Publisher: Vilnius University   (Total: 41 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Accounting Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Museologica Lithuanica     Open Access  
Acta Orientalia Vilnensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologia Lituana     Open Access  
Baltic J. of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltistica     Open Access  
Bibliotheca Lituana     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ekonomika (Economics)     Open Access  
Informacijos mokslai     Open Access  
J.ism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kalbotyra     Open Access  
Knygotyra (Book Science)     Open Access  
Lietuvių kalba     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lietuvos istorijos studijos     Open Access  
Lietuvos Matematikos Rinkinys     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lietuvos Statistikos Darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Literatūra     Open Access  
Lithuanian Surgery : Lietuvos Chirurgija     Open Access  
Nonlinear Analysis : Modelling and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Politologija     Open Access  
Problemos     Open Access  
Psychology     Open Access  
Religija ir kultūra     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Respectus Philologicus     Open Access  
Scandinavistica Vilnensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Semiotika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Slavistica Vilnensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika     Open Access  
Socialiniai tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sociology : Thought and Action     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Taikomoji kalbotyra     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Teisė : Law     Open Access  
Verbum     Open Access  
Vertimo studijos (Translation Studies)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vilnius University Open Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Problemos
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1392-1126 - ISSN (Online) 2424-6158
Published by Vilnius University Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Editorial Board and Table of Contents

    • Authors: Nijolė Radavičienė
      Pages: 1 - 7
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • The Problem of Consciousness and its Origin in Vasily Sesemann’s
           Manuscripts

    • Authors: Dalius Jonkus
      Pages: 8 - 19
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to analyse the concept of consciousness in Vasily Sesemann’s manuscripts. Sesemann studied consciousness, describing it as an intentional experience and rejecting its naturalistic explanations. Sesemann revealed the irreducibility of life to physiological or chemical processes and at the same time rejected the dualistic opposition of spirit and matter, soul and body. In the manuscript text “Self-knowledge, self-consciousness and objectification” the philosopher explores the relationship of consciousness with self-consciousness and the subconscious, as well as various forms of objectification of consciousness. This manuscript can be attributed to a group of manuscript texts that discuss the origin of consciousness and the metaphysical relationship between matter and spirit. In the article, I will first discuss the relationship between Sesemann’s concept of consciousness and the philosophy of nature. Second, I will examine how Sesemann understands the relationship between consciousness and self-consciousness and the objectifications of consciousness. Third, I will analyze how the philosopher understands emotional intuition and subconsciousness. I argue that Sesemann’s approach is phenomenological.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.1
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • Forgotten Theorists of Lithuanian Romanticism: Priest Ignotas Dembinsky

    • Authors: Dalius Viliūnas
      Pages: 20 - 35
      Abstract: The sluggish development of romantic philosophy research suggests looking back at new sources that have been ignored so far. Priest Ignacy Dembinsky (1800–1869) is a forgotten romantic theorist. He is not only Wilhelm Schlegel’s translator, but also his promoter, commentator, who formulated authentic insights of romantic philosophy. The article focuses on the circumstances of Schlegel’s two-dimensional publication of “Philosophy of Life” (1840), which remained on the subscriber list, raises the hypothesis that the subscription of the work was a large-scale quasi-political patriotic campaign. The direction represented by Dembinsky is attributable to legal catholic romanticism. The latter sought to establish a positive alternative to Enlightenment’s scientism, naturalism, sensualism, one-sided rationalism, based on ideas of compatibility between science and philosophy, philosophy and Revelation. A person should realize freedom in a moral life and strive for the fullness of life – these ideas had refreshing sociopolitical implications in a depressing tsarist reality. Dembinsky polemicized with his local competitor, Florian Bochvic, a representative of a similar direction. The latter episode raises the question of the compatibility of his catholic theological doctrine and his maxims of a romantic philosopher: it is left open. It is hypothesized that the works translated, commented and creatively supplemented by Dembinsky could function as a bridge between the old Polish-speaking philosophy of Lithuania and the beginnings of the current Lithuanian theorization.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.2
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • The Dialogue Between Believers and Atheists: the Platonic Model in the
           Laws

    • Authors: Simonas Baliukonis
      Pages: 33 - 49
      Abstract: This paper examines the question concerning the right model of epistemically rational dialogue. First of all, the main, though not undisputed, principles of rational dialogue are defined according to the contemporary field of the epistemology of disagreement. It then explains why even these principles are not sufficient for making the disagreement between believers and atheists not only a rational discourse but also a fruitful dialogue. This paper defends a thesis that the latter aim can be achieved with a proper model of dialogue, which is found in Plato’s Laws – one of the first discussions between the believers and the atheists in the Western intellectual tradition. This model not only includes the contemporary principles of rational argument but also provides some new guidelines for the solution of problems that lead the believers and the atheists to the communicational dead end.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.3
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • Heraclitus and Hippocrates: the Paradigm of the Elements

    • Authors: Jonas Čiurlionis
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: The article analyses the remaining fragments and testimonies of Heraclitean philosophy and their connection with Hippocratic medicine. It is claimed that both schools belong to the same philosophical-scientific paradigm of the elements. Therefore, theoretical insights of the school of Cos might well serve explaining complicated and often difficult to interpret Heraclitean thoughts. Moreover, it is plausible that parts of Corpus Hippocraticum were written under the influence of the Heraclitean philosophy and therefore its analysis and interpretative application allows us to partially reconstruct the fragmented Heraclitean ideas into the single unified system. The article uses comparative analysis of both thinking traditions in regard to psychological, ethical, physiological, cosmological, and medical ideas. Similarities in explaining human nature are revealed. It is shown that science (medicine) and philosophy in Antiquity use the same paradigmatic utterances to describe reality. Therefore, there are many mutual interconnecting principles between early philosophy and medicine.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.4
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • Aristotle and Johnston on Hylomorphism and the Character of Objects

    • Authors: Christos Y. Panayides
      Pages: 62 - 74
      Abstract: As M. Loux has recently reminded us, there are two basic strategies for explaining the character of particular objects, the ‘relational approach’ and the ‘constituent approach’. The prime example of a constituent approach would be Aristotelian hylomorphism. This article reveals three things. First, it gives a roadmap towards what the author considers to be the exegetically correct reconstruction of Aristotle’s hylomorphic theory. Second, it provides a presentation of the basic claims of a neo-Aristotelian hylomorphic theory, the one argued for by M. Johnston. Finally, it argues that regardless of whatever shortcomings it may have, Aristotle’s theory has an advantage over that proposed by Johnston. Unlike Johnston’s theory, it may give us a complete account of the character of a particular object.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.5
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • Scholar Entangled: The Unattainable Detachment in Social Inquiry

    • Authors: Juozas Kasputis
      Pages: 87 - 99
      Abstract: The practice of social studies continues to be a complicated scientific endeavor. From an epistemological point of view, the social sciences, unlike the natural sciences, do not conform to the predominant definition of science. The existing differences among expositions of “science,” “inquiry,” and “studies” lie with the contested role of the intellectual who is embarked on understanding the social realm. The “maturity” of the social sciences is usually discussed in the context of objectivity and rationality. But continuing epistemological debates would be insufficient without reference to the scholar as a human studying humans. The philosophy of science has focused mainly on the procedures of knowledge accumulation, neglecting social context and its implications for inquiry. To address this neglect, this essay sets out first to retrace doubts about the role of the scholar that emerged with the institutionalization of the social sciences at the outset of the twentieth century and then to rethink these issues in terms of recent scientific developments. What surfaces is a new, participatory role for scholars that demands responsible contextualization and a broader conception of causal stories.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.7
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • Jacques Lacan’s Theory of Rupture: the Perspective of the Real

    • Authors: Kasparas Pocius
      Pages: 100 - 113
      Abstract: The article analyses Jacques Lacan’s theory of rupture that encompasses the three planes – the imaginary, the Symbolic and the Real – that comprise his topology. It is named the theory of rupture because it allows grasping the unfinished Lacanian subject as it encounters Other in all of those planes. The main question is whether this lack could be considered as positive. The attention is paid to the phallic signifier; the hypothesis is that this signifier, by linking the symbolic and the Real, allows the creation of new meanings and the resistance towards the fundamental fantasy.
      The Lacanian ternary conception of topology helps us to analyse the field of politics. While grasping this field from the “ex-sisting” perspective of the Real, we can observe the two scenarios of the development of (political) subject. On the one hand, there is a possible link between the subject and fantasy, in which one tries to compensate for the lack of the Real by “comforting” itself in the plane of symbolic discourse. On the other hand, in the alternative scenario, the subject consciously admits its lack, rejects the fantasy and begins to create new names which “hole” the symbolic discourse itself as well as the insufficiency of the symbolic field. The Real is defended by the phallic signifier, which helps to maintain the subject’s negativity and militancy. By enclosing the Real into the Symbolic we create the new consistency as the subject seeks not to maintain a passive form and place inside the structure, but names the positive lack in the structure itself and thereby creates the new political content.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.8
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • From Habermas to Derrida: A Weak Form of Secular Universalism

    • Authors: Giorgi Tskhadaia
      Pages: 114 - 126
      Abstract: In this article, I argue that a universalistic thrust of secularism should not be located in a Habermasian deontological liberal principle of the priority of universal morality over particularistic ethical doctrines. I show that Habermas cannot plausibly demonstrate that this principle can be invariably applied across different cases. However, in order not to succumb to parochialism, the failure of the deontological model should not prompt us to give up on the search for a universalistic drive behind secularism. To this end, I advocate a Derridean critique of religion and secularism as an alternative solution. By deconstructing the Kantian dichotomy of faith vs. knowledge, Jacques Derrida shows that secularism is, paradoxically, both a concrete socio-political regime and a possibility for a radical change.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.9
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
  • On Reason and the Power of Life (Tolstoy contra Spinoza)

    • Authors: Svetlana Klimova
      Pages: 127 - 138
      Abstract: In his search for the meaning of life, Tolstoy turned to Spinoza’s rationalist teaching about freedom, reason, morality, and religious faith. Spinoza created a philosophy where beliefs are in union with deeds, logic unites with ethics, and knowledge joins faith. According to Tolstoy, it is art that makes a synthesis of all the best attempts of the real, true philosophy. I argue that Tolstoy’s artistic method of linkage (stseplenie) was probably borrowed from Spinoza. Inspired by Spinoza’s “theorems of reason,” Tolstoy created his own “axiom of life” and elaborates on the concept of the “power of life” as a core of religious faith. Tolstoy endorsed Spinoza’s rationalistic critique of religion which helped to liberate true faith from the power of superstition and church dogmatics, but he criticised the geometric form in which Spinoza put the truths he discovered.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.15388/Problemos.100.10
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2021)
       
 
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