Publisher: Medip Academy   (Total: 12 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Research in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Research in Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Surgery J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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International Journal of Clinical Trials
Number of Followers: 3  

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ISSN (Print) 2349-3240 - ISSN (Online) 2349-3259
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • The effect of hydrotherapy according to Halliwick concept on children with
           cerebral palsy and the evaluation of their balance: a randomised clinical

    • Authors: Konstantinos Chandolias, Evangelia Zarra, Anna Chalkia, Alexandra Hristara
      Pages: 234 - 242
      Abstract: Background: Hydrotherapy according to Halliwick concept is a physiotherapeutic intervention technique for disabled patients and for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Assessing the balance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is an extremely complex process and more difficult to evaluate the results of some therapeutic interventions in these patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Halliwick based Hydrotherapy on the support base in children with CP. Several studies have proven the beneficial effects of hydrotherapy in the respiratory system of children, but few are studies that report the effect on the balance of children with CP.Methods: The study involved 16 children diagnosed with CP. The 10 children were following a Halliwick Concept hydrotherapy program and the 6 children classical physiotherapy program for 3 months. Their balance was assessed with the Berg, GMFM, and footprint plate. The assessment was performed at the start of the program (pre-test) and after 3 months (post-test).Results: Τhere is a statistically significant change between the 1st and 2nd measurement with the BERG and GMFM tools and better for the water intervention group. The change in the support base between the 1st and 2nd measurement was better in the water intervention group but not statistically significant.Conclusions: The results of the study showed that hydrotherapy according to Halliwick has positive effects on gross mobility and the balance of children with CP. It also appears to have a positive effect on changing the support base compared to classical physiotherapy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222656
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Effect of addition of antispasmodic to local and systemic analgesics on
           pain perception during hysterosalpingography: a randomized controlled

    • Authors: Enefia Kelvin Kiridi, Peter Chibuzor Oriji, Akaninyene Eseme Ubom, Johnpatrick Uchenna Ugwoegbu, Addah Abegnigo Ojanerohan, Isaac Joel Abasi, Bosrotsi Panebi, Adesina Adedotun Daniel
      Pages: 243 - 250
      Abstract: Background: Tubal factor is responsible for most of the causes of infertility, especially in our environment, and hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the investigation of choice for assessing tubal patency. Objective of current study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of intramuscular hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (HBB) to local and systemic analgesics on pain perception during hysterosalpingography.Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the radiology departments and infertility clinics of four health institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, from January 2020 to April 2022. One thousand and forty infertile women undergoing hysterosalpingography were randomized into four groups, and each group administered four different pain relief methods. Pain scores at different steps of the procedure were recorded. Data were analysed using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions for Windows®, version 25. Student’s t-test was used to compare sample means, while the chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of women in the two study groups, who expressed pain during the procedure.Results: The Paracervical block+HBB appeared to the most effective agent for pain relief in the study as women receiving this medication indicated the least pain intensity scores at all levels of the procedure except at the insertion of the speculum. The differences observed in the indicated pain intensity scores were also statistically significant (p<0.05).Conclusions: Our study revealed that adding HBB, an antispasmodic agent, to diclofenac and paracervical block significantly reduces pain perception during HSG compared to using diclofenac and paracervical block alone.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222687
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • A randomized observational study into the pattern of hearing loss in
           chronic suppurative otitis media

    • Authors: Sucheta Gupta, Vinod Gupta
      Pages: 251 - 254
      Abstract: Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important and a highly prevalent disease of the middle ear and poses serious health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the association between CSOM and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and to study of pattern of hearing loss and clinical factors and demographic variables, if any, that might affect sensorineural component, in CSOM in North-Indian population.Methods: A randomized observational study was conducted on 120 patients, in the age-group of 1 to 50 years, divided into two groups of 60 each: who had safe CSOM and unsafe CSOM, over a period of 6 months, i.e., from: July 2021 to December 2021, in the department of otorhinolaryngology and head neck surgery, CHC, Chenani, Udhampur, J and K, India.Results: Out of 60 patients under safe CSOM, Male: Female ratio stood at 1:1.14 (i.e., 28:32). Mean duration ± SD of the disease stood at: 6.2±5.09 years. Incidence of hearing loss was observed in 93 (77.5%) patients of conductive type and 27 (22.5%) patients of mixed type and 19 patients (31.67%) were of unsafe mixed type. Maximum incidence of 35% was in the age group of 41-50 years and minimum in 11-20 years i.e., 7.32%. Total incidence of SNHL 16.67%.Conclusions: A significant association between SNHL and CSOM was found in this study, with incidence of SNHL increasing with advancing age, showing that age as a risk factor for sensorineural component of hearing loss in CSOM.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Long-term efficacy and safety of RazumabTM (biosimilar ranibizumab) in
           Indian patients with retinal diseases: results from retrospective REAR
           RD-2 study

    • Authors: Shashikant Sharma, Alok Chaturvedi, Nilanj Dave, Ankita Shah
      Pages: 255 - 262
      Abstract: Background: To evaluate risk factors associated with retinal diseases and efficacy and safety of RazumabTM (biosimilar ranibizumab) in the management of retinal diseases in Indian patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV).Methods: In the retrospective, observational REAR RD-2 study, all patients with retinal diseases who were treated with biosimilar ranibizumab were included from multiple Indian sites. The demographic parameters, disease characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Efficacy assessments included improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and decrease in central subfield thickness (CSFT), intra-retinal fluid (IRF) and sub-retinal fluid (SRF) from baseline to week 48.Results: Data of 1422 patients (wet AMD-27.57%; DME-30.7%, RVO-33.47%; mCNV-5.48%), who were treated with biosimilar ranibizumab, was analyzed. The most common age group of patients was 61-70 years (36.6%). The most common ocular risk factor identified was glaucoma (24.90%). A total of 85.72% patients were treatment naïve and 14.28% were previously treated patients. Biosimilar ranibizumab treatment resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvements in the mean BCVA and CSFT, and the proportion of patients with IRF and SRF was significantly reduced throughout the treatment. No new safety concerns with biosimilar ranibizumab were observed.Conclusions: Retinal diseases are more common in the age group of 61-70 years. Glaucoma was the most common ocular risk factor identified for retinal diseases. Long-term treatment with biosimilar ranibizumab was effective and well-tolerated in retinal diseases including wAMD, DME, RVO and mCNV in real-world Indian scenario.  
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222610
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Real-world utilization and acceptance of tacrolimus-based
           immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients in India

    • Authors: Lav Patel, Shreekant Sharma, Deepak Bunger
      Pages: 263 - 267
      Abstract: Background: The objectives of the study were to describe the demographics and utilization pattern of tacrolimus (TAC)-based immunosuppressive regimens in recipients with solid organ transplant in India.Methods: This real-world, multicenter (134 centers), retrospective analysis included data of solid organ transplant recipients between 2010 and 2022 who had received TAC-based immunosuppressive therapy. The study data was collected between April 2021 and March 2022.Results: Data of a total of 1022 recipients with kidney transplant (KT, n=899) or liver transplant (LT, n=123) who received TAC-based immunosuppression was analyzed. The mean age of recipients among KT and LT was 41.04±10.62 and 42.88±11.32 years, respectively. The most common diseases leading to end stage organ failure were diabetes (24.7%), hypertension (15.8%), concomitant diabetes and hypertension (14.9%), chronic kidney disease (9.2%), nephrotic syndrome (5%), and end stage renal disease (ESRD, 4.4%) in KT recipients, whereas for LT, the common indications were liver cirrhosis (32.5%), hepatitis B viral infection (11.4%), alcoholic liver disease (10.6%), fatty liver disease (12, 9.8%) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, 5.7%). The source of transplant was living donor in majority of both KT (91.2%) and LT (77.2%) recipients. The most common induction regimen in KT was anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), TAC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroid (ATG+TAC+MMF+steroid, 42.3%) whereas in LT, it was TAC+MMF+steroid (67.5%); TAC+MMF+steroid was most common maintenance regimen (KT: 91.1%, LT: 78%).Conclusions: Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is widely used in the recipients of solid organ transplantation, including KT or LT in real‑world clinical practice in India.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222626
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • The effectiveness of a specialized hydrotherapy program based on Halliwick
           concept in the transition from supine to sitting of children with cerebral
           palsy: a randomised control trial

    • Authors: Konstantinos Chandolias, Chrysoula Moscolouri, Paris Iakovidis, Alexandra Hristara-Papadopoulou, Ilias Kallistratos
      Pages: 268 - 273
      Abstract: Background: Halliwick concept focus on people with disabilities, to participate in water activities and move independently. Many studies found a considerable improvement and positive outcomes in children that were included in hydrotherapy programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the Halliwick hydrotherapy in combination with on-land intervention, versus only on-land treatment, on the supine-sitting transition and head symmetry.Methods: 54 children with cerebral palsy (CP), two groups, the intervention group-water (N=28) (1 water and 1 on land treatment) and the control group-on land (N=26) (2 treatments on land). The duration was 3 months and the assessment via gross motor function measure (GMFM), parameter B, questions 18-37, and head angle via the Kinovea software.Results: In GMFM before intervention the mean value of the intervention group was 69.632 (±13.1269), while for the control group was 61.227 (±20.4681) and after for intervention group was 75.757 (±12.3766), 6.125% improvement, while for control group was 65.308 (±20.6663), 4.081% improvement. In the sitting head angle before intervention, the mean value of intervention group was 19.36 (±9.639) while for the control group was 20.15 (± 11.199) and after for the intervention group was 13.93 (±7.333), 5.43o improvement, while for control group was 16.46 (±9.205), 3.69o improvement.Conclusions: The addition of intervention in water in combination with intervention on land in the rehabilitation program of children with cerebral palsy can lead to a statistically significant increase in the effectiveness of the therapeutic program.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222657
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • A mapping review protocol for toothbrush design

    • Authors: Smruti Divate, Zac Morse
      Pages: 274 - 278
      Abstract: Background: A universal method of dental home care regimen has been toothbrushing. It aids with dental biofilm and plaque removal in an attempt to prevent chronic oral diseases. Although many comparative studies have been conducted on toothbrushes and their efficacy in plaque removal, there has been no systematic mapping review focusing on toothbrush design, ease of use and safety. This mapping review aims to map key concepts, categorise existing themes and identify gaps in existing literature for future primary or scoping studies.Methods: The protocol for this mapping review has been designed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines. Primary and secondary studies, guidelines, and reports about the design, ease of use and safety of toothbrushes will be considered for inclusion in this mapping review. Four databases (Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Scopus) and three sources of unpublished literature (Cochrane Library, Google, and Google Scholar) will be searched using the JBI proposed three-stage search strategy by reviewers independently. A PRISMA-ScR flowchart will be utilised to document the numbers of identified, screened, and excluded sources. Data will be extracted using a data extraction table designed by the reviewers. Extracted data will be summarised and presented in diagrammatic and tabular forms, accompanied by a narrative explanation.Conclusions: Examining the existing literature on toothbrush design is fundamental to guide future research, design innovations, and improve oral health.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222376
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Fitness in recovery: impact of exercise in people with substance use
           disorder in residential treatment

    • Authors: Rhiannon J. Dowla, Carolyn Stubley, Bridin Murnion, Elizabeth Cayanan, Yorgi Mavros, Scarlett Hardy, Kieron Rooney
      Pages: 279 - 285
      Abstract: Background: Opioid use disorder has the lowest quality of life (QOL) and highest disease burden of all substance use disorders (SUD). While opioid treatment does lead to initial improvements in QOL it remains below that of the general population. The integration of exercise programs as an adjunct therapy for SUD is gaining popularity. Previous reviews have indicated that exercise offers significant benefits for QOL, however the evidence in an opioid treatment population is lacking. This study will investigate the impact of a 12-week exercise intervention on QOL and mood in a residential opioid treatment rehabilitation program.Methods: This is a 12-week single arm intervention with a natural history control. Participants will complete a baseline screening assessing QOL, mood and exercise habits and those who meet criteria for exercise participation will complete an exercise assessment. The exercise program will be delivered twice per week as part of the group therapy program. Exercise sessions will run for approximately 40 minutes and be at an intensity selected by each of the participants.Conclusions: A recent review indicated that two sessions of exercise for a minimum of 12 weeks leads to an improvement in QOL in general SUD, however, to date minimal studies have been completed in people receiving opioid agonist treatment. Hence, this will be the first study to our knowledge, assessing the role of exercise as an adjunct treatment for QOL in this population.Trial Registration: This trial has been registered with the Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry ACTRN12622000213741.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222688
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • The stigma of mental health, homelessness and intellectual disability,
           development of a national stigma survey with an intersectional gender

    • Authors: Sara Zamorano, Clara González-Sanguino, Iván Sánchez-Iglesias, Jesús Sáiz, María Salazar, Carlos Vaquero, Ana I. Guillén, Irene Muñoz-Lara, Manuel Muñoz
      Pages: 286 - 292
      Abstract: Background: Social stigma towards people with mental health problems, homeless people or people with intellectual disabilities leads to a significant restriction of their human rights. Such stigma, which is associated with different conditions of vulnerability, has been assessed over time through surveys. However, intersectional stigma due to gender is often not assessed in these studies as they only analyse the data for this variable separately. Therefore, presented here is the first national survey in Spain on the social stigma associated with mental health problems, homelessness and intellectual disability. This proposal considers the importance of gender and intersectional stigma.Methods: A qualitative-quantitative methodology is used by means of a computer assisted web interviewing survey. A gender perspective is proposed both in the development of the questions and in the measurement and analysis of the data. To this end, three versions of the questionnaire are developed: a neutral, a male and a female version.Conclusions: The results are intended to have an impact on social and equality policies for people with mental disorders, homeless people and people with intellectual disabilities.Trial Registration: The study has the approval of the deontological commission of the faculty of psychology and is registered in clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222689
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Immunophenotype and genetic risk scores to improve autoantibody negative
           type 1 diabetes classification: study protocol

    • Authors: Shivani K. Patel, Cindy S. Ma, Kirstine J. Bell, Richard Oram, William A. Hagopian, Spiros Fourlanos, Jerry R. Greenfield
      Pages: 293 - 299
      Abstract: Background: An estimated 10-30% of type 1 diabetes (T1D) individuals do not have detectable autoantibodies at diagnosis, thus are classified as “idiopathic” or “non-immune.” Given the non-pathogenic role of islet autoantibodies, the validity of excluding an immune basis for disease in such individuals needs to be questioned. The pan-autoantibody negative type 1 diabetes in adults (PANDA) study aims to characterise the immune, clinical and metabolic phenotype of autoantibody negative T1D individuals.Methods: This is a two-part, multi-centre study which is recruiting 100 participants: autoantibody positive T1D (N=25), autoantibody negative T1D (N=25), latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (N=25) and age- and sex-matched normoglycaemic control (N=25) individuals. Study 1 involves baseline pathology collection and high dimensional immune-phenotyping using flow cytometry. DNA will be extracted from saliva samples to calculate type 1 diabetes genetic risk scores (T1DGRS). Autoantibody negative individuals will undergo monogenic diabetes testing. Study 2 is a prospective, longitudinal sub-study of study 1 participants within 5 years of diagnosis. Beta cell function will be assessed using glucagon stimulated C-peptide at 0, 9 and 18 months. The primary outcome of study 1 is to determine the phenotype of immune cells in autoantibody positive and negative T1D compared to healthy controls. Secondary outcomes of study 1 include clinical and metabolic characteristics and the T1DGRS. The primary outcome of study 2 is the rate of decline of stimulated C-peptide over time. Conclusions: The PANDA study is the first study of its kind which aims to improve diagnosis and characterisation of autoantibody negative T1D.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222690
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Predicting antipsychotic-induced weight gain in first episode psychosis-a
           protocol for a field-wide systematic review of prognostic factor studies

    • Authors: Ita Fitzgerald, Erin K. Crowley, Amy Byrne, Jean O’Connell, Joie Ensor, Ciara Ní Dhubhlaing, Sarah O'Dwyer, Laura J. Sahm
      Pages: 300 - 313
      Abstract: Background: One significant complexity associated with management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is extensive interindividual variability amongst patients in initial susceptibility to AIWG, time to plateau of weight gain, and resultant final amount of weight gained. Prior to antipsychotic commencement, risk-stratified information highlighting those at increased risk of experiencing significant AIWG would allow tailored weight monitoring and subsequent management protocols to be developed.Methods: This protocol is for a planned systematic review to identify the current utility of baseline clinical, sociodemographic, and biological prognostic factors in predicting the likelihood of significant AIWG occurring prior to antipsychotic commencement. The cohort assessed will be antipsychotic-naïve adults with a first episode of psychosis. Searches for both randomised and prospective non-randomised studies will be undertaken by searching four electronic databases and two trial registers, followed by reference searching, forward citation searching and liaison with content experts. A meta-analysis of study results will be undertaken where study quality and homogeneity allow. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework modified for prognostic research will be used to assess evidence certainty. This protocol was prepared in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Protocols guideline and latest guidance from the Prognosis Methods Group of the Cochrane Collaboration.Results: This review will establish the current quantity, quality and clinical utility of evidence addressing the prognostic association of clinical, biological, and sociodemographic factors in prospectively identifying those more likely to experience significant AIWG.Registration details: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021258148.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222691
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • An exploratory, randomised, crossover study to investigate the effect of a
           nicotine containing electronic cigarette on appetite in healthy adult
           smokers, after a period of smoking abstinence: study protocol

    • Authors: Olivia K. O’Shea, Harry J. Green, Helen L. Philpott, Nik Newland
      Pages: 314 - 320
      Abstract: Background: Many individuals continue to smoke despite the known harmful effects of cigarette smoking. Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy that seeks to reduce or prevent projected harm caused by cigarette smoke via encouraging smokers, who would otherwise continue to smoke, to switch to products with reduced risk profiles (such as e‑cigarettes). Research shows smoking can influence numerous physiological and psychological functions such as appetite, cognitive function and emotion. For some smokers, the loss of such effects upon cessation has been cited as an incentive to resume smoking. The effect of e‑cigarettes (and other non-combustible alternatives to cigarette smoking) on the above-described physiological and psychological functions has not been widely researched. Such information may be important for more thoroughly evaluating the proposition that smokers seeking alternatives may find e-cigarettes a satisfactory substitute for conventional cigarettes.Methods: This randomised, partially blinded, crossover study will test the hypothesis that use of a nicotine containing e-cigarette can influence appetite to the same extent as a combustible cigarette following a period of nicotine abstinence in current smokers. Up to 40 current smokers will be recruited into the study. Enrolment started in February 2021 and the results from the study are expected in 2022.Conclusions: The data from this study will be a valuable addition to the growing body of literature about the potential of e-cigarettes as a satisfactory and viable long-term alternative to cigarettes for existing smokers.Trial Registration: This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN72435551.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222692
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Ergonomics in oral health professions: a mapping review protocol

    • Authors: Shiba Roby, Zac Morse
      Pages: 321 - 327
      Abstract: Background: Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary science that studies how humans and other system elements interact and a profession that uses theory, concepts, data, and methodologies to improve human well-being and overall system performance. Oral health professionals need good working ergonomics to preserve their work competence, efficiency, and high clinical level of treatment throughout their careers. For various working practices, clinical procedures, and patient types, they must adjust and ensure proper working postures, adequate illumination, and easy access to essential apparatus and materials. Although some systematic studies and original research have been conducted about different aspects of “ergonomics in oral health professions,” no mapping review has been shown. The authors believe a broad overview of existing literature is required to map existing research, determine research gaps, and guide future research.Methods: The protocol for this mapping review has been designed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for scoping studies (PRISMA-SCR) and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines. A comprehensive search strategy developed with an experienced liaison librarian for health will be used to search four databases and eight sources of unpublished literature. JBI’s proposed search approach will be used. A PRISMA-SCR flowchart will be used to track the number of recognised, screened, and excluded sources. A data extraction table will be used to collate critical information, supplemented with a narrative explanation, and presented in a tabular style.Conclusions: This mapping review will identify research gaps in this field and guide further studies.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222549
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Technology and its interventional value in patient-reported outcomes in
           cancer research, what is next'

    • Authors: Luis Mendoza
      Pages: 328 - 330
      Abstract: For cancer patients, health-related quality of life (QOL) is a critical aspect of care management decision-making. In some cases, clinicians have even prioritized QOL over survival in patients with advanced cancer. Over time, patient-reported outcomes (PRO) have gained prominence in cancer research to capture aspects of a patient's health condition, reported directly by the patient through a questionnaire through scales validated in different moments. PROs are currently used as a research tool in clinical trials for cancer drug development to monitor and assess the psychological and cognitive well-being of patients and detect significant symptoms. In addition to QOL, several studies have suggested that PROs also improve patient outcomes and satisfaction. Retrospective analyses have shown that QOL and its early palliative care are a prognostic factor for survival in cancer patients. Although, such results were not confirmed by others who have reported after a systematic review of 24 controlled trials a limited statistically significant impact of PRO, and that the effect sizes of interventional PROs were small to moderate.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20222693
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
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