myths on COVID-19. Data were collected through an online platform using Google forms and analyzed using R software.Results: The study identified six top myths on COVID-19. Taking a hot bath prevents coronavirus infection (93.5%), thermal scanners fail to detect COVID-19 (59.7%), prolonged use of face mask prevents COVID-19air entry (42.5%), houseflies transmit COVID-19 disease from one person to other (33.8%), mosquito bite transmits coronavirus (32.4%), and only older people and children are more susceptible to COVID-19 (30.8%).Conclusions: Myths were existed regarding COVID-19 due to lack of awareness. Awareness activities and strategies should be encouraged to reach all possible communication mean to erase the emerging myths. Besides, awareness should be enhanced by mass media or another portal in-order to follow the evidence-based preventive practices, including social distancing, cough and mask etiquette, hand hygiene, and other infection control measures to protect everyone from infection.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A study to assess the prevalence of common physical health problems among
           senior citizens at Sarojininagar, Lucknow

    • Authors: Vinita Pandey, Sathiyaseelan Gunasekaran, Chandini Tiagi
      Pages: 2469 - 2473
      Abstract: Background: Aging is a universal process. Aging is generally defined as a process of deterioration in the functional capacity of an individual that results from structural changes, with advancement of age. Aging is a normal, inevitable, biological and universal phenomenon, and it affects every individual irrespective of caste, creed, rich and poor. It is the outcome of certain structural and functional changes takes place in the major parts of the body as the life years increases.Methods: A quantitative research approach and a non-experimental descriptive cross sectional research design was used. The sample size of 150 senior citizens was selected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Initially the investigator Obtained permission from concerned authority of Sarojininagar, primary health care (PHC), Lucknow. The tools used were, Performa of demographic variables, checklist to screen the history of common physical health problems and checklist to assess the existing common physical health problems of senior citizens.Results: The results of the study revealed that majority of the elders were suffering from vision problem (93.3%), hearing problems (56.0%), hypertension (42.7%), diabetes mellitus (42.7%) and obesity (30.7%).Conclusions: The study concluded that majority of the elders were suffering from one or the other common health problems while only few reported to be completely healthy. There was a need to create awareness regarding the reasons for common physical health problems, to encourage practicing a healthy lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Clinico-demographic profile of deceased patients with coronavirus disease
           in a tertiary care centre of central India

    • Authors: Rupali A. Patle, Ashok R. Jadhao, Priya B. Dhengre, Manjusha A. Dhoble
      Pages: 2474 - 2480
      Abstract: Background: The covid pandemic started from Hubei, Wuhan in December 2020 then covered many other countries including India. Understanding the demographic and clinical characteristics of deceased COVID-19 patients could inform public health interventions focusing on preventing mortality due to COVID-19. The present study was done with the objective of studying the socio-demographic and clinical profile of deceased patients with coronavirus disease.Methods: This is a hospital based cross-sectional study on 1190 deceased patients of coronavirus disease in a tertiary care hospital of central India which is a dedicated covid hospital from 11 March 2020 to 28 February 2021. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of deceased patients were recorded.Results: Overall case fatality rate was 13.24%. Maximum number of deaths occurred in the month of August 2020 and September 2020 were 372 (31.26%) and 477 (40.08%). It was higher in the males 791 (66.47%) as compared to females 399 (33.53%), but the difference was not significant. The most common symptom was fever on hospitalization 924 (77.65%), followed by generalized weakness 771 (64.79%). 352 (29.58%) patients died within 24 hours of the admission to hospital. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were the most prevalent morbidity in 557 (46.80%) and 357 (30.00%). It was found that 232 (19.50%) deceased patients had oxygen saturation less than 50% on admission.Conclusions: Higher age and presence of co-morbidities at the time of admission were significantly associated with mortality.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Quadmester-wise comparison of disease transmission dynamics of COVID-19
           among health care workers in Kannur district, Kerala

    • Authors: Ameena Subair Raheela, Sajish Chandran, Deepak Rajan, Preetha Muduvana
      Pages: 2481 - 2485
      Abstract: Background: Health-care workers (HCWs) may get infected by direct or indirect contact with infected patients or other HCWs or from the community as well, depending on the phase through which pandemic progresses. Knowledge about the disease transmission dynamics as the pandemic advances is a need so that appropriate monitoring, prevention and control measures for HCWs can be implemented at local level. The main objective of this study was quadmester-wise comparison of disease transmission dynamics of COVID-19 among HCWs in Kannur district.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs reported positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Kannur district, Kerala. COVID-19 positive HCWs reported in the district were consolidated and contacted over phone and details were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered into microsoft excel and analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) trial version. Chi-square test was used to compare differences observed in the two groups and binary logistic regression was done to pick out the significant predictors of variability in disease transmission among the two groups.Results: Total respondents in the first and second quadmester were 243 and 1665, respectively. Factors like gender, clinical features, source of infection, family as source and type of duty taken were found to be statistically significant for the disease transmission dynamics among HCWs.Conclusions: As the pandemic advances, irrespective of the type of work place, self-reporting and regular testing of HCWs will help to check HCWs from getting infected and spreading the disease.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Assessment of knowledge and perception of rain water harvesting among
           rural population of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Pragadeesh Raja V., Muthukumar T., Kalaivani A.
      Pages: 2486 - 2489
      Abstract: Background: Water is a fundamental need for human being, animals and plants to live in the world for drinking and sanitation purpose. The main source of water is rain, and surface water also originates from rain only rain water harvesting is the technique of collection and storage of rain water in surface (or above the ground natural or man-made structures) or in under-ground aquifers (the under-ground water table), before it is lost as surface run-off. Objective of the study was to assess the awareness and the perception about rain water harvesting in rural population of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A community based cross sectional Study conducted among population of residence, Sembakkam, Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study duration from June 2019 to July 2019. Data collected through semi structured questionnaire from participants. Data collected was entered in Microsoft (MS) office excel and analyzed in statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.Results: In the education status of study population, 75.5% (151) are literate and followed by 24.5% (49) were illiterate. In socioeconomic status most of them from class IV, 36.5% (73) and class III, 33% (66). 90.5% (181) are not have rainwater harvesting their houses, most of them 50.5% are answered financial issues to construct the rainwater harvesting followed by 21.5% they don’t know where to approach.Conclusions: An increasing number of population will soon increase the demand for water consumption. Rainwater harvesting which offers a lot of benefits not just for the users, but also to the government and environment, is a suitable alternative that could minimize the anticipated water supply crisis.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Assessment of Anti-SARS CoV-2 seroprevalence in habitants of Assam
           (AASSHA): report of the first serosurvey in Assam

    • Authors: Jyotismita Pathak, Mridusmita Das, Khalil Siddique
      Pages: 2490 - 2496
      Abstract: Background: Today, there is a pressing need to identify the proportion of people immune to the infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) so that public health policies can be formulated accordingly for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Keeping this in mind, we designed a serosurvey in Assam with aims to estimate the prevalence of infection as well as the infection to case ratio of the novel coronavirus in Assam.Methods: A total of 9 districts belonging to three different strata of districts were randomly selected for the study. In these selected districts, blood samples were collected from a sample of population and were checked for the antibodies (IgG type). Those testing reactive for the mentioned antibodies were considered to have been infected ever before the onset of the study.Results: A total of 2390 study subjects were tested for the presence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of people harboring antibodies against the infection was found to be 23.7 percent.Conclusions: The serosurvey revealed that the proportion of people having antibodies was lower than that required for attaining herd immunity levels in a population. The case to infection ratios reveal that there is a large chunk of population who didn’t know about their infection.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A questionnaire based study on knowledge, awareness, and willingness
           towards corneal donation among the paramedical staff, public and students
           from Southern district of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Venugopal Anitha, Aditya Ghorpade, R. Meenakshi, Ramalakshmi Raman
      Pages: 2497 - 2502
      Abstract: Background: To determine the knowledge, awareness, and willingness towards eye donation among paramedical health care providers, public and students from schools and colleges around Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India.Methods: It was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted from November 2019 to January 2020. A structured questionnaire regarding knowledge (K), awareness (A), willingness (W) for eye donation was used to elicit responses in the age group of more than 16 years. Participants were paramedical health care providers working in tertiary eye care hospital, school and college students, and attenders accompanying patients (addressed as public). Responses were collected from 1803 participants and analyzed statistically.Results: Most of the participants had knowledge about the facts of eye donation, such as 96.8% knew that it could be donated after death, and 55% knew that eyes were enucleated within 6 hours after death. 56.2% admitted that lack of awareness is the reason for not donating eyes; 23.8% said that the family members are objecting to eye donation. Social media was proposed as the best source of information about eye donation. Subjects with an age of fewer than 30 years were willing to donate (the odds ratio was 1.90). However, they had less knowledge (p value=0.105) and awareness (p value=0.02) about eye donation than more than 30 years.Conclusions: Even though awareness and knowledge about eye donation and willingness to pledge eyes are there, self-conscience regarding the need for donor corneas to meet the requirement of corneal blindness plays a pivotal role.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Post exposure prophylaxis for HIV among healthcare workers due to
           occupational exposure: a record based study at a tertiary care teaching
           hospital of Kolkata

    • Authors: Paramita Sarkar, Saibendu Kumar Lahiri
      Pages: 2503 - 2507
      Abstract: Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) regularly face the risk of exposure to sharp injuries and splashes as an occupational hazard, which presents major risk for acquiring blood-borne infectious agents like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which can be minimized by taking post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) measures. There are limited studies from India documenting details of PEP for HIV. This record-based study aimed to determine the occurrence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) and other high-risk occupational exposures to blood and body fluids (BBFs) among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata. We aimed to study details of PEP regimens used among HCWs exposed to HIV.Methods: Hospital record was analyzed from reported incidences of occupational exposures to BBFs occurred during the period of October 2013 to March 2019. Information on self-reported incidence of occupational exposure, and post-exposure management were collected.Results: A total of 105 incidents of occupational exposure were registered during study period. Interns (37, 35.2%) were most frequently exposed, followed by physicians (22, 21.0%) and nurse (21, 20.0%). 88 (83.8%) of the personnel sustained NSIs, and 17 (7.2%) had splashes to skin, mucus membranes. There was no significant difference between subjects with splashes to skin, mucus membranes and needle-stick cases regarding discontinuation of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) (11.8% versus 19.3%, p<0.548). No cases of sero-conversion were reported.Conclusions: In spite of high incidences of exposures to HIV source, good efficacy of PEP was observed with no sero-conversion. PEP for HIV was well tolerated. Study emphasized the need for creating awareness about timely reporting of incidence.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding
           rubella vaccine among parents of children, 1-12 year

    • Authors: Chirag Giri Goswami, Shalini Raj Kumawat, Hardik Pandya
      Pages: 2508 - 2510
      Abstract: Background: Rubella also known as German measles is a mild viral disease characterized by mild fever and maculopapular rash. During 2000-2018, measles vaccination prevented an estimated 23.2 million deaths. Routine measles vaccination for children combined with mass immunization campaigns in countries with high case and death rates, are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding rubella vaccine among parents of children (1-12 year).Methods: Pre experimental one group pre-test post-test design. Total 60 parents were taken who have children (1-12 years); purposive sampling technique was used to select the parents. A structured knowledge questionnaire was prepared by the investigator. Informed consent was taken from each participant prior to data collection and Descriptive and inferential statistics i.e., frequency, percentage, paired’ test, chi-square test was used for analysis.Results: Pre-test knowledge score of parents regarding rubella vaccine revealed that 53.33% parents had inadequate knowledge, and 46.66% parents had moderately knowledge. After structured teaching programme, the posttest knowledge scores of parents shows that 13.33% parents had adequate knowledge, 83.33% parents had moderately adequate knowledge and 3.33% have inadequate knowledge.Conclusions: The structured teaching programme (STP) through flash cards, charts and roller board etc. found to be very effective in improving the knowledge among parents who have children (1-12 year) on rubella vaccine. 
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A community-based study for assessment of growth and development of
           low-birth-weight infants, in Sanwer Tehsil of Indore, Madhya Pradesh

    • Authors: Neelima Sharma, R. R. Wavare, Pooja Gautam, Preksha Sharma, Neha Sharma
      Pages: 2511 - 2516
      Abstract: Background: The objective of study was to assess the growth and development of low-birth-weight (LBW) infants.Methods: The study was conducted in community health center of Sanwer Tehsil (Indore District) in the state of Madhya Pradesh under the department of community medicine of Sri Aurobindo medical college and PG institute, Indore. A total of 150 babies were registered and followed up for study.Results: Male preponderance was observed in our study with 70 males and 66 females. Out of total 80 LBW neonates (44 males and 36 females), 6 were home deliveries, while similar equal distribution among primipara and bipara (34 and 30 respectively) was noted. It was found that maximum number of LBW infants (11.76%) were found in the mothers age group of 21 and 25.Conclusions: c2 value suggested that parity was not significantly correlated to LBW but multiparas with >3 deliveries were more prone to deliver a low-birth-weight baby. National programmes targeting to address low birth weight are the need of the hour.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Patient’s experience of telemedicine during COVID-19 pandemic in a
           tertiary care centre in North India: a telephonic survey

    • Authors: Amit Kumar Gupta, Sourabh Paul, Annanya Soni, Pramod Kumar, Banashree Nath, Arijit Jotdar
      Pages: 2517 - 2522
      Abstract: Background: Unprecedented situation of COVID-19 pandemic and measures to contain spread of the disease has expanded the horizon of health care delivery utilizing the telemedicine into the clinical practice. To understand the patients’ preferences for future incorporation of telemedicine practice into the health care system, we conducted a survey via telephone/WhatsApp.Methods: A structured survey questionnaire was administered via telephone/WhatsApp to patients attending telemedicine consultation.Results: Total 463 patients participated in the survey. Participants having favorable attitude was 237 (51.3%) and not in favors were 225 (48.7%). Among the respondents, the most common reason to choose Telemedicine was due to COVID 19 risk (70%), whereas monetary benefits were reported by only 2% of respondents. 297 respondents were of the opinion that they will continue to use tele-consultation services even after the pandemic.Conclusions: Patients reported satisfactory response using telemedicine during COVID-19 pandemic, but felt the need of physical examination at least during first consultation. Telemedicine may be suitable for screening, medium-term and long -term follow up. Easy and cheap availability of internet is also an issue particularly in low income and rural population.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Atopic triad (allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma) and eye rubbing as
           risk factors for keratoconus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Abdulmajeed Albalawi, Alanoud Alharbi, Hussain Alhasani, Amal Alharbi, Raghad Abdullah, Abrar Alamrani, Amal Althobaiti, Ziad Albalwi, Yassmeen Alblowi, Nuwayr Albalawi, Nujud Albalawi, Atheer Alhwaiti, Turki Fehaid Algethami, Dina Abusabir, Abeer Kalbouneh
      Pages: 2523 - 2530
      Abstract: Keratoconus (KN), is an eye disorder, characterized by progressive thinning and protrusion of central cornea. A number of conditions such as such as allergy, asthma, eczema, and eye rubbing has been shown to be associated with the development of KN. However, there is a disagreement regarding some of risk factors and their strength so we conducted systematic review and meta-analysis to determine how strongly risk factors such as eye rubbing, and atopic triad associate with KN development and progression. We systematically searched the literature for related studies using specific keywords and key phrases. The studies were scrutinized based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, we extracted relevant qualitative and quantitate information from studies. For meta-analysis we used odds ratio (OR) and their 95% CI were used to draw forest plots. 35 studies were selected in final meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis yielded the combined effect of risk factors with OR of 2.20 and a 95% CI of 1.84–2.64. Furthermore, we found that eye rubbing-related studies had effect size of OR 2.09 with a 95% CI of 1.76–2.49 and a p value of 0.00001. For atopic triad (allergic rhinits, asthma and eczema) related studies, the meta-analysis yielded overall effect size of OR 2.34 with 95% CI of 2.06-2.66. Eye rubbing and atopic triad (allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma) are important risk factors for KC development with statistically strong association.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A case of mistaken identity: an enthesitis-related arthritis case report

    • Authors: Michael F. Blackard, Prapti A. Patel, Divya A. Pandya, Manish K. Gupta, Abhijit S. Pandya
      Pages: 2531 - 2536
      Abstract: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common inflammatory rheumatological condition affecting children. The condition stems from the inability of the immune system to discriminate between self and not-self leading to inappropriate immune reactions against joints. The different subtypes are differentiated by the number of joints involved and the presence or absence of certain exclusion factors. Due to overlapping diagnostic criterion and range of clinical presentation, diagnosis can be a difficult task. Our patient initially presented with joint swelling without pain that was initially diagnosed with traumatic swelling that later was considered to be of an infectious etiology. A biopsy revealed synovitis but current treatment for traumatic and infectious causes continued to fail. Finally, an additional joint showed inflammation leading to additional testing that uncovered that the patient was positive for HLA-B27 as well as a first degree relative with ankylosing spondylitis. This coupled with the inflammatory biopsy findings led to the diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The identification of an HLA-B27 positive patient is important as this population has been shown to have low rates of remission, resistance to certain treatments used for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, specifically DMARDS and corticosteroids which are often first line treatments for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The HLA-B27 patient population has also been shown to progress to axial involvement and joint destruction leading to earlier need for arthroplasties. As early identification is important in the determination to begin biologic treatments early in the disease course, physician should maintain a clinical suspicion for JIA when dealing with swollen joints in the pediatric population.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A case study: emerging role of telehealth and local health practitioners
           during COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Absar Husain, Ajoke Akinola, S. M. Akhtar
      Pages: 2537 - 2539
      Abstract: This case study investigates the experiences of planning and strategies to respond to a medical emergency and healthcare delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, the local health practitioners from rural and urban areas of northern India; we included the experiences of telemedicine among the practitioners of Allopathic medicine System, Indian medicine System, and Allied health services. The case study recorded descriptive telephonic interviews about the situation, task, and action towards telehealth. The 35 respondents from Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, and Rajasthan. Find the results approximately 10-90% of telehealth services increase in clinical and non-clinical facilities. Approximately 95% of healthcare providers adapted telehealth delivery in the pandemic situation. The observation of preparedness in telehealth services and continued effort to address the situation by local health care providers. The status of real-time response to the prevention and control of new incidents. The role of telehealth setting in COVID-19, situation disembarrass through Voice call, text message, picture/video message, and all other possible measures were employed to accumulate maximum clinical information in real-time.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Association of passive smoking and lung cancer: Is there substantial
           evidence to prove the causation'

    • Authors: Sudhir Kumar Ambati
      Pages: 2540 - 2543
      Abstract: Cigarette smoking plays a crucial role in the development of lung cancer. Tobacco smoke positively influences lung cancer development in both smokers and never or non-smokers. The influence of passive smoke on lung cancer development is associated with toxic substances that cause chronic inflammation in the respiratory systems. Frequent or high exposure to second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke causes respiratory infections that impair lung function and triggers lung cancer development through cell damage, mitosis, and apoptosis. The toxic substances found in second-hand smoke, including carcinogens, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and nitrosamines, have a significant association with squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Although some previously conducted studies showed no significant association between passive smoking and lung cancer, recent studies provide substantial evidence between their associations. Thus, exposure to passive smoke increases the risks of lung cancer.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Dealing with tuberculosis: factors of the tuberculosis medication
           adherence among marginalized communities: a scoping literature review

    • Authors: Shamema Nasrin, N. M. Rabiul Awal Chowdhury
      Pages: 2544 - 2558
      Abstract: Marginalized communities have a prolonged experience of Tuberculosis (TB) with high prevalence. The rationalization behind the high rate is often indicted due to low medication adherence and its cultural and economic aspects. This scoping literature review assessed the influencing factors of patient TB medicine adherence, examined the conceptualization of factors, and determined the gaps related to TB medicine adherence presented in the empirical studies. Three electronic databases had been searched for selecting relevant studies published from 2000 to 2020 March. Studies associated with original research, review, classical and comparative articles on infectious TB in marginalized communities were considered under selection criteria. Finally, thirty articles met the inclusion criteria throughout the Prisma flow diagram; charting table and study characteristics have formed; results were discussed based on the study findings. Indigenous people, ethnic minorities, migrant communities, homeless, prisoners, alcohol and drug users, foreign-born, the working class, sex workers, and immune-compromised individuals suffer more from TB than the mainstream population. The concept of TB medication adherence has been illustrated as a socio-cultural and economic problem, personal beliefs, and the TB recipient's practices regarding illness and health-seeking behaviors. Most of the studies focused on the subjectified experiences of people because the 'recipient's/ patient's perspectives' on medicine adherence were being viewed by outsider’s approach. Few studies recommend prospective learning from the recipient's point of view; examine and conceptualize the political-economic factors for intensifying medication adherence. These records may use further to perform and estimate programs for better health consequences.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Difference between breast milk jaundice and breast-feeding jaundice:
           literature review

    • Authors: Rabie Abdul Hakim Shihab, Ahmed Mohammad Bin Samman, Fotoun Abubaker Aqeel, Ziyad Tawfik Ghabrah, Omar Tawfik Ghabrah, Abdullah Nizar Ghannam, Abdulrahman Hassan Alasmari, Hessa Abdulkareem Abahussain, Abdulaziz Abdulrhman Alsulami, Samia Mhros Alamri, Rawan Abdulrahman Babader, Doaa Ahmed Aljehani
      Pages: 2559 - 2563
      Abstract: Evidence shows that the different etiologies of neonatal jaundice, including breastfeeding and breast milk jaundice, have many different aspects. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review to compare breastfeeding and breast milk jaundice, ehich will furtherly help physicians and healthcare practitioners to have adequate information to properly establish an accurate diagnosis. The precise cause of breast milk jaundice is unclear. The majority of the suggested etiologies include factors found in human breast milk. Other theories point to possible genetic defects in the infected neonates. It has been reported that pregnane-3a,20ß-diol, epidermal growth factor, interleukin (IL)1ß, alpha-fetoprotein, and ß-glucuronidase are several factors that are solid constituents of the breast milk which may attribute to the development of this jaundice. Reports showed that breast milk jaundice usually develops in 20-30% of U.S. neonates, and most of whom are breastfed. Moreover, studies showed that more than one-third of infants on breastfeeding will eventually have high serum bilirubin levels that are ≥5 mg/dl. Evidence showed that the diagnosis should be considered when the levels of serum bilirubin exceed 5 mg/dl. Breast milk jaundice will usually fade away with no interventions, and in some cases, phototherapy inauguration and breast milk discontinuation might be needed. In breastfeeding jaundice, serum bilirubin levels usually peak within the first five or six days of life due to wrong or inadequate breastfeeding practices, and the management should be done by correcting these habits, while phototherapy might be applied when the bilirubin levels exceed 18-20 mg/dl.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Nutritional and medicinal values of common green leafy vegetables consumed
           in Delta State, Nigeria: a review

    • Authors: Taiwo Esther Dada, Kekere Otitoloju, Randy Adjonu, Judith Crockett, Ezekiel Uba Nwose
      Pages: 2564 - 2571
      Abstract: Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) play an important role in human nutrition. In sub-Saharan African countries, GLVs are a vital source of essential micronutrients, and their consumption has long been a part of the cultural heritage of African households. In Nigeria, GLVs are either cooked as a stew or consumed raw and used as a main or a supporting dish. These GLVs have great nutritional and medicinal value. It is hypothesized that providing knowledge about the botanical description, nutritional and medicinal benefits to consumers could improve consumption, but much of existing knowledge is poorly documented and inaccessible. This paper aims to address this gap by collating information on some consumed in Delta State, Nigeria: African jointfir (Gnetum africanum, locally known as Ukazi), jute mallow, (Corchorus olitorius, locally known as Malafiya), and cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), giant yellow mulberry (Myrianthus arboreus), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and bush buck, (Gongronema latifolium, locally known as Utazi) leaves.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • A review of Lassa fever cases in Nigeria for the year 2020

    • Authors: Iveren Winifred Nyinoh, Laura Nguoron Utume, Ooja Bob-Echikwonye
      Pages: 2572 - 2575
      Abstract: Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic disease endemic in west Africa and the knowledge of its epidemiology is important in the prevention of infection. In Nigeria, LF occurs majorly in the dry months and individuals in rural communities are mostly infected, however, there have been reports of a shift to urban households. Clinical symptoms vary and may be non-specific thus making diagnosis challenging. In this paper, we reported data routinely collected in 2020 from all individuals diagnosed with LF in Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigerian centre for disease control (NCDC) website online. Out of 6791 suspected cases from 30 December 2019 to 3 January 2020 there were 1189 laboratory-confirmed cases and 244 deaths. By comparison to the same period in 2019 where there were 833 cases and 74 deaths, this represents an increase of 42.74% confirmed cases from 2019. Data indicates that there was a minimum of 1 confirmed case of LF in 131 local government areas across 27 of the 36 states. Ondo state Nigeria had the highest number of confirmed cases with 75%, which was followed by Edo (32%) and Ebonyi (7%). By age, the 21-30 year old were mostly affected. Collated data showed the numbers of LF cases are significantly increasing yearly. The results obtained will assist the government in mapping the disease and taking precautionary measures to prevent the spread of LF amongst individuals in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Short versus long video-based lectures as a tool for faculty development
           during COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Ayman Z. Elsamanoudy, Rasha A. Aboukamer, Mohammed A. Hassanien
      Pages: 2576 - 2581
      Abstract: With emerge of the COVID-19 pandemic, video-based lectures (VBLs) was widely used as an effective online faculty development tool. VBLs varies from short videos (5-minute) to the long one (1-2 hours). So, the current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of long VBLs versus short VBLs. A total of 21 short (9) and long (12) VBLs were produced, in 2020, by the authors. The metadata for all of VBLs was downloaded from YouTube [VBLs overview data, audiences’ engagement data, and audience retention (AR) report]. The viewership data included the number of views (4800), watch time by hours (173.6), males to females’ ratio (79/21), the number of the subscribers (157), the video length (2.9±1.2 minutes), number of viewers (241.1±157.8), and the watch time (5.1±3.3 hours). The audience retention is presented as average view duration (1.1±0.4 hours) and average percentage view (42.8±7.9%). Lastly, audience engagement is represented by the number of subscribers (6.4±7.4), likes (9.7±8.0), and dislikes (0.3±0.7). The comparison of the mean audience retention and engagement between short and long VBLs showed that short VBLs had significantly higher number of subscribers and likes as well as the average percentage views in comparison to long VBLs. We could conclude that short VBLs are more effective and efficient as a regard audience retention and engagement. Moreover, the more use of advanced technology for video development makes it more engaging.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Effect of telemedicine on diabetic treatment and complications

    • Authors: Hamed Saeed Al-Ghamdi, Abdelrahman Abdrabou Eldabbari, Salma Awadh Alharthi, Shahad Abdulbasit Alhutami, Mohammed Omar Aljiffry, Sultana Saadaldeen Alsharif, Ahmad Maeesh Alqurashi, Saeed Abdulsattar Mohammed, Maram Adnan Rawah, Mona Saleh Almalki, Taghreed Jaman Alotaibi
      Pages: 2582 - 2587
      Abstract: Investigations have also reported that the efficacy of telemedicine in the easy delivery of information and provision of regular patient-doctor interaction and therefore, enhancing the quality of care of diabetics and reducing the risk of developing severe complications. In the present study, we aimed to discuss telemedicine use in the management of diabetic complications, depending on information from studies within the literature. Overall, telemedicine assists patients to properly maintain basic and adequate levels of blood glucose levels through continuous reminders. Therefore, the application of this modality requires patients to have home-based assessment devices for the regular monitoring of the blood glucose levels. Moreover, the modality also enhances the connection between the patient and the physicians which make the patient at an ease of being able to communicate with the doctor whenever necessary and therefore, this might have a positive psychological impact on these patients. Moreover, telemedicine can provide patients with adequate treatment schedules that might help patients comply with their drugs. Additionally, it can provide the most appropriate dietary components that can also help in achieving the best intervention, with the necessary supervision. Although there is good evidence about the efficacy of telemedicine as an efficacious modality in the treatment of diabetes and management of complications, the evident application in the healthcare settings is still poor. The main reason behind such lack of proper application is the potential lack of adequate financial support, lack of experienced staff dealing with the modalities and maintaining the best quality of care for the patients.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Short stature among girl child: a psychological burden or a social
           stigma-a review

    • Authors: Karishma Sharma, Brijendra Singh, Manisha Naithani, Rishita Chandra, Prashant K. Verma
      Pages: 2588 - 2591
      Abstract: Short stature (SS) is defined as “height below the third percentile or less than two standard deviations below the median height for that age and sex according to the population standard”. Short stature is not itself a pathology or disease but sometimes may be present as a manifestation of some underlying pathological condition. This condition is seen to impact adversely on the psychological wellbeing of the affected individuals and gives rise to the social stigma which further worsens the quality of life of short-statured persons. Hence, there is a need to acknowledge and break this stigma thereby improving the psychological wellbeing of the short-statured population.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Psychology of pandemics and fear of epidemic

    • Authors: M. Naveed Uddin, Mohsin Uddin
      Pages: 2592 - 2596
      Abstract: Infectious outbreaks have stirred the psychological health and mental wellbeing of individuals on a global basis. It is evident from the 1918 influenza in addition to the current COVID-19. Psychological factors are significant for comprehension and overseeing cultural issues related with pandemics, like the spreading of extreme dread, anxiety, and xenophobia that happen when individuals are compromised with infection. The research aims to identify how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected individual’s psychological wellbeing and how the psychodynamic approach can resolve such an issue. Developing a sense of detachment from oneself and the growing fear of being infected significantly affects an individual psychological wellbeing. This analysis concentrates predominantly on applying the psychodynamic approach to ascertain individual’s psychological threats during the COVID-19 crisis. This research focuses on revealing the variations generated from the psyche of individuals due to the COVID-19. It also aims to highlight the impact that COVID-19 have created on the mental health of individual beings. Moreover, the pandemic consequence on the individual’s overall lifestyle has discussed in the study.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Infant oral health care: a review on parent’s role in infant oral

    • Authors: Raghavendr Singh, Medha Lakhanam
      Pages: 2597 - 2600
      Abstract: The maintenance and prevention of oral health is one of major concern of parents. Dental caries is one of most common oral manifestation because of lack of knowledge and improper techniques. The first visit should be planned at early ages only so that proper guidance and knowledge should be imparted to the parent to prevent oral diseases. The first visit should include oral screening, oral habit monitoring, Brushing technique demonstration and fluoride application if needed. There should be more involvement to strengthen the role of pediatricians’ in children’s oral health requires an understanding of their current knowledge and practice. In this scoping review, we aimed to comprehensively map what is known about the knowledge and practice of parents regarding children’s oral health.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • The road to universal health coverage: an overview of global and Indian

    • Authors: Anugraha John, Hari Teja Avirneni, Sinthu Sarathamani Swaminathan
      Pages: 2601 - 2604
      Abstract: The declaration of World Health Assembly in the year 2005 paved the way for all the member states to plan for the transition towards universal coverage to their respective citizens. This was underpinned by the notion that access to quality basic and essential health services has to be made available for everyone to combat poverty and to achieve the developmental goals worldwide. This global movement towards universal coverage is considered as one of the greatest transitions in health, the other being the demographic transition and epidemiological transition. Since the adoption of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the road taken by each country to achieve UHC is diverse and unique to its culture, needs of people and health systems in the respective country. However, all these approaches have a commonality of promoting and providing health insurance as an important mechanism to achieve UHC. Providing health insurance to ensure health coverage for all the citizens has been well tested and proved to be a viable option. But, addressing other needs and requirements of health systems such as expansion of health infrastructure, reinforcement of the health care workforce and reorganization of the existing health systems in line with newer policies is also extremely important.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Bone and mineral disorders among Saudi diabetics

    • Authors: Muhammad Mahmood Akhtar, Abdulaziz Saad Alghamdi, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alshehri, Hussain Zaki Alfaraj, Abdullah Mohammed Alshamrani, Anoud Abdulrazzag Althagafi, Elaf Abdulqader Bahanshel, Muataz Abdulmoghni Aljunaid, Mohammad Abbas AlAjlani, Mohammed Ali Al-Khathami, Mohammed Mana Alqahtani
      Pages: 2605 - 2608
      Abstract: Increasing bone and mineral changes which caused by both diabetes type 1 and type 2 can raise fracture risks for a period of time during illness and low blood sugar levels. The connection between diabetes and bone fragility is further complicated by the variable effects on the skeleton by various diabetic medications. Diabetic patients are at a higher risk of bone and mineral density alterations, osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Diabetic patients are often susceptible to develop various conditions due to malnutrition, uncontrolled blood sugar and lack of proper follow up regiment. Diabetics should be tested for osteoporosis risk and given effective prevention strategies. Preventing osteoporosis would require interventions such as sufficient vitamin D and calcium intake, physical exercise and exposure to sunlight.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Awareness about the carcinoma breast and the practices related to self-
           breast examination among women in developing countries

    • Authors: Shipra ., Reema Kumari, G. N. Singh
      Pages: 2609 - 2613
      Abstract: The aim of this review article was to evaluate the awareness of carcinoma breast and practices related to self- breast examination among women in developing countries. The study included the exploration of databases and journal websites, pub med, google scholar, and medline. The articles studied for the review were focused on english language articles from the year 2013 to 2019. This review focused on knowledge of breast cancer and its risk factors among women. Fifteen articles were reviewed on this topic from the year 2013 to 2019 in which general awareness level of breast cancer was probably better than the knowledge of risk factor, sign and symptoms. It also shows that although awareness and knowledge regarding Breast cancer was satisfactory but the knowledge of self-breast examination was low and practice of self-breast examination was least in developing countries. So, awareness programs related to breast cancer should be planned, to ensure early detection and timely treatment for better outcome.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Effectiveness of hand splints on upper limb skills and functional
           activities in children with cerebral palsy: a review

    • Authors: Rohina Kumari, Surbhi ., Sakshi Saharawat
      Pages: 2614 - 2618
      Abstract: Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder in which children may experience similar physical limitations, including those related to upper limb skills that affect the child's ability to participate in age-specific activities. The use of hand-splints in children with neurological conditions is little reported, they continue to be widely used to improve upper limb skills and functional activities. This review was done to investigate the use and effects of hand splints in Cerebral Palsy patient as orthotic treatment found to be very positive result in correcting and maintaining the achieved results. Electronic database search was conducted using Google scholar, Science direct, Pub Med, Cochrane Library and reference lists from all retrieved articles. Common problems in upper limb due to CP are flexion contractures of the fingers and wrist due to spasticity, pronation deformity of the forearm, thumb-in-palm deformity and hand-related disabilities, all lead to decrease in grip and muscle strength. Hand splints are often used to help a weak or ineffective joint or muscle to enhance a person's arm or hand posture, mobility, quality of motion, and function. The findings suggest that children with CP experience increased grip strength and fine motor dexterity when using different hand splints. This review summarizes the present state of understanding the extent to which orthotic management in CP can improve in the patient’s skills and functional activities by improving the muscle strength and hand function, also offers clinical suggestions for prescribing orthosis in order to optimize efficacy.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Oromucosal lesions in women smokers: an Indian perspective

    • Authors: Vaishali Waghmare Shende, Shruti Kaushik, Indu Nagpal
      Pages: 2619 - 2621
      Abstract: Women smoking is looked down upon by Indian society. However, a young woman smoking is not a rare sight on college campuses in metro cities. Substantial body of literature indicates that nicotine is the major component which leads to addiction. The habit which starts to look cool and fashionable in no time becomes an addiction. Indian society, which doesn’t acknowledge that women are indulging in smoking, makes the whole fight about tobacco addiction a turbulent journey. As society doesn’t accept that women smoke, there is no need to create awareness about its gendered impact. The study was undertaken by evaluating the oromucosal conditions and haemoglobin levels of 100 women smokers. Smokers’ palate, smoking associated pigmentation on lips and calculus deposits were observed in most of the participants. The participants were not aware about the hormonal issues and detrimental side effects of smoking to their health.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
  • Continuing COVID vaccination will break the chain of virus transmission:
           myth or reality

    • Authors: Achhelal R. Pasi
      Pages: 2622 - 2624
      Abstract: As countries roll out vaccines that prevent COVID-19, many scientists are reluctant to say with certainty that the vaccines prevent person to person transmission. All the vaccines authorised for emergency use do this,however there are no conclusive evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine prevents the infection. The limited data available suggests that the vaccines will at least partly reduce transmission, and the studies to determine this with more clarity are underway. One should wait for more data and conclusive evidence to make a statement like “ongoing COVID vaccination will break the chain of transmission”. A vaccine that is highly effective at preventing people from acquiring infection would help to reduce transmission, and till then we need to follow the COVID prevention measures. The best way to prevent infection from COVID-19 is to avoid exposure to the virus.aCOVID-19 is the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) whose main mode of transmission between people, is when an infected person is in close contact with another person, apart from fomite and airborne transmission. Infection occurs when virus enters in the body and begin to multiply while disease occurs when the cells in the body are damaged — as a result of the infection — and signs and symptoms of an illness appear. Approximately 40% to 45% of those infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain asymptomatic and asymptomatic persons can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections have been demonstrated to present with viral loads similar to symptomatic infections. Contact tracing and modelling studies suggest presymptomatic and asymptomatic patients are responsible for approximately 50% of all COVID-19 transmission events.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2021)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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