Publisher: Medip Academy   (Total: 12 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Intl. J. of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
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Intl. J. of Research in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Number of Followers: 10  

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ISSN (Print) 2349-3283 - ISSN (Online) 2349-3291
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Peak expiratory flow rate and its correlation with height among 6 to 14
           years children: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: A. Gunasekaran
      Pages: 1328 - 1332
      Abstract: Background: The objective of this research was to study the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) values and its correlation with height in children aged between 6 to 14 years and height.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 1205 children aged 6 to 14 years in department of paediatrics at a medical college hospital. In a pre-structured questionnaire, the age, sex, height and PEFR values were recorded. PEFR was considered as primary outcome variable. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis.Results: Among 1205 study participants, height showed a steady relationship with PEFR. As height increases PEFR increases progressively in both boys and girls. (R2=0.691). The linear regression model for PEFR with height of all age shows, one centimeter increase in height there was 5.1% increase in PEFR with a constant (-458.0) and a 95% confidence interval 4.9 to 5.3, a lesser R2=69.1% which was found to be statistically significant.Conclusions: The PEFR values derived and its height correlation in this study can be used as reference for children in and around Chennai district.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212779
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • A study to determine risk factors for renal scarring as detected by
           dimercaptosuccinic acid scan in children with urinary tract infection

    • Authors: Nisha Jacob Arackal Jacob, Seshagiri Koripadu, Harishchandra Venkata Yanamandala
      Pages: 1333 - 1338
      Abstract: Background: The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for renal scarring detected by DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) scan in children with culture-proven urinary tract infection (UTI).Methods: A hospital based observational case-control study was conducted from 2018 June to 2020 June in children aged between 1 month to 5 years who underwent a DMSA scan following culture-proven UTI (N=72). Of the children fulfilling the criteria, 43 had renal scarring in the DMSA scan as a case group and the remaining 29 children who had no renal scarring were taken as a control group.Results: Of the total 72 cases with culture-positive UTI, 59% of patients had renal scarring and the rest and 40% were scar negative. There was no significant difference in the renal scarring observed with respect to age in the two groups. There was significant (p<0.05) the association noted between renal scarring and VUR (vesicoureteric reflux). A significant difference was observed in the renal scarring between the two groups regarding the presence of recurrent UTI (p=0.000). Although most cases (97.7%) had a fever in the DMSA positive group, this was not a significant risk factor for scarring (p>0.05). In DMSA positive group, circumcision was not a significant risk factor for scarring.Conclusions: VUR and recurrent UTI were significant risk factors for renal scarring in children with culture-proven UTI as detected by DMSA scan. The other risk factors like age, sex, fever, leucocytosis and circumcision were not found to be significant. 
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212764
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of modified nitrite test for diagnosing urinary tract infection
           in pediatrics

    • Authors: N. Aravind Babu
      Pages: 1339 - 1342
      Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection causing illness in children. It may be difficult to recognize UTI in children because the presenting symptoms and signs are non-specific, particularly in younger children. In addition, urine collection and interpretation of urine tests in children are not easy, and therefore, it may not always be possible to confirm the diagnosis unequivocally. The study was conducted to evaluate the value of the modified nitrite test in diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) in children.Methods: The study included 150 children of both sexes, aged below 5 years, who were examined due to suspicion of UTI. The efficacy of the modified nitrite test to predict culture positivity was studied.Results: Modified nitrite test was positive in 14 out of the 26 culture-positive urine samples (sensitivity 53.85%). The specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 96.77%, 77.78%, and 90.91%. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 89.33%.Conclusions: Modified nitrite test is an effective rapid screening test for diagnosing pediatric UTI.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212878
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of SpO2, PaO2, FiO2 levels in developing retinopathy of
           prematurity

    • Authors: Porimal Kumar Das, Shubhra Prakash Paul, Md Shamim Parvej Ibne Halim, Mohammad Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohammad Monir Hossain, Mahfuza Shirin, A. H. M. Enayet Hossain, Puspanjali Biswas
      Pages: 1343 - 1348
      Abstract: Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease affecting the retinas in premature infants. In the treatment procedure of ROP, oxygen inhalation as well as the SpO2, PaO2, FiO2 levels analysis are some major concerns.Methods: This was a prospective COHORT study which was conducted at the special care baby unit (SCABU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of Dhaka shishu (children) hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2014. Total one hundred (100) neonates of both sexes were finalized as the study population. Data were processed and analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 17, EPI info 7.Results: We found statistically significant risk for ROP, RR 3.48 (2.61-4.64) but there was no risk associated with FiO2 (24-32) % or 33-40 % in inhaled air. SpO2 (95-99) % was present in 25 (78.13%) of ROP (positive) neonates and 16 (23.53%) in ROP (negative) neonates. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) between the groups and RR 4.8 (2.51-9.28) for saturation of 95-99%. Partial pressure of oxygen >150 mm of Hg present in 12 (37.50%) cases of ROP (positive) neonates and 6 (8.82%) in ROP (negative) neonates. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) between the groups and RR 2.90 (1.83-4.5) for partial pressure of oxygen (>150) but there was no risk for partial pressure of 70-99 and 100-150 mm of Hg.Conclusions: During oxygen therapy FiO2 value, SpO2 value and more precisely the PaO2 value on neonate should be maintained within a target range.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212879
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of maternal serum and neonatal cord blood levels of zinc in
           relation to birth weight and period of gestation

    • Authors: Shabbeer Ahmed, Avula Kanthi Sagar
      Pages: 1349 - 1354
      Abstract: Background: Women are at increased risk of zinc deficiency during pregnancy because of high fetal requirements for zinc. Severe maternal zinc deficiency has been associated with poor fetal growth, spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations (i.e., anencephaly), whereas milder forms of zinc deficiency have been associated with low birth weight (LBW), intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm delivery. However, the research relating maternal zinc status and birth weight has not produced consistent results. This study has been undertaken to confirm the association between maternal serum zinc concentration and birth weight and period of gestation in setting like India.Methods: A total of 100 new-borns were included and divided into two groups, the ‘study group’ had babies with birth weight <2.5 kg and control group’ with babies >2.5 kg birth weight. Cord blood from the new-borns and serum samples of mothers were collected and the zinc levels were measured.Results: The correlation of cord blood and the maternal serum zinc levels were assessed in relation to birth weight and the gestational age. The results were compared between the two groups. The difference in values between the two groups was statistically significant, maternal serum zinc levels and birth weight (84.78±21.62 vs 66.04±18.66) (‘P’ value 0.04), cord blood zinc levels and birth weight (98.44±22.59 vs 79.78±19.54) (‘P’ value <0.001). The maternal serum and cord blood zinc was compared between the preterm and term; the results were statistically significant.Conclusions: The maternal and cord blood levels of zinc are correlated well with the birth weight and the gestational age at delivery. Supplementation of zinc during gestation might help reduce the incidence of IUGR and the risk of prematurity.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212880
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Clinical profile and outcome of children with congenital heart diseases
           admitted with acute events in a paediatric tertiary care unit in North
           Karnataka

    • Authors: Ramaning Loni, Pruthvi Ranganath, Manisha Juvekar, Nitin Tikare, L. H. Bidari, M. M. Karva
      Pages: 1355 - 1361
      Abstract: Background: Congenital heart diseases are the predominant causes of paediatric morbidity and mortality. This study was done to know the clinical profile, various acute presentations, and risk factors for repeated hospitalizations and their outcome in children with congenital heart diseases.Methods: This prospective observational study of children in the age group of 0 hour-12 years, who were previously diagnosed and or newly diagnosed with congenital heart diseases.Results: A total of 102 children were present during the study period. The most common age group for congenital heart disease was infancy with 46.1% (47 cases) of children. Acyanotic heart diseases were observed in 73.5% (75 cases) of the total, followed by cyanotic CHD with 14.7% (15 cases), complex CHD with 9.8% (10 cases), and the least, valvular diseases with 2% (2 cases). The most usual presenting symptoms in children with CHDs were breathlessness with 66.7% (67 cases), followed by fever with 54.9% (56 cases) and cough with 48% (49 cases. In this study, 23.5% (24 cases) of the children were completely immunized. The protein-energy malnutrition was present in 51% of cases (52 cases). The 16.7% of them (17 cases) have got the motor developmental delay predominantly. The dysmorphic features were present in 19 cases (18.6%) of total cases. The chest X-ray findings were abnormal in 58.8% (60 cases). The most common risk factor(co-morbidity) in children with CHD was noticed to be anaemia in 43 cases (42.2%).Conclusions: The infancy and early childhood are the most common age group for the presentation of CHDs. Most of them had the associated risk factors (co-morbid) like nutritional anaemia, pneumonia, and failure to thrive.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212757
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Peak expiratory flow rate in children aged 6 to 14 years

    • Authors: A. Gunasekaran
      Pages: 1362 - 1365
      Abstract: Background: The objective of this study was to record the PEFR values in children aged between 6 to 14 years.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 1205 children aged 6 to 14 years in department of paediatrics at a medical college hospital. In a pre-structured questionnaire, the age, sex and PEFR values were recorded. PEFR was considered as primary outcome variable. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis.Results: Total of 1205 children, 51% were boys and 49% were girls. Ninety children of age 6 years ranged between 60 to 200 with 111.1±29.4 and 7 years ranging from 70 to 210 with 136.3±30.5. One hundred and five of age 8 years had 156.9±33.3 ranging from 90 to 230 and 126 of age 10 years with 195.7±38.8 ranging from 110 to 290. Mean PEFR for boys increased with their age and was greater than girls.Conclusions: The overall mean PEFR values for the age group 6 to 14 years was 225±90.07 l/min. Boys have higher PEFR value than girls of the same age group. Hence, PEFR values in this study can be used clinically as reference value for children aged 6 to 14 years.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212778
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Clinico-epidemiology and assessment of folate and vitamin B12 status in
           severe acute malnourished children: a hospital-based observational study
           in the rural area of Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Divya Verma, Sunil Kumar Singh, M. Ziauddin, Rinki Kumari
      Pages: 1366 - 1373
      Abstract: Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a serious health problem in children in India. Vitamin B12 and folate are crucial micronutrients along with others required for rapid growth and development during infancy and early childhood, whereas their deficiencies contribute to malnutrition. The study aimed to evaluate iron, folate and vitamin B12 status in hospitalized SAM children aged between 6-59 months and their clinical, epidemiological profile.Methods: A hospital-based observational study on 159 children with SAM in the age group 6-59 months who were enrolled in the study based on anthropometric indicators after written informed consent from parents. The clinical, demographic profile and pertinent details of each patient were collected using standardized proforma and the blood samples were collected. Serum ferritin level was done in all anaemia cases, while vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) were done only in children with macrocytic or dimorphic anaemia. For statistical analysis, SPSS 20.0 software was used.Results: Mean age of admitted children was 23.77±13.95 months belonging mainly to lower socioeconomic scale and joint families with preferential vegetarian diet. 39.62% SAM patients were between 6-12 months of age at the time of admission. The most common associated infections were GI infections (gastrointestinal tract) in 52.20%. Out of all cases, 93.71% of SAM patients were anaemic. 39.59% cases had macrocytic anaemia followed by microcytic anaemia in 30.20%. Of the 91 cases with macrocytic/dimorphic anaemia (based on MCV and morphology), vitamin B12 and FA levels were done, 92.30% and 61.53% had a deficiency of vitamin B12 and FA, respectively. Overall out of all admitted patients, 52.83% of SAM children had vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency was found in 35.22% of children.Conclusions: SAM children had a high prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Efforts should be made to prevent deficiency of such micronutrients in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and their infants. Treatment can affect a child's prognosis.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212808
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Serum ferritin levels and it’s correlation with cardiac iron overload
           with the help of cardiac T2* magnetic resonance imaging

    • Authors: Shailaja V. Mane, Sharad Agarkhedkar, Dyaneshwar Upase, Tushar Kalekar, P. Sindhura
      Pages: 1374 - 1378
      Abstract: Background: Frequent blood transfusions in thalassemia major is associated with iron overload in these patients. To reduce the mortality and morbidity, proper usage of iron chelators is necessary to treat iron overload. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guides in quantification of iron overload in heart. The purpose of this study is to see the correlation between serum ferritin level and T2* MRI in patients with beta thalassemia major.Methods: Period of the study is September 2018 to September 2020. Total 25 patients diagnosed with β-thalassemia major above 5 years of age were enrolled in the study. They were on regular transfusions. Cardiac T2* MRI was done in these patients and correlated with serum ferritin levels.Results: There was no significant correlation observed between cardiac T2* MRI and serum ferritin values (p=0.66, r=-0.094).Conclusions: Our results showed no significant correlation between serum ferritin and cardiac T2* MRI values. Ferritin alone cannot be used as index of myocardial iron overload in thalassemia major.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212881
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of suitability of pediatric index of mortality 2 score for
           monitoring the outcome of pediatric intensive care unit patients and
           associated risk factors of mortality in a tertiary care center in South
           India

    • Authors: Sreekrishna Y., Adarsh E., Lavanya T. S.
      Pages: 1379 - 1386
      Abstract: Background: Pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM 2) score is an illness severity and scoring systems used for predicting outcome of children admitted to PICU. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of PIM 2 score in predicting mortality in our PICU, assess whether the model is calibrated to our case mix and to compare the observed and expected death rates by calculating standardised mortality ratio. Methods: It was a prospective observational study done in a tertiary care center from January 2019 to June 2020. Consecutive 120 patients admitted to PICU aged from 1 month to 18 years were enrolled in study. PIM 2 scoring was calculated for the data obtained within 1 hour of admission to PICU. The outcome was recorded as death or discharge. PIM 2 logit score is calculated using software.Results: PIM2 can discriminate between death and survival with area under curve (AUC) of 0.867 with 95% CI (0.729,0.980). PIM 2 predicted death rate was significant (p<0.001). The model is well calibrated with Hosmer- Lemeshow Goodness-of-fit test p=0.961 (p>0.05). The observed death rates are equal to predicted death rates and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is equal to 1. Conclusions: PIM 2 score predicted mortality correlated well with observed mortality in PICU patients. The model is well calibrated for use in our set up and discriminate well between survivors and   non-survivors.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212882
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Effectiveness of an information booklet on knowledge regarding
           breastfeeding among mothers of under two-years children

    • Authors: Arpita Nag, Anjali Chaturvedi, Rina Kumari
      Pages: 1387 - 1395
      Abstract: Background: The basic food of infant is mother’s milk. Breastfeeding is the most effective way to provide a baby with a caring environment and complete food. It meets the nutritional as well as emotional and psychological needs of the infant. But there is tendency to replace the natural means of infant feeding and introduction of breast milk substitutes. So, breastfeeding deserves encouragement from all concerned in the welfare of children.Methods: A quantitative evaluative research approach and Quasi experimental one group pre-test post-test design was used. By using purposive sampling technique total 65 mothers of under two years children admitted in selected wards i.e.; pediatric and maternity ward at V.P.I.M.S., Lucknow, were selected to assess the effectiveness of an information booklet on knowledge regarding breastfeeding. Written permission was obtained from the authorities of Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, where the study was conducted.Results: In pre-test the majority of mothers, 50.80% had moderate knowledge, 40.00% of mothers had inadequate knowledge whereas 9.20% of mothers had adequate knowledge. In post-test majority 92.30% mothers had adequate knowledge, 7.70% mothers had moderate knowledge whereas none of the mothers had inadequate knowledge.Conclusions: The study concluded that after the distribution of information booklet on knowledge regarding breastfeeding mothers of under two-years children have gained their knowledge.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212883
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • A study to estimate similarities or dissimilarities of thyroid parameters
           of cord blood and new-born venous blood amongst new-borns

    • Authors: Vamsi K. Gangalam, Deepika Vodapally
      Pages: 1396 - 1400
      Abstract: Background: Hypothyroidism may be congenital or may be acquired which might or may not have a delayed onset. Incomplete thyroid development and decreased thyroid hormone biosynthesis is a result of congenital hypothyroidism. Screening is usually missed in areas where testing is not done and being the reason for new cases of hypothyroid cases. The aim was to assess/evaluate whether cord blood can be used as a primary screening method for congenital hypothyroidism.Methods: The study was taken up in the department of pediatrics of a tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 200 babies were taken for the study during the whole study period. The cord blood at the time of delivery and 48 hour serum blood was collected and sent to the lab for thyroid profile estimation.Results: The study consisted of 109 males and 91 female infants. Among the 200 subjects, 156 were term babies and 44 preterm. The mean birth weight was 2.44 kgs. The mean cord TSH was 6.89±4.56, the mean T3 level was 81.03±38.84 and mean T4 level among the subjects was 11.17±3.33. The capillary venous blood was collected after 48 hours for thyroid profiling. The mean TSH was 5.15±3.13, mean T3 level was 111.53±36.49 and mean T4 level was 14.65±6.07. On comparison of cord blood and venous blood association was noted between them.Conclusions: From the present study findings it can be suggested cord blood can be used as a marker for early detection of congenital hypothyroidism.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212800
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Clinico-pathological profile of scrub typhus in children: a cross
           sectional study from Eastern India

    • Authors: Rayan Dasgupta, Sumita Basu, Asha Mukherjee
      Pages: 1401 - 1408
      Abstract: Background: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonosis, endemic in Asia and it may present as an undifferentiated fever or with multisystem involvement. This study was carried out to understand the varied presentation of scrub typhus in children and the response to treatment in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India.Methods: All children between 1 month and 12 year of age admitted with fever for more than 5 days and positive IgM ELISA for scrub typhus were included in the study and their course in hospital was documented. They were randomly divided into 2 groups of 41 patients each, into doxycycline and azithromycin group and were then evaluated for therapeutic response.Results: In this study, pallor (89%) was the commonest finding followed by hepato-splenomegaly (73.2%), pneumonia (65.9%) and rash was found in 43.9%. Eschar was found in 32.9% whereas serious complications like shock and meningoencephalitis was found in 9.8%.  Pericardial effusion was detected in 23.2% cases, coronary artery dilatation in 11% cases and both effusion as well as coronary artery dilation was found in 2.4%. In azithromycin group, 73.2% patients had drug response whereas in doxycycline group, 92.7% patients had drug response and this association was statistically significant (p=0.0188). Two patients who presented late with shock expired but all others responded to treatment and were doing well on follow up.Conclusions: Scrub typhus may present with multisystem involvement including cardiac manifestation which needs to be identified early by echocardiography. Doxyclycine is still the best modality of treatment and if used early, outcome is favourable.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212884
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Effectiveness of video assisted teaching program on knowledge regarding
           good touch and bad touch among school age children in selected schools of
           Jodhpur

    • Authors: Rubi Khan, Remiya Mohan, Mukesh Chandra Sharma
      Pages: 1409 - 1417
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of research was to provide education for every school child about good touch and bad touch so that the child can protect himself in this threatening condition.Methods: A quantitative approach, pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test only design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programs on good touch and bad touch amongst 150 school children, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria at selected government schools of Jodhpur. Non-probability convenient sampling was used to select the samples. Good touch bad touch knowledge was assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using descriptive statistics and Chi square as well as paired t test.Results: The study revealed a statistically significant difference between mean pre-test score (16.09) and mean post-test (20.56) score. In pre-test more than one third (39.3%) of children had average knowledge and 8.6% children had poor knowledge, whereas in post-test more than half (54.6%) of children had excellent knowledge and (42%) children had good knowledge. Study further revealed the significant association of religion, total number of siblings and marital disharmony with the pre-test knowledge score.Conclusions: From this study finding, concluded that a video assisted teaching program pertaining to good touch and bad touch is an effective program in improving the knowledge and awareness amongst the children, which has been depicted in the result, that there was a marked increase in post-test level of knowledge.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212885
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Demographic and clinical profile of children with severe acute
           malnutrition: an experience from nutritional rehabilitation centre in
           South Kashmir

    • Authors: Bilal Ahmad Najar, Mohd Ashraf Bhat, Zul Eidain Rather, Mushtaq Ahmad Sheikh
      Pages: 1418 - 1423
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is significant contributor of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. More than 1/3rd of world’s severely malnourished children live in India. The aim was to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological profile and co-morbidities of SAM (severe acute malnutrition) children and to recognize socio-demographic risk factors of SAM children.Methods: It was a prospective hospital based case study. The prospective hospital based study was conducted from September 2018 to February 2020 and included children less than 5 years admitted to an paediatrics ward and satisfying the WHO definition of SAM. Data were entered in Microsoft excel sheet and SPSS software version 16 for windows was used for analysis.Results: 112 patients were taken for study. Mean age of admitted children were 16±3 months. Male:female ratio was 1:1.22. SAM is more common in nuclear families (N=67, 59.83%), illiterate mothers (N=72, 62.48%), children with high birth order more than 3 (N=42, 37%) and low socioeconomically status Kuppaswamy IV (N=72, 64.28%).The most common associated infections were acute gastroenteritis (82.14) and respiratory tract infections (54.20%). Hypoglycaemia (14.28) was the most common metabolic complication. The most commonly used supplementary food used was over diluted cow milk (43.67%).Conclusions: The problem of SAM is multifactorial (rural background, low socioeconomic status, maternal illiteracy, incomplete immunization). The findings of this study confirm the association of severe acute malnutrition with appropriate infant and young child feeding practices. NRCS provide life-saving care for children.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212886
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Study the role of c-reactive protein and thrombocytopenia in diagnosing
           early neonatal sepsis

    • Authors: N. Aravind Babu
      Pages: 1424 - 1427
      Abstract: Background: In clinical practice, early detection of neonatal sepsis remains difficult. Neonatal sepsis diagnosis is a challenge because of its non-specific presentation and the low sensitivity of the time-consuming bacterial cultures. So, many sepsis markers, like C-reactive protein (CRP) and platelet count, are emerging to improve its diagnosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of CRP and platelet count in early neonatal sepsisMethods: This study was conducted in the department of SNCU in Virudhunagar Government Headquarters hospital, 50 neonates with culture-confirmed sepsis were included. Before antibiotic treatment, neonates CRP and platelet count, and other inflammatory markers were assessed.Results: In 50 newborns, culture was positive in 22 cases, CRP was positive in 24 cases, and thrombocytopenia in 18 cases. In 22 culture-positive cases, 19 cases are CRP positive, and 17 cases had thrombocytopenia. In 17 culture-positive thrombocytopenia cases, 16 cases are Gram-negative stain, 1 case is Gram-positive stain.Conclusions: CRP and Platelet can be helpful in the future diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, despite being promising and convenient markers for neonatal sepsis.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212887
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • A case series of neonatal human parecho-virus encephalitis with a
           seasonality and endemicity

    • Authors: Favas Kudukkan, Bindu Athoor, Fysal Neliyathodi, Sheela P. Haweri
      Pages: 1428 - 1430
      Abstract: Human parecho viruses are small, non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses within parechovirus genus of the large picornaviridae family. In new-born it can cause gastroenteritis, sepsis and encephalitis. We report case series of parecho-virus encephalitis admitted to a tertiary care centre, Perinthalmanna. Parechoviral encephalitis is an endemic disease seasonally present (May-July) in certain regions of Northern part of Kerala. HPeV are viruses that cause CNS infection in the neonatal period, resulting in white matter lesions that can be visualised with MRI. In a retrospective study, 4 newborn babies of neonatal HPeV encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiological findings with a seasonality were assessed. HPeV encephalitis needs to be in differential diagnosis when neonates and young infants present with seizure and sepsis. HPeV infection must be considered in infants with specific pattern of white matter change but no convincing history of a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic insult.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212888
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Myxopapillary ependymoma in a 6-year-old girl with paraplegia- timely
           intervention enabled complete recovery

    • Authors: N. Rajeshwari, A. Savitha, J. Prahada, S. Rajkumar, G. Nandini
      Pages: 1431 - 1434
      Abstract: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors accounts for 4-10% of all central nervous system tumors and 35-40% of all intraspinal tumors in children. Biological behavior of these tumors is slow progression and often may not be recognized till they have attained significant size. Back pain, motor weakness, frequent falls and   gait disturbances are the presenting complaints. Myxopapillary ependymoma is WHO grade 1 tumor associated with very good prognosis. Early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are the treatment of choice. We reported this case to emphasize the fact that appropriate diagnosis and complete surgical resection of the intraspinal tumor in a child with paraplegia with acute retention of urine with grade 0 power enabled complete neurological recovery.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212758
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Corona virus myocarditis in pediatric age group: a rare manifestation of
           pandemic

    • Authors: Praveen U., Datta Jhadav, Jitesh M. Thakare, Reshmi G., Priyanka Krishnan
      Pages: 1435 - 1438
      Abstract: Myocarditis is an uncommon disease of adult and pediatric age group, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltrates, myocyte necrosis, or myocyte degeneration due to a myriad of causes and resulting in variable degrees of myocardial dysfunction. Which may be caused by infections, connective tissue disorders, granulomatous diseases, toxic agents or can be idiopathic. Viral infections are the most common etiology accounting for more than 50-60% of cases, particularly enterovirus (Coxsackie virus) and adenovirus groups. The disease is typically sporadic but may be epidemic. Manifestations of myocarditis range from asymptomatic or nonspecific generalized illness to acute cardiogenic shock and sudden death. In our case 10-year-old boy presented with history of fever and cough of 2 days duration. On examination patient found to be having tachycardia and tachypnea without other signs of heart failure. chest x-ray suggestive of bilateral pneumonia, ECG showed features of Myocarditis without any echocardiographic or cardiac enzyme abnormality. Child tested positive for corona virus rapid antigen test. Started on Favipiravir, corticosteroids and managed symptomatically. Child's heart rate normalized over a period of 4 days. Patient subsequently discharged with the advice of follow up echocardiography.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212889
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Siblings with Imperforate anus and aplastic nasal alae: Johanson-Blizzard
           syndrome

    • Authors: Ashwini Harohalli Nagarasaraiah, Chinthan S. Gubbari, Varun Govindarajan, Chikkanarasa Reddy
      Pages: 1439 - 1441
      Abstract: Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is a rare genetic entity reported in medical literature resulting from mutations in UBR1 gene, affecting pancreas, craniofacial and urogenital development, causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a neonate presenting with anorectal malformation requiring surgical intervention at birth, with similar surgeries being performed in two elder siblings. Surviving sibling of the proband neonate also has similar dysmorphic features of absent ala nasi, aplasia cutis of scalp along with pancreatic insufficiency, profound sensorineural hearing loss, pheno-type corresponding to Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. Syndromic diagnosis helps in screening for associated potential issues, which can intervened at early stages.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212890
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Case report of COVID-19 positive new born with necrotizing enterocolitis
           (NEC)

    • Authors: Rajshree Rajurkar, Chanda Dangi, Gunjan Kela
      Pages: 1442 - 1444
      Abstract: COVID-19 caused by SARS-Cov-2 virus has spread rapidly across the world. Children are just as like as adult to become infected with virus but have lesser symptoms and less severity of the disease. Necrotizing enterocolitis is one of the common gastrointestinal emergencies in neonatal intensive care unit. More than 85% of cases of NEC occur among preterm and very low birth weight. Preterm babies are vulnerable to develop NEC because of high incidence of perinatal distress factor, stasis of gut due to autonomic immaturity, poor barrier function of gut or immune defences, lack of feeding with human milk and higher incidence of nosocomial infections. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, no similar finding has been reported in the neonatal population to date. In this review we summarize the case report of two newborns admitted in our NICU who were COVID 19 positive presented to us with symptoms suggestive of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and their outcome based on presence of comorbidity. Our case reports two case of two COVID-19 positive newborns admitted in our NICU with history, examination and investigations suggestive of necrotizing enterocolitis. Early initiation of antibiotics covering bowel flora, bowel rest and resuscitation, similar to our tried and true medical management of NEC, should be considered for initial management to avoid surgical intervention
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212891
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Impact of estrogen replacement on growth, skeletal maturation, bone
           

    • Authors: Neha Agarwal, Rishi Shukla, Anurag Bajpai
      Pages: 1445 - 1447
      Abstract: Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired androgen to estrogen conversion. We report a 13.5-year-old girl initially misdiagnosed as simple virilising 21 hydroxylase deficiency who presented with delayed puberty. Work-up showed aromatase deficiency due to novel mutation in the aromatase gene. Estradiol replacement was associated with increased growth, skeletal maturation, bone density and adiposity. Early estrogen treatment in our case may have prevented metabolic complications and ovarian cysts.  
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212892
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
  • Congenital laryngeal cyst causing respiratory distress in a neonate: a
           rare case report

    • Authors: Aniruddha Basak, Debaleena Dey
      Pages: 1448 - 1450
      Abstract: Congenital laryngeal cyst is a rare but responsible of upper airway obstruction which can be potentially life-threatening. The most common symptoms are inspiratory stridor, dyspnea, cyanosis, abnormal voice and difficulty with feeding. It should be differentiated from laryngomalacia. It is diagnosed by flexible fibro-optic laryngoscopy. Surgical options are endoscopic excision, needle aspiration, de-roofing, external laryngo-fissure and lateral pharyngotomy. The best treatment consists in the entire removal of the cyst. This case report described the case of 28 days old neonate with a severe airway distress and stridor caused by a congenital laryngeal cyst which has been managed by de-roofing of the cyst entirely with flexible laryngoscope.
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20212893
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2021)
       
 
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