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Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0353-3670 - ISSN (Online) 2217-5997
Published by U of Niš Homepage  [12 journals]
  • GUEST EDITORIAL

    • Authors: Zoran Jakšić, Trupti Ranjan Lenka
      Abstract: The field of microelectronics and nanoelectronics devices, circuits and systems including MEMS and NEMS plays a tremendous role in virtually every facet of today’s life. Practically there are no persons whose quality of lives is not being influenced by it. Consequently, there is an enormous increase of the number of novel solutions and applications and an explosive development of related sophisticated production and testing technologies, practical devices and equipment.With the idea to spread knowledge in this key area of engineering and technological knowledge, the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam, India in association with IEEE Electron Devices (ED) NIT Silchar Student Branch Chapter and IEEE Kolkata Section Nanotechnology Council (NTC) Chapter organized the International Virtual Conference on Micro/Nanoelectronics Devices, Circuits and Systems (MNDCS-2021) from 29-31 Jan 2021. The objective was to promote advanced research and developments in the areas of Microelectronics, Nanoelectronics, Semiconductor Devices, VLSI Circuits and Systems through keynotes, invited talks, and oral presentations in the relevant areas.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • ANALYTICAL STUDY OF CONDUCTION BAND DISCONTINUITY SUPPORTED 2DEG DENSITY
           IN AlN/Ga2O3 HEMT

    • Authors: Rajan Singh, Trupti Ranjan Lenka, Hieu Pham Trung Nguyen
      Pages: 323 - 332
      Abstract: Apart from other factors, band alignment led conduction band offset (CBO) largely affects the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density ns in wide bandgap semiconductor based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In the context of assessing various performance metrics of HEMTs, rational estimation of CBO and maximum achievable 2DEG density is critical. Here, we present an analytical study on the effect of different energy band parameters—energy bandgap and electron affinity of heterostructure constituents, and lattice temperature on CBO and estimated 2DEG density in quantum triangular-well. It is found that at thermal equilibrium, ns increases linearly with ΔEC at a fixed Schottky barrier potential, but decreases linearly with increasing gate-metal work function even at fixed ΔEC, due to increased Schottky barrier heights. Furthermore, it is also observed that poor thermal conductivity led to higher lattice temperature which results in lower energy bandgap, and hence affects ΔEC and ns at higher output currents. 
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RF-MEMS
           TECHNOLOGY-BASED HIGH-PERFORMANCE PASSIVE COMPONENTS FOR APPLICATIONS IN
           THE 5G AND FUTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SCENARIOS

    • Authors: Girolamo Tagliapietra, Jacopo Iannacci
      Pages: 333 - 366
      Abstract: The goal of this work is to provide an overview about the current development of radio-frequency microelectromechanical systems technology, with special attention towards those passive components bearing significant application potential in the currently developing 5G paradigm. Due to the required capabilities of such communication standard in terms of high data rates, extended allocated spectrum, use of massive MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) systems, beam steering and beam forming, the focus will be on devices like switches, phase shifters, attenuators, filters, and their packaging/integration. For each of the previous topics, several valuable contributions appeared in the last decade, underlining the improvements produced in the state of the art and the chance for RF-MEMS technology to play a prominent role in the actual implementation of the 5G infrastructure.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • MEMS RESONATOR MASS LOADING NOISE MODEL: THE CASE OF BIMODAL ADSORBING
           SURFACE AND FINITE ADSORBATE AMOUNT

    • Authors: Ivana Jokić, Olga Jakšić, Miloš Frantlović, Zoran Jakšić, Koushik Guha
      Pages: 367 - 380
      Abstract: Modeling of adsorption and desorption in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) generally is crucial for their optimization and control, whether it is necessary to decrease the adsorption-desorption influence (thus ensuring stable operation of ultra-precise micro and nanoresonators) or to increase it (and enhancing in this manner the sensitivity of chemical and biological resonant sensors). In this work we derive and use analytical mathematical expressions to model stochastic fluctuations of the mass adsorbed on the MEMS resonator (mass loading noise). We consider the case where the resonator surface incorporates two different types of binding sites and where non-negligible depletion of the adsorbate occurs in a closed resonator chamber. We arrive at a novel expression for the power spectral density of mass loading noise in resonators and prove the necessity of its application in cases when resonators are exposed to low adsorbate concentrations. We use the novel approach presented here to calculate the resonator performance. In this way we ensure optimization of these MEMS devices and consequentially abatement of adsorption-desorption noise-caused degradation of their operation, both in the case of micro/nanoresonators and resonant sensors. This work is intended for a general use in the design, development and optimization of different MEMS systems based on mechanical resonators, ranging from the RF components to chemical and biological sensors.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • DAMPING ANALYSIS TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF SHUNT CAPACITIVE RF MEMS
           SWITCH

    • Authors: Lakshmi Narayana Thalluri, K V V Kumar, Konari Raja Sekhar, N Bhushana Babu D, S S Kiran, Koushik Guha
      Pages: 381 - 392
      Abstract: This paper describes the significance of the iterative approach and the structure damping analysis which help to get better the performance and validation of shunt capacitive RF MEMS switch. The micro-cantilever based electrostatic ally actuated shunt capacitive RF MEMS switch is designed and after multiple iterations on cantilever structure a modification of the structure is obtained that requires low actuation voltage of 7.3 V for 3 µm deformation. To validate the structure we have performed the damping analysis for each iteration. The low actuation voltage is a consequence of identifying the critical membrane thickness of 0.7 µm, and incorporating two slots and holes into the membrane. The holes to the membrane help in stress distribution. We performed the Eigen frequency analysis of the membrane. The RF MEMS switch is micro machined on a CPW transmission line with Gap-Strip-Gap (G-S-G) of 85 µm - 70 µm - 85 µm. The switch RF isolation properties are analyzed with high dielectric constant thin films i.e., AlN, GaAs, and HfO2. For all the dielectric thin films the RF MEMS switch shows a high isolation of -63.2 dB, but there is shift in the radio frequency. Because of presence of the holes in the membrane the switch exhibits a very low insertion loss of -0.12 dB.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • CONTROLLED ELECTRON LEAKAGE IN ELECTRON BLOCKING LAYER FREE InGaN/GaN
           NANOWIRE LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES

    • Authors: Ravi Teja Velpula, Barsha Jain, Trupti Ranjan Lenka, Hieu Pham Trung Nguyen
      Pages: 393 - 400
      Abstract: In this study, we have proposed and investigated the effect of coupled quantum wells to reduce electron overflow in InGaN/GaN nanowire white color light-emitting diodes. The coupled quantum well before the active region could decrease the thermal velocity, which leads to a reduced electron mean free path. This improves the electron confinement in the active region and mitigates electron overflow in the devices. In addition, coupled quantum well after the active region utilizes the leaked electrons from the active region and contributes to the white light emission. Therefore, the output power and external quantum efficiency of the proposed nanowire LEDs are improved. Moreover, the efficiency droop was negligible up to 900 mA injection current.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • EVALUATION OF ELECTRONIC READINESS LEVEL (A CASE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTION)

    • Authors: Hossein KardanMoghaddam, Nafiseh Sarboland
      Pages: 401 - 413
      Abstract: Electronic readiness is the ability to accept, use and apply information and communication technology in an organization. To effectively implement information and communication technologies, the first step is to measure the electronic readiness of companies and organizations to adopt these new technologies. In this research, the level of electronic readiness of Mellat Bank has been studied in Khorasan Razavi province in Iran, from the perspective of the employees in cities of Feyz Abad, Kashmar, Bajestan, Gonabad and Bazar and Central branches in Khorasan Razavi province. Electronic readiness levels of Bank Mellat have been evaluated in the following dimensions: Strategy readiness and IT policies, IT infrastructure readiness, management readiness, legal-juridical readiness, culture and human resource (personnel) readiness and Process readiness. This research is based on descriptive research design and applied purpose. The statistical population of the personnel includes people with sufficient and necessary information in the field of financial and banking activities regarding e-commerce issues and e-readiness, which was a total population of 74 people. 50 questionnaires consisting of 30 questions were distributed using non-probability convenience sampling method of which 42 questionnaires were accurate. The SPSS15 software was used for analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the level of electronic readiness of Mellat Bank in Khorasan Razavi province in the studied branches is significantly higher than the average theoretical score (3) (p <0.001) in total and its components. This demonstrates the level of electronic readiness of Mellat Bank in Khorasan Razavi is high (above average) from the perspective of the studied personnel. Also, there is no significant difference in the average score of the perspective of personnel based on gender, age, years of service, level of education, field of study and organizational position concerning the level of electronic readiness in Mellat Bank in Khorasan Razavi.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • A HIGH EFFICIENCY PNEUMATIC DRIVE SYSTEM USING VANE-TYPE SEMI-ROTARY
           ACTUATORS

    • Authors: Alfred Rufer
      Pages: 415 - 433
      Abstract: A compressed air driven generator is proposed, where the pneumatic energy is converted into mechanical energy using two vane-type rotational actuators. The use of a second actuator with a higher displacement in order to produce a thermodynamic expansion allows to reach a better energetic efficiency in comparison to the classical operation of such actuators. The alternating movement of the angular actuators is transformed into a unidirectional rotational motion with the help of a mechanical motion rectifier. The paper analyses the enhancement of the energetic performance of the system. An experimental set-up is also described. The performance of the new system is described, and the limits of its realization is commented on the base of experimental recordings of the evolution of the pressure in the chambers.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • DUAL WIDEBAND AND HIGH GAIN MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS SYSTEM

    • Authors: Biplab Bag, Sushanta Biswas, Partha Pratim Sarkar
      Pages: 435 - 444
      Abstract: In this paper dual wideband high gain circular shaped microstrip antenna with modified ground plane is presented for wireless communication systems. The overall dimension of the proposed antenna is 50 x 40 x 1.6 mm3. The radiating element consists of circular shaped patch which is excited by microstrip feed-line printed on FR4 epoxy substrate. The ground plane is on the other side of the substrate having a rectangular ring shape to enhance the peak gain of the antenna. The proposed antenna exhibits two wide fractional bandwidths (based on ≤ -10 dB) of 61.1% (ranging from 2.0 to 3.8 GHz, centred at 2.88 GHz) and 53.37% (ranging from 5.48 to 9.6 GHz, centred at 7.44 GHz). The measured peak gain achieved is 8.25 dBi at 8.76 GHz. The measured impedance bandwidth and gain suffice all the commercial bands of wireless systems such as 4G LTE band-40, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WLAN, WiMAX, C-band, and X-band. The measured results are experimentally tested and verified with simulated results. A reasonable agreement is found between them.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • INTRODUCING AN OPTIMAL QCA CROSSBAR SWITCH FOR BASELINE NETWORK

    • Authors: Reza Sabbaghi-Nadooshan
      Pages: 445 - 460
      Abstract: Crossbar switch is the basic component in multi-stage interconnection networks. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate performance of a crossbar switch with two multiplexers. The presented crossbar switch was simulated using quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) technology and QCA Designer software, and was studied and optimized in terms of cell number, occupied area, number of clocks, and energy consumption. Using the provided crossbar switch, the baseline network was designed to be optimal in terms of cell number and occupied area. Also, the number of input states was investigated and simulated to verify accuracy of the baseline network. The proposed crossbar switch uses 62 QCA cells and the occupied area by the switch is equal to 0.06µm2 and its latency equals 4 clock zones, which is more efficient than the other designs. In this paper, using the presented crossbar switch, the baseline network was designed with 1713 cells, and occupied area of 2.89µm2.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • ACCEPTANCE OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN AN AIRLINE COMPANY BASED ON ROGER’S
           DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY

    • Authors: Hossein KardanMoghaddam, Amir Rajaei, Seyedeh Fatemeh Fatemi
      Pages: 461 - 482
      Abstract: As using cloud computing develops, one of the problems that managers face at the organization level is that the personnel cannot work with these systems, users do not accept these new systems and the problem of accepting these technologies, effective factors in accepting them and the existing barriers in accepting them by users are very important. In many organizations wherein cloud computing has been launched, a time period is required to accept this new system by their personnel. If this time period is less and the personnel can work with these systems earlier, the productivity increases in the organization. The present paper aims the analysis of effective factors on acceptance of cloud computing by personnel working in Birjand International Airport in South Khorasan County (Iran) based on Roger’s diffusion of innovation theory. Examination of effective factors on acceptance of cloud computing in an organization can pave the way for improving its implementation and performance. This research has been done by descriptive survey method and its community includes personnel working in different official and informatics departments of Birjand International Airport. The data gathering instrument was questionnaire and for determining questionnaire validity opinions of masters and for determining consistency Cronbach's alpha has been used. For data analysis descriptive and inferential statistics have been used. The results of present paper indicated that there is meaningful and positive relationship between acceptance features of cloud computing and perception elements of testability, comparative advantage, visibility, complexity, and compatibility of cloud computing with its acceptance rate and there is meaningful and negative relationship between features of perception of not needing cloud computing and its acceptance rate. But there was no meaningful relationship between perception of cloud computing test opportunity and its acceptance rate. As one of the modern ways of providing electronic service has been cloud computing in recent years and it has many benefits for air transportation systems, this paper presents a model for analysis of effective factors in acceptance of cloud computing among personnel of an airline company (airport) and it can be used for examining cloud acceptance in other air companies.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 3 (2021)
       
 
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