Journal Cover
  • Secondary School Athletic Trainers’ Perceived Confidence In Providing
           Independent Medical Care Within Differing Healthcare Delivery Models

    • Authors: Sam G. Arredondo DAT; ATC et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate athletic trainers’ confidence and ability to deliver independent medical care in the secondary school setting. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used with open- and closed-ended questions using a tool that was modified from a previously validated tool used within the collegiate setting; the tool was adapted through content expert validation. Results: Athletic trainers perceived themselves as confident in providing independent medical care through the school district healthcare delivery model (n=109/121, 90%) more often than those functioning within the hospital/clinic outreach model (n=85/130, 65%). Conclusions: Despite not having nationalized legislation and having variable support structures in place, secondary school athletic trainers are confident in providing independent medical care even when their direct supervisor may not be a healthcare provider. This is contradictory to similar findings within the collegiate setting governed by National Collegiate Athletics Association legislation enforcing independent medical care.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 08:04:09 PDT
       
  • Effects of a 4-Week Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Intervention on
           Psychological and Performance Variables in Student-Athletes: A Pilot Study
           

    • Authors: Samantha R. Weber et al.
      Abstract: PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a 4-week biofeedback intervention on coherence, psychological, and performance variables in collegiate student-athletes. METHODS: Thirteen student-athletes were randomly assigned to the intervention (one weekly biofeedback session for 4-weeks) or control group (no sessions). Data were collected at pre and post-intervention using weekly averaged coherence scores, psychological measures for depression, arousal, stress, resiliency, and performance outcome measures. RESULTS: A 3 (Time) x 4 (Week average) repeated measures ANOVA was independently conducted to examine differences between time and weekly coherence average for coherence scores. No significant differences were found for “at rest”, pre, or post-practice coherence scores. A 2 (treatment group) x 4 (Week) repeated measures ANOVAs were independently conducted to examine differences between treatment groups and week average for performance, resilience, and recovery. Significant differences were found for performance by time (p = .029). For the psychological variables, 2 (treatment group) X 2 (Time) repeated measures ANOVAs were independently conducted to examine differences between treatment group and time for CESD, AD-ACL, CSSS, and the ASSQ sleep score and no significant differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the biofeedback intervention did not improve coherence, psychological, or performance variables between the groups. While the biofeedback intervention did not show significant changes in this pilot study, there is potential for future research to address male participants and a change in timing during the season.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 08:03:55 PDT
       
  • The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Athletic Performance and
           Injury Prevention

    • Authors: Amani Adeeb Abushamma
      Abstract: Vitamin D supplementation has numerous effects on athletic performance and plays a significant role in preventing an athlete’s risk of getting injuries. Vitamin D has an impact on numerous physiological functions such as: bone health, muscle function, inflammatory response, and immune function. An athlete’s bone and muscle health are essential for maximum performance and career success. A bone fracture due to vitamin D deficiency can delay an athlete’s training and ultimately inhibit obtaining a collegiate scholarship and/or contract. A cross sectional study found that more than half of athletic trainers did not view 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25[OH]) testing and vitamin D supplementation as a necessary use of athletic program funds. There is disagreement over vitamin D in the applied and clinical setting. Further studies are needed in which a host of variables are investigated regarding the optimal dosages of vitamin D supplements for athletes. The objective of this review is to investigate current research looking at the effects of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance and injury prevention as well as optimal doses of vitamin D3 for athletes. Adequate vitamin D supplementation can be utilized to prevent and reduce the risk of frequent injuries among athletes.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 08:03:49 PDT
       
  • The Relationship Between Grit and Growth Mindset in Professional Athletic
           Training Students

    • Authors: Haleigh M. Gray et al.
      Abstract: Purpose: The demands of athletic training students are substantial between academic and clinical responsibilities creating problems with commitment and retention. Grit and growth mindset have been associated with academic achievement and success; however, little research has assessed the presence of grit and growth mindset within athletic training students. Therefor the purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in grit and growth mindset between athletic training students and non-athletic training students majoring in general health sciences and to assess the relationship between grit and growth mindset in both athletic training students and non-athletic training students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing a web-based survey to assess demographics, grit and growth mindset in undergraduate students. Univariate analyses and correlations were conducted to determine group comparisons and relationships between variables. Results: A total of 96 undergraduate students participated. Of the respondents 56% were athletic training students, 75% were female, and 83% were Caucasian. There was a significant difference in grit (U=800.50, p=.014) between groups with athletic training students (M=3.70, SD=.408) reporting lower levels of grit than non-athletic training students (M=3.93, SD=.413). Intelligence and talent growth mindset yielded no significant differences. A weak, positive correlation was found between grit and intelligence growth mindset (r=.341, p=.001) as well as between grit and talent growth mindset (r=.342, p=.001). Conclusion: The current study indicated differences in grit between athletic training and non-athletic training students, but not in growth mindset. Further research is needed to identify how these factors influence success and retention within athletic training programs.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 08:03:40 PDT
       
  • An Infrapatellar Fat Pad Tear in a High School Football Player: A Case
           Report

    • Authors: Brian D. Seiler
      Abstract: Objective: To present a clinical case exploring the occurrence and management of a tear to the infrapatellar fat pad IFP of a high school football player. Background: Acute tears to the IFP are rare. Typically, the IFP becomes impinged (i.e., Hoffa’s disease) through a fall, direct knee trauma, or surgical complications, and requires conservative treatment. Treatment: A 15-year-old high school football player reported to the athletic training clinical complaining of right knee discomfort and the inability to fully flex the knee. The patient stated that during a field goal attempt he missed the ball and hyperextended his right knee. Hoffa’s disease and impingement of the IFP have been well documented, but these injuries have a different mechanism of injury. Uniqueness: More common injuries to the IFP occur because of microtraumas (i.e., Hoffa’s disease) or direct trauma to the knee (i.e., IFP impingement) in older populations. For this patient, the mechanism of injury was non-contact and minimal swelling, and no visual deformity or discoloration were present to suggest an injury. Additionally, the patient was able to complete functional movements with complaining only of “weird tightness” in the knee during extension. Conclusion: Due to the similarity of multiple knee pathologies, unknown mechanisms of injury need to be considered when evaluating the knee structure. Further examination is needed to determine demographic data and the probability of a non-contact injury is to the IFP, especially in pediatric patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 08:03:31 PDT
       
  • Effects of Caffeine on Agility Tests on One Women's Collegiate
           Volleyball Team

    • Authors: Sarah Monnier et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on agility tests (3-step approach,2-hand vertical leap,5-10-5 drill) on a women’s collegiate volleyball team at one Division III institution.MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
      Vertical jump measuring device measured 3-step approach and 2-hand vertical leap measurements. A stopwatch measured the 5-10-5 drill.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:40 PDT
       
  • Effects of Rock Steady Boxing on Parkinsons Patients

    • Authors: Hannah Hall et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      Rock Steady Boxing’s (non-profit organization) program goal is improving Parkinson’s patients’ quality of life through a non-contact, boxing-based fitness class. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Parkinson’s patients perceived improvement on proprioception from one hospital-based Rock Steady Boxing Program. The program was led by athletic trainers and physical therapists.MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURE
      Likert scale survey was used with one fill in the blank question.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:37 PDT
       
  • Comfort Levels of Male Collegiate Student Athletes in Reporting Symptoms
           of Eating Disorders

    • Authors: Maryn Herring et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the comfort levels of male student athletes at a Division III college in reporting symptoms of eating disorders to Athletic Trainers.MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
      Likert scale questions with one open ended question.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:34 PDT
       
  • Rodeo Athletes' Perceptions of the Available Onsite Medical Care
           Provided

    • Authors: Rachel R. Kesterson et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the medical care perceptions of rodeo athletes at one Southwest Ohio rodeo as compared to others.MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURE
      The survey was made of 23 Likert-scale questions.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:32 PDT
       
  • Mens' and Womens' DIII Soccer Athletes Anxiety Levels Due to
           Balancing Academic and Team Responsibilities

    • Authors: Kathleen Monnig et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety levels due to balancing academic and team responsibilities in one Division III womens’ and mens’ soccer teams.MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURE
      5-point,6-point Likert scale.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:29 PDT
       
  • Effects of TikTok on the Mental Health of Men's and Women's
           Soccer Teams at One Institution

    • Authors: Hayley Suchland et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the social media platform, TikTok, on the mental health of Division III Men’s and Women’s soccer players at one institution.MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASUREMENT
      Likert scale survey.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:26 PDT
       
  • Comparison of Rehabilitation Programs Following a Latarjet Procedure: A
           Level 3 Case Study

    • Authors: Philip Wienkamp et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      Anterior shoulder dislocations cause chronic disability, often requiring surgery. Latarjet procedures are considered when the anterior glenoid fractures during shoulder dislocation. Latarjet procedures show positive outcomes with low dislocation recurrence rates, although rehabilitation guidelines are not well established. This Level-3 CASE report will compare two rehabilitation protocols.UNIQUENESS
      Our patient’s progress was significantly delayed compared to Murphy et al.’s patient. Although they had similar strength and ROM deficits in week 2, our patient required an additional 15 weeks to make similar gains. Also, our patient did not begin aggressive overhead activity until 10 weeks after Murphy et al.’s patient. Murphy et al.’s patient returned to limited participation in week 8 and full participation in week 10, while our patient did not return to limited participation until week 16.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:24 PDT
       
  • A 12-year Retrospective Analysis of VO2max Values in College-aged Student
           Athletes

    • Authors: Michelle Wilson et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      To examine VO2max values in a cohort of exercise physiology students over a 12-year time period.MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
      Student’s VO2max values were examined for the effects of gender (males vs. females) and athletic status (athlete vs. non-athlete). Significance was set at p
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:21 PDT
       
  • Exploring the Relationship between Athletic Identity on Certain Coping
           Mechanisms in Adolescent Athletes

    • Authors: Jessica Steger et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      (1) To describe athletic identity and coping mechanisms in an adolescent athletic population, and (2) to examine the relationship between athletic identity and coping mechanisms in an adolescent population.MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURES
      Descriptive statistics were calculated for the summated AIMS-7 score and three CISS-SSC subscale scores. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between each AIMS-7 subscale and CISS-SSC subscale. Additionally, three independent t-tests were conducted with the independent variable, low, moderate, or high AIMS score, and the dependent variables, avoidance, emotion, or task-focused CISS-SSC score. Alpha level was set at 0.05 for all analyses.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:18 PDT
       
  • Reliability and Utility of a Lumbopelvic-hip Complex Stability Assessment
           in Individuals with Patellofemoral Pain

    • Authors: Erika Zambarano et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      Lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) stability is related to altered movement patterns that are present in individuals with PFP. Current studies measuring LPHC function in PFP primarily assess endurance and not stability. A test of isolated LPHC stability, the Seated Trunk Control Test (STCT) was recently developed and test-retest reliability for the STCT has been shown to be excellent in a healthy population. To improve the clinical usefulness of the STCT, we aimed to establish test-retest reliability for individuals with PFP. We hypothesized the STCT would show good-to-excellent reliability. We also compared STCT performance between healthy individuals and those with PFP. We hypothesized those with PFP would have lower TTE and greater NE.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
      Performance was measured as time to first error (TTE) and number of errors (NE) averaged between test trials. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) assessed test-retest reliability utilizing a two-way mixed-effects model with single rater (ICC[3,1]). The Mann-Whitney U Test compared performance measures between groups, p < 0.05.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:15 PDT
       
  • Caring for Pregnant and Postpartum Athletes: Athletic Trainers, Strength
           Coaches, and Athletic Coaches

    • Authors: Aly Matejka et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      A survey was created to assess the experience, education, and self-perceived competence of treating and/or training pregnant and postpartum athletes among athletic trainers, strength coaches, and coaches.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:13 PDT
       
  • Academic Resilience of Athletic Training Students During COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Brandon J. Gallimore et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      (1) To describe resilience in athletic training students enrolled in professional coursework during the spring 2020 semester, and (2) to determine the association between resilience and academic performance during the spring 2020 semester.
      MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
      Descriptive statistics for GPA were calculated for Fall 2019, Spring 2020, cumulative Fall 2019, cumulative Spring 2020 (ie., current), change in cumulative GPA, and ARS-30 total score. The primary analysis was a Pearson correlation between change in cumulative GPA and ARS-30 total score. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate change in cumulative Fall 2019 and Spring 2020 GPA with a paired t-test. Cohen’s d effect size was calculated for the paired t-test. Alpha level was set at 0.05.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:10 PDT
       
  • The Effects of a 6-Week Intrinsic Foot Morphology, Kinematics, and
           Kinetics in Individuals with Pes Planus

    • Authors: Rebecca Marszalek et al.
      Abstract: CONTEXT
      The intrinsic foot muscles are vital in supporting the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. Individuals with pes planus have poor foot morphology, strength, and biomechanics, warranting an intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
      At pre-intervention, foot posture and arch height were assessed via the Foot Posture Index-6 and the Navicular Drop test, respectively. Cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis was assessed using ultrasound as an indirect measure of strength. Biomechanical measures, including peak rearfoot eversion, peak tibial internal rotation, peak rearfoot eversion moment, and center of pressure excursion, were collected using 3D-motion capture and an instrumented treadmill. At post-intervention, these morphological and biomechanical measures were repeated. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each dependent variable by group and time. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for each dependent variable with the within subjects factor time and between subjects factor group.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:08 PDT
       
  • The Relationship between Sport Specialization and Coping Mechanisms in
           Adolescent Athletes

    • Authors: Sara Kusner et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      (1) To describe the coping mechanisms of adolescent athletes as emotion-focused, problem-focused, or avoidant-focused coping before and after injury or illness, and (2) to compare the perceived adolescent coping mechanisms across sport specialization levels (i.e., low, moderate, or high).MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
      Demographic information was reported for the entire sample. A one-way ANOVA was conducted for each dependent variable (i.e., coping strategy) by sport specialization. For the secondary analysis the independent variable time and the dependent variable coping mechanism (i.e., task, emotion, and avoidance) were analyzed by paired t-tests. Hedge’s g effect size was calculated for any significant comparisons and alpha was set at 0.05.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:05 PDT
       
  • Adolescent Injury Rates

    • Authors: Laura Harris et al.
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      To describe the frequency of adolescent athlete injury based upon injury location, injury diagnosis, activity, playing surface, weather condition, and sport.MAIN.OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
      Injury frequency per injury location, diagnosis, activity, and playing surface were determined. Injury location and diagnosis frequency were reported by weather condition. Injuries per 1000 athletic exposures were analyzed by sport.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 06:52:02 PDT
       
 
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