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International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2319-2003 - ISSN (Online) 2279-0780
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Amaranthus viridis improves relative anxiety behaviour and cognitive
           deficit in rotenone induced Parkinsonism in albino rats

    • Authors: Eugene O. Ohanme, Uzochukwu Ofonakara , Casimir C. Ofor, Benjamin N. Nwakelu, Mansur A. Ramalan, Clementina N. Eze, Amauchechukwu V. Nwafor, Donatus O. Anele, Godwin C. Akuodor
      Pages: 774 - 780
      Abstract: Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is typically characterised by motor shortfalls. However, non-motor symptoms like mood disorders (anxiety, depression) and impaired cognition are also associated features. Previous studies have demonstrated a neuroprotective effect a plant against a disease. Consequently, this current study was focused on assessing its efficacy in extenuating non-motor shortfalls such as anxiety-like behaviour and impaired cognition induced by rotenone. Methods: PD was induced in rats by administering rotenone (10 mg/kg BW orally) for 28 days. The vehicle and the test drug were given orally daily for one hour prior to rotenone administration. The protective effect of methanol extract of A. viridis (500 mg/kg BW) was assessed through an array of tests; elevated plus maze test, Morris water maze test, and novel object recognition test. The rats were sacrificed on day 28th and neurobiochemical analyses of the hippocampus were performed using HPLC. Results: The findings of this study showed that co-administration of A. viridis reversed the rotenone-induced anxiety-like behaviour and cognitive shortfalls to a significant extent (p<0.001). It also restored the hippocampal neurotransmitters [(5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and dopamine (Da)] significantly (p<0.001). Conclusions: Amaranthus viridis offered neuroprotective effects that ameliorate non-motor symptoms in PD. This could be a novel insight into the therapy of PD. This study provides scientific evidence that A. viridis attenuates non-motor symptoms like anxiety-like behaviour and cognitive deficits in Parkinsonism. This extract can be a potential candidate in herbal formulations as a neuroprotectant against PD.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233187
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance among healthcare students
           at a medical college in Nepal

    • Authors: Bindu Malla, Komal Prasad Malla, Niranjan Shrestha, Ganesh Dhakal, Deependra Man Shrestha Simangainda, Sushil Nepal, Madan Dhakal
      Pages: 781 - 787
      Abstract: Background: Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and any other possible drug-related problems. Under reporting of adverse drugs reactions are the global health problem. The adequate knowledge and skills towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drugs reactions reporting are crucial for the health care students to ensure patients’ medication safety. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude of the health care students towards pharmacovigilance and ADRs. Methods: A closed ended, structured, self-administered questionnaire was administered to 204 undergraduate health care students to collect the data. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Non-parametric tests (Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test) were used for analysis. Results: Among 204 respondents, the majority of them had a poor knowledge (91.18%) and positive attitude (87.25%) towards Pharmacovigilance. The inter quartile range (median) score of the respondents’ knowledge was 5.0±2.211 and attitude was 27.0±2.88 towards Pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. The main reason for under reporting of ADRs was difficulty to decide whether ADR has occurred or not (32.4%) due to the lack of appropriate knowledge and training. There is a poor knowledge and positive attitude towards Pharmacovigilance. Conclusions: Adequate coverage of Pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting issues should be covered in the curriculum as well as hand on training and workshop should be conducted to increase the knowledge and confidence in detecting, monitoring and reporting ADR in their clinical posting.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233188
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Neuropsychological side effects of anti-epileptic drugs in epilepsy
           patients: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Namratha M. V., Anuradha H. V., Mahendra J. V.
      Pages: 788 - 793
      Abstract: Background: Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder in world. Managing an epilepsy with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) either as monotherapy or polytherapy is necessary to reduce the deleterious effect of the disease and to provide neuroprotection. AEDs exert their negative effects on cognition by suppressing neuronal excitability or enhancing inhibitory neurotransmission. These neuropsychological side effects are found to be modest when the drug level is within the therapeutic concentration and used as monotherapy. Objectives were to assess the prevalence of neuropsychological side effects among epilepsy patients who were on antiepileptic drug therapy. Methods: An open label, cross-sectional, clinical study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, 126 participants were recruited. Participants demographic data, detailed medical and seizure history followed by neuropsychological tests was performed. The prevalence was assessed based on the number of participants scoring <15th percentile in one or more tests. Results: Out of 126 participants who were recruited, 82 participants were on monotherapy and 44 participants were on polytherapy. Levetiracetam was the most commonly prescribed drug as monotherapy, followed by phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate; whereas in polytherapy levetiracetam, clobazam followed by phenytoin were the commonly prescribed AED. The most common adverse effect was drowsiness, followed by headache, hypersensitivity reaction, giddiness, tremors, anxiety etc. The prevalence of neuropsychological side effects was 77.8%. The prevalence of impairment between monotherapy and polytherapy was statistically insignificant (p=0.727). Conclusions: In this study, levetiracetam was the most commonly prescribed drug and the most common adverse effect was drowsiness due to AEDs. The subgroup analyses between monotherapy and polytherapy did not show any statistically significant neuropsychological impairment when compared based on the gender, age groups, duration of epilepsy with medication and duration of current therapy.
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20232845
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Drug utilization study of anti-diabetic drugs in patients attending
           medicine outpatient department at a tertiary care hospital in Western
           Maharashtra

    • Authors: Mayur P. Pawar, Anita H. Yuwnate, Amrita Umathe, Jijo P. Abraham
      Pages: 794 - 798
      Abstract: Background: Studies on antidiabetic drug utilization are important for the optimization of drug therapy and rational prescription of drugs. The aim of the present study was to understand the trends in prescription pattern of oral anti-diabetic drugs among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients attending medicine outpatient department of tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at Medicine OPD of Government Medical College and Hospital, Miraj. All adult patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with T2DM and willing to give informed consent to participate in the study, were enrolled. The study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. The data was computed using MS excel and results were expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Out of 72 T2DM patients enrolled, male population (58.33%) had higher prevalence than females (41.67%). Biguanides (63.16%) were the most commonly prescribed class of oral antidiabetic drugs followed by sulfonylureas (35.09%). Metformin (63.16%) was the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug followed by glimepiride (30.70%). Combination of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) were prescribed in 52.78% and 47.22% patients were prescribed single drug. ‘Metformin and glimepiride’ was the most commonly prescribed combination. Conclusions: In a chronic disease like diabetes mellitus, constant follow up for successful management is a must. It also demands active participation by the patients. Continuing education for the clinicians to keep themselves abreast of the latest development will also contribute in the effective management of diabetes mellitus and rational prescription of antidiabetic drugs.
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20232863
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Formulation and evaluation of a face serum containing fenugreek extract

    • Authors: Harshal Yeskar, Prasad Makde, Shital Anup Tiware, Trupti M. Shirbhate , Sagar V. Thakre, Chetan S. Darne, Jyoti B. Sable, Komal Khond Warghane, Jagdish R. Baheti
      Pages: 799 - 804
      Abstract: Background: Wrinkles on the face and aging of the skin are an undesirable effect of photodamage and ultraviolet radiation. Serum has a quick absorption and ability to penetrate deep layers of the skin, as well as a non-oily finish and a deep formula with a very high amount of active ingredients. Methods: In this study, we have formulated and evaluated a face serum containing combination of aqueous extract of fenugreek seed and lemon oil. Results: Facial serum was tested for its pH, physical appearance, viscosity, microbial testing, cyclic temperature test, etc. The results of the stability study show that there was no change in visual acuity, homogeneity. Conclusions: Serum containing Fenugreek extract have been able to cure bacterial infections and inflammations of facial skin, and other signs also moistens the skin without any side effects making skin soft, smooth and supple.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233189
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Comparison of efficacy of azilsartan with olmesartan in patients of
           hypertension: randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Deeksha Sharma, Atal Sood, Dinesh Kansal, Dhiraj Kapoor, Akshay Sharma
      Pages: 805 - 809
      Abstract: Background: Azilsartan and olmesartan are members of ARBs, used in the management of hypertension. Objective was to evaluate efficacy of azilsartan with olmesartan in patients of hypertension. Methods: A randomized, prospective, open label, comparative study was carried out in Pharmacology and Medicine department at Dr. RPGMC Kangra at Tanda, HP. The study stretched over one year and blood pressure was monitored at first, third and sixth month. Out of 69 patients, 35 patients in group A were prescribed tablet azilsartan 40 mg/day and 34 patients in group B patients were prescribed tablet olmesartan 20 mg/day. Tablet chlorthalidone 12.5 mg/day was add on in both the groups. Data was presented as mean+SD. Student’s t test was used and p value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: In group A, systolic blood pressure (SBP) values improved from baseline of 153±10 mmHg to 111±18 mmHg (p<0.001) at 3 months and 109±6.1 mmHg (p<0.001) at 6 months and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values from baseline of 87±7 mmHg to 67.1±4.6 mmHg (p<0.001) at 3 months and 67.6±2.5 mmHg (p < 0.001) at 6 months. In group B, SBP values improved from baseline of 154±8.5 mmHg to 127±3.6 mmHg (p<0.001) at 3 months and 123±4 mmHg (p<0.001) at 6 months and DBP values from baseline of 85±6.5mm Hg to 75.7±3.3 mmHg (p<0.001) at 3 months and 73±3.3 mmHg (p<0.001) at 6 months. On intergroup comparison improvement in hypertension was better in azilsartan group (p<0.001). Conclusions: The study concluded that azilsartan is significantly better than olmesartan in controlling the hypertension.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233190
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Perceptions of undergraduate medical students of old traditional and new
           CBME curriculum about pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions
           reporting at a tertiary care teaching hospital: a comparative study

    • Authors: Sailaxmi Venepally, Indira K., Sankirth Jadala, Murali Krishna C.
      Pages: 810 - 815
      Abstract: Background: National pharmacovigilance program is an ongoing program to monitor the adverse drug reactions and reporting at the earliest. The effectiveness and success of any pharmacovigilance system depends highly on the participation of all health care professionals. As medical students are future health-care givers, this study is aimed to measure perceptions on Pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting among medical students of two different curriculum. Methods: A validated and standardized KAP Questionnaire based cross sectional study. It consists of 22 questions divided into four sections of total of 22 items (six related to Personal details, eight related to knowledge, four related to attitude, and four related to practice) The filled questionnaires were collected and analyzed by MS excel Results: A comparative sample of 100 from old (phase 4) and 100 from New CBME (phase 3) curriculum undergraduate medical students of Government Medical College are included in our study. The average score of phase 3 and phase 4 medical students for knowledge was 85.37% and 75.87%, for attitude was 95.5% and 84% and for practices was 88.75% and 67.5% respectively. Conclusions: The overall knowledge, attitude and practices of new curriculum students found to be better than old curriculum students as CBME curriculum was introduced from the academic year 2019–2020 in all Medical Institutions of India to impart knowledge, communication and leadership skills using various teaching–learning methods among students.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233191
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Dissolution rates of various brands of proton pump inhibitors in
           combination with domperidone: an in vitro study

    • Authors: Shibendu Ghosh, Sandip Kumar Das, Krishna C. V., Ritwik Banerjee
      Pages: 816 - 822
      Abstract: Background: Drug solubility, bioavailability, and dissolution rates are important in establishing in vivo efficacy. Eight brands of domperidone proton pump inhibitor combination drugs were compared to enable physicians to take an informed decision regarding the dissolution rates of various domperidone-PPI combinations available in the Indian market to allow identification and prescription of the drug with better bioavailability. Methods: The in vitro dissolution rate of a combination of domperidone-PPI drugs was measured using the United States Pharmacopeia dissolution paddle apparatus. Each flask of the dissolving testing apparatus contained one tablet and 900 mL of the media, which was dissolved in pure water with 1% Tween® stored at 37.4°C. At regular intervals, aliquots were removed, filtered, and the amount of drug released was measured. The cumulative drug release was calculated using a standard formula. Results: P04 and P07 had the fastest and the slowest onsets of action, respectively. P01 (Omez DSR) and P08 exhibited the longest and the shortest durations of action, respectively. The P05, P06, and P08 formulations had greater particulate matter than the other formulations. Under in vitro conditions, the bioavailability of Omez DSR was nearly two-fold higher than P07 and five-fold higher than P08. Conclusions: Although P04 exhibited the fastest onset of action, Omez DSR had the longest duration of action, superior bioavailability, and ensured the rapid and continuous release of domperidone. Omez DSR demonstrated superior properties compared with other brands.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233192
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Cardiovascular diseases: clinical presentation and treatment in patients
           with and without diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Santanu Mal
      Pages: 823 - 827
      Abstract: Background: cardiovascular diseases are a significant global health challenge is due to their high prevalence and impact on mortality rates. This encompasses a wide range of heart and blood vessel disorders. Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for any cardiovascular disease. Objective was to assess the cardiovascular disease among diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. To find out symptoms and management of heart diseases both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study design was conducted at Navodaya Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Raichur, spanning a duration of six months starting from January 2023 until June 2023. A total of 200 cases were gathered throughout the study period. Results: Among 200 cases 114 patients were male and 86 patients were female. 74 (37%) patients had cardiovascular disease with diabetic and 126 (63%) patients had cardiovascular disease without diabetes. the most common type of cardiovascular disease was found non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) 29.73% with diabetic patients and coronary artery disease 23.01% were found most common with non- diabetic patients. Aspirin was the most common drug both diabetic 74 (17.79%) and non- diabetic patients 126 (18.69%). Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of early detection and effective management of diabetes to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications. Additionally, it underscores the need for healthcare providers to closely monitor diabetic patients' cardiovascular health and implement preventive measures to enhance overall patient outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233193
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Impact of coronavirus disease pandemic on antimicrobials consumption and
           antimicrobial resistance during the first and second wave in a tertiary
           care hospital, in India

    • Authors: Ankit Bhardwaj, Rohit Agarwal, Mala Mangesh, Avyukt Bhardwaj
      Pages: 828 - 835
      Abstract: Background: This study measured the impact of the first and second wave of COVID-19 pandemic (in the year 2020-21) on the antibiotics uses and their effect on gram nehative bacterial species Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Methods: The number of patient admission month-wise, antibiotic consumption, blood cultures collected, number of positive BCs, and antibiotic resistance were analysed retrospectively for the years 2020, 2021, and 2019 for comparison, in tertiary care hospital (ca. 840 beds). Results: Half of patients admitted in years 2020 and 2021 in our hospital had COVID-19. A significant increase in total antibiotic consumption during the years 2020 (75.53 DDD per 100 admissions) and 2021 (91.71 DDD per 100 admissions) occurred in comparison to the year 2019 (52.5 DDD per 100 admissions). The rate ratio of BCs per 100 admissions increased by 74% in the year 2020, and 118% in the year 2021 in comparison with the rate ratio to the year 2019. The BSI rate per 100 admissions increased overall by 24% in March 2020 and 115% in April 2020, the rate ratio of BSIs per 100 admissions raised 58.4% for Klebsiella and 239.3% for E. coli, but remain the same for Acinetobacter and Aeruginosa. A sharp increase in the rate of BSIs caused by microorganisms resistant to cephalosporins was also observed in the years 2020 and 2021. Conclusions: present study highlights the impact of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic on antibiotic consumption and the increasing prevalence hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233194
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Knowledge attitude and practices of drug promotional literature: a
           clinician’s perspective

    • Authors: Kavita M. Jaiswal, Austina A., Jijo Philip Abraham, Augustine V. Thomas
      Pages: 836 - 841
      Abstract: Background: Promotion of drugs by pharmaceutical industries is fully regulated by drug regulators. Doctors are focus of intense marketing by representatives of pharmaceutical companies (MR). It is reported that very few physicians are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to critically assess the information delivered in drug promotional literature (DPL). Hence this study was carried out with the objective to determine knowledge, attitude and practices of doctors about the DPL Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study population included clinicians working in a government set up and others doing private practice. Questionnaire was circulated online on social media platforms via Google forms. Results: The 32.11% participants were aware of regulations and guidelines of DPL in India 80.7% participants searched for cost of medicine on DPL, 54.12% respondents perceive that the product claims made on DPL are balanced and supported by good evidence, 56.88% participants opined that their integrity is compromised by accepting gift from MR, 43.1% participants are exposed to drug advertisement through social media and 51.06% of them opined that their prescribing habits are influenced through this. Writing brand names while prescribing is significantly more in private practitioners as compared to doctors employed in government set up. Conclusions: DPL serves to update the knowledge of the busy clinicians of the latest developments in the medical field. Quality check of drug promotion on social media is the need of the hour as this is influential. Private practitioners need to be addressed regarding enforced laws for rational prescribing.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233195
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Prescription pattern of antibiotics in various clinical departments of a
           tertiary care health institution: a retrospective observational study

    • Authors: Ramesh, Meenakshi Vadhwa, Ridhima
      Pages: 842 - 846
      Abstract: Background: Antimicrobial resistance has been considered as one of the greatest challenges to the general public health today. The Antibiotic Stewardship Program has emphasized on prevention of drug resistant bacterial infection, targeted therapy against susceptible or resistant microorganism and to curtail unnecessary and irrational use of antibiotics. Present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescription amongst the hospitalized patients of IGMC Shimla in Himachal Pradesh. Methods: It was a retrospective observational study. Data was collected from hospital records of admitted patients in medicine and Surgical wards. Patient data like demographic profile, average hospital stay and number of antibiotics prescribed were extracted from their hospital records. Also, the data about oral/parenteral, generic/branded empirical/definitive and therapeutic/prophylaxis prescription in each patient were collected. Results: In medicine ward, the number of generic prescriptions 78 (71.5%) were more as compared to branded 31 (28.5%) and majority were given the parenteral 61 (55.9%) than the oral 48 (44.1%) dosage form. In surgery ward, the branded prescriptions 61 (91%) out-numbered the generic prescription 6 (9%). The route of administration was mostly oral; 56 (83.5%), while only few had parenteral prescription; 11 (16.5%) in this ward. Conclusions: It was found that majority of patients in medicine ward received generic named antibiotics for definitive management, while in surgical ward branded named antibiotics were prescribed for surgical prophylaxis. The cephalosporin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic group. Majority of antibiotics belonged to “watch” category as far as WHO’s AWaRe classification is concerned.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233196
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of β-blockers dosage regimen rationality in heart failure
           patients

    • Authors: Anna Sira Coulibaly, Shibi Mary Thomas, Prashant Kumar Sah, Balakeshwa Ramaiah, Prestley F. Chia-Sani, Salimata Kone
      Pages: 847 - 854
      Abstract: Background: β-Blockers are often associated with further cardiac function deterioration, ledding to them being often underused/underdosed by certain physicians in heart failure treatment, although they were seen to be beneficial in decreasing the rates of mortality and morbidity, duration of hospitalization in HFrEF patients, but data on their benefits in HFmEF and HFpEF patients is limited. Objective was to evaluate rationality of β-blockers’ dosage regimen and its effectiveness in HF patients. Methods: 43 HF patients have been enrolled. Data were collected from the medication chart (dose, route, frequency); dosage regimen was evaluated and compared to that of ESC guidelines for HF treatment. Heart rates pre/post drug treatments, ejection fraction (at admission & post-discharge) were recorded; effectiveness was evaluated through heart rate control, reduction in: duration of hospitalization, rehospitalization and mortality rate. Post-discharge updates of the patients were obtained through out-patient consultation reports. Results: In All 43 patients dosage regimen of selected β-Blockers was found to be rational and following the ESC guideline for HF treatment. 65% of patients spent not more than 5 days in the hospital, 16% Re-hospitalized for cardiovascular diseases, and death rate was 4%. Conclusions: The dosage regimen of selected β-Blockers was found to be as per that of ESC-guidelines HF treatment. β-Blockers have also been found to have reduced: hospitalization stay, frequency of rehospitalization, and death rate among patients under study.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233197
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • A study of drug prescription patterns, disease-therapy awareness and of
           quality of life among patients with migraine visiting a tertiary care
           hospital in Mumbai, India

    • Authors: Shruti Bhide, Pragya Verma, Sangeeta Ravat, Chetan Phirke, Shirish Rao
      Pages: 855 - 860
      Abstract: Background: Migraine is one of the leading causes of disability globally. There is scarcity of data on disease -therapy awareness and its correlation with demographic factors. Hence its was of interest to assess those along with quality of life in these patients. Methods: A Cross-sectional observational study was conducted in108 patients attending the Neurology and headache OPD at a tertiary care hospital between March 2017 and August 2018. Disease and therapy awareness among patients were evaluated using validated questionnaires and correlation was done with demographic factors. The severity of the disease and its impact on the patients' quality of life were assessed using the migraine disability assessment scale. Results: The mean disease and therapy awareness scores were 9 and 7 respectively. Both had a positive correlation with education and socioeconomic factors. The quality of life was affected moderately in 48.1% of the patients followed by severely 32.4% of the patients. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 3.05. NSAIDS were used more commonly as compared to Triptans for acute attacks. Conclusions: The disease and therapy awareness were fair and positively correlated with education/ socioeconomic status. However, a significant disability was found among patients even with treatment. This highlights the need for educating these patients for effectively controlling the disability.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233198
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Case series of macroalbuminuria and toe-brachial index in type 2 diabetes
           mellitus

    • Authors: Joshua Kuruvilla Mathew, Mohan Varughese, Felix Manoharan, Vipitha Thomas
      Pages: 861 - 863
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a growing health problem with a significant global disease burden. The complications and mortality rate associated with diabetes are increasing. Albuminuria is one of its complications and evidence of established nephropathy. Low toe–brachial index (TBI) is more strongly associated with albuminuria and may be a suitable tool for evaluating peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study evaluated the association between macro albuminuria and low toe brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients to identify those who need specialized foot care and adequate renal protection.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233199
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • A case study of an adverse drug reaction caused by long term use of proton
           pump inhibitors

    • Authors: Swetha Sathish Kumar, Sivani Ravindran, Merin Levy Philips, Syaam Ganesh B.
      Pages: 864 - 869
      Abstract: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are the class of drugs used to treat a wide variety of disorders related to the stomach's acid production. Although it is considered safe for short term use, reports revealed that many serious life-threatening adverse reactions occurred from long term use. Here we report a case of hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia induced by long-term use of PPIs in a patient with crest syndrome. From his past history, it was revealed that he was on pantoprazole 40 mg for more than 3 months. While he was admitted here for other complaints, we were able to discover that he had hypomagnesemia defined by low magnesium level of 1.3 mg/dL. As a consequence, he also showed signs of hypocalcemia with a low calcium level of 7 mg/dL. A peculiar complaint seen in this patient was three episodes of supraventricular tachycardia which is the most common cardiac manifestations of hypomagnesemia. As a conclusion, hypomagnesemia can sometimes be asymptomatic and cause unspecific and serious manifestations such as asthenia, paresthesia’s, seizures, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. Hence routine monitoring of serum magnesium and calcium levels should be made mandatory in practice for patients on long term use of PPI. Besides, it should be kept in mind that interchanging PPI class with histamine 2 receptor antagonist or fitful use of PPI may not cause hypomagnesemia.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233200
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Probable fluoxetine-induced hepatomegaly: a case report

    • Authors: Jarnail S. Braich, Amiya Sharma, Harsh Vasistha
      Pages: 870 - 873
      Abstract: Depressive disorder is a common behavioural, psychiatric disorder. Among various antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are preferred drugs for the treatment of depression. When second-generation antidepressants SSRIs and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used to treat depression, 0.5–1% of patients develop mildly altered liver function without any symptoms. Various degrees of organ dysfunction are linked with drug-induced liver injury, which is unpredictable and might result from exposure to a drug. We reported suspected fluoxetine-induced hepatomegaly secondary to nine weeks of treatment with an SSRI fluoxetine. Upon cessation of the agent, the patient recovered symptomatically. The evidence is vital that the hepatomegaly in this patient was caused by fluoxetine.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233201
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Polymyxins leading to nephrotoxicity

    • Authors: Siddhartha Lolla, Shaik Nayeem Uddin, Chinta Supriya, Thakur Nikhil Singh
      Pages: 874 - 878
      Abstract: Drug resistance gram-negative bacteria are the most hazardous type of germ because they cause life-threatening illnesses. Polymyxins are cyclic lipodecapeptide antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria like Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and other Enterobacteriaceae (such Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Serratia). Polymyxins kill bacteria by rupturing the bacterial outer membrane (OM). The main side effect of this antibiotic class is the development of kidney damage. Transposable genetic elements, such as MCR genes, can encode bacterial resistance to polymyxins. Colistin's prodrug is colistimethate sodium (CMS). Polymyxin dosage should be modified based on renal function. Polymyxins have demonstrated excellent clinical results, which have aided in the development of a better dosage regimen. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the most effective polymyxin dosages. Polymyxin resurgence has resulted in the eradication of multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233202
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
  • Maximizing learning efficiency: exploring the impact of ChatGPT in
           pharmacology assessment for undergraduates

    • Authors: Sabahat Hasan
      Pages: 879 - 880
      Abstract: Pharmacology, as a core discipline in healthcare education, plays a pivotal role in shaping competent and responsible healthcare professionals. The traditional methods of pharmacology assessment, such as written exams and multiple-choice questions, have long been the norm for evaluating students' understanding of drug interactions, mechanisms, and clinical applications. However, as technology continues to advance, integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into education has emerged as a transformative approach to enhance learning efficiency and improve student engagement.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20233203
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
       
 
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