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J. of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
J. of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A : Chemistry     Open Access  
Turkish J. of Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A : Chemistry
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2149-0120
Published by DePauw University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • A Comprehensive Review on Analytical Applications of Hydrazone Derivatives

    • Authors: Mussarat JABEEN
      Abstract: This review covers a summary of analytical applications of hydrazone derivatives in a systematic manner (1961-2021), which will help researchers in the design and development of hydrazone derivatives as potential candidates in medicinal, pharmaceutical, catalytic, and analytical chemistry, especially in the separation, identification, and detection of several metal ions, anions, organic molecules, and water in various real and synthetic samples. In addition to these, hydrazone derivatives may be used as light emitting diodes, for synthesis of DSSC, nanoparticles and polymers, as corrosion inhibitors, as dyes, etc. This review does not include all papers in this field, but it does synthesize all significant works on the subject.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • PROXIMATE, PHYTOCHEMICALS, MINERALS, AND ANTINUTRITIONAL CONTENTS OF FICUS
           THONNINGII SEED

    • Authors: Hamza MUHAMMAD; Omolara OLUWANİYİ
      Abstract: The proximate, phytochemicals, minerals, and anti-nutritional content of Ficus thonningii seed obtained from Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria were investigated. The proximate analysis revealed that the seed is abundant in ash (8.36 ± 0.77 %), protein (27.52 ± 0.17 %) and carbohydrate (40.02%) but contains low moisture (8.76 ± 0.06 %) and fibre (2.81 ± 0.09 %). The minerals analysis showed very high quantities of Ca (2067.50mg/100g), P (1985.40mg/100g), Mg (1184.10mg/100g), K (918.30mg/100g) S (192.50mg/100g), Al (236.60mg/100g), Fe (434.10mg/100g), Mn (39.30mg/100g), Cu (57.40mg/100g), and Zn (63.60mg/100g), Co (1.2mg/100g), Mo (1.10mg/100g) and Sn (3.40mg/100g). Phytochemicals analysis revealed that it contains more flavonoids (6.13 ± 0.02 g/100g) and phenolics (8.77 ± 0.01g/100g) than Saponins (1.73 ± 0.02 g/100g), tannins (4.37 ± 0.06 g/100g) and alkaloids (0.62 ± 0.01 g/100g). The study has shown that Ficus thonningii seed is highly nutritive with very high mineral content and low quantities of anti-nutrients which make it a good source of food for humans and animals. It also contains biologically active phytochemicals which could have medicinal uses.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Application of Pistacia atlantica Leaves Powder as Natural Material To
           Remove Nitrate and Phosphate Ions From Domestic Wastewater by
           Characterization, Bio-removal, and Phytotoxicity Studies

    • Authors: Obaida ALHAJALİ; Adnan ALİ - NİZAM, Rasha ALMOSTAFA
      Abstract: Application of Pistacia atlantica Leaves Powder as Natural Material To Remove Nitrate and Phosphate Ions From Domestic Wastewater by Characterization, Bio-removal, and Phytotoxicity StudiesObaida Alhajali1* , Adnan Ali-Nizam1 , Rasha Almostafa2 1Damascus University, Department of Plant Biology, Damascus, Syria.2International University for Science and Technology, Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Syria. Abstract: Description of Pistacia leaves powder using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), specific surface area according to nitrogen adsorption (SBET) and methylene Blue (MB), and point of zero charge determination (pHpzc). A series of batch adsorption tests were conducted to study effect of various factors (plant powders dose, contact time, temperature, pH) on the percentage of nitrate and phosphate removal from domestic wastewater. The adsorption kinetics, regeneration ability test of plant powder, and phytotoxicity tests for treated water and spent powder on germination were studied. Results of SBET analysis showed that Pistacia leaves powders have a low surface area and microscopic pores, SEM images revealed rough surfaces with uneven cavities, EDX analysis showed that there are high percentages of carbon and oxygen, good percentages for nitrogen, and few percentages of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, sulfur and chlorine, and FTIR analysis showed that there are more than five distinct absorption peaks. The maximum value of nitrate and phosphate removal was 76.47% and 52.20%, respectively, at powder dose of 2 g/L, temperature 25 °C, and pH 5, and the percentage of nitrate and phosphate removal increased with increasing contact time until equilibrium was reached after 120 min for nitrate and 180 min for phosphate, and It was found that adsorption of ions follows kinetics of reaction from pseudo-second-order model, and powders can be Regeneration and used for two successive cycles with a slight decrease in removal efficiency. Germination tests on Lepidium sativum indicate no phytotoxicity. That is, Pistacia leaves powder is one of the natural products that are effective in removing nitrate and phosphate from domestic wastewater.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Evaluation of Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitory
           Activities and Cytotoxic Activities of Anthraquinone Derivatives

    • Authors: Funda OZKOK; Mehmet BOĞA, Muhammed TUNEG, Vildan ENİSOĞLU ATALAY, Nihal ONUL, Kamala ASGAROVA, Rabia TIĞLI, Sıla ARSLAN, Dilan AKAGÜNDÜZ, Rumeysa CEBECİOĞLU, Tunç ÇATAL
      Abstract: In this study, the enzyme activity of anthraquinone compounds which were synthesized beforehand by our research group was investigated. Molecular docking studies were performed for compounds 1-(4-aminophenylthio)anthracene-9,10-dione (3) and 1-(4-chlorophenylthio)anthracene-9,10-dione (5). Compound 3 was synthesized from the reaction of 1-chloroanthraquinone (1) and 4-aminothiophenol (2). Compound 5 was synthesized (1) from the reaction of 1-chloroanthraquinone (1) and 4-chlorothiophenol (4). Anthraquinone analogs (3, 5) were synthesized with a new reaction method made by our research group (2). Inhibitory effects of compounds 3 and 5 were investigated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes which are related to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Compounds 3 and 5 exhibited strong anti-acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibition activities than galanthamine used as standard compound (92.11±1.08 and 80.95±1.77 %, respectively). The EHOMO-ELUMO values, molecular descriptors, and the calculated UV-Vis spectra of anthraquinone derivatives were computed by B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) levels in the CHCl3 phase. Based on the fluorescence property of the anthraquinone skeleton, the fluorescence activity of the bioactive anthraquinone analogue (5) was investigated. MTT test was performed to determine the cytotoxic effects of thioanthraquinone molecules 3 and 5. In MTT analyses, 3 compounds showed the highest effect against Ishikawa cells at a dose of 10 µg/mL, while compound 5 showed the highest effect at a dose of 50 µg/mL. The cell viability for compound 3 was 84.18% for 10 µg/mL and the cell viability for compound 5 was 75.02% for 50 µg/mL.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Characterization of Paper-Like Material Prepared from Chitosan/Graphene
           Oxide Composite

    • Authors: Thi Sinh VO; Tran Thi Bich Chau VO
      Abstract: Chitosan (CTS) is considered to be a common biomacromolecule/poly-cationic compound containing the potential functional groups that can be utilized as a feedstock for novel materials. In this study, CTS/graphene oxide (CTS/GO, CG) mixtures were prepared at different conditions to confirm a suitable hydrogel formation, then applied to produce paper-like materials with various thickness via a simple casting method. As a result, the morphological structure of finally yielded the paper-like materials (CG2 papers with the various number of casting times) obtained the layer-by-layer structures instead of the tightly-sticky paper-like structure (GO paper). Basing on the possible interactions between the CTS molecules and GO nanosheets occurred in the CG mixtures could be also determined by FTIR and Raman analysis; concomitantly, its thermal property reaches higher than that of the pure GO. Notably, the strong interactions and compatibility of the CTS molecules and GO nanosheets revealed a good dispersion and interfacial adhesion leading to significantly enhancing the mechanical properties of the CG2 paper-like materials with increasing number of casting times or comparing to GO paper. Therefore, the CG2 paper-like materials with the various number of casting times fabricated in the present study can expose new approaches for the design and application of future foil/paper-like materials, as well as the desired thickness of these foil/paper-like materials can be controlled easily.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Isotherm and thermodynamic studies on the removal of gelatin-stabilized
           silver nanoparticles from water by activated carbon

    • Authors: Ayşenur CERYAN; Nurettin ELTUĞRAL
      Abstract: Gelatin-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a particle size of 6.9 (±3.2) nm were synthesized and employed in nanoparticle adsorption onto activated carbon (AC). Subsequently, the synthesized AgNPs and the adsorbed nanoparticles onto the AC (AgNP@AC) were characterized by various techniques including UV–Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and X–ray diffraction (XRD). AgNPs possessed colloidal stability at a wide pH interval ranging between 4 and 13. Adsorption was studied batch-wise as a function of initial nanoparticle concentration (4–14 mg L-1), temperature (298–323 K), pH (4–13) and adsorbent dosage (0.01–0.05 g). Adsorption isotherms were investigated by fitting the data to different isotherm models including Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R). Error analysis indicated that the adsorption is well described by the Langmuir model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 10.36 mg g-1 for 0.05 g AC at pH 7 and 323 K. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (66.77 kJ mol-1), entropy (232.92 J mol-1 K-1), and Gibbs free energy (–8.31 kJ mol-1) indicated that the process is endothermic, favorable and spontaneous through physical interactions.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • QSAR Studies on Nitrobenzene Derivatives using Hyperpolarizability and
           Conductor like Screening model as Molecular Descriptors

    • Authors: Ahmad NAZİB ALİAS; Zubainun MOHAMED ZABİDİ
      Abstract: Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were useful in understanding how chemical structure relates to the toxicology of chemicals. In the present study, we report quantum molecular descriptors using conductor like screening model (COs) area, the linear polarizability, first and second order hyperpolarizability for modelling the toxicology of the nitro substituent on the benzene ring. All the molecular descriptors were performed using semi-empirical PM6 approaches. The QSAR model was developed using stepwise multiple linear regression. We found that the stable QSAR modelling of toxicology benzene derivatives used second order hyper-polarizability and COs area, which satisfied the statistical measures. The second order hyperpolarizability shows the best QSAR model. We also discovered that the nitrobenzene derivative’s substitutional functional group has a significant effect on the quantum molecular descriptors, which reflect the QSAR model.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • New Bioactive Aromatic Heterocyclic Macromolecules with Monosaccharide
           Core

    • Authors: Israa İ MAHMOOD; Salih SALMAN, Luma ABD
      Abstract: 1,1,2-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indole is an important heterocyclic compound, its available in reasonable price and can easily modified to make a good intermediate for other derivatives. That is quite enough reasons to use as starting material for a new series of compounds with other biomolecules such as monosaccharides after simple modification. The target molecules show biological activity. So, the current work is aiming to improve the activity and the properties of the benzo indole by attaching with a naturally occurring, and biodegradable compounds represented by 2-deoxy-2-amino -d-glucose and 6-deoxy-6-amino-d-glucose to synthesis both mono and di-saccharides derivatives of benzo indole. Two steps synthesis were used for mono-saccharide derivatives and three steps for di-saccharide derivatives, the first is the functionalization of 1,1,2-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indole [1] via the reaction with POCl3 to produce 2-(1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene) malonaldehyde [2] with two aldehydes reaction centers, while in the second step the latter was coupled with sugar via amino groups to get the two monosaccharide derivatives [3,5], while the disaccharides molecules [4,6] taken one more step with harder conditions to overcome the steric hindrance at the other reaction center. The purity and characterization of the target molecules was confirmed using spectroscopy methods including 1H NMR and 13 NMR. The synthesized compound shows a good biological activity as antibacterial antifungal.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Furyl-Carboxamide Derivatives as
           Potential Anticancer Agents

    • Authors: Aymen AL-SAMMARRA'E; Manal AL-NAJDAWİ, Maysaa SALEH, Yusuf AL-HİARİ, Rabab AL-BASHİTİ
      Abstract: Topoisomerase II (Top-II) is an essential therapeutic target in cancer treatment owing to its overexpression in a wide variety of cancerous cells, including colorectal and breast cancer. Significant efforts have been made to discover and develop competitive inhibitors of the Top-II enzyme as potential anticancer agents. Herein, molecular modeling was employed to identify a new series of furyl-2-carboxamide derivatives as potential anticancer agents. Compounds 3, 5, and 7 were synthesized and characterized with the aid of several spectroscopic techniques, such as FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. The anticancer activity properties of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were evaluated in vitro using an MTT assay in a human colorectal HCT-116 cell line with different concentration dilutions. The results indicate that the anthraquinone compound 3 is 1.3-1.6 times more potent against human colon cancer HCT-116 cells than the pyridine and benzophenone compounds 7 and 5, respectively, which reveals the importance of the anthraquinone moiety in exerting the inhibitory activity of the compound. Our findings recommend that further optimization of this series would benefit colon cancer treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Research of Zeolite and Zeolite Water from Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria

    • Authors: Teodora POPOVA; Ignat IGNATOV, Nedyalka VALCHEVA, Alexander I. IGNATOV
      Abstract: The physicochemical composition and antibacterial effect of aqueous zeolite infusion (spring zeolite water Sevtopolis with zeolite from deposit Beli plast, Bulgaria) obtained for 12 and 36 hours was tested. Ordinance No. 9/2001, Official State Gazette, issue 30, and Decree No.178/23.07.2004 regarding the quality of water intended for drinking and household purposes were applied to study the physicochemical composition. Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC and TSA-MRSA and Escherichia coli ATCC were used in the studies. Both tested zeolite waters reduced the amount of viable E. coli and S. aureus cells even when they were in high concentrations (106 cells/ml). The effect of the 36-hour infusion was better, under the influence of which after 60 minutes the number of live bacteria of both tested species decreases by almost half compared to the initial amounts. Slightly higher sensitivity to two zeolite waters was shown by E. coli, whose cells were reduced to about 35% after two hours of exposure zeolite water tested. However, about 20% of the cells of the tested bacteria survived even after 96 hours of exposure to these waters. Only in E. coli no growth was found after 96 hours of exposure to 12 hours zeolite water. These results show the effectiveness of zeolite for water purification from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as prospects for the use of zeolite water as a prophylactic and auxiliary treatment for bacterial infections.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Chemical Composition, Pharmacological Activities and Biofuel Production of
           Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth): A Review

    • Authors: Hadush GEBREHİWOT; Prof. Aman DEKEBO, Milkyas ENDALE ANNİSA
      Abstract: Eichhornia crassipes is one of the free floating macrophytes with substantial damaging effects on aquatic environment and economic development. It is listed as one of the most productive plants on earth and among the top ten world’s worst aquatic plants. Several metabolites such as vitamins, terpenoids, phenolic acids, lignins, stilbens, alkaloids and sterols have been reported from the plant. This review endeavors to provide a comprehensive and up to date compilation of documented chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and renewable energy profile of water hyacinth. The plant demonstrated wide spectrum of uses including biofuel production, medicinal function, vermicomposting, compost production and bioremediation. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, antiaging, DPPH radical scavenging, hepatoprotective and antibacterial functions are well documented medicinal uses of the plant of which tremendous antioxidant and antibacterial activities were noticed. On the other hand, clogging of waterways, breeding grounds for pests and disease, reduction of water quality, loss of biodiversity and economic recession in invaded areas are negative aspects associated with it. The present review therefore discusses the chemical makeups, pharmacological and renewable energy aspects of the weed.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A novel potentiometric sensor for the determination of Pb(II) ions based
           on a carbothioamide derivative in PVC matrix

    • Authors: Oğuz ÖZBEK
      Abstract: In this research, a carbothioamide derivative molecule was synthesized to be used as an electroactive material, and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane lead(II)–selective potentiometric sensors with different components were prepared. Among various compositions, the best potentiometric performance was exhibited by the membrane having the electroactive material, bis(2–ethylhexyl)sebacate (BEHS), PVC, and potassium tetrakis(p–chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB) in the ratio of 4.0:63.0:32.0:1.0 (w/w). The proposed sensor exhibited a Nernstian response in the concentration range of 1.0×10-5–1.0×10-1 mol L-1 with a slope of 29.5±1.6 mV/decade. The detection limit of the sensor was 3.96×10-6 mol L-1. The potentiometric response of the lead(II)–selective sensor was independent of pH of test solution in the pH range of 5.0–9.0. The developed sensor had very good repeatability, stability, and selectivity, as well as a response time of 5s. These novel lead(II)–selective sensors, produced cost–efficiently, have been successfully used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Pb(II) against EDTA and for the determination of Pb(II) ions in different water samples.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil using Catalysts Derived from
           Waste Materials

    • Authors: Welela MEKA; Tsegaye Girma ASERE
      Abstract: Domestic resources such as vegetable oil, animal fats, tallows, and waste frying oil are common raw materials for making biodiesel. In contrast to ordinary diesel, biodiesel helps to reduce CO2 emissions. This study aimed to produce biodiesel using waste frying oil in the presence of suitable solid waste-derived heterogeneous catalysts. Firstly, CaO/K2O catalyst was synthesised using eggshells and banana peels. Then, the pre-prepared catalyst (CaO/K2O) modified with ZnO was utilized for biodiesel production. The prepared catalyst and biodiesel were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. The AOAC and ASTM standard methods were employed to analyze the physicochemical properties of oils and biodiesel. The catalytic efficiency of CaO/K2O and CaO/K2O-ZnO tested for the transesterification of purified oil to biodiesel at the catalyst weight (1-7 %wt), temperature (60-80°C), and methanol to oil ratios ranging from 3:1 to 12:1. The highest biodiesel yield (92%) obtained when 5 %wt CaO/K2O catalyst used. However, a 95% yield resulted when using a 3 %wt CaO/K2O-ZnO catalyst load in 2 h with a methanol to oil (v/v) ratio of 9:1 at 65°C. The study revealed that waste frying oil is a good source of biodiesel which could replace nonrenewable energy in the future. The catalysts made from solid waste could also replace an expensive chemical catalyst.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Salicylaldehydediol Grafted onto Chitosan: Characterization and Their Film
           Properties

    • Authors: Murat EVCİL; Mehmet KARAKAPLAN
      Abstract: The concentrations of linker group effect different physicochemical features of the biopolymer, including thermal stability, shape, swelling, and water solubility. Herein, three novel chitosan (CH) based films (CHSD1-3) have been prepared by a facile method for their film characteristics. Thus, amphiphilic salicylaldehydediol (SD) was synthesized from hydrophilic glycidol and salicylaldehyde in high yield and regioselectivity. CHSD1-3 films were prepared by the imine condensation reaction of polymeric chitosan backbone and various ratios of SD linker. The reaction takes place with high conversation and amazingly mechanically resistant thickness films without using any plasticizer that exhibits low water solubility and low swelling ratios at pH > 3, which can be suggested as thin layer protecting systems for medical devices. Chitosan-salicylaldehydediol biopolymer films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The FT-IR, DSC, and XRD results show a clear linkage of the SD group to the chitosan backbone, high thermal stability of the films, and a change in the original nature of chitosan, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations have also supported the successful grafting of the SD group onto the chitosan.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Poly(MMA-co-MI) nanocomposite with modified nano ZRP with KH570 linker:
           Preparation, characterization, and transparency properties

    • Authors: Fariborz ATABAKİ; Gholam Ali KOOHMAREH, Samira SARİKHANİ
      Abstract: In this study, zirconium phosphate was synthesized and modified with KH570 linker. It was then used to prepare several nanocomposites with different percent with poly (methyl methacrylate-co-N-2-methyl-4-nitro-phenylmaleimide) (Poly (MMA-co-MI)). The synthesized compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The particles size and structure determining showed nanoparticle are sheet and about 9-20 nm. Thermal stability of these compounds were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed adding nanoparticles to copolymer increased starting weight lost about 20 oC and finishing weight lost about 90 oC. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), showed that adding nanoparticles decreased the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the copolymer. The transparency of these nanocomposites were examined by ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. The results showed the best transparency refer to nanocomposites 0.5 to 1% of nanoparticles.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Comparison of Polyacrylonitrile-and Polypyrrole-based Electrochemical
           Sensors for Detection of Propamocarb in Food Samples

    • Authors: Selcan KARAKUŞ; Cihat TASALTIN, İlke GÜROL, Barbaros AKKURT, Gülsen BAYTEMİR, Nevin TAŞALTIN
      Abstract: Food safety is a crucial issue; all countries have struggled against pesticides for years. In this study, Polypyrrole (PPy)- and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors were investigated to detect the pesticide propamocarb (PM) in food samples. Under the experimental conditions, the proposed strategy exhibited a high selectivity of the disposable PPy-based and PAN-based sensors for the determination of propamocarb pesticide in the concentration of 1 μM with a rapid detection within 1 min at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. We demonstrated the detection of PM residues on cucumber and tomato samples with good electrochemical performances towards the real-time usability on real food samples. PAN-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor has good sensitivity, higher selectivity, and stability than PPy-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor. The prepared PAN-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor is a potential candidate to be used in devices which perform food safety in agricultural products.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Iron(III)-S-methylthiosemicarbazone Complex: Synthesis, Spectral
           Characterization, and Antioxidant Potency Measured by CUPRAC and DPPH
           Methods

    • Authors: Büşra KAYA
      Abstract: An iron(III) complex, [Fe(L1)Cl].H2O, was synthesized by template condensation reaction of 1,1,1-Trifluoroacetylacetone-S-methylthiosemicarbazone hydrogen iodide (L) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in the presence of iron(III) ions. The complex was characterized by IR, ESI MS and X-ray diffraction techniques. Free radical scavenging (FRS) ability and antioxidant capacity of the S-methylthiosemicarbazone and the iron(III) complex were evaluated through DPPH and CUPRAC methods, respectively. The complex exerted better than the S-methylthiosemicarbazone in both TEAC and FRS% values. In addition, iron(III) complex was found to be 3.1 times more antioxidant than the reference ascorbic acid according to the CUPRAC method.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Photodynamic Therapy : An Overview and Insights into a Prospective
           Mainstream Anticancer Therapy

    • Authors: Vidujith VİTHANAGE, Jayasinghe C.D; Costa M.D.P. DE, Senthilnithy RAJENDRAM
      Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedure has minimum invasiveness in contrast to conventional anticancer surgical procedures. Although clinically approved a few decades ago, it is not commonly used due to its poor efficacy, mainly due to poor light penetration into deeper tissues. PDT uses a photosensitizer (PS), which is photoactivated on illumination by light of appropriate wavelength and oxygen in the tissue, leading to a series of photochemical reactions producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering various mechanisms resulting in lethal effects on tumor cells. This review looks into the fundamental aspects of PDT, such as photochemistry, photobiological effects, and the current clinical applications in the light of improving PDT to become a mainstream therapeutic procedure against a broad spectrum of cancers and malignant lesions. The side effects of PDT, both early and late-onset, are elaborated on in detail to highlight the available options to minimize side effects without compromising therapeutic efficacy. This paper summarizes the benefits, drawbacks, and limitations of photodynamic therapy along with the recent attempts to achieve improved therapeutic efficacy via monitoring various cellular and molecular processes through fluorescent imagery aided by suitable biomarkers, prospective nanotechnology-based targeted delivery methods, the use of scintillating nanoparticles to deliver light to remote locations and also combining PDT with conventional anticancer therapies have opened up new dimensions for PDT in treating cancers. This review inquires and critically analyses prospective avenues in which a breakthrough would finally enable PDT to be integrated into mainstream anticancer therapy.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Voltammetric determination of antipsychotic drug flupentixol HCl in human
           serum at a boron-doped diamond electrode

    • Authors: Burçin BOZAL PALABIYIK
      Abstract: This study aims to offer a voltammetric method for determining the antipsychotic drug flupentixol from serum samples. According to pH and scan rate studies, the oxidation behavior of flupentixol at boron-doped diamond electrode was found as irreversible and diffusion-controlled. In order to determine flupentixol from bulk form and serum samples, differential pulse voltammetry was preferred as the working method because of the repeatability. Linear responses were obtained in the range of 6.0×10-7 – 8.0×10-6 M and 8.0×10-7 – 1.0×10-5 M for bulk form and serum samples in pH 2.0 Britton-Robinson buffer solution, with detection limit values of 1.09×10-7 M and 1.08×10-7 M, respectively. Required validation parameters were also studied and according to recovery from serum samples (99.91 %) and precision studies, it can be said that developed method was accurate and precise.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Novel lanthanide metallophthalocyanines bearing iodine group and their
           singlet oxygen generation ability

    • Authors: Baybars KÖKSOY
      Abstract: In this study, five novel mono rare earth metallo phthalocyanine derivatives (1a-e) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of 4-iodophthalonitrile and corresponding metal salts. These novel compounds were characterized by IR, elemental analyses, UV–vis, and MALDI-TOF spectral data. Moreover, the ability of singlet oxygen generation and aggregation behaviour of these phthaloyanines were investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Gadolinium metallo phthalocyanine has the best singlet oxygen quantum yield and it can be a potential candidate for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Impedimetric CRISPR-dCas9 Based Biosensor System for Sickle Cell Anemia
           Mutation

    • Authors: Hilmiye Deniz ERTUĞRUL UYGUN
      Abstract: Sickle cell anemia is one of the single point mutation diseases with symptoms such as stroke, lethargy, chronic anemia, and increased mortality, and it causes red blood cells to become sickle-shaped. In the study, a biosensor system was developed to detect this mutation quickly and cost-effectively. This biosensor system was prepared by forming a SAM layer with 4-Aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on the gold electrode, and coating it with amino graphene. It was then modified with SG-RNA with the sequence of the target mutation after CRISPR-dCas9 immobilization. The nanomaterial used in the preparation of the biosensor increased the sensitivity of the method by increasing the surface area. The biosensor prepared in this way was optimized and made to perform DNA analysis. As a measurement method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 50 mM pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution, which includes 5 mM Fe(CN)64- /3- and 10 mM KCl, as redox probe solution by CV and EIS in this redox probe solution. EIS parameters were 10,000–0.05 Hz frequency, 10 mV AC and 180 mV DC potentials, and CV parameters were between - 0.2 to 0.5 V potential, 100 mV/s scan rate for 5 cycles. The DNA measurement time of the biosensor system was determined by the chronoimpedance measurements taken by applying a frequency of 500 Hz under 200 mV DC current. Measurement time of the biosensor was found to be 100 seconds. With the CRISPR-Cas9 based electrochemical biosensor system, which gives faster results compared to the measurement methods in the literature, a linear measurement between 40 pM and 1000 pM with a length of 400 base pairs was taken.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Pollution Removal Performance of Chemically Functionalized Textile Waste
           Biochar Anchored Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Adsorbent

    • Authors: Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ; Bülent BÜYÜKKIDAN
      Abstract: Preparation of adsorbent materials in powder and polymeric composite form was achieved by controlled carbonization of ZnCl2 pretreated textile waste at low temperatures. Structural and surface properties of carbonized textile waste samples (CTW) and polymeric composites were prepared by the addition of CTW to PVDF-DMF solution at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mass% ratios analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. Adsorption performances of powder and composite adsorbents were investigated for MO dye removal from an aqueous solution. Zn-CTW obtained with carbonization of ZnCl2 treated textile waste at 350 °C presented 117.5 mg/g MO removal. Those were higher than CTW-350 and CTW-400. The presence of 1545 cm-1 band at the IR spectrum of Zn-CTW proved the formation of functional groups that increase dye adsorption performance with honeycomb-like pores on the surface. Zn-CTW reflected its properties onto the PVDF matrix. Improved porosity percentage, BET surface, and dye adsorption of Pz20 were recorded as 105.3, 15.22 m2/g, and 41 mg/g, respectively, compared with bare PVDF. Disposal of textile waste and preparation of functional activated carbon were achieved in a low-cost and easy way. Zn-CTW loaded PVDF composites are promising materials to use as a dye removal adsorbent from water or filtration membranes.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Ameliorative Effects of Vanadyl Sulfate on Some Biochemical Parameters of
           Experimental Diabetic Rat Kidneys

    • Authors: Nurdagül ORHAN; Sevim TUNALI, Refiye YANARDAĞ
      Abstract:     Diabetes mellitus (DM), closely related to diabetic nephropathy, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Today, with the increasing understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of DM, new oral anti-diabetic treatment strategies are being developed. Vanadium is a transition element that is widely distributed in nature, and its oral administration has been reported to improve DM in humans and a variety of diabetic animal models. The purpose of the research is to explore the effect of vanadyl sulfate (VS) administration on the different enzyme activities associated with kidney injury in streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Male rats were assigned into groups as follows: untreated control, control animals given VS (100 mg/kg), diabetic (a single dose of intraperitoneal STZ, 65 mg/kg), and diabetic + VS (same dose) group. VS was administered orally for 60 days after the induction of diabetes. On the 60th day of experiment, kidney samples were taken for analysis. According to the data obtained from the biochemical analysis, the activities of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase activity elevated in the kidney tissue of VS treated hyperglycemic animals. The results suggested that VS improved the diabetic renal injury, probably by VS insulin-mimic and antioxidant behavior through decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant capacity. Therefore, vanadyl sulfate might be used as a potential oral anti-diabetic compound in the treatment of the diabetic nephropathy, and as an important control for elevated blood glucose levels in the diabetic state.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • QSER modeling of half-wave oxidation potential of indolizines by
           theoretical descriptors

    • Authors: Nabil BOUARRA; Nawel NADJİ, Soumaya KHEROUF, Loubna NOURİ, Amel BOUDJEMAA, Khaldoun BACHARİ, Djelloul MESSADİ
      Abstract: Indolizine derivatives hold essential biological functions and have been researched for hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-tumor actions. Indolizine scaffold has intrigued conjecture and continuous attention and has become an effective parent system for generating powerful novel medication candidates. This research focused on applying the quantitative structure-electrochemistry relationship (QSER) approach to the half-wave potential (E1/2) for Indolizine derivatives using theoretical molecular descriptors. After calculating the descriptors and splitting the data into both sets, training and prediction. The QSER model was constructed using the Genetic Algorithm/Multiple Linear Regression (GA/MLR) technique, which was used to choose the optimal descriptors for the model. A four-parameter model has been established. Many assessment procedures, including cross-validation, external validation, and Y-scrambling testing, were used to assess the model's performance. Furthermore, the applicability domain (AD) was investigated using the Williams and Insubria graphs to assess the correctness of the established model's predictions. The constructed model exhibits great goodness-of-fit to experimental data, as well as high stability (R²=0.893, Q²LOO= 0.851, Q²LMO=0.843 RMSEtr= 0.052, s= 0.056). Prediction results show a good agreement with the experimental data of E1/2 (R²ext= 0.912, Q²F1= 0.883, Q²F2= 0.883, Q²F3= 0.919, CCCext= 0.942, RMSEext=0.045).
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Impact Of Irrigation Water On the Quality Attributes of Selected
           Indigenous Plants

    • Authors: Sami ULLAH; Aiman SHAHBAZ, Muhammad Zeeshan ASLAM
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to study the effects of irrigation water on the quality attributes of mango, banana, and mulberry collected from the nearby orchards located in peri-urban areas of Sahiwal (Pakistan). Due to freshwater scarcity in peri-urban areas, wastewater is used as a source of irrigation for orchards, which consequently increases heavy metal accumulation in the soil, leaves, and fruits. The physio-chemical attributes and accumulation of heavy metals were analyzed in different soil layers and fruit cultivars. Among the heavy metals, copper, lead, chromium, and cadmium contents were found to be in greater amounts in the effluent sample than in freshwater samples, according to WHO. Heavy metals such as copper, lead, and chromium were found to be in higher concentrations in soil and effluent samples. The concentration levels of copper in mango and mulberry were 0.005 and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration levels of lead in banana and mulberry were 0.231 and 1.248 mg/kg, and the concentration of chromium in banana was found to be 1.203 mg/kg, which is higher than the allowed limit given by WHO. The interaction among the sources of irrigation and fruit cultivars was significant for copper accumulation in different soil layers, lead, and copper accumulation in fruit cultivars. The irrigation water quality index (WQI) of all effluent samples ranged from 63.5 to 63.57, which, according to WHO, can be used for irrigation purposes as it is non-drinkable water.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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