Publisher: International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology   (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Cancer Therapy and Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2330-4049
Published by International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A single center study of cancer patients with chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Abu-Sayeef Mirza, Sarah Mushtaq, Revati Reddy, Mina Mousa, Kullatham Kongpakpaisarn, Chandrashekar Bohra, Sean Verma, Rahul Mhaskar, Rachid Baz, Claude Bassil
      Abstract: Purpose: It is clinically understood that chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer are interrelated. Yet, few studies measure how renal outcomes vary according to common malignancies and common therapeutic agents. We report the incidence and the nature of CKD among cancer patients from a single institution.Methods: A retrospective chart review of cancer patients managed in the onconephrology clinic at the Moffitt Cancer Center from 05/01/2015 to 07/31/2016 was conducted. Patients with kidney injury were included in this study. Renal function was recorded at three-month follow-up intervals for 15-month duration.Results: Out of the total 88 patients with median age of 68 years, 63 patients (~ 72%) were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), whereas the remaining had acute kidney injury. Kidney cancer and multiple myeloma represented the single malignancies with the largest proportion of CKD with 12 patients each (~14% each). Patients with kidney cancer had a mean creatinine of (2.35, 1.74 SD) mg/dl compared to patients without kidney cancer with creatinine (1.97, 1.07 SD) mg/dl. Abdominal cancers represented the highest frequency category of malignancies in this sample (n = 38), and about 32 (84%) of these patients had CKD. About 80% of patients with genitourinary cancers (n = 27) had CKD. In terms of prescribed chemotherapeutic agents, patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors had a lower average estimated glomerular filtration rate (28.37, 9.86 SD) mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to other chemotherapeutic agents, though this was weakly significant (p-value = 0.07). Similar renal outcomes per malignancy and chemotherapy are reported.Conclusion: This group of patients demonstrated the frequency of chronic kidney disease differs depending on the type of malignancy or chemotherapy. A multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists and nephrologists should be adopted to prevent further renal damage from cancer and its therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • A method for an external quality audit programme in radiosurgery with TLDs
           and radiochromic film

    • Authors: Luciana Tourinho Campos, Carmén Sandra Guzmán Calcina, Victor Alves Gabriel Leandro Alves, Adelaide Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de Almeida
      Abstract: Purpose: Radiosurgery is a high-precision technique that delivers a single highly conformed dose to a stereotactically localized target in most cases. This study proposes a simple and reliable postal quality assurance (QA) phantom for use in an independent evaluation.Methods: Two important parameters were verified, including the dosimetric precision of the treatment planning system, by comparing the absorbed dose measured in the target volume using different dosimeters (i.e., radiochromic film and thermoluminescence dosimeters) calibrated against a small volume ion chamber. The head phantom and the instruction sheets were extensively tested and sent by mail to selected institutions. The institutions were chosen according to the type of linear accelerator they had. The three institutions chosen had different radiosurgery systems for the delivery of treatment and the planning system. The objective was to understand whether our system would be applicable to different radiosurgery delivery systems.Results: A comparison between the TPS plan and the measurement plan using the radiochromic film showed that the gamma pass rate was more than 90% for a gamma criteria of 2 mm/2%. In the worst case scenario, the disagreement with TLD measurements at position 1 arose because the highest dose gradient occurred in that region. The other positions measured with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) varied by less than 3% from the calculated dose.Conclusion: The overall results were very encouraging and suggest that the proposed phantom may be used as a postal system as part of an independent QA tool for radiosurgery.
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • Design and development of an add-on automated multi-leaf collimator for
           telecobalt therapy machine and study of its characteristics

    • Authors: Akula Roopa Rani, Komanduri Ayyangar, A R Reddy, A Anil kumar, Palreddy Yadagiri Reddy
      Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the design, development and dosimetric characteristics of an automated Multi-leaf collimator (MLC) integrated along with an inexpensive Treatment Planning System (ROPS), developed for existing telecobalt units as an add-on without making any modifications to the treatment machine.Method: The prototype MLC design consists of 28 tungsten alloy leaves (14 leaf pairs) having a mass density of 18 g cm-3. Each of the leaves projects 10 mm width at the isocenter, which is at 80 cm from the source. The automation has been achieved with a dedicated linear actuator for each leaf. Radiochromic films and IC PROFILER™ (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) were used for the measurement of beam profiles and the profiles were analyzed to arrive at radiation field width, beam flatness, symmetry and beam penumbra.Results: The prototype MLC can define radiation fields of up to 14 × 14 cm² within the prescribed tolerance values of 2 mm. The flatness and symmetry were found to be within the prescribed tolerance value of 3%. The penumbra for a 10 × 10 cm² field size is 9.5 mm which is less than the generally acceptable value of 12 mm for a telecobalt machine. The maximum leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was observed to be 7.3% which is less than the values reported for other MLCs designed for medical linear accelerators.Conclusion: It is concluded that dosimetric parameters and the leakage radiation of the prototype MLC are well below their recommended tolerance values. The MLC can be used for carrying out conformal radiotherapy with existing telecobalt machines.
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • Association between tumor response and change in EQ5D-3L quality of life
           among cancer patients

    • Authors: Stephen Joseph Garcia, Charles Vincent Uy, Corazon Ngelangel, Francisco delos Reyes
      Abstract: Purpose: The primary aim in cancer treatment is to provide excellent tumor response while maintaining the most acceptable quality of life. The relationship of QoL to tumor response has not yet been well discussed. This study determines the association between the change in the QoL from baseline to one (1) year follow-up and tumor response among patients enrolled in the ASEAN Cost in Oncology (ACTION) study.Methods: Pooled data from the ACTION study was reviewed. Associations between demographics, cancer type, and tumor response were analyzed.Results: Of the qualified profiles (412 / 742), breast cancer (42.2%), colorectal (21.8%), and head neck (10%) are still most common. Of these cases, 126 (30.6%) were metastatic on presentation. Demographic data showed female sex having better tumor response. More importantly, tumor response was significantly associated with improvement in QoL: complete or partial response was associated with improvement in QoL (p = .000) while progressive disease related to worse situations. The general pattern seen above was reflected in female breast cancer cases, colon and rectal cancer, and other malignant neoplasms.Conclusion: Improvement in QoL was significantly associated with better tumor response. This trend was similar for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and other malignancies. The use of universal measures of health like the EQ5D 3L may be used to quantify improvements in QoL with several limitations: 1) cultural differences should be established and 2) limitations in quantifying precise changes in QoL. The utilization of more culturally adept QoL measures may address this problem. Similarly, the use of secondary data may limit the results in this study. Prospective studies specifically addressing the objectives may improve results.
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • IL-2 and IL-12 in thyroid cancer: Clinical implication

    • Authors: Toral Kobawala, Kinjal Gajjar, Trupti Trivedi, Girish Patel, Nandita Ghosh
      Abstract: Purpose: The roles of IL-2 and IL-12, in different malignancies have been looked for since years. But very few studies have elucidated their role in thyroid tumorigenesis. Hence, present study sought to explore their utility in thyroid cancer, mainly the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).Methods: A total of 67 patients with benign thyroid diseases, 106 with thyroid cancer and 67 healthy individuals were included in the study. Circulating levels of IL-2 and IL-12 were estimated by ELISA from all patients and controls. Protein expression of both interleukins was determined using immunohistochemistry. The results were statistically analysed using SPSS software.Results: Serum IL-12 exhibited good discriminatory efficacy between patients with benign thyroid diseases and healthy individuals. IL-2 and IL-12 levels could efficiently differentiate PTC and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) patients from healthy individuals. Additionally, IL-12 showed good discriminating efficacy between PTC and benign thyroid disease patients and IL-2 well discriminated ATC patients from benign thyroid diseases. IL-2 was significantly higher in patients having unilateral tumors (P=0.006) while, IL-12 was significantly higher in patients with smaller tumor size (P=0.036) and early stage disease (P=0.008). The cytokine protein expressions in benign thyroid tissues and carcinoma did not differ significantly. IL-12 expression was significantly higher in male patients (P=0.042) and unilateral tumors (P=0.031).Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that nuclear IL-2 expression was able to predict disease free survival and overall survival (OS) in subgroup of PTC patients having multifocal tumors and only OS in patients having bilateral tumors. Moreover, higher IL-12 immunoreactivity was a significant predictor of shorter OS in PTC patients treated with surgery alone.Conclusion: Serologic determination of IL-2 and IL-12 may help in validating indeterminate FNAC results and disclose diagnostic difference between benign and malignant thyroid diseases. However, a large cohort study is mandatory to establish a defined cut off for such discrimination.
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • 5-FU resistant colorectal cancer cells possess improved invasiveness and
           ╬▓III-tubulin expression

    • Authors: Sviatlana Akalovich, Anna Portyanko, Anastasia Pundik, Artur Mezheyeuski, Tatyana Mikhailovna Doroshenko
      Abstract: Purpose: Elevated bIII-tubulin levels are associated with resistance to a broad spectrum of drugs in different carcinomas and are associated with poor prognosis of different epithelial cancers. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used standard drug in chemotherapeutic regimens for colorectal cancer treatment, although the resistance to 5-FU is a major obstacle to successful therapy. The aim of the study was to compare the invasive and adhesion properties and the expression levels of bIII-tubulin in a 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT116 and parental cells.Methods: The 5-FU-resistant cell line was established by continuous stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of 5-FU. Cell viability and properties were evaluated using MTT, adhesion and transwell invasion assays respectively. The expression of bIII-tubulin was revealed by immunoblot and immunofluorescence.Results: The derivative line is 25-fold resistant to 5-FU and characterized by altered cell morphology, twice as many cells of the 5-FU-resistant line fail to adhere than is the case for the parental cell line and were characterized by enhanced invasiveness, accompanied by increased bIII-tubulin expression. In addition, we found that loss of bIII-tubulin expression was correlated with loss of 5-FU resistance.Conclusion: Our results indicate that even though 5-FU does not target microtubules, there appears to be a correlation between bIII-tubulin expression and resistance to 5-FU and that this is particularly important with regard to invasiveness. These findings indicate a possible contribution of bIII-tubulin to 5-FU resistance in vivo. 
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • Effect of statistical uncertainty on Monaco Monte-Carlo dose calculation

    • Authors: Seema Sharma, Subhash Chander, Subramani Velliyan, Suman Bhaskar, Sushmita Pathy, Pratik Kumar, Gopishankar Natanasabapathi, Sanjay Thulkar
      Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate influence of statistical uncertainty on Monte-Carlo dose calculation of Monaco 5.11 treatment planning system (TPS).Methods: Phantom with contoured C-Shape structure set was downloaded from AAPM website provided with TG119 report. VMAT plan was created for C-Shape test case using Monaco TPS for 6 MV Elekta Versa-HD linear-accelerator. Dose prescription and constraints were as per TG119. After optimizations, C-Shape plan was calculated with different statistical-uncertainty (i) 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% per control point and (ii) 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% per calculation. Base plan was calculated with 0.5% per control point.Results: Variations in PTV doses for different statistical-uncertainties with respect to 0.5% per control point were within PTV-D95: 82 cGy(1.64%); PTV-D10: 14.8 cGy(0.28%); Core-D10: 3.7 cGy(0.15%). MU required to deliver a plan (920 MU) were observed same with different statistical-uncertainty. Calculation time increases with decrease in statistical-uncertainty due to more number of histories. 2D-Gamma pass rate was ranging from 98.1% to 98.9% for analyzed statistical-uncertainties. Statistical-uncertainty 0.5% per control point showed higher Gamma pass-rate (98.9%).Conclusion: Minor variation (<1.64%) in dose volume parameters was observed with different statistical-uncertainties, whereas Monitor unit remain same. 3.0% per control point and 0.5% per calculation resulted in almost similar results and found optimal with reasonable calculation time in terms of plan quality and delivery accuracy (gamma pass-rate).
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
  • Intraocular breast metastasis: a case report

    • Authors: Stephen Joseph Garcia, Ronald Gonin Paraan, Corazon Ngelangel
      Abstract: Breast cancer accounts for approximately 16% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the Philippines. Among these, 5% are metastatic at presentation. The eye is an atypical location for metastatic spread from breast cancer. A 53-year-old Filipino female presented with a breast mass with concomitant blurring of vision. Further work-up showed invasive ductal carcinoma with bone metastasis. Ophthalmologic examination showed an intraocular mass with associated exudation and retinal detachment, which explained the blurring of vision. Chemotherapy for the breast cancer subsequently reduced tumor mass of both breast and eye, with progression of both after first line chemotherapy. Clinicians should be wary of patients presenting with a known primary mass lesion with associated ophthalmologic complaints. The possibility of metastatic disease in these patients should warrant ophthalmologic screening to possibly prevent the deterioration of the quality of life of these patients.
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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