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Kesmas : Public Health Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1907-7505 - ISSN (Online) 2460-0601
Published by Universitas Indonesia Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Predictors of Anxiety toward COVID-19 Delta Variant: A Cross- Sectional
           Study among Healthcare Providers in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    • Authors: I Ketut Swarjana, I Gede Putu Darma Suyasa, I Kadek Nuryanto
      Pages: 204 - 211
      Abstract: Health facilities are experiencing overcapacity, oxygen scarcity, and a limited number of healthcare providers due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), thus impacted on anxiety. This study aimed to determine predictors of anxiety among healthcare providers toward the Delta variant of COVID-19 in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 371 healthcare providers in Java and Bali Islands, and the snowball sampling technique was used. Data were collected using a questionnaire and distributed through social media (WhatsApp), then analyzed using univariate analysis, bivariate analysis (Chi-square test), and multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression). The results showed that 81 (21.8%) respondents experienced anxiety. The workplace (AOR: = 0.617; p-value = 0.011), a history of confirmed positive for COVID-19 (AOR = 2.965; p-value<0.001), and the respondent's comorbidities (AOR = 8.753; p-value<0.001) were significantly associated with anxiety toward the Delta variant. Healthcare managers must regularly evaluate the psychological condition of their subordinates during the COVID-19 pandemic so that anxiety can be detected and overcome early through constructive self-adaptation and positive coping mechanisms. 
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i3.6071
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Factors Influencing Handwriting Development among Preschool Children: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Zati Izny Achymy, Masne Kadar, Nor Afifi Razaob, Farahiyah Wan Yunus
      Pages: 235 - 242
      Abstract: Handwriting development is essential for academic performance, yet the research on the factors contributing to it is scant. This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the factors contributing to handwriting development among preschool children that may benefit public health knowledge, especially among teachers, parents, and therapists. A systematic search was conducted using four databases: PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. During the preliminary search, 565 relevant studies were found. Screening, review selection, and characterization were performed based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria included preschool children, quantitative, written in English, and published in January 2012 – January 2022. The exclusion criteria were studies involving children with specific diagnoses. A consensus agreement was obtained, and ten studies were eventually selected for the comprehensive review. Executive function, letter knowledge, motor skills, and writing surface were identified. These factors indicated that handwriting was not an independent process, as its acquisition involved numerous components. This systematic review confirmed that executive function, letter knowledge, motor skills, and writing surface influenced handwriting development. More randomized controlled trials should be conducted to provide more conclusive and exhaustive evidence.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6209
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Breastfeeding Duration More than 18 Months Possibly Lowers the Risk of
           Language Development Delay in Children Aged 18–35 Months

    • Authors: Andi Faradilah, Andi Musafir Rusyaidi, Syatirah Jalaluddin, Ary I Savitri
      Pages: 243 - 250
      Abstract: Studies have demonstrated the benefits of breastfeeding (BF) on children’s cognitive function and language development. However, most cognitive and language tools used in these studies have limited ability to identify children’s language development delays. The Language Development Survey (LDS) is expected to provide detailed information on children’s language development. This study aimed to examine the association between BF duration and children’s LDS. A questionnaire was administered to 286 BF mothers to obtain information on their BF duration, and LDS was employed to assess children’s language development. Language delays were detected in 91 (31.8%) children (LDS-vocabulary) and 35.7% children (LDS-phrase). This study also found that children who were breastfed for ≤6 months and 7–18 months had an adjusted OR (AOR) of 0.86 of LDS-vocabulary, and 0.8 of LDS-phrase, whereas children who were breastfed for >18 months had AOR’s LDS-vocabulary of 0.57 and LDS-phrase of 0.46. This study found no significant association between BF duration and LDS score. Nevertheless, BF duration of >18 months possibly lowers the risk of children’s language development delay. More studies are required to investigate this observation’s relationship with children’s language development.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6218
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Impact of Instrumental Support from Family on Medication Adherence among
           Tuberculosis Patients

    • Authors: Astuti Yuni Nursasi, Mega Hasanul Huda, Syifa Widya Rahmasari
      Pages: 251 - 256
      Abstract: Instrumental support is concrete and tangible, for instance, helping to provide food or accompanying patients to health care facilities. However, its impact on medication adherence among tuberculosis patients in Indonesia needs to be explored. This study aimed to examine the impact of instrumental support from family on tuberculosis patients’ adherence to medication in Bogor City, West Java Province, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study involving 106 participants with an age average of 39.7 (SD = 14.9) was conducted in 12 primary health care (PHC). The independent variables (age, sex, education, employment status, wealth index, and the distance between home and PHC) of instrumental support from family was assessed using MMAS-8. In contrast, the dependent variable of medication adherence was assessed using a self-reported instrument. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used in the analysis and indicated that participants receiving family support were more likely to adhere to medication protocol (95% CI = 1.1–6.3; p-value = 0.029). Instrumental support from family was associated with medication adherence among tuberculosis patients in Bogor City, West Java Province, Indonesia. It is necessary to design further comprehensive interventions in the community setting to encourage the family to support tuberculosis patients following medication protocol.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.5927
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Factors Associated with Depression among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
           at a Tertiary Hospital during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Muhammad Ikhsan Mokoagow, Dian Pitawati, Ditya Nona Arisandy, Nadya Magfira, Pratiwi Indah Palupi, Jerry Nasarudin, Marina Epriliawati, Ida Ayu Kshanti
      Pages: 257 - 263
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that can cause various complications, economic burdens, and psychosocial issues that eventually lead to depression. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic of a South Jakarta tertiary hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to July 2021. The data were collected consecutively from 100 patients aged 18 years or older who came for regular consultation. The instrument used for determining depression is Beck Depression Inventory-II. The prevalence of depression, a correlation between depression and participants' characteristics, and multivariate analysis for risk factors were determined. The results showed that the prevalence of mild to severe depression based on the BDI-II classification was 17%. Screening showed mild to severe depression predominantly in females above 60 years old, with higher levels of education, obesity grade I, individuals with one or more comorbidities, and those who had diabetes for more than ten years. In this study, having one or more comorbidities was associated with an increased risk of depression in people with diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6301
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Quality of Life of Hypertensive Patients Undergoing Chronic Disease
           Management Program during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Widya Astuty Lolo, Gayatri Citraningtyas, Deby Afriani Mpila, Heri Wijaya, Sandeep Poddar
      Pages: 264 - 269
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has restricted some common activities for hypertensive patients undergoing the Chronic Disease Management Program/Program Pengelolaan Penyakit Kronis in primary health care, decreasing the quality of life. This study aimed to measure the quality of life of hypertensive patients undergoing the Chronic Disease Management Program at primary health care of Manado City, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine the factors influencing hypertension such as sex, age, education, employment status, monthly income and duration of hypertension. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 150 hypertensive patients randomly sampled at primary health care from June to September 2021. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The quality of life of non-complicated hypertensive patients was higher than those with complications. The utility value and the visual analog scale of hypertensive patients with and without complications were 0.808±0.13 and 80.2±8.16 and 0.761±0.17 and 75.1±7.56, respectively. The quality of life of hypertensive patients without complication is better than that of hypertensive patients with complication.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6224
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cognitive Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Taking Metformin
           and Metformin-Sulfonylurea

    • Authors: Abu Rachman, Rani Sauriasari, Nadia Farhanah Syafhan, Pukovisa Prawiroharjo, Hindun Wilda Risni
      Pages: 270 - 278
      Abstract: The most prescribed antidiabetic drugs in Indonesian primary health care are metformin or a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea. Studies on metformin have shown various impacts on cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas sulfonylurea has been shown to reduce this impact. This study aimed to compare the impacts of metformin and metformin-sulfonylurea on cognitive function and determine what factors affected it. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Pasar Minggu Primary Health Care involving 142 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients taking metformin or metformin-sulfonylurea for > 6 months and aged > 36 years. Cognitive function was assessed using the validated Montreal Cognitive Assessment Indonesian version. The effects of metformin and metformin-sulfonylurea on cognitive decline showed no significant difference, even after controlling for covariates (aOR = 1.096; 95% CI = 0.523–2.297; p-value = 0.808). Multivariate analysis showed age (OR = 4.131; 95% CI = 1.271–13.428; p-value = 0.018) and education (OR = 2.746; 95% CI = 1.196–6.305; p-value = 0.017) affected cognitive function. Since a lower education and older age are likely to cause cognitive decline, health professionals are encouraged to work with public health experts to address these risk factors for cognitive function.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6303
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Potential of Private Health Insurance Ownership Based on the 2018-2020
           National Socioeconomic Survey Data

    • Authors: Arief Rosyid Hasan, Adang Bachtiar, Cicilya Candi
      Pages: 279 - 286
      Abstract: In 2014, the Indonesian Government introduced a social security program in the health sector. However, Indonesia’s out-of-pocket expenses remain high due to a lack of public interest in National Health Insurance services. Financing expensive health services with high out-of-pocket expenses has the potential to cause poverty. Private health insurance is considered a solution to this problem. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic factors of private health insurance ownership and its potential in Indonesia. This study used secondary data from the 2018, 2019, and 2020 National Socioeconomic Surveys. Logistic regression analysis showed that the variables related to private health insurance ownership were age, sex, education, economic status, employment status, marital status, household status, and location of residence. The most dominant variable in 2018 was per capita expenditure (economic status), while education was the most dominant variable in 2019 and 2020. The result of this study can be used to formulate a strategy for increasing participation in private health insurance. The socioeconomic health sector should use this information to target specific markets for private health insurance.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6214
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • Medication Adherence and Self-Management Practices among Type 2 Diabetes
           Mellitus Patients in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia

    • Authors: Marzuki bin Muhammad, Farzana Yasmin, Alabed Ali A. Alabed, Bibi Florina Abdullah, Sandeep Poddar
      Pages: 287 - 291
      Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the level of medication adherence and diabetic knowledge among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was done from February to July 2019 by giving a questionnaire to 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 40-80 years at three primary health cares in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia. The quantitative descriptive method was used in this study. The findings of this study revealed that knowledge was significantly related to poor adherence. When sex, history of diabetes, and education were accounted for, patients with low diabetic knowledge had an odds ratio of 4.53 for poor adherence compared to those with high knowledge (adj 95% CI (1.92-10.69), p-value = 0.001). To achieve the goal of regulating diabetes management in primary health care, a clinical supervision program should be implemented to improve staff competence in diabetes management and to empower patients through self-management.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6216
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
  • SO2 Concentration and the Occurrence of Acute Respiratory Infection in
           Children Under Five

    • Authors: Puji Amrih Lestari, Budi Haryanto
      Pages: 292 - 296
      Abstract: Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, with 10.7 million inhabitants with poor air quality as of 2020. Higher levels of pollution often come with an increase in the number of health risks and pneumonia cases. This study aimed to determine the association between SO2 concentration and the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under five. An ecological time series design was implemented during the study by utilizing secondary data of SO2 concentrations and ARI from the Indonesian Agency for Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysics, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta Environmental, and Health Office. Statistical correlation tests were performed to analyze the association between SO2 concentration and ARI prevalence in five municipalities cities in Jakarta from 2018-2021 based on the rainy and dry seasons. The average concentration of SO2 was 18.06–20.89 μg/m3. The SO2 concentration and the occurrence of ARI in children under five in Jakarta from 2018 to 2021 showed a weak relationship (r = 0.24). It seems that children under five in Jakarta spent their time indoors rather than outdoors; therefore, they were exposed to fewer transportation emissions.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6290
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
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