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Acta medica Lituanica
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1392-0138 - ISSN (Online) 2029-4174
Published by Vilnius University Homepage  [38 journals]
  • Editorial Board and Table of Contents

    • Authors: Rimantas Jankauskas
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: -
      Keywords: Front Matter ; Determinants of Parental Attitudes towards Children’s Vaccination in
             Lithuania: An Online Survey

      • Authors: Kamilė Čeponytė, Eglė Narkevičiūtė, Aušra Beržanskytė, Sigita Burokienė
        Pages: 7 - 7
        Abstract: Background: Data from recent years show that the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the scope of child immunisation worldwide. If the numbers continue to fall, we may have a vaccination crisis. In order to understand the local factors of this phenomenon, we studied parents‘ viewpoint towards childhood vaccination in Lithuania. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the impact of parental attitudes on children’s vaccination.
        Materials and Methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was made in Lithuania from October 20th to November 3rd, 2020, using Google Forms. An anonymous questionnaire included both quantitative and qualitative questions. The questionnaire was distributed to the general population in Lithuania via social media and a snowball sampling. Only parents who have at least one child under 18 years old were involved in the study. We analysed the parents’ attitudes towards vaccination by their socioeconomic and demographic determinants using MS Excel and OpenEpi tools. The respondents were considered vaccine supporters if they vaccinated all their children with state-reimbursed vaccines or only vaccinated some of their children, and vaccine sceptics if they did not vaccinate their children with state-reimbursed vaccines.
        Results: The population of our research consisted of 775 parents. There were more males against vaccination than females, respectively, 59.6% and 33.2%. 65.0% of all respondents stated that they vaccinated their children with the full course of vaccines, while the remaining 35.0% did not vaccinate. University-level education dominated in both pro-vaccine and anti-vaccine groups. We found that 16.9% of parents who were unvaccinated as children themselves tend not to vaccinate their children. However, in the pro-vaxx group, only 0.7% of parents were unvaccinated during childhood. 50.8% of vaccine sceptics were not fully informed by healthcare professionals about the benefits and risks of vaccination, while only 31.6% of vaccine supporters were not informed. So...
        Keywords: Research papers ; Deaths during Sexual Activity

        • Authors: Agnė Okulevičiūtė, Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Sigitas Laima, Diana Vasiljevaitė, Jurgita Stasiūnienė
          Pages: 8 - 8
          Abstract: Background: Deaths during sexual activities are a rarely identified phenomenon in forensic medicine practice. Most often, such deaths are classified as accidents or deaths due to the manifestation of certain diseases during sexual activity. It is important to rule out homicide or suicide as the cause of death when investigating sexual deaths. Determining the cause of death requires a comprehensive assessment of the evidence and circumstances and should not be based solely on autopsy findings. When determining the cause of death, it is necessary to evaluate the circumstances of the discovery, important evidence found near the body, the position of the deceased, the place where the deceased was found, and the characteristics of the environment. Cases: Case 1: A 65-year-old male was clothed in women’s underwear and was found hanging in a noose in a bedroom after a house fire. The autopsy revealed a ligature mark on the neck, bruises in neck muscles, tears in carotid arteries, and signs of acute pulmonary distension. The cause of death was determined to be suffocation due to neck compression by a ligature, compounded by significant alcohol intoxication, with additional postmortem burns covering 30% of the body surface area likely occurring after death. Case 2: A 55-year-old naked male was found without external injuries but with a plastic tube inserted into the rectum, causing a 2.5 cm rupture in the ileum. The perforation led to complications, including purulent diffuse peritonitis, intoxication, and acute cardiac and respiratory failure, resulting in death within 3-6 hours after insertion. Concurrent findings included atherosclerotic changes in the heart, internal organ hyperemia and edema, hepatic steatosis, renal cyst, and a lack of ethyl alcohol in blood but 0.17 ‰ presence in urine according to toxicology analysis. Conclusions: A detailed evaluation of all the evidence is very important in the forensic examination of the deceased during sexual activity. Therefore, to determine the cause of death, not only the autopsy data, toxicological and microscopic examinations of the deceased are important, but also the evaluation of all findings at the scene. The most common cause of death of an autoerotic nature is asphyxia, and the most commonly identified group of the dead are men aged around 40 years.
          Keywords: Case studies ; Beyond Benign: A Case of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytomas Provoking
                 Hydrocephalus in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

          • Authors: Antonio Navarro-Ballester, Rosa Álvaro-Ballester, Miguel Ángel Lara-Martínez
            Pages: 9 - 9
            Abstract: 22-year-old male diagnosed with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a genetic disorder characterized by benign tumors in various organs, with a focus on neurological implications. Central to the study is the development of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytomas (SEGAs), leading to hydrocephalus in the patient. The diagnosis of TSC was made in the patient’s childhood, and he was monitored regularly. The study highlights a significant growth in a subependymal nodule, leading to monoventricular hydrocephalus. MRI scans played a crucial role in identifying the progression of SEGAs and the subsequent hydrocephalus. The treatment approach involved endoscopic surgical removal of the SEGA, with histopathology confirming the diagnosis. Post-surgical outcomes over an eight-year follow-up period showed a normalization in ventricular size and the stability of other subependymal nodules, without any complications. This case underscores the importance of regular monitoring for TSC patients, early intervention for complications like hydrocephalus, and the need for a multidisciplinary treatment approach. The case study provides valuable insights into the management of neurodevelopmental disorders and the complexities surrounding TSC and SEGAs.
            Keywords: Case studies ; Imaging and MR Spectroscopy in Papillary Craniopharyngioma

            • Authors: Ashima Mahajan, Bheru Dan Charan, Sushant Agarwal, Vinay Goel, Leve Joseph Devarajan Sebastian, Vaishali Suri, Ashish Suri, Ajay Garg
              Pages: 10 - 10
              Abstract: Sellar-suprasellar masses exhibit a diverse range of differential diagnoses and it is feasible to establish a preliminary diagnosis before surgery by evaluating conventional CT scans and contrast-enhanced MRI results. Nevertheless, certain cases may present with inconclusive findings, making it challenging to anticipate the underlying tissue composition accurately through imaging alone. Researchers have explored the application of Proton MR spectroscopy in analyzing suprasellar tumors, and their investigations have revealed that it can complement traditional MRI by enhancing the accuracy of preoperative diagnoses. In this context, we report three biopsy-proven cases of suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma where the MRS spectra derived from the solid component exhibited noticeable lipid peaks alongside reduced levels of choline and NAA. These findings played a pivotal role in facilitating the correct preoperative identification of papillary craniopharyngioma.
              Keywords: Case studies ; An Institutional Perspective on the Number of Stent Retriever Pass and
                     Rate of Recanalization in Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic
                     Stroke: When to Stop'

              • Authors: Bheru Dan Charan, Shailesh B Gaikwad, Savyasachi Jain, Ajay Garg, Leve Joseph Devarajan Sebastian, MV Padma Srivastava, Rohit Bhatia, Awadh Kishore Pandit, Shashank Sarad Kale
                Pages: 11 - 11
                Abstract: Background and purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy is the standard treatment modality for flow restoration in acute ischemic stroke. In cases of persistent occlusion, the optimal number of retrieval attempts before considering procedure termination is currently undetermined and is a topic for research. Therefore in this study, we studied the impact of the number of stent retrieval maneuvers on the recanalization of vessels.
                Methods: In this retrospective single-center observational study we included 52 patients with large vessel occlusion who underwent stent retriever mechanical thrombectomy. Successful recanalization rate was defined as modified TICI (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction) 2b or 3.
                Result: The overall successful recanalization rate was 44.24%. The recanalization rate per stent retrieval attempt was the highest in 1st attempt (28.84%) and no recanalization was observed with the 3rd, 5th, and 6th attempts (p<0.001). At most 6 retrieval attempts were used.
                Keywords: Research papers ; The Effect of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Monoclonal Antibodies on
                       Quality of Life among Migraine Patients: Pilot Study at the Hospital of
                       Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas Clinics

                • Authors: Monika Remenčiūtė, Greta Varžaitytė, Gintarė Žemgulytė
                  Pages: 12 - 12
                  Abstract: Background: Migraine has a negative impact on patients’ quality of life, with the frequency of attacks being associated with greater disability and poorer health status. Frequent migraine-type headaches require prophylactic treatment, which has so far been of limited effectiveness until advent of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibody.
                  Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted of data from 41 migraine patients who experienced 4 or more monthly migraine days (MMD) longer than three months. At the beginning of the study, treatment with monoclonal antibodies against CGRP (fremanezumab 225 mg or erenumab 70 or 140 g per month) was prescribed according to the indications. The effect of the medications was evaluated after 3-month period.
                  Results: The mean age of patients was 37.17 (±11.78) years. It was found that 17 patients (41.5%) had episodic migraine (EM) and 24 (58.5%) had chronic migraine (CM). Fremanezumab was prescribed to 26 patients (63.4%) and erenumab to 15 patients (36.6%); among the latter, 13 patients used 70 mg/month and 2 patients used 140 mg/month. Three months after treatment, CM changed to EM for 19 patients (79.2%), 27 patients (65.9%) had ≥50% reduction in the number of MMD and total migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) score was reduced by >50% in 31 patients (75.6%). Also, all areas of quality of life of patients were improved after 3 months continued treatment compared to baseline.

                  Keywords: Research papers ; A Systematic Review about Cervical Pregnancy and our Experience

                  • Authors: Konstantinos Nikolettos, Efthymios Oikonomou, Sonia Kotanidou, Nektaria Kritsotaki, Dimitrios Kyriakou, Panagiotis Tsikouras, Emmanouil Kontomanolis, Angeliki Gerede, Nikos Nikolettos
                    Pages: 13 - 13
                    Abstract: Background: Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a relatively rare type of ectopic pregnancy and has no standardized guidelines for management.
                    Methods: This systematic review is based on the collection of case reports, published in PubMed/MEDLINE about the resolution of ectopic cervical pregnancies over the last decade and the presentation of a case managed in our healthcare unit. Studies involving cervical pregnancy in the first trimester with the presence of a viable embryo and β-hCG in the serum below 100.000 mIU/mL were included, while heterotopic pregnancies were excluded.
                    Results: Nineteen articles reporting twenty-three case reports are demonstrated explicitly emphasizing on the management techniques. There is no established approach for the management of this type of ectopic pregnancy.
                    Conclusion:
                    Keywords: Review papers ; Survival after Consecutive Myocardial Infarction and Stroke: A Case Report

                    • Authors: Kristina Ratautė, Greta Burneikaitė, Jolita Badarienė
                      Pages: 14 - 14
                      Abstract: Background: Myocardial infarction and stroke are prevalent and potentially fatal urgent medical conditions. Stroke as a subsequent cardiovascular event after the myocardial infarction significantly decreases the odds of survival for the patient.
                      Clinical case: We report a case of a 48-year-old man admitted to Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos due to an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Patient also experienced a cardioembolic cerebral infarction on the tenth day in the hospital. The patient survived this dual infarction, his general condition improved and he was discharged to the rehabilitation center.
                      Discussion and Conclusions: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in the world. Stroke, as a complication of myocardial infarction, affects 0.76–3.2% of patients and demonstrates an increasing incidence trend. In such a dual infarction, in-hospital mortality can be as high as 18–41%. It is hopeful that targeted research and evidence-based prevention with treatment can improve outcomes of concomitant myocardial infarction and stroke.
                      Keywords: Case studies ; The Assessment of CDX1, IHH, SHH, GATA4, FOXA2, FOXF1 in Congenital
                             Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

                      • Authors: Helēna Freijere Pope, Māra Pilmane, Anna Junga, Aigars Pētersons
                        Pages: 15 - 15
                        Abstract: Congenital abdominal adhesions are a rare condition that can result in a small bowel obstruction at any age, more frequently in pediatric populations. The cause remains unknown, and the importance of aberrant congenital bands is related to the difficulty of diagnosis, and cases of death with late detection have been documented. This research examines the expression of Caudal Type Homeobox 1 (CDX1), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4), Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) and Forkhead Box F1 (FOXF1) gene expression in human abdominal congenital adhesion fibroblast and endothelium cells by chromogenic in situ hybridization, with the aim of elucidating their potential association with the etiology of congenital intra-abdominal adhesion band development. The potential genes’ signals were examined using a semi-quantitative approach. Significant correlations were observed between the expression of CDX1 (p <.001) and SHH (p=0.032) genes in fibroblasts from congenital intra-abdominal adhesions compared to fibroblasts from control peritoneal tissue. Statistically significant very strong correlations were found between the CDX1 and IHH comparing endothelium and fibroblast cells in congenital abdominal adhesion bands. There was no statistically significant difference found in the distribution of IHH, FOXA2, GATA4, and FOXF1 between the fibroblasts and endothelium of the patients compared to the control group. The presence of notable distinctions and diverse associations suggests the potential involvement of numerous morpho-pathogenetic processes in the development of intraabdominal adhesions.
                        Keywords: Research papers ; Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Melanoma – Earlier is Better'

                        • Authors: Vincas Urbonas, Audrius Dulskas, Edita Baltruškevičienė, Daiva Dabkevičienė
                          Pages: 16 - 16
                          Abstract: Neoadjuvant immunotherapy is a promising approach for resectable stage III melanoma. It has shown higher response rates and improved tumor regression compared to adjuvant therapy alone. Neoadjuvant ICIs also demonstrate favorable survival outcomes. Recent trials, such as one with pembrolizumab, reported significantly improved event-free survival. Neoadjuvant ICIs offer advantages like T cell expansion, early-stage efficacy, treatment assessment through surgical specimens, and potential tumor size reduction for better surgical outcomes. However, further research is needed to optimize patient selection and treatment protocols.
                          Keywords: Short Communication ; Evaluation of Blood Culture Results in Patients with Malignancy in Erzurum
                                 Province, Turkey

                          • Authors: Osman Aktas, Ozgür Akbaba, Muhammet Hamidullah Uyanik, Hakan Uslu
                            Pages: 17 - 17
                            Abstract: Background: Bloodstream infections are a serious public health problem that requires follow-up with blood culture; this negatively affects the course of the disease and patient healthcare costs in patients with malignancy. This study aimed to determine the growth frequency of pathogens and their antibiotic resistance profiles in the blood cultures of patients with hematological and oncogenic malignancies.
                            Materials and methods: The results of 7451 blood cultures, obtained from 2926 patients between January 2017 and January 2022, were evaluated retrospectively. Of these cultures, 3969 were obtained from patients with malignancy (diagnostic codes C00-D48 in ICD-10) and 3482 from patients without malignancy. The hospital information management system modules were used to acquire patient data and blood culture results.
                            Results: Various microorganisms grew in 10.1% of blood cultures. Of these organisms, 64.1% were isolated from cases of malignancy. Of the pathogens, 49.2% were gram-negative bacteria, 47.7% were gram-positive bacteria, and 3.1% were fungi. The most frequently isolated bacteria were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (3.2%),
                            Keywords: Research papers ; Mechanical Thrombectomy in Medium Vessels Occlusion (MeVOs): An
                                   Institutional Experience with M2 Divisions of Middle Cerebral Artery

                            • Authors: Bheru Dan Charan, Shailesh B Gaikwad, Savyasachi Jain, Ajay Garg, Leve Joseph Devarajan Sebastian, M V Padma Srivastava, Rohit Bhatia, Awadh Kishore Pandit, Shashank Sarad Kale
                              Pages: 18 - 18
                              Abstract: Background: Mechanical thrombectomy has been established as a safe, standard and effective treatment option for occlusions of the proximal segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), as demonstrated in numerous studies. However, performing thrombectomy in the M2 divisions of MCA presents inherent challenges. In this institutional experience, we aim to delineate the recanalisation rates achieved through mechanical thrombectomy in cases involving the M2 segment of the MCA.
                              Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent thrombectomy due to M2 MCA occlusions in the period from January 2018 to December 2021. Various factors affecting recanalisation rates were assessed.
                              Results: A total of 15 patients with M2 segment occlusions of the middle cerebral artery were included in the study, comprising 11 in the superior division and 4 in the inferior division. The successful recanalisation rate was 72.33%, with notably higher success observed in cases of inferior division occlusion. The primary outcome of our study was the mTICI recanalisation status, categorised as successful recanalisation (mTICI = 2b or mTICI = 3) and unsuccessful recanalisation (mTICI = 1 or mTICI = 2a) and mRS at 6 months. None of the predictors assessed reached statistical significance.

                              Keywords: Research papers ; Accidental Intravenous Administration of Simethicone in a 4-Year-Old
                                     Patient: A Case Report

                              • Authors: Agnė Lozovskytė, Gabija Laubner Sakalauskienė, Robertas Badaras
                                Pages: 19 - 19
                                Abstract: Simethicone is an antiflatulent medication exclusively administered orally, thus its systemic effects remain unknown. We present a case of an inadvertent intravenous administration of simethicone to a 4-year-old patient, precipitating respiratory difficulty, cyanosis, and altered mental status. The patient’s condition improved rapidly with appropriate interventions, leading to discharge in a fully recovered state. To date, only one documented instance of intravenous simethicone administration exists in medical literature.
                                Keywords: Case studies ; Double Parathyroid Adenoma Presenting as One Mass: A Case Report

                                • Authors: Rugilė Petruokaitė, Vitalijus Eismontas, Narimantas Evaldas Samalavičius
                                  Pages: 20 - 20
                                  Abstract: Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrinological condition, which is usually caused by solitary parathyroid adenoma. The aim of this article is to present a case of double adenoma presenting as one and literature review on this topic.
                                  Case presentation: 56 years old female suffering from generalized fatigue, bone pain, unstable body weight and palpitations was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism. Further investigation revealed elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized and total calcium levels. Imaging showed two adenomas merging into one. Parathyroidectomy was performed and final intraoperative PTH (IOPTH) decreased by 71.6%. Parathyroid adenoma measuring 40 mm x 15 mm x 11 mm and weighing 1 g 483 mg was excised. 7 weeks after surgery patient was feeling well but her PTH level was elevated again.
                                  Conclusions: As far as we know, the double parathyroid adenoma presented in this case report is the largest reported in the Northern Europe and the first one that presents as one mass within the region. Double adenoma increases the risk of recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and requires more careful and longer follow up after surgery than solitary adenomas. Final IOPTH must decrease by at least 50% within 10 minutes. This case shows that despite final IOPTH drop by more than 50%, after few weeks normocalcemic elevated parathyroid hormone (NCePTH) phenomenon was noticed. This phenomenon does not indicate surgical failure.
                                  Keywords: Case studies ; Prediction of Poor Outcome Using the Urea to Albumin Ratio in Thoracic
                                         Empyema

                                  • Authors: Evgeni Dimitrov, Daniel Valchev, Georgi Minkov, Emil Enchev, Yovcho Yovtchev
                                    First page: 21
                                    Abstract: Purpose: The prognostic performance of urea-to-albumin ratio (UAR) has been assessed in various pulmonary and nonpulmonary conditions, but never in thoracic empyema. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether this marker has the ability to predict outcome in such patients.
                                    Methods: A single-center retrospective study was conducted in a Clinic of Thoracic Surgery at a University Hospital between January 2021 and October 2023. A total of 84 patients who underwent emergency surgery due to thoracic empyema were involved. Serum levels of urea and albumin at admission were used to calculate UAR. We analyzed area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curves of UAR, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and quick-sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA), and compared their prognostic performance.
                                    Results: The identified in-hospital mortality was 10.7%. The UAR showed the best ability to prognosticate mortality compared to qSOFA (AUROC = 0.828 vs 0.747) and SIRS (AUROC = 0.828 vs 0.676). We established a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 74.2% at optimal cut-off value UAR > 51.1 for prediction of adverse outcome.
                                    Conclusion: In patients with thoracic empyema urea-to-albumin ratio showed significant prognostic performance and a potential for clinical application as a low cost and widely available predictor of death.
                                    Keywords: Research papers ; Forensic Assessment of Alcohol Intoxication in Cases of Fatal Road Traffic
                                           Accidents in Lithuania

                                    • Authors: Beata Kirstukaitė, Akvilė Paškauskienė, Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Sigitas Laima, Diana Vasiljevaitė, Jurgita Stasiūnienė
                                      Pages: 22 - 22
                                      Abstract: Background: There is strong evidence that alcohol consumption is a significant risk factor for fatal road traffic accidents. It is estimated that the number of alcohol-related road accidents remains high in the past few years in Lithuania. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol in blood samples collected from the autopsy results of road traffic accident victims.
                                      Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 136 road traffic accident victims was performed in State Forensic Medicine Service of Lithuania in the period of 2013 to 2023. We analyzed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in relation to sex, age, road user type, place and time of the day at death.
                                      Results: 31% of the victims were under influence of alcohol at the time of death, with mean BAC 1.99 ± 0.92‰. The mean BAC was 2.16 ± 0.8‰ in male and 1.18 ± 1.12‰ in female group. By the type of road users, 23% of the pedestrians (mean BAC 2.45 ± 0.71‰), 32% of car drivers (mean BAC 2.13 ± 0.75‰), 41% of vehicle passengers (mean BAC of 1.73 ± 1.19‰), 37% of the motorcycle riders (mean BAC of 1.28 ± 0.53‰), 37% of the cyclists (mean BAC of 1.15 ± 0.75‰) were found to be intoxicated during the time of accident. Highest mean blood alcohol concentration was found during the night time hours (9 p. m. – 5 a. m.) 2.28 ± 0.91, comparing to in afternoon hours (12 p. m. – 5 p. m.) 1.49 ± 0.99, evening hours (5 p. m. – 9 p. m.) 2.10 ± 0.73 and morning hours (5 a. m. – 12 p. m.) 1.94 ± 1.00. The mean BAC in road traffic accidents during summer was 1.48 ± 0.71‰, spring 2.25 ± 0.76‰, autumn 2.12 ± 1‰, winter 2.42 ± 1‰.
                                      Conclusions: Alcohol consumption by road users is a significant contributing factor in road traffic accidents and their outcomes in Lithuania.
                                      Keywords: Research papers ; Wunderlich Syndrome Managed with Angiomyolipoma Embolization – Renal
                                             Artery Anatomic Variant Augmenting Safe and Nephron-Sparing Intervention

                                      • Authors: Tara Prasad Tripathy, Alamelu Alagappan, Ranjan Kumar Patel, Srikant Kumar Behera, Sandip Kumar Panda, Suprava Naik
                                        Pages: 22 - 26
                                        Abstract: Background: Wunderlich syndrome is an uncommon entity characterized by spontaneous, nontraumatic renal bleeding into the subcapsular and perirenal regions. The most frequent benign tumor, angiomyolipoma, is the most common cause of Wunderlich syndrome.
                                        Case presentation: We report a case of Wunderlich syndrome in angiomyolipoma. Intratumoral pseudoaneurysm arising from feeders of an accessory renal artery supplying the lower pole of the kidney was selectively embolized. Rarely does a sporadic renal angiomyolipoma develop a giant pseudoaneurysm.
                                        Conclusion: Transarterial embolization is imperative to control the bleeding or as a preventative measure to reduce th...
                                        Keywords: Case studies ; Mucocutaneous Manifestations Reported by Inflammatory Bowel Disease
                                               Patients in University Hospital

                                        • Authors: Ieva Renata Jonaitytė , Vita Karpavičiūtė, Gediminas Kiudelis, Juozas Kupčinskas, Laimas Jonaitis
                                          Pages: 23 - 23
                                          Abstract: Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may affect organs outside the intestines, it is called extraintestinal manifestations of IBD. Data on the prevalence of mu-cocutaneous manifestations in IBD patients are very limited, therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skin and mucosal lesions and to determine the relationship with demographic factors, clinical features, and systemic treatment.
                                          Materials and methods: Prospective study included 162 out-patients with IBD who were managed in the tertiary care center. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was diagnosed in 117 patients, Crohn‘s disease (CD) in 45. Patients completed the questionnaire containing demographic and IBD data, questions about mucocutaneous lesions (in past or present state).
                                          Results: Overall mucocutaneous lesions were reported by 48.1% of IBD patients. Skin lesions were reported by 40.7% of patients, oral mucosal lesions were reported by 16.7%, without significant differences between sexes or IBD types. In 47 (29%) of patients, skin lesions appeared together with IBD or during the course of the disease. The most common skin lesions were psoriasis (8.0%), erythema nodosum (5.6%), pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (3.7% each). UC patients mostly reported about psoriasis (9.4%), while CD patients about erythema nodosum (11.1%). There were more frequent skin lesions in patients with more extensive UC type (p = 0.01), while no difference was noticed between different types of CD. The average duration of IBD in patients with skin lesions was similar to those without lesions (9.3±6.7 vs. 9.4±6.7 years).
                                          Conclusions: Mucocutaneous lesions were reported by 48.1% of inflammatory bowel disease patients. The frequency of mucocutaneous lesions does not differ significantly between UC and CD, and a longer duration of illness is not a predictive factor for the appearance of lesions. More extensive UC is related to higher frequency of skin lesions.
                                          Keywords: Research papers ; Knee Extensor Apparatus Reconstruction with Allograft after Patellar
                                                 Resection: A Case Report

                                          • Authors: Fabio Cosseddu, Martina Cordoni, Elena Bechini, Edoardo Ipponi, Francesco Rosario Campo, Antonio D'Arienzo, Lorenzo Andreani
                                            Pages: 24 - 24
                                            Abstract: Background: The extensor apparatus of the knee can be thought of a chain that transmits the muscular strength developed by the quadriceps muscles to the proximal tibia. This complex is essential to allow the extension of the tibia over the femur, being essential to provide knee mobility and stability. In case of lesions which irreparably damage the patella, such as a locally aggressive bone tumor, it is necessary to restore both the apparatus’ anatomical continuity and its strength.
                                            Case report: A 39-years-old Caucasian man with a history of lung carcinoma developed atraumatic swelling and soreness in his left knee. Imaging evidence reported a degeneration of the left patella. We performed an en bloc resection of the patella and the nearby soft tissues of the extensor apparatus. The resulting gap was fulfilled with a massive allograft consisting of a quadriceps tendon, a patella and a patellar ligament. No complication or local recurrences were observed. At the patient’s latest follow-up, he did not have any extension lag and quadriceps strength was completely restored.
                                            Conclusion: Massive allografts can represent a reliable alternative for the reconstruction of the patella and the knee extensor apparatus in orthopedic oncology.
                                            Keywords: Case studies ; Successful Endovascular Management of Recurrent Hemoptysis due to Multiple
                                                   Rasmussen Aneurysms in a Case of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Rare Case
                                                   Scenario

                                            • Authors: Shritik Devkota, Harish Bhujade, Abhiman Baloji, Nidhi Prabhakar, Atul Saroch, Ujjwal Gorsi
                                              Pages: 25 - 25
                                              Abstract: Background: Hemoptysis is defined as coughing out of blood. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common cause of hemoptysis in tuberculosis-endemic countries like India. Rasmussen aneurysm is a pseudoaneurysm arising from the pulmonary artery adjacent to or within a tuberculous cavity. Chest radiographs, chest computed tomography angiography (CTA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are the imaging tools for evaluating a case of hemoptysis.
                                              Case: A 32-year-old man with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis presented with complaints of recurrent hemoptysis. On imaging evaluation, multiple pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms were seen in the left lung. The patient was shifted to the DSA lab and the pseudoaneurysms were subsequently treated by endovascular coil embolization. Hemoptysis resolved following the procedure and the patient was again started on anti-tubercular therapy.
                                              Conclusion: Endovascular coiling is minimally invasive, safe, and effective management of multiple Rasmussen aneurysms for preventing possible torrential blood loss and unfortunate death.
                                              Keywords: Case studies ; Lithium Induced Amenorrhea: A First Case Report

                                              • Authors: Balakumar KE, Vidhya Egambarame, Vandana Tayal
                                                Pages: 33 - 36
                                                Abstract: A 19-year-old female, known case of bipolar disorder had history of amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) for three years. While other causes of amenorrhea such as CNS, pregnancy, other medications, and thyroid issues were ruled out, she was found to have hyper-prolactinemia. Although antipsychotic medications are known to cause amenorrhea due to dopamine receptor blockade, which may result in hyperprolactinemia, the patient’s symptoms began before she started these medications. Only drug that she was on for long period is lithium. Current literature shows mixed evidence about lithium’s impact on prolactin levels, which can affect menstruation. This case may represent the first report of lithium causing amenorrhea through elevated prolactin levels. Clinicians should be aware of this potential side effect and monitor patients accordingly. Further studies are needed to confirm and understand this potential link.
                                                Keywords: Case studies ; Bilateral Renal Hilar Nutcracker Phenomenon in a Male Cadaver

                                                • Authors: Dibakar Borthakur, Rajesh Kumar, Vidhu Dhawan, Rima Dada
                                                  Pages: 37 - 41
                                                  Abstract: Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) typically refers to the entrapment of the left renal vein (LRV) between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. Similar to the classic NCP, the renal vein can also get entrapped between the segmental branches of the renal artery at the renal hilum, which has been referred to as ‘renal hilar nutcracker phenomenon (RHNP).’ During routine dissection of a male cadaver of 67 years, the renal veins of both sides at the renal hilum were seen between the segmental branches of renal arteries, which we identified as the ‘renal hilar nutcracker phenomenon.’ The disposition of the rest of the perihilar structures was normal. ‘Renal hilar nutcracker phenomenon’ can have similar clinical presentation like that of the nutcracker phenomenon. Hence, knowledge of such anatomical variation at the renal hilum is desirable.
                                                  Keywords: Case studies ;
                                                   
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Publisher: Vilnius University   (Total: 38 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Accounting Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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