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Ciencia y Agricultura
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ISSN (Print) 0122-8420 - ISSN (Online) 2539-0899
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  • Morpho-agronomic variability in rice genotypes in the Central Pacific,
           Costa Rica

    • Authors: Andres Zuniga Orozco, Ayerin Carrodeguas González
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is included in the daily diet of 75% of the world population. In Costa Rica, the rice sector is a fundamental axis of attention, particularly because it is the main product within the basic food basket. Studying the morpho-agronomic variability of this cereal is a key factor for planning breeding strategies. The objective of the present investigation was to determine which morpho-agronomic traits give the greater contribution to genetics in 54 rice lines. The evaluated lines come from a collection of the germplasm bank of CIAT in Colombia, these were sent to Costa Rica through the National Rice Corporation (CONARROZ). Seven quantitative and five qualitative morphological variables were measured. For the quantitative ones, the coefficient of variation was calculated and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed, as well as a Cluster Analysis. With the qualitative ones, a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was performed. The most heterogeneous quantitative variables according to the values ​​of the coefficient of variation were: tons per hectare, fertile stems and full grains per panicle. The PCA revealed that all the variables, except plant height, contributed to the total variance, and the MCA suggests that the qualitative variables measured in this research are discriminatory to differentiate genotypes. No correlations were reached between the quantitative variables studied. In the cluster analysis, four groups were obtained, one of which comprised the majority of the genotypes. The genotypes of this last group are characterized by having high values ​​for the variable full grains per panicle and medium and high values ​​for the rest of the variables. The results obtained are useful to choose the appropriate variables for selection. The cluster analysis allowed to establish the phylogenetic relationship between the lines for the planning of future crosses.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.19053/01228420.v19.n1.2022.12567
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Gulupa fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims), its export potential, matrix and
           ripening signature: a review

    • Authors: RICARDO JOAQUÍN DE ARMAS COSTA, Pedro Fernando Martín Gómez, Jorge Eliecer Rangel Díaz
      Abstract: A bibliographic review of the Gulupa fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) was carried out on the following three topics. First on the scientific studies related to the export of these fruits from the municipalities or producing areas of the country to international markets; these studies show the potential of this agricultural business. Second on the scientific studies related to the processes and changes that occur in these fruits during the ripening stage such as, for example, the change in the coloration of the exterior of its epidermis and in the ripening variables (physical, chemical, volatile components, nutritional contents and respiratory intensities among others); studies that allow preserving and prolonging its shelf life during exports. Third, scientific studies related to the ripening matrix, the ripening signature of these fruits and their relationship with exports; concepts that allow the development of assistance tools for fruit producers, such as, for example, applications to determine their ripening status during harvest. It is hoped that the information gathered, organized and analyzed in this work will be of interest and value to the community interested in the agribusiness of gulupa exports as well as in the research of agroecosystems producing these fruits.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.19053/01228420.v19.n1.2022.13822
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Carbon capture in coffee production systems in the department of

    • Authors: Juan Pablo Manchabajoy Cañar , Danita Andrade Díaz, Álvaro José Castillo Marín
      Abstract: One of the biggest environmental problems that has affected the planet is global warming, due to high concentrations of carbon (CO2), this has led to crops such as coffee being affected by climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHG), especially due to the increase in the incidence of pests and diseases. However, carbon capture contributes to the mitigation of GHG emissions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbon stored in the above-ground and underground biomass in four six-year-old castle coffee production systems. In a trial established under Random Complete Blocks Design (DBCA) with the treatments Coffee to free exposure (T1), Coffee-Limón (T2), Coffee-Guamo (T3) and Coffee-Carbonero (T4), in three altitudes: less than 1550 meters above sea level, between 1550 and 2000 meters above sea level and above 2000 meters above sea level. Data corresponding to stem diameters were taken in coffee seedlings and shade trees with which allometric equations were applied to obtain the carbon variables in the aerial and root biomass and the carbon variables in litter and soil obtained from their dry material. Highly significant differences were obtained in the 4 evaluated treatments, being T4 the one with the highest concentration of carbon in the soil biomass with 100.14 t ha-1 and in the aerial biomass with 190.42 t ha-1.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.19053/01228420.v19.n1.2022.13358
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effects of corm size and benzylaminopurine on plantain proliferation in
           two propagation environments

    • Authors: Galo Cedeño García, Jorge Espinoza González, Antonio Bustamante González
      Abstract: Macropropagation of plantain in a thermal chamber is an economic technology, effective as a method of phytosanitary cleaning, and efficient to enhance the production of seedlings. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of corm size (CZ) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the proliferation of plantain seedlings cv. Barraganete in two propagation environments (PE). The treatments consisted of two levels of BAP (with and without BAP), three CZ (2±0.5, 4±0.5 and 6±0.5 kg) and two PE (thermal chamber and raised bed). The variables evaluated were budding time (days), multiplication rate (MR) per unit (seedlings per corm) and per area (seedlings per m2). The budding time was significantly influenced (p < 0.05) by the PE, where the thermal chamber advanced the emergence of shoots by 12 days, with respect to the raised bed. The MR of seedlings per corm and m2 were significantly influenced (p < 0.05) by BAP x PE and CZ x PE interactions, where the highest production of seedlings per corm occurred within the thermal chamber with BAP and corms of 6±0.5 kg, while the production of seedlings per m2 was higher with 2±0.5 kg corms under the same thermal chamber conditions and with BAP. The main effects results reported that with BAP there was a 30 and 31% increase in MR per corm and per m2, respectively, in relation to the treatment without BAP. Within the thermal chamber, the MR per corm and per m2 increased by 44% with respect to the raised bed. Regarding the effect of CZ, larger corms reached a higher individual MR, while those of smaller size reached a higher MR per area. It is recommended to use a thermal chamber and BAP to massify the production of plantain seedlings via macropropagation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.19053/01228420.v19.n1.2022.13905
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Impatiens Walleriana: Prospects For Genetic Improvement

    • Authors: Andrés Zúniga Orozco, Ayerin Carrodeaguas González, María Victoria Ortíz Cruz
      Abstract: Impatiens walleriana es una planta de la familia Balsaminaceae con alto valor ornamental. Presenta flores muy atractivas, las cuales se pueden encontrar en diferentes formas y colores, debido a ello, forma parte de muchos jardines en un gran número de países alrededor del mundo. El mejoramiento genético en esta especie usualmente se ha llevado a cabo mediante métodos convencionales, sin embargo, el avance de la tecnología ha hecho posible la utilización de un gran número de herramientas biotecnológicas y moleculares. El objetivo de esta revisión es consolidar las bases para un programa de mejora genética en I. walleriana. En esta revisión se abarcan diferentes aspectos que son básicos para incurrir en la mejora genética de esta especie; dichos factores son la morfología floral, polinización, cariotipado y estudios de variabilidad genética. Además, se expone lo que se conoce hasta la fecha sobre estudios enfocados en genes implicados en los procesos de estrés ante la sequía, tolerancia a Plasmopara obducens y longevidad floral.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.19053/01228420.v19.n1.2022.13518
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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