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Kesmas : Public Health Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1907-7505 - ISSN (Online) 2460-0601
Published by Universitas Indonesia Homepage  [20 journals]
  • The Effectiveness and Safety of Favipiravir in COVID-19 Hospitalized
           Patients at Tertiary Referral Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

    • Authors: Herni Damayanti, I Gede K Sajinadiyasa, Hindun Wilda Risni, Rani Sauriasari
      Abstract: COVID-19 is a major public health problem, with still questionable specific cure. Favipiravir is a COVID-19 antiviral that is potentially a therapy for COVID-19. This study aimed to analyze its effectivity and safety in moderate to critical hospitalized patients. This study was a retrospective cohort in a tertiary referral hospital in Denpasar City, Bali Province, Indonesia, from August 2020 to January 2021. There was a total of 192 patients; 96 in the favipiravir group and 96in the non-favipiravir group (remdesivir/oseltamivir). Effectivity was measured by assessing the clinical condition at the end of the isolation period of 14 days. The favipiravir group showed better clinical conditions than the non-favipiravir group (79.2% vs. 56.3%; adjusted RR = 2.196; 95% CI = 1.084 – 4.451; p-value= 0.029), seen from being free of fever and respiratory problems. Stratification analysis demonstrated that the clinical improvement was significantly differentin the severe/critical group in favor of favipiravir (RR = 1.573; 95% CI = 1.139-2.172). The most common non-serious adverse events (AE) found in the use offavipiravir were gastrointestinal disturbances (12.5%). In brief, favipiravir is effective in severe/critical cases, and less serious AE were found in its use. Appropriate treatment is expected to help in reducing the public health burden.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5433
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • How Risky People of Getting COVID-19 based on Their Daily Activities'

    • Authors: Fajar Ariyanti, Mustakim Mustakim, Moch T A Al Ayubi, Desty Pratiwi Marlisman
      Abstract: In Indonesia at the end of 2020, COVID-19 cases were increasing and predicted to continue, as it had not yet passed the peak of the pandemic curve. The government had implemented mobility restrictions to reduce exposure to COVID-19. This study aimed to identify the risk of people getting COVID-19 based on their daily activities. Using a cross-sectional design, this study took 315 respondents under non-probability sampling from September to October 2020. Thedata were analyzed using the Chi-square test with α 0.05. This study showed that the risk percentage of people infected with COVID-19 based on their daily activities was 15.56% at low-risk, 63.81% at moderate-low risk, 17.14% at moderate risk, and 3.9% at moderate-high risk. Factors that were significantly related to the risk of getting COVID-19 in terms of daily activities were sex, attitude, and COVID-19 preventive behavior. In brief, the risk of getting COVID-19 could be assessed from daily activities carried out during the pandemic's peak.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5005
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • The Indonesian Strategy to Achieve Universal Health Coverage through
           National Health Insurance System: Challenges in Human Resources

    • Authors: Atikah Adyas
      Abstract: Many countries are currently trying to achieve universal health insurance coverage in order to provide health protection for their population. Indonesia has received a strong political commitment to implement national health insurance including government support to finance the poor. The implementation of comprehensive national health insurance requires human resources, each of which has a role in fighting for noble goals for the welfare of all people. This paper is taken from the experience of Indonesia and several other countries as well as guidelines that can be used in exploring the role of human resources for the success of the implementation of national health insurance.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5440
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • Mental Fatigue and Its Associated Factors among Coal Mining Workers after
           One Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

    • Authors: Hendra Djamalus, Budi Utomo, I Made Djaja, Sjahrul M Nasri
      Abstract: Mental fatigue among coal mining operators was related to driving activities that require high concentration. This study aimed to determine factors that contributed to mental fatigue among coal mine operators in Indonesia, specifically in Kalimantan and Sumatra, after a one-year COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 480 operators from two companies and seven sites. A self-administrated questionnaire in the Google Form was used to measure mental fatigue, the non-work-related factors (age, education, marital status, residence, and stress level), and work-related factors (working periods, shift pattern, type of shift, and work area in mining). The data analyzed using Chi-square and binomial logistic regression showed that the prevalence of mental fatigue was 32.3%. Operators with moderate stress and working in the pit area demonstrated a significant association with mental fatigue (p-va lue<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that medium stress (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.41-3.15) and working in the pit (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.45-3.57) had a positive association with mental fatigue. Thus, the pit condition and stress levels were the dominant factors influencing mental fatigue and became points to manage mental fatigue in coal mining operators in Kalimantan and Sumatra.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5154
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • Predictors of the COVID-19 Social Distancing Practice among Undergraduate
           Health Students in Samarinda City, Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Siti Hadijah Aspan, Pramon Viwattanakulvanid
      Abstract: Social distancing is a health protocol recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for reducing the spread of COVID-19. Undergraduate health students play an important role in the dissemination of accurate information. This study identified predictors that influenced the COVID-19 social distancing practice and examined the sources of social distancing information among undergraduate health students in Samarinda City, Indonesia. This cross-sectionalonline survey study (March-April 2021) involved 422 undergraduate students from medicine, public health, and pharmacy faculties at Mulawarman University. Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with the COVID-19 social distancing practice. The results showed that age (AOR =1.47; 95% CI = 1.97–2.22, p-value = 0.045), sex (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.38–3.69, p-value = 0.001), and attitude (AOR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.75-3.90; p-va lue<0.001) was significantly associated with social distancing practices. The top three sources of COVID-19 social distancing information used were social media (80.6%), websites (14.0%), and television (3.8%). The study findings encourage the government to disseminate more health information on social media and education programs to this target population.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5072
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Health Personnel in Responding to
           the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

    • Authors: Dyah Suryani, Suyitno Suyitno, Maretalinia Maretalinia, Elvi Juliansyah, Vernonia Yora Saki, Kraichat Tantrakarnapa
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic, originated in China, has spread to worldwide, including Indonesia. Until July 2021, the growth rate has been gradually increasing, and cases have been found in all 34 provinces of Indonesia. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of health personnel in the primary health care towards the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia using online self-report questionnaire. A total of 440 respondents contributed to this online survey. The average level of KAP were 7.7 out of 10.0, 14.3 out of 15.0, and 31.9 out of 36.0, respectively. There was no significant association between respondents’ characteristics (sex, marital status, and age) and their KAP for all variables showed p-value>0.05. It can be concluded that the level of KAP was good, despite the respondents’ characteristics that had no association with KAP.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5003
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • Integrated Model of a Family Approach and Local Support in Tuberculosis
           Case Finding Efforts in People with HIV/AIDS

    • Authors: Erni Astutik, Chatarina Umbul Wahyuni, Imelda F E Manurung, Geofrey Ssekalembe
      Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major global public health problem. People with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are more susceptible to opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, families and community leaders need to help monitor people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study aimed to analyze an integrated family approach and local support model to detect TB cases in PLWHA. This study used a case-control study in Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, in July 2020. The sample comprised 100 people (50 PLWHA with TB case and 50 controls) using total sampling and random sampling, respectively. The variables related to TB case finding in PLWHA were family employment status, duration of HIV/AIDS, family knowledge of TB, and family support. The data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The families with PLWHA with an extended illness duration (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.69–0.95, p-value = 0.01), families who did not work (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 1.16 9.41, p-value = 0.025), families who had good knowledge (OR = 4.79, 95% CI = 1.70–13.51, p-value = 0.003), and families who provided good support (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.05–8.76, p-value= 0.04) were better able to detect TB in PLWHA.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.4955
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • The Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats at the House of Maternal
           Women with Toxoplasmosis in Badung, Indonesia

    • Authors: Made Subrata, Nyoman Mantik Astawa, Nyoman Tigeh Suryadi, Sang Gede Purnama, Kadek Karang Agustina, Ngakan Putu Anom Harjana, Made Damriyasa
      Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the parasite called Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The health and social impacts of the infectionare enormous, including miscarriage, hydrocephalus, blindness, and mental retardation. The occurrence of toxoplasmosis in maternal women cannot be se parated from cats around their houses. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of the parasite in cats found in the human carriers residences and identify the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in maternal women in Badung District, Bali Province, Indonesia. A total of 80 cat serum samples were obtained from two residential groups, 40 from the housing where the maternal women were infected and another 40 from where there were no identified sufferers of the disease. All the samples were examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect the presence of antibodies T. gondiiin feralcat serum. The results showed that 47.5% of the examined subjects had the said antibodies. As much as 65% came from housing with cases of toxoplasmosisin maternal mothers, and 30% came from residences with none. The presence of feral cats is a major risk factor for the transmission of T. gondiito humans.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.4954
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic: Role of Coping Humor and Internal Health Locus of
           Control on Social Dysfunction and Anxiety & Depression

    • Authors: Muhammad Arief Sumantri, Zahrani Zahrani, Hilda Rosa Ainiyah, Azmul Fuady Idham
      Abstract: The concerns about the impact of social distancing on mental health have been widely discussed. This study aimed to know the predictive effect of coping humor and Internal Health Locus of Control (Internal HLoC) on social dysfunction and anxiety & depression during the implementation of the COVID-19 social distancing agenda. This study was also intended to assess the effect of humor content on coping humor. A quantitative approach was used as the method ofthe study with 243 online-recruited participants, and a PLS-SEM analysis was applied to find out the predictive effect in this study. The results and conclusions showed that anxiety & depression predict social dysfunction (β = 0.584, t-value = 11.93, f2 = 0.563). It was found that coping humor was able to directly increase the Internal HLoC (β = 0.187, t-value = 2.60, f2 = 0.036) and indirectly decrease social dysfunction (β = -0.144, t-value = 2.85) and anxiety & depression (β = -0.070, t-value = 2.42). Humor content unrelated to the issue of COVID-19 directly increase the coping-humor level (β = 0.266, t-value = 4.13,f2= 0.076), and indirectly increase Internal HLoC (β = 0.050, t-value = 2.07), and decrease anxiety & depression level (β = -0.046, t-value = 2.20). On theother hand, Internal HLoC directly decrease levels of social dysfunction (β = -0.233, t-value = 4.126, f2 = 0.089) and anxiety & depression (β = -0.373, t-value= 7.84, f2 = 0.161).
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.4777
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
  • Breastfeeding Knowledge and Behavior in Lactational Amenorrhea Method
           (LAM) as a Natural Contraceptive

    • Authors: Mufdlilah Mufdlilah, Reza Bintangdari Johan, Sri Ratna Ningsih
      Abstract: The lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) is a natural contraceptive that is highly effective after the three essential criteria are fulfilled. However, there is a significantly low adoption resulting from poor knowledge and correct practices. This study aimed to determine the correlation between knowledge and behavior of breastfeeding mothers on breastfeeding as a natural contraceptive. This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 89 breastfeeding mothers and was performed from January to March 2018. Furthermore, data were collected using a questionnaire, and the results showed knowledge of breastfeeding mothers to be good (59.6%) and not good (51.7%). However, the individual’s behavior towards the implementation of LAM was not good (48.3%) and good (40.4%). Based on the statistical test, there was a correlation between knowledge and behavior of breastfeeding mothers, with a p-value of 0.006 (OR = 3.463; 95% CI = 1.411 – 8.498). In brief, knowledge of LAM amongst the participants is good, despite the poor application in terms of behavior. Also, a relationship was also established between the knowledge and behavior of breastfeeding mothers as a natural contraceptive.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.4701
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2021)
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