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Plant Science Today
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ISSN (Print) 2348-1900 - ISSN (Online) 2348-1900
Published by Horizon e-Publishing Group Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Artemisia stelleriana
           Besser leaf extracts

    • Authors: M Mayuri , D Asima , K S Joseph
      Pages: 215 - 220
      Abstract: The present study aims to report the proximate and mineral composition, phenolic contents, and antioxidant potential of Artemisia stelleriana leaves. The leaf extracts were prepared using various solvents like distilled water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone and analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. The methanolic extracts showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.09 ± 0.24 mg GAE/g and 225.04 ± 0.38 mg QE/ g, respectively). The methanolic extracts showed significantly higher 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH-RSA), Reducing power assay, and total antioxidant capacity compared to distilled water, ethanol, and acetone extracts. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy revealed that the methanolic extracts of leaves to be a good source of bioactive compounds like 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-DTBP), neophytadiene, octacosane, and eucalyptol.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1263
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of growth pattern and biochemical components of Chlamydomonas
           reinhardtii Dangeard

    • Authors: Basudha Sharma
      Pages: 221 - 227
      Abstract: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard is the simplest motile, unicellular fresh water alga of class Chlorophyceae. It also functions as the most efficient model system for converting solar energy to chemical energy in the form of various metabolites. The objective of the present work is to deal with the growth conditions/growth kinetics of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard, required for optimal biomass production. The parameter used to study growth of algae was, photosynthetic measurement, biomass, proteins and lipid measurement, which vary with the change in the cultural conditions. Present investigations reveal that change in protein content is positively correlated with the increase in biomass, revealing that the algae can grow rapidly in laboratory/cultural conditions. Lipid content shows a negative correlation with proteins and biomass. Lipids are known to have a role as structural components, in hydration and also in signaling events. Lipids, mainly the triacyl glycerides (TAGs) act as storage compounds enabling the microalgae to survive in adverse environmental conditions. Lipidic content increases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii increases with optimal light and nutrient system. The increase is in the form of triacyl glycerides which serve as precursors for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol. Conclusion- Further research is required to investigate the interactions of biomolecules and growth of algae.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1308
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The effect of mycorrhizal species on the growth, essential oils, yield and
           morpho-physiological parameters of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.)
           under water-deficit conditions in Tabriz region

    • Authors: Neda Shamizi, Mehrdad Yarnia, Nasser Mohebalipour , Ali Faramarzi, Jalil Ajalli
      Pages: 228 - 235
      Abstract: Two years experiment were conducted in 2016-2017 as split-plot based on randomized completely block design with three replications to morpho-physiological responses of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) plant to mycorrhizal fungi species treatments (control, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae, Glomus hoi and combined application of all three species) under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 70, 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation). In results, the highest oil yield was achieved in irrigation at 100mm+application of all three species of mycorrhizal fungi. Irrigation after 100 mm evaporation increased this trait by 33% compared to irrigation after 70 mm evaporation due to increase in essential oil percentage under dehydration conditions, however, increasing drought stress led to a significant decrease in essential oil yield. In terms of physiological parameters, dehydration led to an increase in proline content and antioxidant activates. In general and according to the results, modifying the destructive effects of water deficit stress and the use of mycorrhiza can increase the essential oil of lemon Balm. But aggravating water deficiency conditions can drastically reduce the essential oil yield. The founds could be helpful for herbal medicine researchers to achieve high-quality drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1338
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Adverse effects of the toxic industrial dye malachite green on the
           antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa L.

    • Authors: Shreya Biswas, Nisha Banerjee, Piyali Basak
      Pages: 236 - 242
      Abstract: The therapeutic importance of Allium cepa L. has been well established through ethnobotanical studies. Malachite Green is a highly toxic dye that finds extensive use in the textile industry as a fabric colorant. A. cepa was treated with malachite green solutions (20mg/l and 40mg/l) for 45 days. The roots actively take up malachite green and impede the plant's growth in root length, shoot length and fresh weight. A. cepa is rich in bioactive compounds, which have superior antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We observe that the antimicrobial activities decrease by 36% for Staphylococcus aureus and 31% for Escherichia coli on the treatment of A. cepa bulbs with 40 mg/l malachite green. Antioxidant activity was similarly lowered by 61% under the toxic effects of the dye. Reduction in the efficacy of A. cepa in terms of the critical medicinal properties and general retardation in growth is a cause of concern. This article reports a previously unknown aspect of malachite green toxicity and presents the effect of any dye on the medicinal properties of A. cepa for the first time.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1339
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • CO2 sequestration: microalgae genome analysis and its application of
           effective green source technology

    • Authors: R Ranjith Kumar, Monika S Jency, G Bhavatarini, M. Jeslyn Priscilla Devapriya
      Pages: 243 - 261
      Abstract: Microalgae genome technology for CO2 sequestration is an appropriate vehicle for articulating the importance of the current need and solution for reduction of CO2 at the atmospheric level. In comparison with C4 plants, microalgae have greater capability to fix atmospheric CO2.The rate of CO2 fixation differs in different strains of microalgae. The photosynthetic enzyme RuBisCO is widely responsible for photosynthetic carbon assimilation in all plants including phototrophic algae.The gene rbcL encodes this enzyme. The catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase achieves the CO2 generation in the RuBisCO. CAH3 gene is essential for generating CO2 concentration for RuBisCO by dehydration of accumulated inorganic carbon. There are also few other microalgae genes which involves for carbon assimilation. Genomic resource databases and several other nucleotide databases are being used for sequencing the microalgal genomes. Even though, recent advances in genomic studies are providing thrust to enhance the research on microalgal species, they are expensive and resources available for microalgal genomic studies are limited. This review article attempts first as a combined revise on microalgae CO2 sequestration in the field of basic science, applied aspects, and the role of specific gene(s) in the algal system is well defined which could be a supportive involvement of carbon dioxide reduction as “Green-Gene Technology”. This Green biotechnology could be used for Global warming reduction as well as creating wealth from the waste through valuable by-products from the selected microalgae strains in future.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1365
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Anti-bacterial, Anti-oxidant and other Phytochemical Properties of Datura
           innoxia leaves

    • Authors: Ruby George, Priti Mathur
      Pages: 262 - 271
      Abstract: To investigate the phytochemicals present in the leaves of Datura innoxia and to assess its antioxidant and antibacterial properties in different organic solvents, leaf extracts were exposed to different standardized techniques. Folin–Ciocalteu method and Aluminium chloride method proved that the ethanolic extract has maximum phenolic content (72.35± 0.52 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid content (29.21± 1.25 mg EQ/g) respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value 91.398 µg/ml also was in the ethanolic extract as compared to methanol, hexane and chloroform extracts. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant property of extracts were observed in the sequence of ethanol>methanol>hexane>chloroform. There was a strong correlation between antioxidant activity with total phenolic (DPPH, R2 = 0.41; PPM, R2 = 0.25) and total flavonoid contents (DPPH, R2 = 0.39; PPM, R2=0.23). Ethanolic and methanolic extracts showed antibacterial potential against the tested pathogenic strains; Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with a zone of inhibition ranging between 16± 0.9 to 27.5±0.8 mm. This study has proved that ethanolic leaf extract of D. innoxia showed bacterial inhibition and antioxidant activities and this herb can be assessed as a potential therapeutic species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1387
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Exogenous foliar application of abscisic acid on polyethylene glycol
           induced drought by improving the morphological and biochemical characters
           of four rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties

    • Authors: M Ramachandran , D Arulbalachandran, S Ramya
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: Climate change is one of the critical defining concerns today’s world, altering earth ecosystem. Drought stress management is a major issue in agricultural and crop research, mainly negatively impacting rice growth and yield. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant stress hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating, and mitigating drought stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenously applied ABA and adaptation strategies responding to concrete challenges four rice varieties (ASD-16, ADT-45, TKM-13 and CO-50) and analysed growth characteristics, physiological, biochemical and antioxidative enzyme activities induced by polyethylene glycol (2 % and 4 %) drought stress and exogenously application of ABA (100 µM). The present findings help predict the degree of drought resistance variety of rice. The experiment was designed by six different treatments, such as control plants, control + ABA, polyethylene glycol induced drought (2 % and 4 %), and combination treatment of 2 % and 4 % PEG with exogenous application of ABA (100 µM). Exogenous ABA treatment significantly increased in morphological characteristics compared to control. The chlorophyll pigments, RWC, biochemical parameters such as reducing sugar, starch, protein and antioxidant activities of CAT, POD were increased and proline content was decreased at PEG 2 % and 100 µM ABA-treated rice in TKM-13 compared to ASD-16, ADT-45, CO-50. There were statistically significant morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters between treatments. The present findings depict that four rice varieties under drought imposition decrease the growth characteristics, physiological and biochemical content. However, the PEG induced drought (2 %) and foliar application of ABA (100 µM) were found to increase morphology, physiological and biochemical contents and can provide valuable insights into plants’ drought responses and may help identify novel drought tolerance traits.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1396
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The estimation of genetic variability and genetic divergence of some
           advance lines of sesame based on morphological traits

    • Authors: Barnali Roy, Amit Kumar Pal, Asit Kumar Basu
      Pages: 281 - 287
      Abstract: In plant breeding research, naturally existing genetic variability has been successfully utilized to some extent for sustainable production of desirable crops and the diversity in plant genetic resources is most useful part to the breeders . The present experimentwas conducted to estimate thegenetic variation as well as divergence also of 29 sesame genotypes based on morphological traits. The high genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic co-efficient variation (PCV) observed for number of branches / plant and also for no. of capsules / plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was estimated against seed yield / plant, number of branches / plant and capsules/ plant and HI indicating predominant role of additive genetic components for their expression and also indicating better scope for utilization of direct selection for those traits. The genotypes are grouped into 5 clusters based on 16 morphological traits i.e. Plant height, root length, vegetative dry weight, leaf-area index, days to 50% flowering, no. of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number seeds per capsule, 100 seed weight, seed yield per plant. The maximum inter-cluster distance noticed between cluster II and IV indicating their most diverse relationship. Genotypes of two clusters with wider genetic diversity and with desirable agronomic traits were selected as promising genotypes for hybridization programs. Crosses can be made between genotypes of cluster II with genotypes of cluster IV to achieve promising recombinants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1407
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of exogenous abscisic acid on morpho-physiological and yield of
           maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress

    • Authors: S Ramya, D Arulbalachandran, M Ramachandran
      Pages: 288 - 300
      Abstract: Abscisic acid (ABA) is naturally occurring plant hormone, its also known stress hormone, that act the plant responses to abiotic stresses, especially drought. Maize production losses due to drought prominently affect economics and livelihoods of millions of peoples. The current investigation the role of ABA in drought stress tolerance of maize. The influence of drought stress and foliar spray of abscisic acid diffent concentration (25, 50 ,75 and 100 µM) were analysed on morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters. The present results revealed a most effective to increased after drought stress imposed with 75 µM ABA treated plants. Exogenous abscisic acid acts as a scavenger of ROS for mitigating the injury on cell membranes under drought were observed in the opening of stomata. Histochemical detection of more accumulation ROS (H2O2 and O2• –) was detected in drought stress shoot compared to other ABA treated and respective control. Fourier Infrared Spectroscopic (IR) study, ABA treated leaves indicated the presence of different functional groups. This study shows that can provide vital insights into maize leaves drought responses and could be beneficial in identifying novel drought tolerance characters. Drought and exogenous abscisic acid treatment increased the endogenous abscisic acid level, specifically at 75 µM concentration. The exogenous abscisic acid application effectively ameliorates the adverse effect of drought stress to improve the drought resistance. In concluded, the level of 75 µM concentration ABA was better growth charaterstics, biochmeical alterations and yiled under drought stress.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1413
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of mineral, proximate compositions and anti-oxidant activities
           of some wild edible vegetables of District Kurram Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
           Pakistan

    • Authors: Shumaila Anwar , Zainish Mohammad , Wahid Hussain, Nijat Ali, Amjad Ali, Javid Hussain, Dildar Hussain
      Pages: 301 - 311
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the mineral contents and some nutritional properties of five local wild vegetable; Allium griffithianum Boiss, Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M.Johnst., Caralluma tuberculata (N.E.Br.) D. C. H. Plowes, Chaerophyllum reflexum Aitch, and Stellaria media (L.) Vill., from district Kurram KP, Pakistan which are associated with folk knowledge in the region. This research is the first scientific report on the nutritional composition of the above mentioned species. Among five wild species, the Buglossoides arvensis had the highest carbohydrates content (71.99 ± 0.5%) and high lipid contents (4.8 ± 0.2%). Besides that, it has the highest total energy (349.024 kcal/100 g). Stellaria media was found to have the maximum ash (22.77 ± 0.1%) and lipids (4.87 ± 0.06%). Chaerophyllum reflexum showed the highest protein content (10.5 ±0.4%) and high total energy (332.68 ± 0.3 kcal/100 g). Mineral analysis showed that the local wild vegetables contained considerable amount of minerals; Calcium (2.20 ± 0.5-1506 ± 0.06 µg/g), Potassium (3.018 ± 1.7-1272.06 ± 0.005 µg/g), Phosphorous (2.98 ± 0.01-180.01 ± 0.1 µg/g), Chromium (0.98 ± 0.6-42.9 ± 0.5 µg/g), Cobalt (0.18 ±0.005-7.7 ± 0.2 µg/g), Sodium (0.78 ± 0.5-205.53 ± 0.4 µg/g) and Copper (5.5 ± 0.4-35.06 ± 0.7 µg/g). These data suggest that wild plants from district Kurram could be useful for nutrition or other applications. For instance, Caralluma tuberculata contains the highest number of mineral elements, which has been traditionally used as an anti-diabetic, blood purifier and for weight loss.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1424
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Sustainable prospective of some selected species from Moraceae and Araceae
           family of Northeast India: A Review

    • Authors: Jinti Moni Das, Barsha Sarma, Namita Nath, Mridul Kr. Borthakur
      Pages: 312 - 321
      Abstract: The north-eastern region of India is a rich hub of floristic diversity. The intricate relationship between forest resources and indigenous people is a key to sustainability and rural livelihood. The objective is to review on some plants that has possible function for sustainable source of food. The regional people have been utilizing various species of the two commonly available angiosperm plant families viz. Araceae (Alocasia macrorrhizos, Colocasia esculenta) and Moraceae (Ficus carica, F. semicordata, F. auriculata) as a source of food, herbal medicine, and fodder plants. A variety of natural compounds found among various members of these two families are alkaloids viz., Alocasin B, '-monopalmitin in A. macrorrhizos; flavonoids viz., orientin, isovitexin, in C. esculenta; betulinic acid, lupeol in F. auriculata; quercetin, leucine, tryptophan in F. carica; terpenoids like '-thuzene, '-pinene in F. semicordata; besides the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins, minerals like Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Cu. The rich tradition of indigenous herbal healthcare practices for curing various ailments are widespread among the rural communities. The review entails the indigenous practices with pharmacological efficacy, phytochemistry and sustainable prospects of Moraceae and Araceae which are widely used in food, nutraceutical and medicinal aspects. These lesser-known plant species may attribute to ecological restoration, bioremediation of toxic compounds, discovery of novel therapeutics, sources of carbon sink in near future as well.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1427
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Growth enhancement of agricultural crops using seaweed liquid fertilizer

    • Authors: Akshada Parab, Sunil Shankhadarwar
      Pages: 322 - 330
      Abstract: Extensive use of chemical fertilizer is leading to infertility of soil and various hazardous effect on the ecosystem. Using biofertilizer reduces these harmful effects. Many are commercially available, being a poor match to chemical fertilizer they are not used on a large scale. Near coastal regions seaweeds are used as biofertilizers. Recent studies show seaweeds have multiple growth regulators, macro and micronutrients, polysaccharides which are necessary for plant growth. The study is carried out to check the bioactivity of Seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) as a growth stimulant. Sargassum cinereum, Ulva rigida and Ahnfeltia plicata found on the Indian coastline were used. SLFs were prepared from each of three species in varying concentration (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.1% v/v) with water and Urea as control. The test plant selected was Vigna radiata. Agronomic characters like germination rate, shoot length, flowering and fruiting period of test plants were studied. Phyto-hormones from SLF were detected by thin-layer chromatography. Elemental analysis of micronutrients in SLF was carried by ICP-AES. Along with Chlorophyll and Protein estimation of grown plants were checked. SLF shelf life was studied using chemical and biological preservatives. The effect of 0.06% concentration of all SLFs showed enhancement in growth and phytochemicals in plants. Plants treated with SLF showed flowering earlier than control plants. Thus, using SLF bio-fertilizer can become an alternative method to reduce the use of harmful chemical fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1439
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Range finding test and measurement of wet weight and dry weight of
           Vetiveria zizanioides as an initial stage of phytoremediation of soil
           contaminated with used lubricants

    • Authors: Bieby Voijant Tangahu, Alif Yoga Winata, Isni Arliyani
      Pages: 331 - 335
      Abstract: Environmental pollution caused by the development of industry and the rapid increase in the number of vehicles currently requires restrictions on the use of lubricants. Used lubricants contain complex mixtures of hydrocarbons that adversely affect plants by creating conditions that make essential nutrients such as nitrogen and oxygen needed for plant growth unavailable and cause severe problems in soil ecosystems and the rhizosphere. The accumulation of these spills can complicate the degradation process by microorganisms in the soil. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) can grow at various levels of nutrients and insufficient abiotic conditions, so it is used in multiple studies as a hyperaccumulator plant. Preliminary research in determining the concentration of used lubricant handled by the vetiver can be determined through the Range Finding Test (RFT) stage. RFT is the stage of observing the plant's ability to maintain its life while degrading pollutants. Physical observations and laboratory analysis determine how strong the plants live in media contaminated with used lubricant pollutants. The results showed that vetiver could live in an environment contaminated with used lubricants with a concentration of up to 4% of the total mass of the media (40 ppm). Sample C2 had an average growth rate of 0.481 cm/day with a root elongation ratio of 0.333. The average dry fraction of plant leaves is 0.602 and the root is 0.372.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1442
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Isolation, identification and Toxicological profiling of bioactive
           compounds from Xanthium strumarium and Acmella calva depict the excess
           reactive oxygen species generation in the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito
           vector; an insight behind the probable mode of action of bioactive
           compounds

    • Authors: P K Vinu Rajan , Rosabella K Puthur
      Pages: 336 - 344
      Abstract: The diverse field of chemistry like structural and Analytical chemistry has offered the tools that are essential for purifying the plethora of phytochemical constituents. Such an untapped pool of phytochemicals from the plant world can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in mosquito vector control programme. This investigation has used the Bioassay-guided Chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to isolate and identify the most prominent toxic phytocompounds from the medicinal plants Xanthium strumarium and Acmella calva. The Map of the study site has been prepared using the Q-GIS. SPSS was used to perform the probit regression analysis and plot preparation. The isolated compounds such as Undecane (CH3(CH2)9CH3; 156.31 g/mol) (LC50: 2.599 mg/L (2.251 - 2.867); LC90 : 4.563 mg/L (3.960 - 6.006) and Phthalic acid, butyl undecyl ester (C23H36O4; 376.5 g/mol) (LC50: 4.072 mg/L (3.680 - 4.462); LC90: 6.894 mg/L (5.821-10.303) those are isolated from the Xanthium strumarium, and Acmella calva could be recognized as an innovative direction for the conception of natural insecticide against the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito vectors since they produced a maximum range of toxicity. Moreover, the production of excessive free radicals in the phytocompounds exposed mosquito strain illustrated the probable role of oxidative stress in larval death. This investigation recommends that the isolated compounds can be used as an eco-friendly approach for mosquito control in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1443
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Phytofabrication of gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles using
           water extract of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum), their characterization
           and comparative assessment of antibacterial potential

    • Authors: Vikas Pahal, Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Vinod Kumar
      Pages: 345 - 356
      Abstract: In the present study, gold (AuNPs) and gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-Ag BMNPs) were fabricated by using water extract of leaves of Triticum aestivum - a crop plant, and their bactericidal potency was checked against selected pathogenic bacterial strains. The phytofabricated AuNPs and BMNPs were analyzed for their physical attributes using UV–Visible and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. HRTEM analysis revealed that both kinds of NPs were highly crystalline in nature and of spherical and oval-shaped. AuNPs size was found in the range of 5-40 nm, whereas BMNPs showed their size in the range of 5-30 nm. HRTEM results were corroborated by DLS results which revealed the average hydrodynamic diameter of AuNPs and BMNPs in the range of 29.08 and 26.56 nm, respectively. UV-visible spectroscopy showed high-intensity single spectral peaks at 540 and 480 nm for AuNPs and BMNPs, respectively. FTIR analysis demonstrated that protein, flavanones, hydroxyl, carboxylate groups, and reducing sugars were responsible for reducing and capping of both NPs. Bactericidal efficiency of synthesized NPs was evaluated using agar-well diffusion and XTT-colorimetric assays against K. pneumoniae, S. typhimurium, E. aerogenes, E. coli, M. luteus, S. aureus, S. mutans and S. epidermidis. K. pneumonia and S. typhimurium were found to be the most sensitive bacteria towards BMNPs-mediated (MIC: 400 µg/ml) and AuNPs-mediated toxicity (MIC: 800 µg/ml). It was observed that BMNPs generally possessed more powerful bactericidal effect against all bacterial strains in comparison to AuNPs. MIC and MBC values were observed in the concentration range of 400 µg/ml-1.5 mg /ml for different bacterial strains. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that phytosynthesized AuNPs have their own bactericidal effect, but at higher concentrations (>100 µg/ml), and bactericidal effect of BMNPs was due to the synergistic effect of both Ag and Au ions, which was also observed to be concentration-dependent.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1449
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Impact of long-term climate change on Moluccella bucharica (B. Fedtsch.)
           Ryding population decline in Uzbekistan

    • Authors: Bekhruz Sh Khabibullaev, Khabibullo F Shomurodov, Bekhzod A Adilov
      Pages: 357 - 363
      Abstract: The article provides a comprehensive analysis of long-term climate change trends in the distribution of the endemic population of Moluccella bucharica (B. Fedtsch.) Ryding in southern Uzbekistan. Based on the analysis of daily data of 2 meteorological sources (NASA POWER and Boysun (M-II), reliable long-term trends in changes in the amounts of atmospheric precipitation and air temperatures (average, average minimum, absolute minimum, average maximum and absolute maximum) for different periods (1982–2020) of the year (year, half-year, season) have been established, which are actively manifested in the dynamics of the M. bucharica population. The results of this study serve to substantiate and explain that the conditions that lead to the M. bucharica crisis - changes in the reproductive phase and damage to seeds by insects - are the result of the effects of climate change. We found that the amplitude of the change of sediments is 59.8%, the amplitude of the change of the average temperature of the air is 19.3–53.76%, the amplitude of the change of the average maximum temperature of the air is 9.75–47.54%, the average minimum temperature of the air is 29–59%. These coefficients of change indicate that the climate of the region where the species grows has changed and is changing towards a sharp aridization.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1464
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphological and horticultural characteristics of some commercial banana
           (Musa spp.) cultivars of Kerala

    • Authors: Thatayaone Malikongwa, Saji Gomez, Meagle Joseph, Netravati, Bintu Kuruvila
      Pages: 364 - 371
      Abstract: Morphological and horticultural characteristics of six cultivars of banana fruits (Musa spp.) that are commercially grown in Kerala, belonging to different genomic groups viz. Nendran (AAB), Pisang Lilin (AA), Karpooravalli (ABB), Njalipoovan (AB), Grand Naine (ABB) and Yangambi (KM-5) (AAA) were evaluated. The morphological traits were characterized using Banana Descriptors established by IPGRI (1996), from which 9 characters were selected for quantitative analysis. Horticultural characters on variables such as number of fruits per bunch, fruit length (cm), fruit pedicel length (mm), fruit pedicel width (mm), peel thickness (mm), pulp weight (g), fruit to peel ratio, fruit flesh firmness (cm2kg-1) were analysed and subjected to one way ANOVA to determine the significance (p=.05). The cultivar Nendran (AAB) exhibited large morphological and horticultural traits, particularly for the fruit length (22.07cm), pulp weight (89.20g) and peel weight (49.30g). The cultivar Karpooravalli (ABB) was smaller in terms of the fruit length (10.67 cm) and peel weight (9.65g), but had a large (4.81) fruit: pulp ratio compared to other cultivars studied. The present work reveals substantial morphological and horticultural variation among banana cultivars of different genomic groups, with an overlap of similarities and differences even in banana cultivars having the same genomic group.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1467
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Flame Treatment and Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiations on
           phenolic content in in vitro cultures of Ipomoea batatas

    • Authors: Urja Bag, S Narasimhan, S Bindu
      Pages: 372 - 375
      Abstract: In vitro grown callus cultures of Ipomoea batatas were exposed to flame treatment and electromagnetic radiations generated by mobile phone. The cultured tissues responded to the treatments as evidenced by the significant reduction of phenolic contents compared to controls. Even though the growth of the tissues was normal, there was a change in the phenolic content of the tissues. There exhibited not much significant variation among the treatments regarding the growth rate. The morphology and texture of the callus also remained the same. It has been concluded that like animal cells, plant cells also respond to non-ionizing radiations like electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1469
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Phenological documentation of Lantana camara L. using modified BBCH scale
           in relation to climatic variables

    • Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Sanjay Singh, Harish Bahadur Chand, Rahul Kumar
      Pages: 376 - 385
      Abstract: Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) is cultivated as an ornamental and hedge plant in many countries which is native to American tropics. It’s introduction to the Indian subcontinent dates back around 200 years ago. It is an invasive alien species that has a negative impact on native biodiversity. It is evident that management of L. camara is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity. Studying its phenological characteristics as they adapt to environmental circumstances through time and space will aid in the development of management goals and strategies. This study uses BBCH scale firstly to describe the phenology of L. camara, which is represented by nine Phenological Growth Stages (PGS) in response to environmental conditions during a 32-month period in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, representing its growth. To standardise morphological traits and the phenological observation, photographs of certain significant developmental stages on L. camara in addition to the descriptions have been illustrated. Researchers can utilise this uniform labelling method as a tool to help with weed management efforts. Phenological studies of this invasive weed species may be employed for tracking the gradual impact of climate change on biodiversity and its effect on the key phenological events in the lifecycle.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1481
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Traditional plants utilized for the viral disease treatment

    • Authors: Ushashee Mandal, B Jyotirmayee, Gyanranjan Mahalik
      Pages: 386 - 398
      Abstract: Ethnobotanical research is a well-established field of science that attracts a lot of interest in medicine. Plants are responsible for over 80% of folk remedies used in primary care worldwide. Traditional and herbal medicine knowledge is essential in scientific research, especially when the literature and survey data are not adequately examined. Viral diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide, and they have a significant impact on human health and socioeconomic growth. Many infectious and non-infectious illnesses have long been treated with medicinal plants. The value of medicinal plants has risen in recent centuries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) alone affects almost 40 million people. Coronavirus disease is now the most common viral illness globally, affecting an estimated 176 million people worldwide (COVID-19). A wide range of plant species was found to be effective in treating viral diseases. This review summarizes viral illness, disease outbreaks, and medicinal plants and herbs with antiviral properties useful in drug development programmes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1491
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Pharmacological, biological and phytochemical aspects of Thymus munbyanus
           Boiss. & Reut.: A review

    • Authors: Hamza Elbouny, Brahim Ouahzizi, Eimad Dine Tariq Bouhlali, Khalid Sellam, Chakib Alem
      Pages: 399 - 404
      Abstract: Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reut., is a small shrub endemic to Morocco and Algeria, and it is commonly used to treat several diseases, including digestive, circulatory, genital, skin, urinary, nervous and respiratory diseases. The extracts of this thyme are rich in a wide variety of phenolic compounds such as polyphenols and volatile phenols and exhibit numerous biological activities. The present review summarizes the literature investigations reported on Thymus munbyanus concerning various pharmacological and biological properties as well as phytochemical aspects. This species revealed a richness in phenolic compounds in its volatile oils, including thymol and carvacrol, as well as in its non-volatile extracts including phenolic acids phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, salvianolic acid, ferulic acid, etc.), flavonoids (luteolin, gallocatechin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, etc.). Moreover, powerful antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were reported for this Thymus species, which are attributed to its richness in bioactive antioxidants. Furthermore, this thyme was found to possess important nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, and tumor cytotoxic properties. In conclusion, Thymus munbyanus is an important natural source of bioactive phenolic compounds that can be used for developing alternative natural drugs for the treatment and prevention of several pathologies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1494
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Genetic Transformation of Arachis hypogaea Using Novel Genes Conferring
           Fungal Resistance-A Review

    • Authors: Shahana Chowdhury, Anamika Datta, Manzur-E-Mohsina Ferdous, DWAIPAYAN SINHA
      Pages: 405 - 420
      Abstract: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) or the common ‘peanut’ is a worldwide popular, affordable food containing high protein, calories, vitamins, and minerals. Several biotic and abiotic stresses are responsible for reaching the expected production of peanuts worldwide. Especially, the fungi are the major constraints that not only hamper the production but also that is deadly health hazardous for both human consumption and poultry-livestock. Approaches from various dimensions like cultural management, diseases free cultivar development, hybridization, tissue culture, and genetic transformations have been tried to overcome such challenges. This review epitomizes the total scenario from the plant physiological basis of fungal diseases to the peanut development approaches, which aimed to develop a concrete understanding of sustainable management of peanut production. Comparisons of Genetic Engineering methods such as Agrobacterium-mediated and direct gene gun (particle bombardment- mediated) with traditional hybridization have been compiled here, furthermore, candidate genes transformed to achieve fungus-resistance in peanuts have been listed up to provide an overview. Along with, the limitations of transformation attempts and the techniques for improvisation of transformation techniques have been discussed in sustainable peanut production. This study provides, comprehensive information on fungal-resistant peanut development so that, further research in this arena could be guided in an integrated way, which may serve for the thrust of sustainable improvisation in peanut cultivation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1504
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Bioecological features of Nigella sativa L. in different conditions of
           Uzbekistan

    • Authors: A V Mahmudov, O S Abduraimov, Sh B Erdonov, U G Gayibov, L Yu Izotova
      Pages: 421 - 426
      Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of bio-ecological features of black caraway (kalonji) in different conditions of introduction. The analysis of the periods of ontogenesis, the biology of flowering, fruiting (seed productivity) in different conditions of Uzbekistan was carried out. By results of phenological researches the differences of terms of phases of the vegetative period and its turn, by morphometric parameters are revealed. Emergence of buds in Nigella sativa under conditions of introduction is observed in the first decade of May, sometimes in the middle of May, depending on weather conditions of the year. The earliest flowering was on 18.05, the latest on 29.05. Fruiting takes place in early June to late June. The end of the growing season is observed in late June-early July. The duration of vegetation in Malguzar is 130-35 days, while in Botanical Garden it is 135-145 days. The real seed production per plant averages 51.9±3.94 in Botanical Garden conditions and 42.5±2.10 in Malguzar.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1510
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Potential Roles of Phytochemicals in Combating Severe Acute Respiratory
           Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    • Authors: Harsh Pant, Vishesh Kumar, Bhoopander Giri, Qiang-Sheng Wu, Vijaya Lobo, Ishwar Singh, Anuradha Sharma
      Pages: 427 - 437
      Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the current ongoing global pandemic COVID-19 is yet far away from the clutches of contemporary western medicines. With the lack of conventional drugs for this deadly disease the scope for the development of herbal formulations and Ayurvedic medication is finding a sound basis in the current scenario. The past two years has witnessed detailed and focused investigations on the biologically active constituents derived from a range of medicinal plants and their potential antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2. The promising results of these investigations have intrigued the medical and plant experts in pharmacognosy enough to consider herbal medicines and plant-based products as they are more effective in combating the COVID-19 crisis. However, a large-scale application of the same would require more focused and thorough research on this matter. This review is an attempt to describe the current and future prospects of using medicinal plants and herbal compounds as natural and sustainable alternative for treating COVID-19. The current article evaluates the various strong evidences from biochemical and molecular studies that have been investigated so far in the development of herbal formulations to combat COVID-19 with detailed focus on the most potential phytochemicals of medicinal plants studied in this regard namely Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Cinchona officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Ocimum sanctum L., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., and Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1525
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Bryophytes of the Western-Zerafshan Ridge (Uzbekistan)

    • Authors: Kholmurod Zhalov , Abdirasulov Farrux
      Pages: 438 - 442
      Abstract: A historical overview of bryological studies in Uzbekistan and a list of 80 known species of mosses from the Republic of Uzbekistan, compiled from well-known publications, collections stored in the herbaria of Samarkand State University and the Beijing Botanical Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and ourdata are presented. Hygroamblystegium tenax Hedw., Lewinskya affinis (Schrad. ex Brid F.Lara) Garilleti & Goffinet, Pseudoleskeella papillosa (Lindb.) Kindb, Encalypta trachymitria Ripart and Orthotrichum hallii Sullivant & Lesquereux are reported for the first time in Uzbekistan.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1526
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Sustainable Management Strategies and Biological Control in Apple Orchards

    • Authors: Manisha Arora Pandit, Saloni Gulati, Neeru Bhandari, Tarkeshwar, Poonam Mehta Mehta, Roma Katyal, Charu Dogra Rawat, Jasleen Kaur
      Pages: 443 - 453
      Abstract: Sustainable horticultural practices address the global issues of food security, pest and disease management, soil health, water pollution, depletion of biodiversity, etc. with environment–friendly approaches. Increasingly, the adoption of such strategies is benefitting agricultural production including that in orchards. Even though several Integrated Pest Management (IPM), disease, and weed management strategies have been in use for the control of pests, diseases, and weeds in apple orchards, they are still not the most favored methods of control. There are various economic and acceptance concerns regarding their use, particularly in developing nations. A more sustainable system for apple orchards management, thus, should be adopted.   Here, we review various management methodologies, including the sustainable biocontrol methods, employed in the apple orchards. Reviewing these methods, we draw attention towards integrating sustainable IPM methodologies with biocontrol strategies like the use of pest-resistant cultivars, employing natural parasites and enemies of apple pests, use of agro-based pesticides, integration of technological advances that can provide real-time data to farmers and orchard scouting leading to the development of sustainable management of apple orchards. Such systems will not only reduce dependence on chemical control methods but will also minimize ecotoxicity. We also draw parallels from the biocontrol methods adopted in sustainable agri-production in other fruit orchards to suggest strategies that can be employed for sustainable apple production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1547
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Wine production from ripen pond apple (Annona glabra L.) fruit

    • Authors: Nguyen Phuoc Minh
      Pages: 454 - 460
      Abstract: Pond apple (Annona glabra L.) trees were widely distributed in swamp regions of Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pond apple fruits turned from green to yellow when ripening. Ripen pond apple fruits contained numerous phenolic constituents with valuable phytochemical benefits. However, ripen pond apple fruits were not successfully utilized as other commercial fruits. This research examined the possibility of wine production utilized from ripen pond apple fruits. Different various technical variables of fermentation affecting to the quality of pond apple wine were thoroughly examined. Ripen pond apple fruits were naturally collected from Soc Trang province, Vietnam. Ripen pond apple fruits were peeled, blended, deseeded, crushed, enzyme-treated (pectinase 25 mg/L), added with sugar (5-13% w/w), pasteurized (sulphite 30 mg/L), inoculated with yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus ratio (0.1-0.5%), macerated temperature (14-22oC) in different time (6-14 days). Malolactic fermentation was performed in anaerobic condition at 12oC in different durations (4-20 weeks). At the end of malolactic fermentation, wine was racked and clarified with different fining agents (bentonite, polyvinylpyrrolidone, wheat gluten, gelatin, kaolin) at 0.03% (v/v). Results showed that must should be added with 9% sugar and 0.4% yeast inoculation, fermentation temperature of 16oC in 10 days. Malolactic fermentation could be terminated at 12 weeks. Gelatin revealed the best candidate among different clarifying agents to remove turbidity in pond apple wine while retaining the most total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Under above technical variable conditions, fermentation gave the high ethanol content (4.26±0.02 % v/v); the total phenolic content (32.79±0.00 mg GAE/100 ml), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging (11.84±0.01 %), overall acceptance (8.34±0.01 score) meanwhile low turbidity (24.41±0.00 NTU) was also noticed. High ethanol content and phytochemical retention contributed to the high sensory score of pond apple wine. These quality parameters were acceptable for an alcoholic drink. Ripen pond apple fruit would be a promising carbohydrate source to convert into a new fruit wine with a pleasant alcoholic flavor and attractive appearance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1617
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the "NALIKE"
           community in the Bantwala taluk of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka,
           India

    • Authors: Manohara Acharya, M S Divakar, Ravindra B Malabadi, Raju Krishna Chalannavar
      Pages: 461 - 468
      Abstract: The "Nalike" community, also known as Panar, is one of the tribal communities in the Bantwala taluk in Karnataka's Dakshina Kannada district. In addition to the practise of ritual dance, the majority of the families in this community embrace traditional medication as a source of income. For the ethnobotanical survey, a total of 25 informants were chosen and documented 160 medicinal plant species from 65 families including their botanical name, trivial name, family name, plant parts used, and medicinal uses. The most frequent families are Leguminosae (17 species), Rubiaceae (9 species), Apocynaceae (7 species), Myrtaceae (7 species), and Lamiaceae (7 species). To cure various disorders, different portions of medicinal plants are employed in the manufacture of various types of traditional medicine such as decoction, infusion, paste, or powder. A total of 39 diseases were identified and classified into nine disease categories. All informants treat paralysis with Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum verum, and Glycyrrhiza glabra, as well as other medicinal plants in various combinations, in the category of neurological illnesses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1470
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemical and antioxidant potential of selected plants from Mianwali,
           Pakistan

    • Authors: Asma Saeed, Muhammad Zeeshan Bhatti, Sheikh Zain Ul Abidin, Raees Khan, Rida Fatima Saeed, Maimoona Sabir, Waqas Khan Kayani, Afifa Munem, Arshad Mahmood Chohan, Eman Ibrahim Ahmed, Amal Youssef, Gaber El-Saber Batiha
      Pages: 469 - 476
      Abstract: Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. Specific activities of these plant extracts are generally linked to the presence of secondary metabolites together with their phenolic contents. Present study aimed at investigating the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of selected plants from five different families. The total phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay and total flavonoid content by aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by phosphomolybdinium assay. Our findings indicates that total phenolic content for methanolic extracts ranged from 27.07 to 59.11 mg GAE/g DW, and total flavonoid content ranged from 38.37 to 124.23 mg QE/g DW, with an antioxidant activity ranging from 55.82 to 129.06 mg AAE/g DE. Following trend was shown in the assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid contents: Rhazya stricta>Cicer arietinum>Solanum melongena>Solanum surattense>Solanum nigrum>Withania sominifera>Sisymbrium irio>Withania coagulans>Raphanus sativus>Fagonia indica>Brassica napus. While the antioxidant capacity followed the trend: Cicer arietinum>Solanum nigrum>Withania coagulans>Rhazya stricta>Raphanus sativus>Solanum melongena>Withania sominifera>Solanum surratense>Fagonia indica>Brassica napus>Sisymbrium irio. It is also seen that both wild and cultivated plants have higher medicinal value, which can be linked to the phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant potential. Findings of the study revealed that wild plants possess higher phenolic content compared to cultivated plants, whereas cultivated plants had higher antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1465
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Authentication and quality control of Uapaca heudelotii Baill. - An
           investigation of pharmacognostic, phytochemical and physicochemical
           properties of its leaves and stem bark

    • Authors: Evelyn Asante-Kwatia, Lord Gyimah , Abraham Yeboah Mensah, Kwame Sarpong, Ama Kusiwah Obeng
      Pages: 477 - 485
      Abstract: Uapaca heudelotii Baill. is well known in various African cultures for its application in the treatment of infections and inflammatory conditions. This study was focused on providing standard identification parameters for authentication and quality assurance of U. heudelotii through morphological observations, screening of phytochemical constituents, fluorescence, spectroscopic and physicochemical analysis. U. heudelotii leaves are simple, elliptic and arranged in whorls. The bark is greyish-brown with longitudinal striations on the outer surface and pale red on the inner surface. Leaf lamina microscopy displayed anticlinal polygonal straight-walled epidermal cells, with anisocytic stomata found only on the abaxial surface. Leaf surface constants were determined. Microscopy of powdered leaves and barks revealed the presence of epidermal cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate, sclereids and pitted vessels. Alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and tannins were identified in both stem bark and leaves. The total phenolic content for the leaf and bark were 219.2 ± 10.013 and 153.9 ± 1.602 mg/g gallic acid equivalent respectively. The total 'avonoid contents were recorded as 1036 ± 33.37 and 310.2 ± 79.00 mg/g quercetin equivalent for the leaf and bark respectively. The total ash for the leaf and bark was 6.41 ± 0.208 and 5.01 ±0.258 respectively. The pH values for the aqueous and alcoholic extracts were slightly acidic (3-5). In elemental analysis, lead (Pb) was detected within the acceptable limit (0.0019-0.0025 mg/kg). In conclusion, the current results have provided standard parameters for the correct identification and quality assessment of U. heudelotii.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1476
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Development and acceptability of mead wine with banana fruit flavor

    • Authors: Jose Carlos T Mamauag
      Pages: 486 - 490
      Abstract: The study discusses the development and acceptability of mead wine with banana fruit flavor. Banana, a brilliantly sweet natural product with firm and rich tissue is available for harvest all year round. It is comprised mainly of sugar and fiber, which makes it a source of fiber. In this study, the researcher used banana fruit as its flavor since cultivation and plantation of the said fruit in the locale of the study is plentiful. An experimental approach was utilized in this investigation, with fifty individuals assessing the mead wine with banana fruit flavor in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The research used various statistical treatments, such as mean and T-test, in evaluating the obtained data. It was found that the mead wine with banana fruit flavor had an alcohol content of 12%. Furthermore, the respondents extremely liked the mead wine with banana fruit flavor because of its appearance and aroma, which obtained the highest appraisal from the respondents based on their sensory evaluation. The study uncovered that mead wine with banana fruit flavor has the potential to be utilized as an ingredient for wine production. Moreover, amid the appraisal of the respondents, the aroma, flavor, appearance and texture of the produced mead wine with banana fruit flavor were essentially influenced. Generally, the taster respondents extremely liked the mead wine with banana fruit flavor. Therefore, it is a highly appropriate product in the community in generating enterprise which could be a potential source of income.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1296
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Biomolecular evaluation of three contrasting rice cultivars (Oryza sativa
           L.) in salt stress response at seedling stage.

    • Authors: Nam Trinh Ngoc, Phuong Nguyen Tri, Thia Le Hong, Cuong Duong Quoc
      Pages: 491 - 503
      Abstract: Salt contamination of soils due to climate change faces a severe environmental issue that affects crop production today. However, the response mechanism in plants to salt stress is not fully understood. The present study investigated molecular and biochemical changes under salt stress in rice seedlings of three rice cultivars, i.e., AGPPS114 (salt-tolerant), OM6967 (moderately tolerance), VD20 (salt-sensitive). Increasing salt concentration leads to a reduction in shoot/root length but different levels among the cultivars. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and lipid peroxidation increased progressively with increasing salt concentration and time course treatment. However, at 250 'M of NaCl, these parameters were more adversely affected in VD20 than AGPPS114 and OM6967. Using ICP showed that Na+ accumulation in rice root increased gradually with increasing NaCl concentrations in all cultivars under salt treatment but was low in salt-sensitive cultivar VD20 compared to other cultivars. Antioxidant enzyme activity analysis indicated catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced during salt treatment in all cultivars. The results also showed greater proline and glycine betaine accumulation in the AGPPS114 than OM6976 and VD20. qPCR indicated a significant difference in transcript levels of the Na+-transporter gene OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsHKT1s in AGPPS114 and OM6967 cultivars compared to VD20 cultivar. In summary, the active regulation of genes related to Na+ transport at the transcription level and with high glycine betaine and proline accumulation levels may be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms and thus might be useful for selecting tolerant plants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.1539
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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