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International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2320-6071 - ISSN (Online) 2320-6012
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Distribution of influenza A and B antibodies and correlation with ABO/Rh
           blood grouping

    • Authors: Abdulrahim R. Hakami, Abdullah J. Alshahrani, Osama A. Alshehri, Ahmed Saif, Ahmad A. Alshehri
      Pages: 2724 - 2730
      Abstract: Background: Influenza is a clinically-significant infection with significant number of globally reported annual deaths. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of influenza A and B antibodies in Najran, the Southwest region of Saudi Arabia, and to investigate the correlation between demographic characteristics and influenza virus antibody levels.Methods: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antibody level of influenza A and B. The correlation with ABO/Rh blood groupings was also examined. The total number of participants was 252. Only twenty-four subjects received the flu vaccine.Results: It was found that 33.7% and 24.1% of unvaccinated subjects were IgG-positive for influenza A and B, respectively. Interestingly, the antibody levels of the unvaccinated participants were higher than the vaccinated group. A significant difference was found between unvaccinated participants with O+ and influenza A and B antibody levels (**p=0.0045). The antibody level was inversely correlated with age in influenza B IgG subjects but not influenza A IgG (r=-0.1379; R squared=0.01900; p=0.0375). Forty-three subjects (17%) were positive for antibodies of both influenza A and B.Conclusions: IgG antibody positivity is greater in cases of influenza type A compared to influenza B. A significant correlation was found in the unvaccinated group between influenza B IgG antibody levels and age, but not influenza A (*p=0.0375). More research is needed to investigate the role of O+ blood group in influenza infections.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20222965
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Anatomic variations of the hepatic arterial irrigation in a Mexican
           population: contrast enhanced computer tomography evaluation: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Daniel Benito Castillo-Martinez, Doris Michelle Palacios-Rivera, Jorge Boy-Serratos
      Pages: 2731 - 2736
      Abstract: Background: Knowledge and mastery of the anatomical variability of the hepatic arteries are essential for surgical disciplines and, given their complexity and importance over time, they have been extensively studied and described.Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out in which contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CT) studies carried out between January 2021 and December 2021 at the North Central PEMEX hospital were analyzed. A total of 207 contrast-enhanced CT scans were analyzed, and Statistical analysis was performed with the statistical software IBM® SPSS© Statistics.Results: Uflacker type I CT was found in 90.8%, the Michel class I hepatic arterial irrigation in 70.5%, and the origin of CA was documented in the right hepatic arteries (RHA) in 90.3%. Multiple cystic artery (Cas) were identified in 1% and Moynihan's hump in 0.5%. The mean length of the common hepatic artery (CHA) was 53 millimeters.Conclusions: The tomographic study of the anatomical variants of hepatic irrigation is an accessible and non-invasive tool. The nomenclature described in the present work allows a precise and straightforward understanding of clinical-surgical utility.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Innate immune cells and T CD4 cells profile during hepatitis B among HIV
           co-infection Beninese

    • Authors: Rafiou Sdegbindin, Gatien Adjimon Gbènakpon Lokossou, Paulin Kpodji, Prisca Gnancadja, Banarbé Lafia, Olga Rosine Quenum, Maximin Senou
      Pages: 2737 - 2743
      Abstract: Background: Worldwide, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a real public health. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV have the same routes of transmission and shared risk factors and epidemiology similarities. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of HBV and HIV co-infection on T CD4 cells and innate immune cells.Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried among 260 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) admitted and supported with antiviral tri therapy at the national reference center for research and Care of HIV infected person (NRCRC) of the national hospital and university center in Cotonou, Benin. After PLHIV peripheral blood collection, surface hepatitis B antigens (HBsAg) and HIV serology were tested using ELISA (Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay). White blood cell count and leukocyte formula were performed using flow cytometry. After staining with anti CD4 antibodies, TCD4+ lymphocytes frequency was determined using flow cytometry. Means were calculated using student T test.Results: Of the 260 PLHIV, 10.77% (n=28) were co-infected with HBV. Our data has shown a significant decrease of lymphocytes among HIV and HBV co-infected persons and a very significant increase in immune innate cells including eosinophils, polynuclear basophils and monocytes, suggesting an important role of innate immune cells during HIV and HBV coinfection.Conclusion: HIV and HBV coinfection results in hyperinflammatory response associated with viral clearance. How this hyperinflammatory response is mounted was still unclear. More data are needed for better management of HIV and HBV co-infection.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Clinico-radiological criteria versus GeneXpert for diagnosis of pediatric
           tuberculosis

    • Authors: Saïd O. Ali, Hanitriniaina S. C. Samena, Kanto A. Razafindraibe, Annick L. Robinson
      Pages: 2744 - 2749
      Abstract: Background: Diagnosing tuberculosis in children remains a challenge especially in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the scoring system combined to chest x-ray images compared to GeneXpert for diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis.Methods: A retrospective diagnostic accuracy study was carried out on hospitalized children aged 0 to 14 years old, tuberculosis suspect in the pediatric department of the Tsaralalana mother child university hospital center from August 2018 to June 2020.Results: Fifty-one medical files were retained. The mean age was 4±2 years old with a sex ratio of 1.55. The reason for consultation was dominated by respiratory signs (56.9%). The GeneXpert was positive in 58.9% of cases. The chest X-ray images were pathological in all cases, dominated by images of condensation or infiltration (72.5%). WHO score was positive (≥7) in 72.5% of cases. The clinico-radiological criteria had a sensitivity of 13.3-63.3%, a specificity of 61.9-95.2%, positive predictive values of 1.5-6.9% and negative predictive values of 98.8-99.3%.Conclusion: Clinico-radiological criteria could be useful in individual diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Haemoglobin genotype, ABO and rhesus blood group pattern among students of
           Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology Ikere,
           Ekitis state, Nigeria

    • Authors: David O. Ajayi, Emmanuel A. Omon, Adefolurin Orekoya, Oludare Oluwayomi
      Pages: 2750 - 2757
      Abstract: Background: The two most significant blood group systems of clinical importance are ABO and rhesus. An essential blood component that determines haemoglobinopathies is haemoglobin genotype. The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of haemoglobin genotypes, ABO and rhesus blood groups pattern among students of Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology Ikere (BOUESTI), Ekiti state.  Methods: Two thousand (2,000) samples comprising 840 (42%) males and 1,160 (58%) females were recruited for this study. The ABO blood group was determined using tile method, while the haemoglobin genotype was determined using haemoglobin electrophoresis. Data analysis was done using simple percentage and Chi square test.Results: The results obtained showed that out of the two thousand subjects that participated in this study, 1,448 (72.4%) of the subjects had HbAA, 452 (22.6%) had HbAS, 72 (3.6%) had HbAC, 20 (1%) had HbSS and 8 (0.4%) had HbSC. The distribution of ABO blood groups of the subjects were; blood group O (53.6%), blood group B (26.6%), blood group A (17.8%) and blood group AB (2.0%). Furthermore, 96.0% of the subjects were rhesus ‘D’ positive, while 4.0% were rhesus ‘D’ negative. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the haemoglobin genotypes and ABO blood groups of the subjects with respect to age and sex.Conclusions: The study concludes that the distribution of ABO blood group in the study population was given by O>B>A>AB, while the genotype was given by AA>AS>AC>SS>SC respectively. Continued haemoglobin genotype test and premarital counselling of potential couples is highly recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • A physician-based study to assess the prevalence, current treatment
           standards, and therapy need gaps in the management of irritable bowel
           syndrome in India

    • Authors: Keyur Sheth
      Pages: 2758 - 2768
      Abstract: Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder that can significantly affect quality of life. A physician-based survey was conducted to understand the prevalence, current treatment strategies, and gaps in IBS management in India.Methods: A total of 197 physicians participated to complete a questionnaire comprising 36 questions related to the prevalence and current treatment of IBS and assess gaps in its management.Results: Most physicians take a detailed history of the IBS syndrome and association-driven criteria to diagnose IBS. Most physicians reported that >50% of the patients had IBS mixed with anxiety, and most patients with IBS suffered for 2-4 weeks before seeking medical consultation. Most respondents reported that IBS patients took home remedies before consultation. Respondents ranked mebeverine plus chlordiazepoxide, followed by mebeverine monotherapy as preferred treatment for management of IBS symptoms. Mebeverine plus chlordiazepoxide was most preferred for IBS patients with anxiety. More than 70 % of physicians reported that mebeverine and its combination with chlordiazepoxide were efficacious with no adverse events for all subtypes of IBS. Most physicians prescribed probiotics with multiple strains for 2-4 weeks in patients with IBS.Conclusions: IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder with no apparent diagnosis and management. The survey findings support the use of mebeverine therapy for the management of IBS symptoms. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20222976
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg tablets in adult
           patients with allergic rhinitis

    • Authors: Samir Bhargava, Karthikeyan Padmanabhan, Chidananda Ramappa
      Pages: 2769 - 2775
      Abstract: Background: Bilastine is a nonsedating, H1-antihistamine used for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis; However, data on its efficacy and safety in Indian patients with allergic rhinitis are lacking.Methods: In this multicenter, single-arm, investigator-initiated study, 90 patients with allergic rhinitis received bilastine 20 mg tablets once daily for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in total symptom score (TSS=nasal symptom score [NSS] + non-nasal symptom score [NNSS]) at day 28 from baseline. Severity of individual nasal and non-nasal symptoms was assessed at baseline, day 7, and day 28 by rating each symptom on a scale of 0-3. Key secondary endpoints were incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), changes in NSS, NNSS, and rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) score, and from baseline to days 7 and 28, and change in Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS) score from baseline to 2 hours post-first dose.Results: The mean allergic rhinitis symptom scores TSS, NSS and NNSS showed a significant decrease (p˂0.0001) at each visit compared with baseline. A statistically significant decline (p˂0.0001) in the mean RQLQ score was observed at days 7 and 28 versus baseline. Median SSS score was 1.0 (range: 1.0-7.0) before and after the 1st dose of bilastine, indicating that it did not cause sedation. No TEAEs were reported during the study.Conclusions: Bilastine 20 mg once daily was efficacious in reducing nasal and non-nasal allergic symptoms, was well tolerated, and had a good safety profile in patients with allergic rhinitis.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223077
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Clinical dimensions of hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy in terms of
           severity and hospital outcome

    • Authors: Sibaram Panda, Sunil K. Sharma, Mayadhar Panda
      Pages: 2776 - 2782
      Abstract: Background: Hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy [HNDC/DCM (ND-H)] is a recently proposed (by ESC, 2016) subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is characterized by the absence of left ventricular (LV) dilatation despite of global LV systolic dysfunction. Knowledge regarding clinical severity and outcomes of patients with DCM (ND-H) is very limited. Objective of the study was to evaluate clinical severity and hospital outcome of patients with HNDC [DCM (ND-H)].Methods: Total 1248 admitted patients with primary DCM were finalized as study participants considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study participants were categorized into two groups depending on presence or absence of LV dilatation. 411 (32.9%) patients without any LV dilatation included in group A [HNDC/DCM (ND-H) group] and 837 (67.1%) patients with LV dilatation included in group B [DCM (D-H) group]. Data with respect to clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic findings and disease outcome of patients compared statistically between the two groups.Conclusions: HNDC [DCM (ND-H)] is a subclinical subtype, which represents 1/3rd population of DCM. Apart from absence of cardiomegaly, typical clinical signs, electrocardiographic abnormalities, from which we can suspect heart disease, were less prevalent in patients with DCM (ND-H). Therefore, patient most often miss the diagnosis till the advance stage. Non cardiac co-morbidities along with late diagnosis can be important contributing factors for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with DCM (ND-H) comparable to the DCM (D-H) counterpart.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20222988
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Analysis and establish a correlation between serum ceruloplasmin, serum
           apelin level and thyroid profile in patients with hypothyroidism and
           healthy controls

    • Authors: Ashish Sharma, Mahendra Kumar Verma, Munmun Yadav, Manish Pokra
      Pages: 2783 - 2794
      Abstract: Background: Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone. It is often the primary process in which the thyroid gland produces insufficient amounts of thyroid hormone. It can also be secondary, i.e., lack of thyroid hormone secretion due to the failure of either adequate thyrotropin (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus (secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism). The patient's appearance may vary from asymptomatic to, rarely, coma with multisystem organ failure (myxoedema coma). Methods: The present observational descriptive, cross sectional study has been conducted on 120 newly diagnosed Subclinical Hypothyroidism patients of 20-50 years age group of both sex attending the OPD of department of medicine, RVRS medical college and associated group of hospitals, Bhilwara from May 2021 to May 2022. Diagnosis of thyroid disorder has been made according to the criteria recommended by the European thyroid association guidelines-2013. The result has been compared with age and gender matched 120 euthyroid subjects acting as controls. Detailed history of participants including age, history of any medications, addictions has been taken. Written consent from all the subjects has been obtained for the study.Results: The mean serum FT3 level was found to be slightly decreased in Subclinical hypothyroid subjects (group I) as compared to healthy controls (group II) but the difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). The mean serum FT4 level was found to be slightly decreased in Subclinical hypothyroid subjects (group I) as compared to healthy controls (group II) but the difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). A highly significant increase (p<0.0001) in mean serum TSH level has been observed in subclinical hypothyroid subjects (group-I) when compared to controls (group- II). In subclinical hypothyroid subjects, mean serum ceruloplasmin levels were found to be significantly lower in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.0001).Conclusions: The overall findings of the present study thus confirm that serum Apelin level is significantly higher in subclinical hypothyroid subjects and serum ceruloplasmin level is significantly lower in the subclinical hypothyroid subjects. However, further experimental and observational studies are needed to illustrate the role of serum ceruloplasmin and serum apelin in subclinical hypothyroidism.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223078
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Study on awareness and perception towards adverse drug reactions among
           medical and paramedical students in South India

    • Authors: Anjali Sruthi S., Muhas C., Keerthi S., Anagha T. R., Abhishek K. M., Anupama E. V., Haritha T.
      Pages: 2795 - 2799
      Abstract: Background: Pharmacovigilance (PV) programme targets the monitoring of safety of drugs. It aims at promoting patient care and improving public health and also helps to assess the risk-benefit profile of medicines. The aim of the study was to assess public knowledge about medicine information, safety, and adverse drug reaction reporting (ADR) in medical and paramedical student community.Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among medical and paramedical students for the period of six months from November 2021 to April 2022. The questionnaire was adopted from the literature and was validated. Content and face validities were established, and reliability was assessed. In this study a total of 364 participants returned completed questionnaires.Results: In this study, 364 students completely filled the questionnaire and out of 364 participants, 155 were males (42.58%) and 209 (57.41%) were females. Fourth year students 131 (35.98%) are highly participated in this study and indicated that final year B Pharmacy students having the perceptive knowledge towards ADR. Majority of medical and paramedical students known well about the ADRs.Conclusions: The results of this study highlighted that although the scores for knowledge of medicines, and tendency to report ADR were better, the score for knowledge regarding medication safety was unsatisfactory. There is a need for a regular training and the re-enforcement for the ADR reporting among the health care personnel both medical and paramedical students.  
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in deep seated lesions:
           an effective diagnostic tool

    • Authors: Supriya R. Bajantri, Dhara P. Mehta, Purva C. Shah, Ragini A. Patel
      Pages: 2800 - 2804
      Abstract: Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a diagnostic method used to assess various masses in the body with minimal invasion. FNAC alone has a lower yield as compared to biopsy for diagnosing deep-seated lesions. Radiological guidance improves the yield of FNAC. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of Ultrasound (USG) guided FNAC in various deep-seated lesions in the body. We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study at the cytology section of pathology department of our hospital for indoor patients.Methods: It was a retrospective study done over a period of five years, which included 334 aspirates suspected to be of inflammatory or neoplastic origin obtained from deep-seated lesions. After a thorough clinical and radiological evaluation, USG guided FNACs were performed. Experienced pathologists processed the smears, prepared thereby, for cytological evaluation and diagnosis.Results: A total of 334 samples were collected using USG-guided FNAC. The most common site was lungs (36.5%) followed by liver (13.77%). The most common type were malignant lesions (57.19%) which were either primary malignancies or metastatic carcinomas. 29 samples were found to be acellular or had inadequate material, thus a diagnosis couldn’t be made. Out of the various lung masses, non-small cell carcinoma was the most common (66.39%). The most common liver mass was metastatic carcinoma (54.35%).Conclusions: USG guided FNAC is a relatively simple, safe, fast, minimally invasive and cost effective procedure, which provides quite a high rate of adequacy and diagnostic efficacy. It is useful for making a pre-operative diagnosis and guiding the choice of treatment. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Neuroimaging in paediatric patients with developmental delay

    • Authors: Abhinaya G., Gautam M., Gagandeep M. Y., Parthasarathi A.
      Pages: 2805 - 2810
      Abstract: Background: Aim and objectives of the study were to radiologically evaluate paediatric patients with developmental delay (DD), assess the relative prevalence of abnormal brain MRI, further categorize them based on the abnormal imaging findings and structures affected. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the underlying etiology that helps in early treatment and amelioration of the condition, parental counselling regarding the outcome of the child, providing an estimate of child’s developmental potential and the recurrence risk in siblings.Methods: 135 paediatric patients of the age 3 months to 15 years with DD referred to department of radiology were investigated with MRI scans of the brain via 1.5T Siemens scanner after making the child sleep or sedated. The sequences used were: axial T1, axial T2, axial FLAIR, axial DWI, axial ADC, axial SWI, axial PHASE, sagittal T1 and coronal FLAIR. CT scan of the brain was done only when indicated on 128 slice Siemens Somatom perspective scanner. Informed consent shall be taken from patient’s parents. Clinical and demographic details of the enrolled patients were noted in the Performa. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: Out of 135 children with DD, 69.1% (n=92) were male and 31.9% (n=43) were female. Majority of these children belonged to 3 months to 1 year and 2 to 5 years of age group. About 81.4% (n=110) of children with DD had abnormal findings in MRI. Among children with abnormal MRI findings, 42.9% had hypoxic ischemic changes, 6.6% had congenital malformations and non-specific causes, respectively 4.4% had neurodegenerative and occlusive neurovascular conditions, respectively 3.7% had CSF disorders and neoplasms, respectively 2.9% had infection associated changes and non-traumatic intracranial bleed, respectively 2.2% had metabolic disorders and 0.7% had demyelination. Majority of cases had ventricular abnormality, followed by the corpus callosum.Conclusions: DD presents with a wide spectrum of etiologies, clinical findings and MRI features ranging from completely normal to abnormal. The present study could establish the various morphological appearances of DD on MRI and further categorize them into various subgroups be effective in diagnosis, management and prognosis determination processes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • A retrospective analysis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis and role of
           CBNAAT, LPA and culture in diagnosis

    • Authors: Vishal Wadhwa, Rohini Kelkar, Shibani Ramchandran, Kirti Chadha, Raj Jatale, Niranjan Patil, Shraddha Amberkar
      Pages: 2811 - 2815
      Abstract: Background: Nucleic acid detection has potentially revolutionized diagnosis of tuberculosis and has established as a screening test of choice. However, conclusions on its role in diagnosing extrapulmonary infection and discordance between drug susceptibility reported through culture, Xpert MTB/ RIF, line probe assay require further review. Objectives were to compare positivity rate of Xpert MTB/RIF ULTRA across various sample types; compare drug susceptibility percentage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) across three platforms i.e., culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and LPAMethods: A retrospective analysis of results of samples was undertaken for a period of one year for Xpert MTB/RIF ultra and three years for LPA and susceptibility through MGIT.Results: Xpert MTB/ RIF Ultra showed overall positivity of 26%, with 10% rifampicin resistance; genitourinary sample positivity was 4%. First line LPA recorded 26% Rif resistance and very few Rifampicin indeterminates. Second line LPA revealed 5.4% aminoglycoside resistance and 26% fluoroquinolone resistance. Through MGIT Rif resistance was 18.2%, multidrug resistance 17.5%, isoniazid monoresistance 6.6%, FQ resistance 18.6%, MDR with FQ resistance 18.6%, amikacin resistance 4% and streptomycin resistance 18%.Conclusions: Xpert MTB/ RIF should be used as a test of choice for detection; Rifampicin resistance should be confirmed with LPA. However, for GUN, pleural fluid and GIT tissue samples; an additional culture should be attempted on the primary sample to improve detection rates. Drug resistance detected through LPA should be phenotyped especially for fluoroquinolones. Moxifloxacin and amikacin could be empirical antibiotics of choice over ofloxacin and Kanamycin due to lower resistance percentage recorded for them.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223094
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Awareness, knowledge and practice of contact lens use among medical
           students

    • Authors: Mahima Thiraviam, Vinisha Kumaresan, Anuradha P.
      Pages: 2816 - 2820
      Abstract: Background: Contact lens are thin optical lenses that are commonly used for correcting refractive errors. They are available in various materials, types, and colors. The complications associated with contact lens usage are allergic conjunctivitis, keratitis, and neovascularization. These complications arise with a lack of proper practice and knowledge about contact lens. In our study, we assess the awareness, knowledge, and practice of contact lens use among medical students of Saveetha medical college and hospital. Study design was cross-sectional study. Place of study was Saveetha medical college and hospital, Thandalam, Chennai.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on contact lens users among medical students. A total of 100 contact lens users participated in the study of which 70 were females and 30 were males. The study was done using pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed using SPSS version 25 software.Result: There is a female predominance with about 70%. Most of the participants use contact lens for both cosmetic and refractive errors. About 91% of students use soft contact lens. Nearly 70% of students are not aware of overwear syndrome. Problems faced by contact lens wearers include dryness, eye discomfort, pain, watering, and redness.Conclusions: The lack of proper practice, knowledge, and awareness of contact lens use even in those knowledgeable like medical students increases the risk of complications. Thus, there is a need to provide more education to consumers.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223081
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • The role of magnetic resonance imaging in non-traumatic chronic hip joint
           pain in adult rural population

    • Authors: Soneshkumar R. Chougule
      Pages: 2821 - 2825
      Abstract: Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has changed the face of diagnostic techniques; it has been used for diagnosing the hip pathologies and is the earliest applications of MRI in diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders. MRI detects articular, extra articular and osseous pathologies in hip joint. Thus, is important in diagnosing the cases of chronic hip pain which indicates a long list of causes. MRI is also the investigation of choice for imaging avascular necrosis, radiographically occult fractures, marrow replacement disorders, musculoskeletal neoplasms, and various arthritides involving the hip joint.Methods: This study was done to assess the role of MRI in non-traumatic chronic hip joint pain in adult age group. The study included 54 patients with hip pain who were evaluated by plain radiograph and MRI.Results: Majority (42.59%) of the patients were from the age group of 31-50 years, majority of the patients, 36 were males (66.67%). Most common chief complaint was unilateral hip pain (79.6%), and most common pathology found was avascular necrosis in 27 cases (50%). There was no significant association between the age groups and AVN (p=0.582), while gender showed significant association with AVN (p=0.021). Plain radiograph was abnormal in 41 out of total 54 cases (75.93%). The accuracy of detecting etiology by MRI in current study was 96.2% as compared to plain radiograph was 75.9% in current study.Conclusions: Thus, MRI was seen to be more effective in diagnosing cases of painful hip joint where plain radiographs may be entirely normal.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223082
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Histo-pathological findings in kidneys with polar artery: a demystifying
           endeavor

    • Authors: N. Shakuntala Nallagatla, Kavya Nannam, Meera Kugananthan, H. R. Krishna Rao, B. N. Kumarguru
      Pages: 2826 - 2830
      Abstract: Background: The kidneys are supplied by renal arteries which enter the hilum and branch progressively from the pyramids to the cortex into lobar, interlobar, arcuate, interlobar, interlobular, and finally terminate as afferent arterioles that enter the glomeruli. Thus there is a normal pattern of blood flow towards the cortex from the pyramids when the artery enters at the hilum. The aim of the study was to explore the glomeruli pattern in kidneys with polar arteries.Methods: The study was conducted in the department of anatomy at a tertiary care referral institute. Twenty-two kidneys with polar arteries were obtained by conventional method of dissection from cadavers for the study. Sections were taken from the upper pole and lower pole in each kidney. The sections were taken perpendicular and close to the polar arteries. The sections were subjected to routine histological processing and staining as per the standard operating procedure. Histological findings were observed and documented.Results: The study found that the kidneys were histologically different with polar arteries as compared to normal kidneys. The number of glomeruli per high power field was higher nearer to the polar arteries. The glomeruli were viable and not sclerosed. An agglomeration of arterioles were present close to the polar arteries but they were distinct and did not seem to be associated with glomeruli.    Conclusions: The study found an agglomeration of arterioles, increased number of viable glomeruli and cystic changes associated with kidneys having polar artery. Thus this warrants a detailed study with special stains for research to elucidate the mechanisms of the circulation in polar arteries and correlation of the same findings with clinical conditions such as hypertension or any other diseases of the kidney.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223083
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Histopathological spectrum of lesions in gastrointestinal endoscopic
           biopsies in Jawahar Lal Nehru Medical College and associated group of
           Hospitals, Ajmer, Rajasthan

    • Authors: Kishan Machiwal, Bhawika Menghani, Neena Kasliwal, M. P. Sharma
      Pages: 2831 - 2836
      Abstract: Background: The gastrointestinal tract which extends from the esophagus to anus is a common site for numerous pathological processes from non-neoplastic, pre-neoplastic, to neoplastic. Gastrointestinal tumors including both benign and malignant tumors are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Endoscopy in combination with endoscopic biopsy plays an important role in detecting early cancers and/or high-grade dysplasia and in the diagnosis of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract neoplasms and therefore aids in their early management.Methods: This study was done for 1 year from July 2018 to June 2019 (retrospectively) and over a period of 1 year from July 2019 to June 2020 (prospectively). All endoscopic biopsies samples were received in the department of pathology at J. L. N. Medical College and Associated Group of Hospital, Ajmer, Rajasthan.Results: The mean age of patients were 51.91±18.86 years and highest incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) disease was seen between the age group of 51-60 years. The male: female (M: F) ratio was 1.46: 1. Non neoplastic lesions are more common than neoplastic lesions. Inflammatory lesion was the most commonly observed lesion followed by malignant lesions. The sensitivity of endoscopy is 96.25%, specificity is 68.67%, the positive predictive value is 74.76% and the negative predictive value is 95%. Accuracy for diagnosis by endoscopy is 82.21%.Conclusions: Endoscopic biopsy correlation reflects important advances in understanding the pathophysiology of disease and prognosis and survival rates after staging in the case of carcinomas. It provides diagnostic information and aids in improving patient management.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223084
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Study of antimicrobial resistance profile and efflux mediated drug
           resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa detected by
           ethidium bromide-agar Cartwheel method

    • Authors: Silpa K. N., Harish Kumar K. S., Philip George Theckel, Anagha S., Shinu Krishnan, Radhika Murali, Ananthu Raj
      Pages: 2837 - 2841
      Abstract: Background: Development of antibiotic resistance or multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major causes of treatment failure of bacterial infections and has rapidly evolved into a threat to global health care. Bacterial efflux pumps play a significant role in the development of antibiotic resistance. This study evaluates the prevalence of efflux pump- mediated drug resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.Methods: Clinical isolates (n=100) of P. aeruginosa were collected from various clinical laboratories in Kerala and their efflux mediated drug resistance detected by the ethidium bromide (EB) agar Cartwheel method.Results: The EB agar cartwheel method of screening revealed efflux activity in 17% (n=17) strains. The efflux activity was revealed at a minimum concentration of EB at 0 mg/l. P. aeruginosa strains showed the highest activity up to a concentration of 2.5 mg/l.Conclusions: This study discusses the emergence of efflux pump- mediated drug resistance in P. aeruginosa from various clinical samples. Our results showed that 17% drug resistance in P. aeruginosa is attributable to efflux related mechanisms. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223085
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • A study of bone marrow angiogenesis and its correlation with serum
           vascular endothelial growth factor levels in acute leukaemia

    • Authors: Neha Yadav, Sant P. Kataria, Sanjay Kumar, Oshin Vashishth, Sudhir Atri, Mahak ., Sunita Singh
      Pages: 2842 - 2849
      Abstract: Background: Angiogenesis, which is the development of new capillaries from existing blood vessels, occurs in both the developing embryo and postnatal life. The growth of solid tumours requires the development of micro vessels; therefore, tumour expansion correlates with the extent of angiogenesis.Methods: A prospective study was conducted on bone marrow trephine biopsies of 40 new cases of acute leukaemia diagnosed on complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration examination, and flow cytometry, including 20 control cases. Micro sections were stained with immuno-histochemical stains using monoclonal antibodies to CD31, CD34 and vWF. Micro vessel density was analysed at a 400× using automated image analyser by two investigators independently. Data were calculated, tabulated and statistically analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) statistical program version 18.Results: A total of 1522 micro vessels were analysed using CD31 including 802 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 512 in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 208 in the control group. The bone marrow microvessel density (MVD) in acute myeloid leukaemia using CD31, CD34 and Von Willebrand factor (VWF) was 70.83±20.76, 66.48±18.99 and 60.32±18.75 respectively while MVD in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 62.74±21.09, 70.58±22.46 and 51.22±21.13 respectively. The study revealed significant difference between AML, ALL and normal bone marrow cases by using CD31, CD34 and vWF antibody. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in AML, ALL and control group was 163.74±119.03, 168.23±154.22 and 43.45±9.14 respectively.Conclusions: Higher micro vessel density was observed in acute leukaemia. Present findings suggested the potential significance of characteristics of micro vessel density as potential prognostic marker as well as its application in improved selection of patients for anti-angiogenic and other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223086
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Clinical and laboratory profile of tuberculosis in HIV positive
           individuals

    • Authors: Sandhya Rani B., Varsha R. Bhandarkar, Prathvi Nandalike, Machandra Reddy
      Pages: 2850 - 2854
      Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB), major public health problem in most of the developing countries. There is significant difference in the laboratory profile of tuberculosis in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infected compared to immunocompetent host. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in HIV infected will improve the morbidity and mortality associated with dual infection. Objectives of the research were: to study about the clinical profile of tuberculosis in HIV positive individuals; and also, to study about the laboratory profile of tuberculosis in HIV positive individuals.Methods: Patients with HIV positive status who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria and admitted in Adichunchanagiri hospital and research center, BG Nagara Mandya district, Karnataka India, during the period of January 2020 to June 2021.Results: Fever was the most common symptom (92.8%). Most common manifestation was extrapulmonary TB (54%). TB meningitis was the most common extra pulmonary involvement seen in 28.67%. Amongst patients with pulmonary TB, 6.3% of cases were smear positive for AFB bacilli, 58% of cases had pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray. In all cases of extra pulmonary TB (EPTB) CD4T cell counts were <200 cells/μl.Conclusions: Chest X-rays were atypical with more of lowerzone infiltrative lesions. Sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) is negative in most of the patients with pulmonary TB, however had sputum cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) positive status, hence sputum CBNAAT remains the gold standard investigation. Fluid analysis with ADA correlation holds good for the diagnosis of TB meningitis and tubercular pleural effusion.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223087
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of study among radiography students about how to take informed
           consent

    • Authors: Vivodh Kushwaha, Shilpa Singh
      Pages: 2855 - 2862
      Abstract: Background: Consent form is an integral first step before any radiological procedure that engages methods that can be threatening to patients. Future radiographers i.e., radiography students should have sufficient and appropriate knowledge regarding obtaining an informed consent. The aim of my study is to evaluate and assess the knowledge and impart the importance of informed consent form among Radiography students under various conditions.Methods: A questionnaire based retrospective cross-sectional was used to assess the knowledge of informed consent among radiographic students. The study was carried out in radiology department of Maharishi Markandeshwar University. The questionnaire comprised of self-structured MCQs questionnaire consisted of demographic data and basic questions regarding informed consent.Results: Out of 156 undergraduate and postgraduate radiology paramedical students, 87 took part in the study. It was assessed how much information radiography students possess on taking informed consent. The gender ratio was allocated into 2 groups. First group was female consisting of 45 (51.72%) number of participants and second group male consisting of 42 (48.28%) number of students with mean of 21 years.Conclusions: Indulging on the subject of consent form, almost all of the students understood the concept of consent form or had heard about the concept of informed consent to some extent. Maximum students were in favour of classes being held discussing consent form. The statistical data of all participants who gave the correct answer is 81.20%, indicating that radiography students understand and grasp the concept of consent very well.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223088
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Comparative analysis of post-operative analgesic requirements in patients
           undergoing minor oral surgery using buprenorphine with lignocaine versus
           lignocaine: a clinical study

    • Authors: Neel Kamal, Alfisha Sheikh, Vaz Ashwin Alwyn, Navneet Kaur, Chandra Shekhar, Amit Sharma
      Pages: 2863 - 2869
      Abstract: Background: We aimed to inspect the post -operative analgesic requirement in patient undergoing minor oral surgery using buprenorphine versus lignocaine and lignocaine alone. Minor oral surgeries are followed by inflammatory reaction characterized by pain, mild swelling and discomfort. Opioid analgesics have an advantage over non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as they do not cause organ damage. Buprenorphine has an antinociceptive potency greater than that of morphine. Hence, in this study, buprenorphine was added to lignocaine in relieving postoperative pain after minor oral surgery.Methods: A total of 100 patients requiring minor oral surgery were included in the study. The patients were randomized by a third party and allocated to one of the two study groups. Hence a total of 50 patients in each group were selected for study, during a period of 24 months. 1 ml of buprenorphine hydrochloride injection I.P which contains an equivalent of 0.3 mg buprenorphine was withdrawn into a syringe and injected into a 30 ml vial of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200000.Results: The pain was found to be statistically significant at 2-hour, 24 hour and 36 hours postoperatively, thereafter the difference in NRS values between the solutions was not significant. Hence, the analgesic effect of solution A (buprenorphine) was effective at 2-hour, 24 hour and 36 hours postoperatively.Conclusions: Our study indicate that addition of 0.3 mg of buprenorphine to local anesthetic solution provides efficient post-operative analgesia and reduces patient's discomfort.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223089
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Social media addiction and its impact among the school students during
           COVID-19 lockdown in an urban area of Western India: a cross-sectional
           study

    • Authors: Raktim Engti, Mohmmedirfan H. Momin, Shailee N. Vyas
      Pages: 2870 - 2877
      Abstract: Background: Reports indicate significant increase in number of social media users. Teenagers are among the most prolific users of social media. Subsequently, questions and controversies emerge about its positive and negative effects, including their safety, academics and inter-personal relationships. This study will help in identifying teenagers at risk and implications of social media addiction on students.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted among school students of randomly selected schools of Surat city. Social media addiction scale-student form was used for data collection. Data entry in Microsoft excel and analysis was done by Epi-info. Univariate analysis was done to calculate mean and standard deviation while bivariate analysis for chi square test.Results: With 434 students of grade 9-12, mean age was 15.70±1.20 years. The prevalence of social media addiction was 23.5%. Girls were significantly associated with social media addiction. Overall, 26% of the students agreed that they were eager to go on social media, 14% of the students agreed that a life without social media becomes meaningless for them and 14.3% of the students agreed that they were unhappy when they are not on social media. Overall, 21.5% agreed that their productivity has decreased due to social media use and 12% had physical problems because of social media use.Conclusions: Risk factors for addiction were younger age group (13-15 years), female gender and students of standard 9. The academics was hampered for all the students irrespective of their age. There was a negative effect on their inter-personal relationships, mental and physical health. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223090
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of validity and reliability of multiple-choice questions in
           second MBBS competency-based medical education-based pharmacology
           examination of medical institute of India

    • Authors: Rushikesh P. Patil, Satish E. Bahekar, Madhuri D. Kulkarni, Mirza S. Baig
      Pages: 2878 - 2883
      Abstract: Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are most commonly used assessment tool in undergraduate medical examination. Assessment method must be reliable and valid. To improve quality of MCQs, item analysis was carried out by determining their validity and reliability using parameters like difficulty index, discrimination index, distractor efficiency and Cronbach’s alpha value.Methods: Study was carried out among 193 second year medical students. Each student was given 40 MCQs of 1 mark each. After assessment of MCQs, validity of test was analyzed by using difficulty index, discrimination index and distractor efficiency while reliability was analyzed by using Cronbach’s alpha.Results: Mean ± SD of difficulty index, discrimination index, functioning and non-functioning distractors were 59.80±23.38, 0.25±0.12, 1.98±0.92 and 13.25±13.05 respectively with reliability value of 0.7. About 47.5% items had moderate difficulty index, 22.5% items have excellent discrimination index with 35% items having 100% distractor efficiency. Reliability of test as measured by Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.7. There was weak correlation between difficulty index and discrimination index.Conclusions: It is concluded from study that given MCQs test have reliability but not validity and needs to improve quality of MCQs. Validity of test is improved by improving difficulty index, discrimination index, distractor efficiency of items.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223091
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Study of local manifestations of snake bite and its surgical implications,
           at a rural hospital in India

    • Authors: Shirish Srivastava, Vishwa Patel, Varin Rangwala
      Pages: 2884 - 2887
      Abstract: Background: Manifestations of snakebite have local and systemic implications. While systemic manifestations can be life-threatening, local complications like cellulitis, necrosis, and compartment syndrome secondary to snakebite can threaten limb survival. This study undertakes the recognition of local complications and its outcome.Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted at our tertiary center in India. 219 snake bitten patients presenting in between January 2013 to December 2020, were studied. Surgical interventions whenever required for managing local surgical complications were recorded and analyzed.Results: Of the 219 patients, 118 (53.88%) of the patients were bitten by venomous snakes requiring systemic therapy and 101 (46.12%) were non-venomous. Of the 118 patients with venomous snakebite, 78 (35.62%) had signs and symptoms. 83.11% reported to the hospital within 6 hours of the bite, while 45.66% within 2 hours. There were 169 (77.17%) patients who had local signs of inflammation, ischemic changes in 28 (12.79%), compartment syndrome in 15 (6.88%). 167 (76.26%) patients were treated conservatively while 52 (23.74%) had to undergo surgical interventions. Those undergoing surgical interventions had longer hospital stays (mean=8.09615) as compared to those treated conservatively (mean=4.82635) (p value=&lt; 0.001). In patients with no local inflammation, only 1 (0.46%) required surgical intervention as compared to 51 (23.29%) (p value=&lt; 0.001) patients with local inflammation requiring surgical intervention.Conclusions: Along with systemic medical treatment, local manifestations of most snakebites can be well managed with suitable surgical intervention. Surgical complications of snakebite are not infrequent leading to interventions. Such patients usually have a longer hospital stay.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223092
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Stepwise uterine devascularisation and/or internal iliac artery ligation:
           an alternative to obstetric hysterectomy in the management of intractable
           postpartum haemorrhage

    • Authors: Amrit P. Kaur, Harpoonam Manku
      Pages: 2888 - 2892
      Abstract: Background: Objectives of the study was to estimate the effectiveness and safety of stepwise uterine devascularisation and/or internal iliac artery ligation as alternative to obstetric hysterectomy in the management of uncontrollable postpartum haemorrhage.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a university affiliated tertiary obstetric referral hospital in the year 2020-2021 at the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, government medical college, Amritsar. Stepwise uterine devascularisation and/or hypogastric artery ligation were performed in 35 of the 335 patients (10.45%) who had intractable postpartum haemorrhage after caesarean deliveries not responding to classic management. This technique entails ‘three’ successive procedures of bilateral vascular ligations performed in step-by-step fashion until bleeding stops. The steps were as follows: (1) Bilateral uterine artery ligation. (2) If bleeding did not stop, bilateral ovarian artery ligation was performed. (3) Additionally, bilateral ligation of the anterior division of internal iliac artery was done in a few cases in which bleeding failed to stop. After each procedure, assessment of bleeding was done before proceeding to the next step.Results: Of the 35 women who were primarily treated with stepwise uterine devascularisation, the success rate to preserve the uterus was 100%. None of the patients required hysterectomy. The postpartum period was uneventful. There were no complications and the survival rate was 100%. Among the patients followed up, normal menstruation and pregnancy occurred.Conclusions: Stepwise uterine devascularisation is an effective and safe alternative to hysterectomy for management of intractable postpartum haemorrhage.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223093
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Multidetector computed tomographic urography for evaluation of vascular
           and ureteric anomalies associated with ectopic kidneys

    • Authors: Gagandeep M. Y., Gautam M., Abhinaya G., Sindhu N.
      Pages: 2893 - 2897
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vascular and ureteric anomalies associated with ectopic kidneys with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: The 40 patients with pre-diagnosed ectopic kidney undergoing MDCT urography (Contrast study) and KUB (Plain study) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The location and number of bilateral kidneys were assessed. The number and origin of the renal arteries and renal veins were noted. Their relationship with each other and possible complications in surgical handling analysed. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: The renal artery originated from suprarenal aorta in 2 cases, normal origin in 10 cases, infrarenal aorta in 12 cases, aortic bifurcation in 19 cases, common iliac artery in 6 cases and iliac artery bifurcation in 2 cases. The renal vein was of normal origin in 8 cases, originated from infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) in 16 cases, IVC bifurcation in 14 cases, common iliac vein in 9 cases, internal iliac vein in 2 cases and external iliac vein in 1 case. There was a significant correlation between the level of ectopic kidneys (abdominal, iliac and pelvis) and level of origin of arteries (p<0.001) and veins (p<0.001). In addition, significant correlation was found between the origins of arteries and veins of ectopic kidneys (p<0.001).Conclusions: A knowledge of the possible variations in renal vasculature and ureter associated with ectopic kidneys can play a key role in preventing iatrogenic hemorrhage during surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223080
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • The evaluation of the incidence of sensorineural component of hearing loss
           in chronic suppurative otitis media

    • Authors: Shruti Jha, Rakesh Kumar Singh
      Pages: 2898 - 2903
      Abstract: Background: The sensorineural component of hearing loss either in form of pure sensorineural or Mixed components has since long been suspected to be a dreaded sequela of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). The aim of this study is to access the incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) or mixed hearing loss (MHL) amongst people suffering from both mucosal and squamosal variants of CSOM.Methods: A prospective observational cohort study (control group: contralateral ear) was conducted at the E.N.T. department of tertiary care center from December 2020 to September 2022. 149 patients of ages 15-50 of either gender with unilateral CSOM were included in the study. The other normal ear of the same patient was taken as the control ear. The pure tone audiometry of both diseased and control ears at frequencies 500,1000,2000 and 4000 kHz were taken to determine SNHL or MHL.Results: The mean age was 26.54±8.75 years of which, 79 males and 70 females. The mean duration of disease was 3.92±3.32. SNHL occurred in 25.5% of cases, while conductive and MHL affected 69.8% and 4.7 % of patients respectively. Conclusions: SNHL and MHL occurred in a significant number of patients suffering from CSOM. Further research needs to be encouraged and management should be refined to decrease disease-related morbidity.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223095
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Pre-eclampsia and platelet indices: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Javid Ahmed Khan, Aadil Ashraf, Waseem Qureshi, Faizana Fayaz
      Pages: 2904 - 2910
      Abstract: Background: Pre-eclampsia is a complex disease process originating at the maternal- fetal interface that affects multiple organ systems. The exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not known but it is considered to be associated with endothelial cell dysfunction, increased inflammatory responses and hypercoagulability. The receptors located on platelets are activated in pre-eclampsia by several proteases plus the vasoconstriction associated with preeclampsia leads to platelet activation which can be evaluated by platelet indices like platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and palteletcrit (PCT). The objective of this study was to compare the platelet count and platelet indices- MPV, PDW, and PCT in patients with pre-eclampsia and normotensive pregnant women.Methods: A cross sectional study which included a total of 204 patients divided into two groups (102 pre-eclampsia and 102 control. The patients were compared for platelet count and platelet indices like MPV, PDW and PCT.Results: The platelet count (PC) was decreased in pre-eclampsia group as compared to control group with statistically significant difference in means between the two groups (p<0.05). The MPV and PDW also showed significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05) with preeclampsia group having increased MPV and PDW values. The PCT value was lower in pre-eclampsia group as compared to control group but it did not reach statistically significant level.Conclusions: In pre-eclampsia patients while as MPV and PDW showed increased value as compared to control group and the difference between the two had statistical significance, platelet count was lower in them and had statistical significance when compared to control group. Therefore these platelet indices and platelet count can be used to predict and prevent complications arising from preeclampsia.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223096
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of HRCT chest findings among vaccinated and non-vaccinated
           COVID-19 patients

    • Authors: Neha Kumari, M. Shamim Ahmad, Animesh Gupta, Gaurav Prakash
      Pages: 2911 - 2915
      Abstract: Background: Coronavirus disease 19 was first reported in Wuhan, China and it was declared a pandemic by WHO in March 12, 2020. Vaccination has provided a very effective way to prevent the spread and reduce the severity of this disease. The two vaccines currently approved by the Government of India are Covaxin and Covishield. HRCT is the most valuable tool available to assess the pulmonary involvement in this disease. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vaccination on the severity of pulmonary involvement in COVID-19.  Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a department of radio diagnosis of tertiary health care hospital of Bihar for period of 4 months from April 2021 to July 2021.Results: The study involved a total of 100 patients (74 were males and 26 females), where 50 were (50%) were unvaccinated and 50 (28.6%) were vaccinated with one or both doses Covishield vaccine. The frequency of disease was least in 14 (7.9%) among fully vaccinated subjects. The CT severity score is less in those who took both doses of the vaccine. The mean CT score of all the patients included in the study was 12.64±11.1. However, the patients who received complete vaccination had significantly low mean CT scores (14.18±7.223) in comparison to the non-vaccinated patients (11.1±6.016).  Fully vaccinated patients had almost low CT severity score indicating mild form of disease.Conclusions: HRCT is the most sensitive modality to detect severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. Severe lung involvement is more common in the unvaccinated population (32%) as compared with the vaccinated group, in which only 25% members had severe lung involvement.  
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223097
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Traditional method or online teaching; which method students prefer: an
           observational study

    • Authors: B. S. S. N. V. R. Gayatri, S. Ravindra Kishore, Teki Surekha, Vanimina Triveni
      Pages: 2916 - 2919
      Abstract: Background: An unexpected global pandemic broke out in initial months of 2020 i.e., COVID-19 which drastically brought a difference in the progress of education in various institutions, especially the medical field where we study about life was also made online. This study aims to conduct a comparative analysis of students ‘opinion regarding which is the better, traditional teaching or online live teaching.Methods: Survey was conducted among two group of students, 2019 (both online and offline teaching) and 2020 (online teaching with offline practical) batches of Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. A questionnaire was circulated to students regarding the class experience, interest of attending the class, learning effect and clarity of the lecture.
      Results: Students expressed their views that overall teaching experience and learning effect of offline methodology is superior to online approach, so the traditional offline style or the blend of online and offline modes are apt for teaching.Conclusions: The study is focused on the way in which the teaching and learning approach is delivered which is favoured by the medical practitioners, the qualitative data suggesting required modifications for further improvement in the delivering method to produce qualified medical practitioners to meet the current and imminent situations. This study suggests that a intermingled learning approach is an effective method for anatomy learning, and this approach mainly inculcates self-directed study through online learning.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223098
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Our experience with methyl alcohol poisoning at SLBSGMCH Mandi at Nerchowk

    • Authors: Nitesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Bhawani, Pratibha Himral, Roshan Lal, Santosh Dheer
      Pages: 2920 - 2923
      Abstract: Methyl alcohol poisoning is an extremely hazardous poisoning commonly occurs via oral ingestion of illicit or adulterated liquors or as ethanol substitution. Toxicity results in gastrointestinal manifestations, metabolic acidosis, neurologic squeal and even death. Rapid recognition, early and aggressive management have been emphasized to prevent hazardous outcome. We hereby present a case series of 16 cases who presented to our hospital as methyl alcohol poisoning. Demographic, clinical and biochemical data were collected retrospectively from the hospital record section of the tertiary care hospital in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Out of 16 patients admitted, 12 patients had metabolic acidosis and treated with sodium bicarbonate. Four patients underwent hemodialysis for the improvement of symptoms. Five patients with severe metabolic acidosis, hypotension and altered sensorium did not be recover and succumbed.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223099
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Electric injury: a case series

    • Authors: Naveen Sharma, Kunal Khanna, Tarun Dagar, Sandeep K. Giri, Vijay Pal, Kuldeep Kumar, Luv Sharma
      Pages: 2924 - 2928
      Abstract: In the modern era, electricity acts as a vital zone for mankind. The most important external sign of electrocution is the electric mark. The internal findings of electrocution are usually unspecific. The electric mark can also be of postmortem origin and is therefore not a reliable proof that the electric shock occurred before death, unless the survival time was long enough for an inflammatory response of the affected tissue. Various cases of electrocution have been reported in literature but as per the best of authors knowledge none of them have been clearly explained for the establishment of complete electric circuit in reported cases; required for fatal electrocution. In the present case series, authors’ report and discuss the three cases of electrocution under different circumstances with deviations in expectations. Because of the diagnostic problems authors also discuss the significance and careful evaluation of incident/death scene in all definitive as well as suspected cases of electrocution and emphasize on various components required for complete electric circuit for flow of current.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223100
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Vascular injury of the brachycephalic trunk from vascular access: case
           report

    • Authors: Yankel A. Sanchez
      Pages: 2929 - 2931
      Abstract: Central vascular accesses are very useful tools for the treatment and diagnosis of various medical conditions such as the administration of drugs and solutions, chemotherapy, hemodialysis, hemodynamic monitoring. A review of the clinical record of a 59-year-old patient treated at a tertiary hospital was performed. We presented the case of a patient with vascular lesion of the brachiocephalic truncus arteriosus derived from the placement of a dialysis catheter. Vascular access placement is a routine procedure in many critical patient services, however it is important to know in detail the vascular anatomy and surgical technique to reduce the risk of complications.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223101
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Laparoscopic ureteral antero-position in a retrocaval ureter: a case
           report and review

    • Authors: Jorge A. Castro-Flores, Diana E. Campos-Lopez, Cristopher Cardenas-Cruz, Jose de Jesus Vazquez-Hernandez, Mauricio Porras-Loya, Celeste Espinosa-Coria, Alejandro Arias-Mendoza, Rodrigo Rueda de Leon-Serna
      Pages: 2932 - 2935
      Abstract: Retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital anomaly due to altered development of the vasculature, in which the ureter passes behind the inferior vena cava. This is often secondary vascular variants. Here we present a case about a 41-year-old woman with pain in the right renal fossa, stenotic retrocaval ringlet was established by CT scan. RG showed 43.3 ml/min with obstructive pattern and a bordering left renal exclusion. A laparoscopic transperitoneal approach was realized. Right pyeloureteromy and anteroposition was done. The patient evolved satisfactorily, showed no signs of inflammatory systemic response and continued under post-surgical surveillance until drainage was removed, with progressively diminished serohematic output. Laparoscopic ureteral antero-position with pyeloureterotomy is considered the treatment of choice because it’s a less invasive procedure. We recommend the laparoscopic approach because of a low postsurgical complications risk.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sebaceous carcinoma of lacrimal gland with endophthalmitis

    • Authors: Dinar Aulia, Empi Irawan
      Pages: 2936 - 2940
      Abstract: Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a rare type of cancer that aggressive which develops from the sebaceous glands and can impair patients’ visual acuity. It usually arises from the periorbital area, which commonly affects in the eyelid. This study discusses the sebaceous carcinoma of lacrimal gland with endophthalmitis. The patient was a 53-year-old Javanese man came with a chief complaint of no vision in his left eye, painlessness nowadays, no previous medical history, and slowly progressive swelling mass on the outer aspect of the left upper eyelid for a year duration. On examination, there was no light perception for the left eye and 6/7, 5 on the right eye. The tumor was rock hard and fixed on palpation, which caused partial upper eyelid ptosis, displaced the globe anteromedially, and impaired ocular motility. There was also a massive chemosis in the left eye, ptosis with corneal damage caused by endophthalmitis. The histopathological examination found that the tumor was composed of nests of cuboidal and columnar cells with proliferation round core cells, pleomorphic, hyperchromatic, vacuole cytoplasm, and prominent nuclei, arranged in a solid structure without lymphovascular invaded. The final diagnosis was sebaceous carcinoma of the lacrimal gland. The patient took tumor excision surgery followed by orbital evisceration due to endophthalmitis with post-operative radiotherapy as an alternative treatment. Sebaceous carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is extremely rare. There are no specific treatments, and it is difficult to study further for the best treatment due to its rare incidence. Sebaceous carcinoma of the lacrimal gland has so far been treated best by surgical excision and radiotherapy after.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20222977
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Cystic nephroma in a 14-year-old-a rare case report

    • Authors: Reshmi Gopal, Niveditha Ezhilarasan Nila, Dhanya Menon, Vimal Chander C.
      Pages: 2941 - 2944
      Abstract: Cystic nephroma (CN) is an uncommon benign renal tumor with a bimodal age distribution. It often presents with non-specific presenting symptoms. In this study, we report a case of a 14-year-old female patient who presented with a painless abdominal mass, and a left renal cystic lesion was detected on CECT KUB. Left partial nephrectomy was done and a diagnosis of CN made following the histopathological examination of specimen. Owing to its non-specific clinical presentation and radiological findings, it is difficult to distinguish CN from other cystic lesions of kidney like cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, tubule-cystic renal cell carcinoma, cystic Wilm’s tumor etc., pre-op. This study emphasizes importance of histopathological examination in diagnosis of CN to prevent misdiagnosis and overtreatment. Although it has good prognosis, long term follow-up for local recurrence is recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20222966
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Intestinal obstruction by deep enteric endometriosis: case report and
           literature review

    • Authors: Daniel Benito Castillo Martínez, Doris Michelle Palacios Rivera, Emmanuel S. Bracho Ruíz, Sergio Sandoval Tapia, Mariano Tovar Ponce, Julio C. Gómez Trejo, Diana Iraís Hernández Hernández, César Augusto López Carmona, Rafael Silva Flores
      Pages: 2945 - 2949
      Abstract: Deep endometriosis (DE) is an uncommon cause of bowel obstruction; preoperative diagnosis is a challenging task due to its rarity and pathological confirmation. Surgery is the appropriate treatment and complications are common. A 26-year-old Latin female was admitted to emergency department with 72 hours history of abdominal pain associated with inability to pass stool or gas, vomiting and nausea. Abdominal distention and pain without acute abdomen signs. Laboratory tests reported normal. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed distal small bowel obstruction. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with segmental resection bearing ileal strictures and Brook´s ileostomy was performed. Postoperative course of patient was uneventful and after pathology report treatment with dienogest was established. DE remains challenging entity to treat, medical treatment can reduce symptoms, but surgical resection is required. Bowel resection is reserved for mayor stenosis lesions. Anastomotic leakage is frequent. Surgery represents the definitive treatment for bowel obstruction by DE. Resection improves pain and intestinal symptoms. Recurrence, stenosis, and anastomotic leakage rates vary across the studies. Surgical and medical treatment should be considered.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • An unusual presentation of catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
           in the background of sepsis

    • Authors: Sai C. Hakeem, Akash T. Oommen, Sandeep Surendran, Sumanth Madan
      Pages: 2950 - 2952
      Abstract: A 59-year-old female presented with complaints of gangrenous changes over right ring finger and reduced renal output. She was in hypotension and had to be started on ionotropes. She also had acute kidney injury and was initiated on hemodialyis. Inspite of culture directed antibiotics and amputation of the necrotic region, her condition worsened. Considering the acute multisystem worsening, i.e., less than a week, concomitant autoimmune etiology was considered. Antiphospholipid antibodies were positive. Her tissue biopsy was suggestive of vasculitis. Hence the diagnosis of catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS) was made. Quick recognition and appropriate treatment play a cornerstone in treatment of CAPS. She was pulsed with methylprednisolone and also treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and anticoagulants. She showed remarkable improvement and responded to the treatment. CAPS should always be kept as a differential in case of multisystem acute deterioration even in the background of sepsis. The treatment is a big challenge to physicians given the associated mortality rate if not briskly treated.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223103
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Time to think beyond sickle cell screening and haemoglobin
           electrophoresis: a case report and review of literature of sickle cell
           D-Punjab falsely labelled as sickle cell SS from central India

    • Authors: Milind Vyawahare, Vandana Vandana, Tony K. S., Kunal Shah, Ayush Thakur
      Pages: 2953 - 2955
      Abstract: Sickle cell haemoglobin D disease (D-Punjab) is a rare variant of sickle cell disease (SCD) reported from central India. Exact incidence of pulmonary thrombosis in patients with HbSD is unknown. Pulmonary thrombosis is known complication of SCD but rare in case of HbSD pattern. We reported a case of 34-year-old male patient with HbSD (D-Punjab) with acute chest syndrome (ACS). CT pulmonary angiogram revealed near complete thrombosis of right middle lobe segmental and subsegmental branches with pulmonary infarct. Our patient responded to anticoagulant therapy. This case report is a reminder that HPLC should be done in all patients with sickle cell disease along with solubility test and hemoglobin electrophoresis to detect exact incidence of hemoglobin D disease in central India.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223104
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Hypoxic bradycardia: an enigma in coronavirus disease 2019

    • Authors: Ruchi Kapoor, Lakshmi R., Ganga Dutt Devaraj, Aparna Mohan
      Pages: 2956 - 2959
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 varies from asymptomatic to severe acute respiratory syndrome with multiple organ involvement, primarily involving the microvasculature and heart. Acute myocardial injury is the most frequently observed and reported cardiac complication with acute coronary events, acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmias, but sinus bradycardia reported only in a few cases. The development of sinus bradycardia can be crucial warning sign of onset of severe cytokine storm. The primary determinant of severity of COVID-19 is aging and co-morbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia with dysregulated immunological status. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease infected with COVID-19 have increased risk of severity and mortality. Literature available regarding the occurrence of bradycardia is limited, and electrophysiology studies in COVID-19 patients have shown sinus bradycardia, heart block, bundle branch block, and intraventricular conduction delay. The pathophysiological mechanism regarding the occurrence of bradycardia is not yet known entirely. Cardiac manifestations could be attributed to multiple clinical etiologies, including direct viral myocardial damage, inflammatory response, hypoxia, hypotension, downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), drug toxicity, and endogenous toxicity of catecholamine adrenergic status, also severe hypoxic damage of lungs by COVID-19 can also act as a trigger. We report one such case of bradycardia due to COVID-19 detected through intensive monitoring and managed successfully in the ICU of tertiary care dedicated COVID-19 hospital. Bradycardia in COVID-19 is a rare clinical phenomenon, could be a worst prognostic marker. If detected early may help in prognostication and, if managed appropriately, will avert a life-threatening complication. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223105
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • An unusual cross reactivity between hydrochlorothiazide and
           para-phenylenediamine: a case report

    • Authors: Deena Patil, Tharayil K. Sumathy, Hassan V. Anuradha
      Pages: 2960 - 2962
      Abstract: Over the last decade, the usage of hair color is gradually increasing from adolescents to the geriatric population. In the elderly population, more use of hair color due to graying of hairs exposes them to chemicals such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Many cases are reported regarding various manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to PPD compound present in hair color. It is noteworthy that, in the elderly the use of antidiabetics and antihypertensives, makes them vulnerable to cross-reaction or interaction with drugs and chemicals. We report a case that highlights the adverse reaction to hydrochlorothiazide in a PPD sensitive individual. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223106
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Primary empty sella syndrome presenting as adrenal insufficiency and
           without raised intracranial tension

    • Authors: Ishank Gupta, Vinay Panchalwar, Aman Chabra
      Pages: 2963 - 2966
      Abstract: Empty sella syndrome (ESS) based on pathophysiology can be either primary empty sella syndrome (PES) or secondary empty sella syndrome (SES). Patients of PES have no known pituitary pathology and have varying degrees of pituitary gland flattening. We present a 65-year-old female who came with complaints of generalised swelling over the body, generalised weakness, altered sensorium and low-grade fever. Patient had history of ischaemic heart disease 3 years back without any other known co-morbidities. Patient presented in hypoglycaemia and hypotension with facial puffiness and oedema feet with basal crepitations indicating fluid overload state. Patient was stabilised and evaluated. Patient was found to have hyponatremia and urinary tract Infection and associated acute kidney injury. Patient’s morning cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were also low with associated low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels but low T3 and low T4 levels. Patient’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain was done which was suggestive of PES. The cause of empty sella remained unclear but the adrenal insufficiency was treated with hydrocortisone and the patient became asymptomatic and was discharged subsequently.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223107
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Closure of a large lumbosacral myelomeningocele post operative defect with
           a human cadaveric split-thickness skin graft: a case report

    • Authors: Diana E. Campos-Lopez, Nora C. Sauceda-Elenes, Mario A. Martinez-Jimenez, Cristopher Cardenas-Cruz, Lizeth Jiménez-Santana, Mariana G. Jiménez-Sierra, Rito J. Medellin-Cristerna, Alejandro Arias-Mendoza
      Pages: 2967 - 2970
      Abstract: Spina bifida is the most common birth defect of the central nervous system that is compatible with life, and myelomeningocele represents its most frequent form. Congenital myelomeningocele (CMM) has a worldwide incidence of 0.5 to 0.8 per 1,000 live newborns. CMM is a complex condition resulting from incomplete closure of the neural tube, mainly in the lumbosacral region. The objective of the surgical repair of the CMM is the reconstruction of all the tissue layers of the defect, avoiding possible postoperative complications. The aim of this case review is to present a re-epithelialization closure in a patient with a large CMM defect in who primary hermetic closure was not possible because there was too much tension at the edges of the defect. Therefore, human cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts were placed over the dura mater and the aponeurotic layer, covering the entire defect and an adequate healing and completely closure of the defect were observed in eight weeks. The surgical management of large meningomyelocele defects represents a major challenge and no single protocol exists for its reconstruction. The repair of an MMC defect should be performed during the first 72 hours after birth. After neurosurgical closure of the neural tube and dura, the myelomeningocele defect requires good quality skin and subcutaneous tissue with minimal wound tension for stable coverage. Human cadaveric skin grafts are considered a useful technique for temporary wound coverage because they lead to a more natural healing environment, possess ideal properties, and provide a physiological barrier that reduces microbiological contamination, in addition, it acts as a bridge to adhere to and to seal wound beds.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting as ileocolic intussusception in
           adult

    • Authors: Niveditha Ezhilarsan Nila, Reshmi Gopal, Rajeswar Kannan, Volga Harikrishnan
      Pages: 2971 - 2974
      Abstract: Adult intussusception generally has a distinct pathological cause as a lead point. Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare non-neoplastic submucosal lesion, furthermore, that polyp causing ileocolic intussusception in an adult is even rarer. Here we present a case of a 32-year-old female who presented with complaints of intermittent colicky pain associated with vomiting for 3 days. Computer tomography (CT) showed bowel obstruction caused by an ileocolic intussusception. Laparotomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis was done. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the cause of the intussusception was a rare inflammatory fibroid polyp. A benign condition being the cause of intussusception in an adult and the clinical symptoms were nonspecific posing clinical challenges makes this interesting case worthy of reporting.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20222987
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Giant umbilical hernia case report and literature review

    • Authors: Yankel A. sanchez, Diana L. Garcia
      Pages: 2975 - 2977
      Abstract: Umbilical hernia is a defect of the abdominal fascia that allows the protrusion of the intestinal content through the umbilical ring, in adults these hernias are associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by obesity, abdominal distension, and abdominal distension. We presented the clinical case of a 38-year-old female patient who presented a giant umbilical hernia with contents of the transverse colon and necrotic ascending colon, performing abdominal wall plasty with separation of components. Treatment of patients with giant hernias is a challenge. The presence of non-viable bowel should not be considered a contraindication for mesh repair. Giant umbilical hernias are an uncommon pathology which requires knowledge of the different techniques of abdominal wall repair as well as their possible complications.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Handgrip strength as an indicator of decreased cognitive function in the
           elderly

    • Authors: Nadya Intan Alyssa, Edy Parwanto
      Pages: 2978 - 2983
      Abstract: In the elderly, the aging process occurs which is associated with a decrease in several functions in the body, including cognitive function and musculoskeletal function. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1 in 9 elderly’s has decreased cognitive function. This decline in cognitive function is a form of cognitive dysfunction and is a precursor to the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. According to one study, the prevalence of people who were not detected for dementia because they had never undergone a cognitive examination was 61.7%. One of the possible causes is the absence of cognitive examinations in primary health facilities due to the unavailability of fast and easy instruments. Low hand grip strength has been associated with decreased cognitive function, and can be an effective indicator for early detection of cognitive impairment. In addition, hand grip strength can also be a predictor of decreased cognitive function in the elderly. The exact mechanism between decreased motor power and cognitive function is still unclear. Probably caused by the same cause like the presence of neuropathology in brain such as Lewy bodies, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, infarction and atrophy.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223109
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Role of insulin resistance and insulin action in polycystic ovary
           syndrome: a concept review

    • Authors: Kirti Kumari, Assem Babbar, Yogesh Joshi
      Pages: 2984 - 2987
      Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic illness that has alarmingly high rates of infertility and other significant effects on the health of women. This review study highlighted that Insulin appears to damage every part of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and insulin resistance in ovarian tissue leads to impaired metabolic signalling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favouring hyperandrogenemia, which is thought to be the primary cause of the clinical symptoms of PCOS. This review also enumerates and briefly summarize the research methods related to effects of insulin resistance in PCOS, including molecular mechanism of action of insulin and anabolic processes that stimulate cell growth and differentiation; increase protein and fat storage; and the binding between α, β dimers and receptors on cell surface that results in alteration in gene expression, metabolism and growth.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223110
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Applying sex as a biological variable in research and clinical care: a
           need for uniform policy

    • Authors: Masaraf Hussain
      Pages: 2988 - 2988
      Abstract: Sex as a biological variable (SABV) has to be recognized in both preclinical (basic) and clinical research, as a major contributor to disease risk, phenomenology, natural history, treatment and adverse effects, and disease severity.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223111
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • The tendon graft wrap repair in flexor zone 5 injuries

    • Authors: Alfonso Echeverria, Jorge Clifton, Rafael Reynoso
      Pages: 2989 - 2992
      Abstract: Tendon lacerations are commonly presented in hand injuries. Within flexor tendons, zone 5 has not been a spotlight topic in the literature although it encompasses important tendons involved in wrist stability. The aim of the study was to highlight the importance of tendon repair in flexor zone 5 introducing a novel technique. In this article we described our new surgical technique use at the plastic and reconstructive surgery unit of the General Hospital of Mexico with 4 different flexor tendon zone 5 injuries. All cases included a HBRT laceration in this zone. We also describe its variances for reconstruction based on our proposed tendon territory classification. Our tendon injury classification is based on anatomical features and may be useful for repair planning. Our technique is based on a ‘like with like’ tendon supply to achieve a strong biomechanical reinforcement. TGW technique was a reliable reinforcement on primary tendon repair after using a conventional tenorrhaphy. Tendon reconstruction still has a field of research and improvements. Our work stands out some specific tendon requirements and relevant territories. We propose a simple management with a novel technique.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
 
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