Publisher: International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology   (Total: 1 journals)

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International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology
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ISSN (Print) 2330-4049
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  • Nucleoside supplements as treatments for mitochondrial DNA depletion
           syndrome

    • Authors: Eszter Dombi, Tony Marinaki, Paolo Spingardi, Val Millar, Nastasia Hadjichristou, Janet Carver, Iain G. Johnston, Carl Fratter, Joanna Poulton
      Abstract: Introduction: In mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS), patients cannot maintain sufficient mtDNA for their energy needs. MDS presentations range from infantile encephalopathy with hepatopathy (Alpers syndrome) to adult chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Most are caused by nucleotide imbalance or by defects in the mtDNA replisome. There is currently no curative treatment available. Nucleoside therapy is a promising experimental treatment for TK2 deficiency, where patients are supplemented with exogenous deoxypyrimidines. We aimed to explore the benefits of nucleoside supplementation in POLG and TWNK deficient fibroblasts.Methods: We used high-content fluorescence microscopy with software-based image analysis to assay mtDNA content and membrane potential quantitatively, using vital dyes PicoGreen and MitoTracker Red CMXRos respectively. We tested the effect of 15 combinations (A, T, G, C, AT, AC, AG, CT, CG, GT, ATC, ATG, AGC, TGC, ATGC) of deoxynucleoside supplements on mtDNA content of fibroblasts derived from four patients with MDS (POLG1, POLG2, DGUOK, TWNK) in both a replicating (10% dialysed FCS) and quiescent (0.1% dialysed FCS) state. We used qPCR to measure mtDNA content of supplemented and non-supplemented fibroblasts following mtDNA depletion using 20 µM ddC and after 14- and 21-day recovery in a quiescent state.Results: Nucleoside treatments at 200 µM that significantly increased mtDNA content also significantly reduced the number of cells remaining in culture after 7 days of treatment, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential. These toxic effects were abolished by reducing the concentration of nucleosides to 50 µM. In POLG1 and TWNK cells the combination of ATGC treatment increased mtDNA content the most after 7 days in non-replicating cells. ATGC nucleoside combination significantly increased the rate of mtDNA recovery in quiescent POLG1 cells following mtDNA depletion by ddC.Conclusion: High-content imaging enabled us to link mtDNA copy number with key read-outs linked to patient wellbeing. Elevated G increased mtDNA copy number but severely impaired fibroblast growth, potentially by inhibiting purine synthesis and/or causing replication stress. Combinations of nucleosides ATGC, T, or TC, benefited growth of cells harbouring POLG mutations. These combinations, one of which reflects a commercially available preparation, could be explored further for treatment of POLG patients.
      PubDate: 2024-04-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • The role of the Pin1-cis P-tau axis in the development and treatment of
           vascular contribution to cognitive impairment and dementia and
           preeclampsia

    • Authors: Chenxi Qiu, Zhixiong Li, David A. Leigh, Bingbing Duan, Joseph E. Stucky, Nami Kim, George Xie, Kun Ping Lu, Xiao Zhen Zhou
      Abstract: Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by deposits of abnormal Tau protein in the brain. Conventional tauopathies are often defined by a limited number of Tau epitopes, notably neurofibrillary tangles, but emerging evidence suggests structural heterogeneity among tauopathies. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 isomerizes cis P-tau to inhibit the development of oligomers, tangles and neurodegeneration in multiple neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, traumatic brain injury, vascular contribution to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and preeclampsia (PE). Thus, cis P-tau has emerged as an early etiological driver, blood marker and therapeutic target for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, with clinical trials ongoing. The discovery of cis P-tau and other tau pathologies in VCID and PE calls attention for simplistic classification of tauopathy in neurodegenerative diseases. These recent advances have revealed the exciting novel role of the Pin1-cis P-tau axis in the development and treatment of vascular contribution to cognitive impairment and dementia and preeclampsia.
      PubDate: 2024-04-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • A case report of a family with developmental arrest of human prokaryotic
           stage zygote

    • Authors: Tianzhong Ma, Songxia Zhou, Xuezhen Xie, Jingyao Chen, Jing Wang, Guohong Zhang
      Abstract: To study the genetic variation leading to the arrest phenotype of pronuclear (PN) zygotes. We recruited a family characterized by recurrent PN arrest during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (ICSI) and performed whole-exome sequencing for 2 individuals. The transcriptome profiles of PN-arrest zygotes were assessed by single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. The variants were then validated by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing in the affected individuals and other family members. A family characterized by recurrent PN arrest during IVF and ICSI cycles were enrolled after giving written informed consent. Peripheral blood samples were taken for DNA extraction. Three PN-arrest zygotes from patient III-3 were used for single-cell RNA-seq as described. This phenotype was reproduced after multiple cycles of egg retrieval and after trying different fertilization methods and multiple ovulation regimens. The mutant genes of whole exon sequencing were screened and verified. The missense variant c. C1630T (p.R544W) in RGS12 was responsible for a phenotype characterized by paternal transmission. RGS12 controls Ca2+ oscillation, which is required for oocyte activation after fertilization. Single-cell transcriptome profiling of PN-arrest zygotes revealed defective established translation, RNA processing and cell cycle, which explained the failure of complete oocyte activation. Furthermore, we identified proximal genes involved in Ca2+ oscillation–cytostatic factor–anaphase-promoting complex (Ca2+ oscillation–CSF–APC) signaling, including upregulated CaMKII, ORAI1, CDC20, and CDH1 and downregulated EMI1 and BUB3. The findings indicate abnormal spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations leading to oocytes with prolonged low CSF level and high APC level, which resulted in defective nuclear envelope breakdown and DNA replication. We have identified an RGS12 variant as the potential cause of female infertility characterized by arrest at the PN stage during multiple IVF and ICSI.
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Timing dependent neuronal migration is regulated by Cdk5-mediated
           phosphorylation of JIP1

    • Authors: Qinglin Fei, Doo Soon Im, Yiwen Xu, Tianwen Huang, Dianbo Qu
      Abstract: The mammalian brain, especially the cerebral cortex, has evolved to increase in size and complexity. The proper development of the cerebral cortex requires the coordination of several events, such as differentiation and migration, that are essential for forming a precise six-layered structure. We have previously reported that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of JIP1 at T205 modulates axonal out-growth. However, the spatiotemporal expression patterns and functions of these three genes (Cdk5, Cdk5r1 or p35, and Mapk8ip1 or JIP1) in distinct cell types during cortical development remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed single-cell RNA-sequencing data of mouse embryonic cortex and discovered that Cdk5, p35, and JIP1 are dynamically expressed in intermediate progenitors (IPs). Pseudotime analysis revealed that the expression of these three genes was concomitantly upregulated in IPs during neuronal migration and differentiation. By manipulating the expression of JIP1 and phospho-mimetic JIP1 using in utero electroporation, we showed that phosphorylated JIP1 at T205 affected the temporal migration of neurons.
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Licensing effects of inflammatory factors and TLR ligands on the
           regenerative capacity of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    • Authors: Diána Szűcs, Tamás Monostori, Vanda Miklós, Zoltán G. Páhi, Szilárd Póliska, Lajos Kemény, Zoltán Veréb
      Abstract: Introduction: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are promising contributors to regenerative medicine, exhibiting the ability to regenerate tissues and modulate the immune system, which is particularly beneficial for addressing chronic inflammatory ulcers and wounds. Despite their inherent capabilities, research suggests that pretreatment amplifies therapeutic effectiveness.Methods: Our experimental design exposed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to six inflammatory factors for 24 h. We subsequently evaluated gene expression and proteome profile alterations and observed the wound closure rate post-treatment.Results: Specific pretreatments, such as IL‐1β, notably demonstrated an accelerated wound‐healing process. Analysis of gene and protein expression profiles revealed alterations in pathways associated with tissue regeneration.Discussion: This suggests that licensed cells exhibit potentially higher therapeutic efficiency than untreated cells, shedding light on optimizing regenerative strategies using adipose tissue-derived stem cells.
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Advances in understanding the reproductive toxicity of
           endocrine-disrupting chemicals in women

    • Authors: Jinguang Wang, Chunwu Zhao, Jie Feng, Pingping Sun, Yuhua Zhang, Ailing Han, Yuemin Zhang, Huagang Ma
      Abstract: Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in disorders of the female reproductive system, accompanied by a rise in adverse pregnancy outcomes. This trend is increasingly being linked to environmental pollution, particularly through the lens of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs). These external agents disrupt natural processes of hormones, including synthesis, metabolism, secretion, transport, binding, as well as elimination. These disruptions can significantly impair human reproductive functions. A wealth of animal studies and epidemiological research indicates that exposure to toxic environmental factors can interfere with the endocrine system’s normal functioning, resulting in negative reproductive outcomes. However, the mechanisms of these adverse effects are largely unknown. This work reviews the reproductive toxicity of five major environmental EDCs—Bisphenol A (BPA), Phthalates (PAEs), Triclocarban Triclosan and Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)—to lay a foundational theoretical basis for further toxicological study of EDCs. Additionally, it aims to spark advancements in the prevention and treatment of female reproductive toxicity caused by these chemicals.
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Cardiac commitment driven by MyoD expression in pericardial stem cells

    • Authors: Jianfeng Zhao, Limei Rui, Weili Ouyang, Yingcai Hao, Yusong Liu, Jianfeng Tang, Zheheng Ding, Zenghui Teng, Xueqing Liu, Hongtao Zhu, Zhaoping Ding
      Abstract: Cellular therapy holds immense promise to remuscularize the damaged myocardium but is practically hindered by limited allogeneic sources of cardiac-committed cells that engraft stably in the recipient heart after transplantation. Here, we demonstrate that the pericardial tissue harbors myogenic stem cells (pSCs) that are activated in response to inflammatory signaling after myocardial infarction (MI). The pSCs derived from the MI rats (MI-pSCs) show in vivo and in vitro cardiac commitment characterized by cardiac-specific Tnnt2 expression and formation of rhythmic contraction in culture. Bulk RNA-seq analysis reveals significant upregulation of a panel of genes related to cardiac/myogenic differentiation, paracrine factors, and extracellular matrix in the activated pSCs compared to the control pSCs (Sham-pSCs). Notably, we define MyoD as a key factor that governs the process of cardiac commitment, as siRNA-mediated MyoD gene silencing results in a significant reduction of myogenic potential. Injection of the cardiac-committed cells into the infarcted rat heart leads to long-term survival and stable engraftment in the recipient myocardium. Therefore, these findings point to pericardial myogenic progenitors as an attractive candidate for cardiac cell-based therapy to remuscularize the damaged myocardium.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Aberrant stem cell and developmental programs in pediatric leukemia

    • Authors: Rebecca E. Ling, Joe W. Cross, Anindita Roy
      Abstract: Hematopoiesis is a finely orchestrated process, whereby hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all mature blood cells. Crucially, they maintain the ability to self-renew and/or differentiate to replenish downstream progeny. This process starts at an embryonic stage and continues throughout the human lifespan. Blood cancers such as leukemia occur when normal hematopoiesis is disrupted, leading to uncontrolled proliferation and a block in differentiation of progenitors of a particular lineage (myeloid or lymphoid). Although normal stem cell programs are crucial for tissue homeostasis, these can be co-opted in many cancers, including leukemia. Myeloid or lymphoid leukemias often display stem cell-like properties that not only allow proliferation and survival of leukemic blasts but also enable them to escape treatments currently employed to treat patients. In addition, some leukemias, especially in children, have a fetal stem cell profile, which may reflect the developmental origins of the disease. Aberrant fetal stem cell programs necessary for leukemia maintenance are particularly attractive therapeutic targets. Understanding how hijacked stem cell programs lead to aberrant gene expression in place and time, and drive the biology of leukemia, will help us develop the best treatment strategies for patients.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Revolutionizing pediatric neuroblastoma treatment: unraveling new
           molecular targets for precision interventions

    • Authors: Min Zheng, Ankush Kumar, Vishakha Sharma, Tapan Behl, Aayush Sehgal, Pranay Wal, Nirmala Vikram Shinde, Bhosale Sachin Kawaduji, Anupriya Kapoor, Md. Khalid Anwer, Monica Gulati, Bairong Shen, Rajeev K. Singla, Simona Gabriela Bungau
      Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent solid tumor in pediatric cases, contributing to around 15% of childhood cancer-related deaths. The wide-ranging genetic, morphological, and clinical diversity within NB complicates the success of current treatment methods. Acquiring an in-depth understanding of genetic alterations implicated in the development of NB is essential for creating safer and more efficient therapies for this severe condition. Several molecular signatures are being studied as potential targets for developing new treatments for NB patients. In this article, we have examined the molecular factors and genetic irregularities, including those within insulin gene enhancer binding protein 1 (ISL1), dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) and murine double minute 2-tumor protein 53 (MDM2-P53) that play an essential role in the development of NB. A thorough summary of the molecular targeted treatments currently being studied in pre-clinical and clinical trials has been described. Recent studies of immunotherapeutic agents used in NB are also studied in this article. Moreover, we explore potential future directions to discover new targets and treatments to enhance existing therapies and ultimately improve treatment outcomes and survival rates for NB patients.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Caught in action: how MSCs modulate atherosclerotic plaque

    • Authors: Virginia Egea
      Abstract: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a medical condition marked by the stiffening and constriction of the arteries. This is caused by the accumulation of plaque, a substance made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other elements present in the blood. Over time, this plaque solidifies and constricts the arteries, restricting the circulation of oxygen-rich blood to the organs and other body parts. The onset and progression of AS involve a continuous inflammatory response, including the infiltration of inflammatory cells, foam cells derived from monocytes/macrophages, and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a type of multipotent stem cells originating from various body tissues, have recently been demonstrated to have a protective and regulatory role in diseases involving inflammation. Consequently, the transplantation of MSCs is being proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis treatment. This mini-review intends to provide a summary of the regulatory effects of MSCs at the plaque site to lay the groundwork for therapeutic interventions.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Activating transcription factor 4: a regulator of stress response in human
           cancers

    • Authors: Di Wu, Jie Liang
      Abstract: Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is an adaptive response regulator of metabolic and oxidative homeostasis. In response to cellular stress, ATF4 is activated and functions as a regulator to promote cell adaptation for survival. As a transcriptional regulator, ATF4 also widely participates in the regulation of amino acid metabolism, autophagy, redox homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Moreover, ATF4 is associated with the initiation and progression of glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. This review primarily aims to elucidate the functions of ATF4 and its role in multiple cancer contexts. This review proposes potential therapeutic targets for clinical intervention.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Deciphering perivascular macrophages and microglia in the retinal ganglion
           cell layers

    • Authors: Jehwi Jeon, Yong Soo Park, Sang-Hoon Kim, Eunji Kong, Jay Kim, Jee Myung Yang, Joo Yong Lee, You-Me Kim, In-Beom Kim, Pilhan Kim
      Abstract: Introduction: The classically defined two retinal microglia layers are distributed in inner and outer plexiform layers. Although there are some reports that retinal microglia are also superficially located around the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in contact with the vitreous, there has been a lack of detailed descriptions and not fully understood yet.Methods: We visualized the microglial layers by using CX3CR1-GFP (C57BL6) transgenic mice with both healthy and disease conditions including NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration models and IRBP-induced auto-immune uveitis models.Result: We found the GCL microglia has two subsets; peripheral (pph) microglia located on the retinal parenchyma and BAM (CNS Border Associated Macrophage) which have a special stretched phenotype only located on the surface of large retinal veins. First, in the pph microglia subset, but not in BAM, Galectin-3 and LYVE1 are focally expressed. However, LYVE1 is specifically expressed in the amoeboid or transition forms, except the typical dendritic morphology in the pph microglia. Second, BAM is tightly attached to the surface of the retinal veins and has similar morphology patterns in both the healthy and disease conditions. CD86+ BAM has a longer process which vertically passes the proximal retinal veins. Our data helps decipher the basic anatomy and pathophysiology of the retinal microglia in the GCL.Discussion: Our data helps decipher the basic anatomy and pathophysiology of the retinal microglia in the GCL.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms with concomitant CALR mutation and
           BCR::ABL1 translocation: diagnostic and therapeutic implications of a rare
           hybrid disease

    • Authors: Magda Zanelli, Valentina Fragliasso, Giuseppe Gaetano Loscocco, Francesca Sanguedolce, Giuseppe Broggi, Maurizio Zizzo, Andrea Palicelli, Stefano Ricci, Elisa Ambrogi, Giovanni Martino, Sara Aversa, Francesca Coppa, Pietro Gentile, Fabrizio Gozzi, Rosario Caltabiano, Nektarios Koufopoulos, Aleksandra Asaturova, Luca Cimino, Alberto Cavazza, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Stefano Ascani
      Abstract: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are subdivided into Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Ph-negative MPNs. BCR::ABL1 translocation is essential for the development and diagnosis of CML; on the other hand, the majority of Ph-negative MPNs are characterized by generally mutually exclusive mutations of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), or thrombopoietin receptor/myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL). CALR mutations have been described essentially in JAK2 and MPL wild-type essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Rarely coexisting CALR and MPL mutations have been found in Ph-negative MPNs. BCR::ABL1 translocation and JAK2 mutations were initially considered mutually exclusive genomic events, but a discrete number of cases with the combination of these genetic alterations have been reported. The presence of BCR::ABL1 translocation with a coexisting CALR mutation is even more uncommon. Herein, starting from a routinely diagnosed case of CALR-mutated primary myelofibrosis subsequently acquiring BCR::ABL1 translocation, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature, discussing the clinicopathologic and molecular features, as well as the outcome and treatment of cases with BCR::ABL1 and CALR co-occurrence.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of the prenatal and postnatal nurturing environment on the
           phenotype and gut microbiota of mice with polycystic ovary syndrome
           induced by prenatal androgen exposure: a cross-fostering study

    • Authors: Akari Kusamoto, Miyuki Harada, Ayaka Minemura, Asami Matsumoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Nanoka Sakaguchi, Jerilee M. K. Azhary, Hiroshi Koike, Zixin Xu, Tsurugi Tanaka, Yoko Urata, Chisato Kunitomi, Nozomi Takahashi, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Yasushi Hirota, Yutaka Osuga
      Abstract: The gut microbiome is implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and prenatal androgen exposure is involved in the development of PCOS in later life. Our previous study of a mouse model of PCOS induced by prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure showed that the reproductive phenotype of PCOS appears from puberty, followed by the appearance of the metabolic phenotype after young adulthood, while changes in the gut microbiota was already apparent before puberty. To determine whether the prenatal or postnatal nurturing environment primarily contributes to these changes that characterize prenatally androgenized (PNA) offspring, we used a cross-fostering model to evaluate the effects of changes in the postnatal early-life environment of PNA offspring on the development of PCOS-like phenotypes and alterations in the gut microbiota in later life. Female PNA offspring fostered by normal dams (exposed to an abnormal prenatal environment only, fostered PNA) exhibited less marked PCOS-like phenotypes than PNA offspring, especially with respect to the metabolic phenotype. The gut microbiota of the fostered PNA offspring was similar to that of controls before adolescence, but differences between the fostered PNA and control groups became apparent after young adulthood. In conclusion, both prenatal androgen exposure and the postnatal early-life environment created by the DHT injection of mothers contribute to the development of PCOS-like phenotypes and the alterations in the gut microbiota that characterize PNA offspring. Thus, both the pre- and postnatal environments represent targets for the prevention of PCOS and the associated alteration in the gut microbiota in later life.
      PubDate: 2024-03-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • A review of long non-coding RNAs in ankylosing spondylitis: pathogenesis,
           clinical assessment, and therapeutic targets

    • Authors: Hanji Wang, Chengxian Yang, Ge Li, Boning Wang, Longtao Qi, Yu Wang
      Abstract: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic immune-mediated type of inflammatory arthritis characterized by inflammation, bone erosion, and stiffness of the spine and sacroiliac joints. Despite great efforts put into the investigation of the disease, the pathogenesis of AS remains unclear, posing challenges in identifying ideal targets for diagnosis and treatment. To enhance our understanding of AS, an increasing number of studies have been conducted. Some of these studies reveal that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in the etiology of AS. Some certain lncRNAs influence the development of AS by regulating inflammatory responses, autophagy, apoptosis, and adipogenesis, as well as the proliferation and differentiation of cells. Additionally, some lncRNAs demonstrate potential as biomarkers, aiding in monitoring disease progression and predicting prognosis. In this review, we summarize recent studies concerning lncRNAs in AS to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in which lncRNAs are involved and their potential values as biomarkers for disease assessment and druggable targets for therapy.
      PubDate: 2024-03-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • Role of autophagy in ischemic stroke: insights from animal models and
           preliminary evidence in the human disease

    • Authors: Rosita Stanzione, Donatella Pietrangelo, Maria Cotugno, Maurizio Forte, Speranza Rubattu
      Abstract: Stroke represents a main cause of death and permanent disability worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral injury in response to the ischemic insults are not completely understood. In this article, we summarize recent evidence regarding the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke by reviewing data obtained in murine models of either transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Few preliminary observational studies investigating the role of autophagy in subjects at high cerebrovascular risk and in cohorts of stroke patients were also reviewed. Autophagy plays a dual role in neuronal and vascular cells by exerting both protective and detrimental effects depending on its level, duration of stress and type of cells involved. Protective autophagy exerts adaptive mechanisms which reduce neuronal loss and promote survival. On the other hand, excessive activation of autophagy leads to neuronal cell death and increases brain injury. In conclusion, the evidence reviewed suggests that a proper manipulation of autophagy may represent an interesting strategy to either prevent or reduce brain ischemic injury.
      PubDate: 2024-03-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Mechanisms of microenvironment governed plasticity and
           progression in solid tumors

    • Authors: Jonathan A. Kelber, Marcin Iwanicki, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio, Benjamin T. Spike, Michelle M. Martínez-Montemayor
      PubDate: 2024-03-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • N6-methyladenosine-modified circ_0000337 sustains bortezomib resistance in
           multiple myeloma by regulating DNA repair

    • Authors: Siyi Jiang, Lili Gao, Jian Li, Fangrong Zhang, Yanan Zhang, Jing Liu
      Abstract: Studies have shown that bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) is mediated by the abnormalities of various molecules and microenvironments. Exploring these resistance mechanisms will improve the therapeutic efficacy of bortezomib. In this study, bone marrow tissues from three patients with MM, both sensitive and resistant to bortezomib, were collected for circRNA high-throughput sequencing analysis. The relationship between circ_0000337, miR-98-5p, and target gene DNA2 was analyzed by luciferase detection and verified by RT-qPCR. We first found that circ_0000337 was significantly upregulated in bortezomib-resistant MM tissues and cells, and overexpression of circ_0000337 could promote bortezomib resistance in MM cells. circ_0000337 may act as a miR-98-5p sponge to upregulate DNA2 expression, regulate DNA damage repair, and induce bortezomib resistance. Furthermore, it was determined that the increased circ_0000337 level in bortezomib-resistant cells was due to an increased N6-methyladenosine (m6A) level, resulting in enhanced RNA stability. In conclusion, the m6A level of circ_0000337 and its regulation may be a new and potential therapeutic target for overcoming bortezomib resistance in MM.
      PubDate: 2024-03-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Tissue regeneration using dental stem cells

    • Authors: Marco Tatullo, Ian Ellis, Mohammad Islam
      PubDate: 2024-03-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Manipulating Myc for reparative regeneration

    • Authors: Camilla Ascanelli, Rowda Dahir, Catherine H. Wilson
      Abstract: The Myc family of proto-oncogenes is a key node for the signal transduction of external pro-proliferative signals to the cellular processes required for development, tissue homoeostasis maintenance, and regeneration across evolution. The tight regulation of Myc synthesis and activity is essential for restricting its oncogenic potential. In this review, we highlight the central role that Myc plays in regeneration across the animal kingdom (from Cnidaria to echinoderms to Chordata) and how Myc could be employed to unlock the regenerative potential of non-regenerative tissues in humans for therapeutic purposes. Mastering the fine balance of harnessing the ability of Myc to promote transcription without triggering oncogenesis may open the door to many exciting opportunities for therapeutic development across a wide array of diseases.
      PubDate: 2024-03-21T00:00:00Z
       
 
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Heriot-Watt University
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Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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