Publisher: Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University   (Total: 2 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Technology of Education J.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Computational and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Technology of Education Journal
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-0441 - ISSN (Online) 2345-5462
Published by Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Investigation of Decision-Making Computational cortex-like mechanism
           models ‎in Neuroeducation

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Methods of pedagogy, for a long time, have been a social practice based on direct experiences from the past, and many of teaching methods have been traditionally formed. These methods were not supported by a scientific theory-based system and failed to keep up with the rapidly changing social needs. Neuroeducation is an experimental science and an interdisciplinary field that applies the latest theoretical advances in the human brain and psychology to education. By studying the theories in neuroeducation, it enables us to improve optimal presentation of contents for a course, teaching strategy and teaching methods of new subjects, and simultaneously improve students' computational thinking ability. One way that these theories can be tested is to study how decision-making is formed in the human brain. Goal-based decisions and behaviors depend on both sensory evidence mechanisms that collect perceptual information from the outside and mechanisms that select appropriate behaviors based on that sensory information which is decision-making mechanisms. Behaviorism is one of the basic foundations of theories of learning and behavior. One way to study behavior in detail is to use computational models based on brain biology that have been developed by neuroscientists in recent years. In this paper we try to explore the relationship between neuroeducation and pedagogy by studying theoretical achievements in computational neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience and psychology.Methods: To investigate this issue, a neural-computational model of brain-based for decision making was used. This model consists of two recurrent dynamic neurons that can explore how perceptual decisions are formed in complex behavioral spaces and show the key parameters of decision-making process. In this study, we designed three different experiments in the model that included the accuracy-speed trade-off when responding, the effect of attention on decision making, and the impact of the confidence of decision, and then analyzed how the parameters and model's behavior change then we map the parameters to the classroom and changes in student’s brain. Finally, we used linear regression model to study the relationships and correlations between the parameters of the model’s behavior.Findings: The results showed that using this decision-making computational model opened a way to study the speed-accuracy trade-off of students while answering exam questions and then, by using the model, an optimal trade-off could be found to answer the questions. Also, the analysis of model parameters showed that the level of students' attention in the classroom could be measured by the model and it had an important effect on decision making and answering the questions. Finally, the model could show the effect of students’ confidence on their performance and based on the fitted data of the model to students' behavioral data, we could make optimal suggestions from the perspective of educational psychology.Conclusion: In this study, we show that by using decision-making neural-computational models, students' behavior in the classroom can be modeled. Educational science experts and psychologists in the field of pedagogy can use the findings to provide the best and most optimal teaching methods for teaching easily and the flourishing of students' creativity.
       
  • The view of MOOC researches in Iran and the world

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: The new changes and approaches created by Covid 19 and the rapid movement into the digital world in education have led to the development of technological skills and self-directed learning for students. This has led to the use of new learning models using technologies such as MOOCs (massive open online courses). Optimal utilization of MOOC facilities requires review of the latest research conducted inside and outside the country. Given the dispersion of these studies, their integration and aggregation in a comprehensive framework and the study of research priorities of each group seems necessary. A review of the research literature indicates that the number of meta-analyses conducted in the field of MOOC is limited and the studies were mostly conducted several years ago. Therefore, considering the speed of growth of this technology, especially in recent years, this research tries to collect and present useful information from new studies in this field in Iran and the world for the development of researchers' perspectives. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to outline the image of MOOC field research at the local and global scale.Methods: This research is applied in terms of purpose, descriptive in terms of data collection method and qualitative/quantitative in terms of nature of the data. The method of data collection is to examine documentary studies by electronic search of articles available on the Internet and extracting their files. The research method was meta-analysis in accordance with the Rathe and Schell model and the statistical population of the research is all local and foreign doctoral dissertations and scientific research articles in the field of MOOC, which were indexed in Irandoc, Gigalib, Magiran, SID, Springer and Science Direct site, and also, the articles to which access was provided through the Google Scholar search engine. The statistical sample included 6 doctoral dissertations and 42 foreign papers in English and 5 doctoral dissertations and 18 local papers, a total of 69 local and foreign studies that were selected via purposive sampling. The input criteria of the studies were related to the subject of MOOC, electronic publication, publication in the last five years and publication in databases and authoritative journals, which among them, the studies that were carried out from a technical point of view in the field of MOOC or have been not scientifically valid or access to their full text was not possible, were excluded from the statistical sample. The selected studies were entered into Max QDA software for content analysis and were divided into two groups of internal and external categories, and then were categorized based on the year of publication to remove duplicate articles and to compare and review articles more closely. After that, the content of each article was carefully reviewed and the important contents of each article such as title, keywords, type of MOOC were discussed. The educational level of MOOC content in these researches was coded using descriptive statistics and comparison of data in two categories of local and foreign research were conducted.  Findings: The findings of this study indicate that in general, the literature of MOOC in Iran and the world is mainly concerned with the following themes: the effectiveness of MOOC, Developing an educational design model for MOOCs, Challenges and solutions in MOOCs, Factors influencing the focus and analysis of research. In addition, in Iranian studies, in comparison with the international ones, the issues of interaction in MOOCs, hybrid MOOCs and student MOOCs have been very limited and insignificant.Conclusion: The lack of technical preparation and internet infrastructure and the lack of technological literacy among the students and the lack of attention to the necessity of interaction can be the possible reasons underlying lack of sufficient attention to hybrid and student MOOCs, but with the restrictions of Corona virus and forced shift of education to virtual space, they have relatively improved and their necessity has been highlighted. Therefore, with regard to the findings of the current research, regarding the importance of interaction, hybrid MOOCs and student MOOCs in foreign research, in order to make more use of the possibilities of MOOCs, it is necessary to pay attention to these topics in Iran as well. 
       
  • The effect of personal hygiene education through comic strip media on
           students' social skills

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: School students are often exposed to health risks due to insufficient knowledge of personal hygiene and its methods. Problems caused by non-observance of personal hygiene appear serious in public health and play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and the severance of social ties. The importance of studying and using comic strip media with health topics in education is that it provides an opportunity for the students to reflect on the effectiveness of medications, the pressures on patients and their families, and even on their inner experiences. Therefore, considering the importance of personal health education in sensitive childhood and school years, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of education by comic strip personal health media on social skills of fourth-grade elementary students. Methods: The present study is of applied type and based on quasi-experimental data collection criteria. The statistical population of the study was all fourth-grade students in Dezful in the academic year 2020-2021. The size of the statistical population was 1825 students. A total of 30 students were included in the sample and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups (15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group). The tools used in this study were researcher-made comic strip media as well as the Garshasm and Priority’s (1990) Social Skills Questionnaire, which was completed in two stages: pre-test and post-test. The training program was performed in 8 sessions of 45 minutes for three weeks for the experimental group and the control group received no intervention. At the end of the intervention period, both groups were re-evaluated. In order to check the data, SPSS software (Version 22) and covariance method were analyzed. It should be noted that the assumptions of the test were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levine tests. Findings: The findings obtained after repeated analysis of data showed that there was a significant difference between the participants in the experimental group and the control group in terms of the rate of acquisition of social skills. The social skills of students who learned personal hygiene using comic strip media were higher than that of those students in the control group. Therefore, the use of intervention method (training by personal health comic strip media) was effective on the social skills variable (P≤0.05). Conclusion: Using comic strip as an attractive visual medium to teach personal health content can strengthen the social skills of fourth-grade elementary students by actively interpreting incomplete frames of comic strip, and being actively engaged with the stories. And health narratives will interact, and as a result, their knowledge and literacy in how to create and promote desirable and healthy social skills in real-life situations will improve. Comic strip media seems to be a suitable tool and a good option for educating learners due to its objectivity and suitability to the stage of children's development; Therefore, it is suggested that the use of this new media be on the agenda of education in order to familiarize and deepen students' learning experiences in the field of social skills training.
       
  • Comparing the effectiveness of flipped teaching and teaching metacognitive
           strategies in science lessons on students' self-efficacy

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Today, education in schools requires the use of methods that make learning enjoyable and effective for students. On the other hand, applying the suggestions and paying attention to the results of this research can change the attitude of teachers, planners, and educational policy makers towards using more and more targeted new approaches in education. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of reverse education and teaching strategies. Metacognition was taught to check its effect on students' self-efficacy in science.Methods: The research method was a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test type with a control group in terms of practical purpose and in terms of data collection method. The statistical population was all the female students of the first year of high school in the 1st district of Karaj in 2021. According to the entry and exit criteria in the study, 45 people were selected based on Cochran's formula and based on the purposeful sampling method and were randomly divided into three groups. The tools used in this research were Scherer's self-efficacy questionnaire (1986). First, the selected students were divided into three equal groups and based on the random method, one group was identified as the first experimental group, the second group as the second experimental group, and the third group as the control group. In the pre-test phase, the dependent variable (self-efficacy in this study) was checked in all three experimental groups, the second experimental group and the control group. The independent variable (reversal training) was implemented in the first experimental group and the training of metacognitive strategies in the second experimental group, and the control group received no training. In the post-test phase, the dependent variable (self-efficacy) was checked in all three groups of the first experiment, the second experiment and the control group, and in the follow-up phase, one month after the post-test phase, the dependent variables (self-efficacy) was checked in both experimental groups. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and inferential statistics were used to test the research hypotheses.Findings: There is a difference between the effectiveness of reverse education and the teaching of metacognitive strategies in science lessons on students' self-efficacy. The effect of flipped teaching in increasing the self-efficacy of students in science lessons has a good stability over time. The effect of teaching metacognitive strategies in increasing the self-efficacy of students in science lessons has a good stability over time.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present research, it can be concluded that flipped teaching and training of metacognitive strategies are effective in improving self-efficacy. Also, the teaching of metacognitive strategies in increasing students' self-efficacy in science lessons has a good stability over time. The effect of reverse education in increasing students' self-efficacy in science lessons has a good stability over time. It is suggested to investigate the effect of the flipped classroom teaching method on other variables such as the reduction of learned helplessness, problem solving skills, etc. in other courses and levels of study. On the other hand, it is suggested that the Ministry of Education and Culture hold educational workshops and in-service classes to reduce the traditional norms of teachers in order to inform them of the effectiveness of the reverse learning approach and educational platforms. Also, according to the technological infrastructure of this approach, educational content production workshops should be held for teachers.
       
  • Intelligent learners' cognitive style detection based on their interaction
           in the English language teaching system

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Today, e-learning is considered as a transformational technology and an important tool in the process of education and educational activities. On the other hand, the need to learn English as the first language in the world in order to exchange information and communicate with other nations in order to use up-to-date knowledge is undeniable, so the use of information technology to produce and provide educational services to improve English language teaching and learning is effective. Identifying the effective factors in achieving learning is one of the important and researched cases. Since the factors affecting learning are very wide and extensive, it is important to identify these factors in solving the problems and shortcomings of the educational system. One of these factors is cognitive style. People use different learning styles according to their individual differences. Cognitive style can be defined as the way people process new information and experiences in their minds; therefore, it is necessary to create a personalized environment based on the cognitive style of individuals in order to better adapt the educational strategy to the needs and abilities of the user and increase the efficiency of the learning process. In this research, Riding’s cognitive style, which divides people into two dimensions, verbal-imagery and wholistic-analytic, is used as an effective factor in learning. This study aims to predict the cognitive style of riding, based on the mouse movement of users in a language teaching software. In this regard, the language training software was designed and implemented, in which all the user's mouse movements are recorded on a millisecond scale when reading the English text and using the media designed in the software. Next, by using machine learning methods and interactive data stored from users while working with the software, an intelligent model was presented that categorizes people in two dimensions based on Riding’s cognitive style. This research is practical in terms of purpose.Methods: In this study, Peterson’s cognitive style test is used to extract learners' cognitive style with the aim of constructing labeled data. Also, individuals’ mouse data is recorded when interacting with software, and artificial intelligence-based machine learning algorithms and models are used to build intelligent models for classifying and predicting individuals' cognitive styles. The process of training and building smart models is done through labeled data. Finally, the models used are evaluated by comparing the results of the cognitive style test and the outputs of the intelligent models. In the exams, male and female students aged between 22 and 35, with bachelor's and master's degrees familiar with English participated.Findings: Users stored interactive data was used as the input to the five classifiers of the decision tree, neural network, nearest neighbor, support vector machine, and random forest. Patterson test results were also used as labels for these models; thus, individuals were categorized into two dimensions based on Riding’s cognitive style. The best classification was related to the decision tree with 90% accuracy in the verbal-imagery dimension and 87% accuracy in the wholist-analytic dimension of the results of this research.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the designed language teaching system can intelligently extract the cognitive style of people when reading the English passage with appropriate accuracy. Therefore, in the future, the ability to provide personalized content in accordance with the cognitive style of people can be added to the designed software.
       
  • The effect of different roles of pedagogical agents on learning, retention
           and academic engagement of students in sixth-grade science course

    • Abstract: in the learning process of students; one of these technologies is educational multimedia. Among the principles and criteria of multimedia production is the use of educational agent in its design. An educational agent is an animated character that talks and is embedded in educational computer programs and helps to provide multimedia content or students' participation in learning. Although there have been numerous studies with the aim of investigating the effect of the educational agent in education, there has been no research regarding the use of several educational agents with different roles in educational multimedia. In this study, using multimedia with one educational agent and multimedia with three educational agents (each of which has a different role), and the effect of educational agents on learning, retention and academic engagement of students in science course was investigated.Methods: The statistical population of the research included all sixth-grade students in Khorram Abad in the academic year of 2020-2021. Using random sampling method, three classes of 30 students were selected among the sixth-grade classes of Khorram Abad schools and were randomly assigned to experimental groups. The research method was quasi-experimental with a pre-test-post-test design. The research tools included a researcher-made learning test, a retention test, and Rio's academic engagement questionnaire, and the reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.821 using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the academic engagement questionnaire. The classrooms were taught simultaneously and separately for four sessions using educational multimedia tools developed by the researcher.Findings: The results of covariance analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental science course scores in the groups (F=68.42, P<0.005) and the use of educational agent had a significant effect on learning. The difference in the average scores of the post-test learning of students who were trained with one educational agent (experiment group one) and students who were trained with three educational agents with different roles (experiment group two) was -9.35 and with 95% confidence of using three educational agents was more effective than using an educational agent and led to better learning of science lessons. In the retention variable, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental groups (1 and 2) and the control group (F=7.6, P<0.05) and the use of an educational agent had an effect on retention compared to not using an educational agent and the presence of an educational agent in the education process led to better retention of information in the memory in the long run. The difference between the average scores of the memory test of the students of experiment group one and the students of experiment group two was -0.928 and there was no significant difference between the use of three educational agents compared to the use of one educational agent. In the variable of academic engagement, there was a significant difference between the grades of groups (F=7.24, P<0.05) and the use of educational agents had a significant effect on academic engagement, and the students of experimental groups 1 and 2 who were trained with educational agents. They had more engagement in academic assignments and tasks. Moreover, according to the results, using three educational agents with different roles was more effective than using one educational agent and caused more active engagement of experimental group 2 in doing the academic assignments of the science course.
       
  • The effectiveness of augmented reality-based mathematics education in
           cyberspace on student teachers’ lifelong learning and academic
           engagement

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Nowadays, one of the most basic things in education and learning is the use of technology in educational environments. By using the latest technology in the world, the level of learning can be significantly improved and therefore, the level of public awareness can be raised. This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of augmented reality-based mathematics education in cyberspace on student teachers’ lifelong learning and their academic engagement and also comparing it with the existing (traditional) method.Methods: The research method used in this study was quasi-experimental research method with a pretest-posttest experimental-control group design. The statistical population of the study included all student teachers with elementary education major in Shahid Beheshti university of Hormozgan. A total number of 40 participants were purposefully selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (20 subjects in each group). The control group was traditionally ran based on cyberspace (Adobe Connect), and the experimental group was based on augmented reality-based method in cyberspace. The participants in experimental group were trained in 6 one-hour sessions by installing Microsoft Math Solver application on their cellphones. Research instruments included the Lifelong Learning Questionnaire of Wetzel et al. (2010) and Academic Engagement Questionnaire of Schaufeli et al. (2002)Findings: Findings of this study revealed that augmented reality-based mathematics education in cyberspace affected the student teachers’ lifelong learning and academic motivation, and increased their lifelong learning and academic engagement.Conclusion: According to the results of the experiments, the performance of the experimental group in using mathematics education based on augmented reality in cyberspace and its effect on lifelong learning and academic motivation were reported to be useful and effective. Augmented reality technology can be used as an educational method that not only draws students' attention to the subject being taught, but also due to its appropriate and user-friendly visual interaction procedures, it can provide a deeper learning while allows for being integrated with reality and thereby, can be considered as a competitor to traditional teaching tools. Also, the fascination of this type of teaching increases the interest in the environment and leads to the enthusiasm and interest of people, which is one of the important components for learning. In general, the augmented reality-based teaching method increases the student-teacher understanding of themselves and boost the speed of learning, and as a result, leads to learning desire, which increases their effort. Expanding the information of student teachers in the field of augmented reality education and holding in-service courses for teachers and providing augmented reality-based education are some of the practical suggestions of this article.
       
  • Features of media literacy education curriculum in the second primary

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Given the importance of media literacy education to children in the curricula of many schools around the world and the gaps in media literacy education in Iran as well as the emphasis of various studies on using learning-based methods based on information-processing models and social learning in media literacy education, the question arises as to what the characteristics of media literacy curriculum elements are according to previous studies in the field of media literacy education. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the second primary media literacy curriculum elements for functional consuming(FC), critical consuming(CC), functional presuming(FP), and critical presuming(CP) media.Methods: This research was conducted using mixed-methods design (qualitative and quantitative). In the first stage, to identify the features of the media literacy curriculum of the second primary school, the qualitative method of synthesis research (qualitative Meta-Synthesis) was used, and in the next stage, to examine the opinion of experts from the descriptive-survey method and to evaluate the effect of program implementation, a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test design with a control and experimental group was used. The statistical population of this study consisted of three groups, A) The studies published in the field of media literacy education were in local and international scientific databases; out of 4309, 18 related documents in the field of media literacy were purposefully selected as samples, B) In the initial validation section of the project, 15 specialists were purposefully selected (with criteria of expertise and experience in the field of media literacy education) from the statistical community of instructors and curriculum planning specialists in the field of media literacy as a sample, and C) In the quantitative part of the statistical population, the students of the second primary school in Hamedan in the academic year of 2019-2020 were included who were selected as a research sample using the multi-stage random cluster sampling method and consisted of a total of 63 sixth-grade female students. In order to analyze the data, to extract information from research and to analyze and combine the findings in determining the characteristics of the curriculum, the content analysis method was used via coding. At this stage, in addition to using the CASP tool in selecting appropriate study units, to ensure the coding method, in addition to using the researcher self-review technique, two experts in the field of communication and curriculum were used to re-codify the findings. In the second stage, using a researcher-made questionnaire, the data obtained from the survey to validate the curriculum were evaluated with a CVR coefficient. In the third stage, in order to analyze the data obtained from the researcher-made tests (functional evaluation, parent evaluation and self-evaluation) in four levels of functional consumption, critical consumption, functional prosumption, and critical prosumption, according to the fact that the data does not have a normal distribution in the pre-test and post-test, the Uman-Whitney test was used.Findings: Findings of the research in the meta-analysis section indicated characteristics such as attention to critical approach, critical media literacy, cognitive media literacy and new media literacy, and the basics of the philosophy program for children in the basics element; Acquisition and promotion of media consumption indicators included (fostering caring thinking), critical media literacy (fostering critical thinking) and producing media messages (fostering creative thinking) in the target element; Attention to cognitive, emotional, aesthetic and moral dimensions, students' life experiences in the face of different media, components emphasized in media literacy theories and in combination with other courses were included in the content element; Attention to discussion and participation in classroom community of inquiry, research-oriented, based on personal (individual) patterns, as well as the use of integrated methods were considered in the method element; Emphasis on discussion, attention to different cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions, use of different evaluation tools as well as metacognitive self-evaluation were the elements of media literacy curriculum evaluation in the second primary school. In the field of validation according to experts, due to the higher CVR coefficient obtained in all items of the minimum acceptable coefficient for 15 people (0.49), the features mentioned in the curriculum of the second primary school were confirmed. In the study of the effect of the implemented curriculum on media literacy competencies of second primary school students, the results of Mann-Whitney post-test showed that the effect of the experimental group was significant at the confidence level of 0.95 (P = 0.000, Z = -5.93).Conclusion: Combining library studies, experimental designs, and interviews with experts in previous studies, as well as validating the features extracted by experts in the field of media literacy training and model effectiveness in implementation suggests a curriculum during which students form a research community  to find, build, and engage in media messages involving positive exchange and participation (instead of a competitive environment) in challenging content related to media literacy indicators and results in the cultivation of thoughts based on non-hostile reflection, an increased enjoyment stemming from the ability to read and deeply understand media messages based on dialogue, the development of creativity while creating common perceptions, adherence to ethical principles such as tolerance and acceptance of ambiguities and in general grounding and promoting media literacy and self-leadership through cultivating a variety of caring, critical and creative thinki...
       
  • Designing a Creativity-based Curriculum Model for Student Teachers: a
           Grounded Theory

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Teacher training, as the most important pillar of education, is responsible for training student teachers to enter the serious job of teaching. Creativity is one of the important issues among researchers, especially educational specialists, which should always be investigated and studied. Improving creativity as a concern has always been considered by researchers. The contemporary world has prompted educators and educational planners to look for ways to prepare learners for the future. It is clear that in a period where learners can access to any information in a few seconds by using the Internet, the emphasis on memorizing and the content of textbooks is not enough. The main focus should be on conceptual development, critical thinking, collaboration and above all creativity because in today's world, the possibility of encountering problems for which there is no predetermined solution has increased. Therefore, solving new problems requires creativity. Based on this viewpoint, the aim of the current research is to design a curriculum model based on creativity for student teachers.Methods: This research is based on the qualitative method and is data-oreinted in type, and  of foundation data and the uses dimension analysis approach Participants in the study were specialists curriculum planning and professors of Farhangian University . By criterion sampling for semi - structured and exploratory interviews , 18 individuals were selected. The interviews continued until the theoretical saturation of the data . To analyze the data, open, axial and selective coding were used benefitting from the MAXQDA software . The validity of the data was confirmed by matching methods applied by the members , peer review , and experimental interviews .Findings: Based on the elements of AkKer's curriculum planning, the findings  showed that the logic of the creativity-oriented curriculum is based on the integration of information and communication technology in teaching and learning creativity, localizing creativity, training and improving the creative skills of student teachers to foster creative students after finishing their teacher training program  and entering the schools. . The content should be diverse and multiple, stimulating, using modern educational technologies and multimedia as well as being attractive in content creation. Moreover, the organization of this content should be based on spiral and integrated organization. The teacher has the role of facilitator and stimulator of creativity. Learning activities should be based on mixed methods, workshops, questioning and cooperative learning. Information and communication technology should be used in teaching in order to enrich the teaching process. Also, the creative environment should have features, such as stimulating creativity, collaboration, as well as being based on creative architecture with attractive colorful computer graphics. The evaluation of the curriculum should be qualitative and descriptive,taking place continuously during a period of time. Exposing the learners to different situations of taking tests  , such as creative plays  or group games , creative evaluation by using the learning concepts but different from the cliche types of questions  within the book , holding group or individual exams after providing counselling opportunites in the group, self-assessment,  open goal evaluation , evaluation of creative , process and functional skills are also among other features of a creative environment.Conclusion: Considering the fact that creativity - based curriculum in teacher training course requires an interactive , open and free space ; therefore , along with the prescribed program,such curriculum  requires free and flexible space that is  in accordance with the executive requirements and features . The use of new educational technologies as well as the integration of ict technologies in all curriculum elements is recommended . Moreover, it is suggested that change and transformation in the curriculums of the teacher-training centers should take place in an attempt at making a curriculum of teaching creativity or integrating creativity in the content of other courses, such as the course of principles and teaching methods or the course of the theories of teaching and learning which are more suitable for this work to train creative student teachers in order to take a positive step toward improving the quality of the curriculum of Farhangian university in an attempt at growing and developing the creativity of  of student teachers. 
       
  • Management and evaluation of the effect of electronic personal information
           on the knowledge and skills of students in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of
           Medical Sciences

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Personal information management is one of the most important issues in estimating information retrieval in an organization and among individuals. In this study, with personal information management activities, the amount of knowledge and skills of personal information management status was identified and its changes were examined in terms of age and educational level and the faculty of the place of study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the personal information management activities of students in the University of Medical Sciences and to assess the level of their knowledge and skills.Methods: This study was conducted on personal information management activities (7 activities of Jones model) and in the present study, a review and comparison among seven personal information management activities and two measures of knowledge and skills was presented. The research was conducted using survey method. Based on the purpose in the category of applied research and in terms of data collection and nature, it was descriptive-analytical. The statistical population includeed students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2018-2019 Convenience sampling method was used to determine the statistical population. By determining the total number of students (1300 people) and using Krejcie-Morgan table, the approximate number of 297 students was determined. Data were collected using an adjacent questionnaire (2013). Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and SPSS 22 statistical software were used to analyze the data.Regarding the data set and content with three indicators of knowledge, skills and personal information management, a face-to-face questionnaire was distributed.Findings: Descriptive findings of the study showed that the mean values of knowledge, skills and a total of seven student activities were equal to 1.22, 2.55, 2.50, respectively, and at an undesirable and relatively undesirable level. Among these factors, there was a significant relationship between different faculties and degrees at the significance level of 0.05 and there was a significant relationship among students with different age groups. In this study, it was found that seven activities ultimately improved the performance of individuals in the proper management of information resources and selecting the information they needed. And their skills showed that although students had high knowledge and skills in personal information management, the level of their activities was declining.Conclusion: The results showed that the status of personal information management of students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences had a positive and significant effect on students' knowledge and skills. On the other hand, in this study, it was revealed that with the change of personal information management, the level of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of students and PIM variables and its items would change. Also, with the use of personal information management, information loss, information overflow, the presence of inappropriate information would reduce. 
       
  • Identifying the professional competencies of specialists in electronic
           content production

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: In today's world and in competitive business environments, the capacities, competencies and capabilities of human resources and their identification, development and updating play a very decisive role in the survival and continuation of the life of the organization and organizations can, by no means, pass by them without having a systematic plan. Manpower is recognized as a strategic resource and knowledge capital of organizations, and certainly any disregard for their capabilities and competencies will deprive organizations of competitive advantage and make them victims of change and serious rivalries. Advances in technology and the digitalization of human life in recent years have created new needs in the labor market and even in people's lives as a result of which the job market has changed day by day and different types of jobs have been created. The widespread presence of businesses on the web and social networks and the use of sites and blogs to promote and sell products has created the need to produce content and, therefore, the need for specialists in electronic content production is felt more than ever. In this regard, the aim of the present study is to identify the professional competencies of specialists in electronic content production.Methods: The research was conducted with a qualitative approach and qualitative content analysis method. The data required to achieve the research goal were collected by reviewing internal and external documents and interviews with experts, professors and postgraduate and doctoral students in educational technology, information technology, computer and curriculum planning with expertise in the field of e-learning who had experience in producing electronic content. First, in order to identify the competencies of  specialist in electronic content production, articles, books, publications, and reputable domestic and foreign scientific sites related to the electronic content production curriculum were reviewed by using the review method of descriptive studies to select scientific sources from reputable sites, such as ScienceDirect, SAGE, Elsevier, Scopus, Eric. The selection criteria for the articles and resources of these sites were that the selected articles had to have been published in the period of 2000 to 2021 and also, they had to be related to the production of electronic content and competency criteria in the curriculum. After identifying the elements and indicators with experts, professors and postgraduate and doctoral students in educational technology, information technology, computer and curriculum planning, with expertise in the field of e-learning who had experience in producing electronic content, an interview with a semi-structured format was conducted regarding these criteria and the amount of their importance and adequacy. se the purpose of these interviews was to identify the hidden dimensions and components or indicators that may not have been mentioned in the previous theoretical foundations and research. The field of research included all professors and postgraduate and doctoral students in educational technology, information technology, computer and curriculum planning who were experienced in the research field of e-learning and e-content production. The research sample was determined purposefully based on the principle of data adequacy.Findings: The research findings categorized the professional competencies of the experts in  the production of electronic content in three categories of cognitive competencies (with two categories of specialized knowledge in the field of electronic content production and general knowledge), skill competencies (with four categories of training skills, design skills, production skills and soft skills) and attitudinal competencies (with three categories of attitude principles related to the field of electronic content production, ethical principles and cultural and social principles).Conclusion: The findings of this study can be used in different stages of designing a competency-based electronic content production curriculum.
       
  • Evaluation of the quality of e-learning management system of Shahid Rajaee
           Teacher Training University based on ISO 9126

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: On March 29, 2021, UNESCO held a virtual meeting of education ministers under the slogan "One year into covid, priority given to improving education to prevent generational catastrophe".The purpose of this meeting was to review the lessons learned from this new situation, the most important risks head and strategies to prevent academic backwardness. One of the main themes of the meeting was the digital transformation and the future of education. Following the pandemic of covid-19 disease in Iran and other countries of the world and the horizon opened in the application of e-learning, it is necessary to develop indicators to evaluate the quality of this training. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the quality of learning management system based on ISO 9126 standard.Methods: In this research, descriptive-survey research method was used. Data collection tool was a researcher-made quality questionnaire of e-learning management system that was designed based on ISO 9126 indicators. To check the validity of the measurement tool, Question analysis, reliability and validity were used. To analyze the questions, the methods of calculating the difficulty index   , discriminative index and loop method and for  face validity, content validity and construct validity were used to validate the questionnaire. Its validity was confirmed by experts and its reliability was obtained using Cronbach's alpha of 0.907.  To analyze the data, two methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used by SPSS software. In the descriptive statistics section, tables of frequency, mean, graphs and standard deviation, frequency percentage and in the inferential statistics section, one-group t were used to test for significant differences. The statistical population of this study included Master's and PhD students of Shahid Rajaei teacher training University Virtual Education Center, which was calculated by random sampling method to 161 people based on Klein's view.Findings: According to statistical tests results the results indicate that the quality of the learning management system, virtual learning centers operating in the components and reliability is low-middle level, and components of usability is medium to high levels and components of efficiency is medium levels. The results of t-test indicate that the mean obtained in 160 degrees is significant with 95% confidence. Therefore, the quality of e-learning management system of the statistical population based on ISO 9126, with 95% confidence is in the middle to lower level.Conclusion: In the learning management system, the ISO 9126 standard to determine the quality of software is one of the most important topics in e-learning which has been considered as an influential factor in various researches. In terms of the necessary of changes the world's educational systems and the tendency to use virtual education, Managers of educational systems are advised to ensure the provision of high quality training by identifying the weaknesses of the e-learning software system and paving the way for their elimination. Also, in accordance with the standards, provide the necessary infrastructure for the purposeful use of these systems. In investigating the cause of low quality of learning management system based on ISO 9126 standard, there can be weaknesses in the sub-characteristics of these components such as adaptability, compliance, security, fault tolerance, recoverability, time behavior, resource behavior, installability, analyzability and stability named.
       
  • The effect of teacher and student-based concept mapping on the motivation
           and learning of eighth grade high school students

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Concept mapping as a collaborative tool for enhanced learning has been explained in many studies. The present study described effectiveness of teacher- and student-based concept mapping on students’ motivation and learning. Teaching on the basis of concept mapping is known as an active method, to improve learning ability and motives.Methods: The research was designed based on quasi-experimental method of analysis. Sample of research included 60 students selected randomly from two high schools and the pretest and posttest were administered. Hermann’s standard questionnaire was used to estimate the motivation achievement and a researcher-made questionnaire was used to measure learners’ motivation and learning. The reliability of the questionnaires was estimated by Cronbach's alpha as 0.82 and 0.85. Covariance analysis was used to analyze the data compartments of the pre- post-test scores in experimental groups after the intervention.Findings:  It was revealed that there was a significant difference (sig 0.05) in pre- and post-test scores of students’ different levels of learning and motivation. It was also found that experimental teaching method, using concept mapping, to improve students’ cognition skills and their motivation could increase the opportunity of discussion among peers and understanding the content. Concept mapping in different ways of implementation as teacher- or student-based activities could promote the students’ learning level and motivation.Conclusion: Implementation of teacher- and student- made concept mapping enabled students to learn better and improved their motivation and led to the improvement of their learning skills.
       
  • Identifying and modeling the successful educational experiences of
           elementary school teachers in the e-learning environment during the Corona
           era

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Following the outbreak of covid19, e-learning has provided a unique opportunity to face the limitations of face-to-face education and achieve the ideal of education for all. Since teachers are considered as the most important influential factor in the teaching-learning process, the analysis of their successful and unsuccessful educational experiences can give us a deeper understanding of the current situation and provide solutions to achieve the desired situation and strengthen it. Given the vast amount of research conducted on the challenges and problems of teachers in the electronic context, the present study aims to focus specifically on the strengths of teachers' teaching experiences in the new learning environment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is  identifying and modeling the importance of successful educational experiences of elementary school teachers in the e-learning environment.Methods: This is a qualitative and phenomenological study. Participants in this study include all elementary school teachers who had the experience of teaching in electronic context (Shad Program) in the academic year 2020-2021. Eighteen teachers among them were selected through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information until the researcher could achieve theoretical saturation. The findings were analyzed, using Colaizzi's seven-step strategy. In-depth analysis of the interviews resulted in the identification of 7 main categories and 25 related sub-categories. In the next step, the identified key categories entered into the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) software. In this section, first the structure of the communications between the categories was drawn in the form of an interactive network and then the importance of each of them was determined.Findings: The research findings showed that successful educational experiences of elementary school teachers in the e-learning environment in the order of their importance  include the development of technological competencies (61 points), progress and modernization of curriculum elements (60 points), paying attention to emotional-psychological needs (53 points), promotion of social skills (51 points), development of scientific education (28 points), paying attention to aspects of biological and physical education (21 points) and strengthening  aesthetic capacities (17 points).Conclusion: The results of the present study can be considered as a continuum in which, on the one hand, the development of technological competencies is of the highest importance and, on the other hand, the strengthening of aesthetic capacities is of the least importance. Based on the results obtained, a major overhaul of pre-service and in-service teacher training methods is needed to keep pace with the developments in technology-rich environments. In order to improve the quality of the teaching and learning process in the electronic context, teachers should also pay attention to the specific requirements of this new educational environment and its developmental capacities, and instead of using traditional teaching methods, prioritize their focus on educating students in all areas, encouraging group collaboration and participation in the virtual classroom, fostering students' curiosity and flourishing their individual creativity, strengthening students’ motivation students and paying attention to students’ individual abilities, interests, talents and personal differences of students in the new ecosystem so that they teachers could  hope for an effective and active presence of students in their virtual classes.
       
  • Research Trends of Technological Learning: A Scientometric Study

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Scientometric research, with its capacity to evaluate scientific research and use multiple indicators to explain the potentials and the scientific and technological performance in various dimensions, has gained popularity amongst researchers. This field of inquiry is employed in various studies with the main objective of quantitative examination of a wide range of scientific data. This study aims at a scientometric study in the journal of Computer and Education whose main objective is to map out the topics of the articles and present the upcoming research paths. The purpose of selecting this journal is to address the latest research in one of the most specialized journals in the field of educational technology.Methods:In terms of method, this study is categorized in the generality of meta-nalysis method and among applied studies which has been carried out in using the method of scientometric and bibliographic research studies. . In this research, library study methods have been used to study the theoretical literature and collect researchdata. The analysis unit included all articles published in the Journal of Computers & Education between 2010-2021 and the source of data collection was the Scopus citation database and search for articles by means of the journal title. The search results included 2597 articles. A set of scientometric methods and tools have been used to provide a suiatble analysis and interpretion of the results.Findings: Based on the results, 2597 articles were written by 5928 authors among which the highest number of these articles was written by one author and the average collaboration index for authors was 2.5. The United States, Taiwan, and Spain had the most scientific output, and among the authors, Huang, Chen, and Thassi had the highest number of scholarly articles. This issue highlights the important role and influence of these authors in the journal. A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games was identified as the most important article and the focus of the research in this journal is more related to learning.Conclusion: In general, the most significant topics in computer and education journals is the use of digital technologies in the field of distance education and learning. The analysis of the research findings showed that the articles published in the Computer and Education Journal are diversely distributed in different scientific subjects and a broad interest from a variety of research perspectives can be noted. Also, the analysis of keywords for the studied articles showed four thematic developments for journal research in areas, such as e-learning, improving learning or teaching methods, developing educational approaches and the application of digital technologies in learning. The findings in the current study can provide some directions for future research on technological learning. It is suggested that future studies examine which pedagogical issues are the most relevant to the research community through meta-analysis to find how to integrate specific technological tools to aid teaching and learning activities. In addition, how interactive e-learning environments are designed to better meet learners' needs can be explored through further design-based research. In particular, what kind of technology tools can provide better academic performance and learning in educational or student-centered learning environments can be further explored
       
  • The effectiveness of teaching via constructed examples by using GeoGebra
           software in learning high school geometry theorems

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of researcher-made examples by GeoGebra software as an educational tool to increase the learning skills of geometric theorems and assess the attitude of 11th-grade math students towards geometry and provide a practical model for teaching geometry.Methods:  This research was a quasi-experimental type with an experimental group and a control group. It used pre-test and post-test and was applied in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the present study included all-female high school students in the eleventh grade of mathematics in the districts three and four of Isfahan in the academic year 2021-2022. The statistical sample consisting of 120 students was purposefully selected using the available sample method. A pre-test of geometry course 1 as well as a three-scale Cattell intelligence test were administered to all groups in the same manner. A researcher-created questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale was given to all groups to assess the students' attitudes towards geometry before and after the research. The opinions of experienced education consultants and teachers were used to assess the validity of the questionnaire, and after correction, it was made available to students. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the questions. Reliability was 0.93 indicating the high reliability of the questionnaire. The experimental group was taught how to use, construct simple shapes, and measure the components of shapes in GeoGebra via cyberspace, and their problems were solved by the researcher in five one-hour sessions.A researcher- created nine practical examples related to the sections of the circle and transformation sections in Geometry 2 using the opinions of five experienced professors and teachers, their answers were designed using GeoGebra software, and they were provided to the experimental group. Using this software, they guessed the components and checked their accuracy. The correct answers were then given to them. They also deduced the original form of the relevant theorems and demonstrated them. During this time, the control groups were given the contents of this section of the book in the traditional manner. The post-test was administered equally for all groups at the end of this period. The inferential part of SPSS 25 software, which included MANCOVA analysis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levin test, and M box test, was used to analyze the obtained data.Findings: The results of MANCOVA analysis showed that the use of examples made by GeoGebra software compared to traditional teaching had a statistically significant effect on students' ability to guess and learn geometric theorems. In addition, the questionnaire given to the students showed that they valued the use of GeoGebra to solve these examples and guess and prove the theorems related to them and had more motivation to participate in the geometry class. Conclusion: According to the findings, the teaching method of proving a geometric theorem by using examples made by GeoGebra software increases the amount of learning in the classroom and increases students' motivation to learn geometry, and makes the classroom more attractive to them. This method increases students' creativity and causes them to be more involved in the learning process and becomes more active in the classroom, and these skills enable students and facilitate learning in the geometry classroom. There were some issues with the research. Some school principals, for example, refused to allow this method of teaching geometry. Some geometry teachers were also unfamiliar with GeoGebra software. In-service courses in this area are ideal for math teachers who want to help their students learn geometry more effectively and enthusiastically
       
  • Developing and Validating the Mooc-based Curriculum Scale in Higher
           Education

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Massive open online courses as one of the latest educational technologies have caused fundamental and quality changes to educational processes at the level of different universities and it's expanding rapidly. Mooc entails an online learning environment that is considered as the latest revolution in online education and learning. These comprehensive learning courses have provided many people with access to knowledge that was not easy in the past. Mooc is a course aimed at highly interactive participation and open access via the Internet. Despite the importance of this issue, there is still no standard scale to measure Mooc-based Curriculum, so the current research was conducted with the aim of building and validating a curriculum scale based on Mooc in higher education.Methods: The research design is mixed method and the research method in the qualitative part is document review. In this regard, qualitative data was first collected and analyzed, then based on the qualitative results obtained, quantitative data was collected and analyzed and then the results of the quantitative part were used to better explain the qualitative findings. The statistical population also included Iranian and foreign sources in the field of virtual, electronic and Mooc education. In order to access texts and articles related to Persian and English keywords, curriculum, Mooc, virtual education, e-learning, online courses which are indexed in many internal electronic resources and electronic sources abroad were used to extract the latest sources related to the current research. Therefore, from 2000 to 2019, available and rich sources were studied in line with the current research and using the theme analysis method, 62 inclusive themes, 7 organizers and one comprehensive theme were discovered. The research method was quantitative, descriptive-survey and the statistical population consisted of 386 faculty members of University of Mazandaran. According to Morgan sampling table and based on relative stratified sampling, 181 people were selected as the sample. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire in the quantitative part, the content validity of which was 0.83 and the reliability was based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient and above 0.92. The research instrument was the Mooc curriculum scale with 7 subscales and 46 items on a five-point Likert scale.Findings: The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that Mooc-based curriculum includes managerial, technological, manpower issues, goal, content, teaching-learning strategies and evaluation. The values of TLI and CFI indices were at the desired level and higher than the cut-off point of 0.90. Therefore, the factor model had a good fit with the data.Conclusion: Since Mooc is a course that aims for a lot of interactive participation and free access through the Internet and is considered as a source for learning and training, it can be said that this method has many more attractions than the traditional methods. On the other hand, nowadays, the existence of numerous unreliable sources of information on the Internet has become a big challenge for people, and access to websites can help those who are looking for information, because its content is prepared by reputable institutions and it is easy to understand whether the source is reliable or not.
       
  • A Comparative study of the effects of face-to-face training and e-learning
           on the initial levels of learning in mathematics and elementary sciences

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: New teaching tools provide opportunities for students to choose what interests them. Technology with multimedia learning tools allows students to engage in learning and learn with interest. For this purpose, the present study, with the aim of comparing face-to-face training with e-learning, at the level of students' cognitive learning in three areas of Bloom (knowledge, understanding, and application), has been conducted in the sixth-grade mathematics and science courses of Ravansar city.Methods: The quasi-experimental research method and the sampling method was such that 60 sixth grade students of Niayesh Elementary School were selected to participate in this research using available sampling method and then they were randomly divided into two classes of 30  students. The  students of these two classes were simlulataneoulsy trained for two months, using face-to-face training for one class and e-learning training for the other class. For data collection, researcher-made math Educational Achievement Questionaire (with alpha of 0.87) and science Educational Achievement Questionaire (with alpha of 0.91)  were used. The research instrument included Bloom Learning Levels Questionnaire, which was designed to assess students' learning level in three areas (knowledge, understanding, and application) in math and science. These questionnaires were administered among the students and the data were collected. Initially, with the participation and cooperation of the subjects, in the experimental group 1 (face-to-face education) and experimental group 2 (electronic education), the mathematics and science academic progress questionnaire, which aims to measure the level of students' learning in the level of knowledge, understanding and application in mathematics and science courses It was designed, distributed and implemented among them, and data related to the pre-test was collected.. In order to analyze the data, in descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation were examined, and to examine the normality of the data, a single-sample test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) and univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test the hypotheses.Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that face-to-face training and e-learning are effective on students' cognitive learning levels (P <0.05). E-learning (math course with an average of 15.63 and science course with an average of 17.33) compared to face-to-face training (math course with an average of 14.73 and science course with an average of 16.08), has a greater role in increasing student learning and with the increase of e-learning in the teaching process, there will be a greater increase in the cognitive levels of students' learning. In addition, this effectiveness is higher in science (R .71) than in math (R .26).Conclusion: The results showed that electronic and face-to-face training  have an effect on increasing the levels of cognitive learning of students. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers use (combined training) in the teaching and training process to use the beneficial aspects of both e-learning (more flexibility) and face-to-face (more social interaction). In a synthetic teaching method, the tutor tries to combine the learning content through face-to-face classroom tutorials and printed books with web-based interactive tutorials and virtual classrooms. Therefore,  by  creating effective learning opportunities, a richer environment for the learner will be created. Also, due to the greater effectiveness of e-learning in this research, more attention should be paied by the shcools and teachers to the development of teachers' computer and Internet skills as well as the increased use of this teaching method in the learning process.  
       
  • Comparison psychological hardiness, self-differentiation and psychological
           burnout in female-headed households and normal women in marvdasht

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: female-headed households are responsible for providing material and spiritual livelihood for themselves and their family members. These women take care of the household without the regular presence or support of an adult male, and they are responsible for managing the family financially, making major and vital decisions. Due to playing a dual role (parents) for their children, these women face problems such as loss of income, raising children, managing household affairs, working outside the home with low wages, etc., and enduring these life problems The reason for their different lifestyles compared to other women has led to the factors in which they have emerged. The aim of this study was to compare psychological hardiness, self-differentiation and psychological burnout in female-headed households and ordinary people in Marvdasht. Methods: The present study was comparative in terms of applied purpose and methodological except causal research. The statistical population of this study included female-headed households under the auspices of the Marvdasht Relief Committee. The sample group consisted of 80 people in two groups (40 female-headed households and ordinary women) who were selected using the available sampling method; Data collection tool to assess the degree of psychological toughness was the questionnaire of Kubasa et al. Whose face and content validity has been reported in various appropriate studies. Also, the reliability of this tool was obtained by Cronbach's alpha method. The Differentiation Scale (DSI) was used to measure differentiation and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Women's psychological burnout was also assessed through the Smiths questionnaire, which evaluated the validity and reliability of this questionnaire in different demographic groups. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the questions of each dimension describe the same dimension and the questionnaire has a good internal consistency. The collected data were analyzed at two levels (descriptive statistics and inferential statistics). Mean and standard deviation were used at the statistical level and Manova analysis test was used at the inferential statistical level. Findings: According to the age distribution table of statistical sample size, in the group of female-headed households (35.00%) people were less than 30 years old and (12.5%) people were more than 40 years old. In the group of normal women (30.00%) women were less than 30 years old and (20.00%) women were more than 40 years old. According to the statistical sample size distribution table, in terms of education (35.00%) women heads of households were under diploma and (65.00%) were above diploma and in the group of normal women (32.5%) were under diploma and (67.5%) Have been above diploma. The results showed that there is a significant difference between psychological hardiness and its dimensions in normal and normal female heads of households. There is no significant difference between self-differentiation and dimensions in ordinary female-headed households. There is a significant difference between psychological burnout and its dimensions in normal and female-headed households. The average psychological toughness and psychological burnout is higher among female-headed households than normal women. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used by relevant organizations with women heads of households and researchers interested in this field.
       
  • Designing a prototype of coaching software and measuring its usability

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: The increasing speed of environmental changes and the intensification of competition among organizations have caused organizations to seek solutions for greater flexibility in responding to environmental needs and changes. In fact, moving towards creating organizations that have a high degree of flexibility in adapting to a changing environment is a vital and effective solution. One of the effective factors in keeping pace with changes in the environment is the improvement of organizational performance. In this regard, the importance and attention to the development, and improvement of human resources leads to the improvement of  organizational performance. There are various strategies and methods for the development and improvement of human resources. One of the ways to develop and improve human resources is coaching. In fact, coaching has created a new approach to staff learning and development. Since information technology is a link among all modern sciences and determines the development of human resources, it has created a new concept in coaching. This research focuses on coaching and information technology. In fact, the purpose of this study is to design a prototype of coaching software as one of the tools to optimize the performance of human resources and ultimately improve organizational performance.Methods: The information of this study was obtained using a mixed approach. The mixed approach benefits from two parts, namely qualitative and quantitative, to achieve the research result. Therefore, the present study used the phenomenological method in the qualitative part and the survey method in the quantitative part. The research instruments in  the qualitative part was the focus group method. In the quantitative part of the research, a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the information. The statistical population of the study in the qualitative section were specialists in the field of education and human resources, from among them 10 people were selected using the method of snowball sampling. The statistical population of the study in the quantitative part were the  top  managers of Mashhad Power Distribution Company. From this statistical population, the top managers of the western part of the company, which included 20 people, were selected to perform a usability test.Findings:  The data obtained from the qualitative part of the research included 4 components for designing the coaching software, which was based on the prototype model of software development. The data obtained from the research were quantitatively analyzed by SPSS software. Quantitative data analyzed by the software showed that the aforementioned software has the required usability to be implemented in organizations and used by individuals.Conclusion: The present study with laying emphasis on reducing the generation gap between managers and current employees and the individuals who will be employed in  the organization and also; and with laying emphasis on technology design by education and human resources experts and  examining the existing human resources software, sought to design a prototype of coaching software with features such as communication, cognition, problem facilitation process and problem coping, belief in the ability of individuals and motivational dimensions, and implementation of the selected solution and 360-degree evaluation. The aforementioned features were not seen in the Iranian software examined in the study. In addition to the above features, the distinguishing feature of the aforementioned software is attention to the Cohen and Bradford coaching model, and being process-oriented and feedback-oriented.
       
  • Identifying Effective Dimensions for Improving the Effectiveness of
           Secondary Schools in Hormozgan Province

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify effective dimensions for enhancing the effectiveness of secondary schools in Hormozgan province. The purpose of this research is applied and in terms of information gathering method, a quantitative-qualitative approach has been taken. The statistical population includes experts in the field of school effectiveness. Which in part of Quantitative Research, included a limited number of faculty members in Hormozgan universities in the fields of education, of which 30 were selected as samples. Also In the qualitative section, the sample volume was estimated with a theoretical saturation of 10 people. A targeted sampling was used to select the sample. The Data collection tools were through interviews and questionnaires. For data analysis in the Quantitative section, One sample t test and In the qualitative section, open and axial coding was used. The results led to the identification of six Dimensions from 24 concepts that named them as follows: management and leadership; Belief in collective wisdom; Promoting health, health and safety at school; Empowering staff; Establishment of the teaching and learning system and extracurricular activities.
       
  • Investigating the effect of the yard's environmental quality components on
           student’s aggressive behavior (Case study: Students of elementary
           school)

    • Abstract: One of today's social issues is the expansion of behavioral abnormalities in children, which is reflected in aggressive behaviors. Prevention of such behaviors is one of the most important priorities of families and educational institutions. Schools as the first social institution, plays a significant role in promoting social skills and controlling such aggressive behaviors. Accordingly, the study tries to evaluate the impact of the school environment on the reduction of aggressive behaviors in children. Among the spaces in the school, the yard was selected as the most common space, and its spatial-physical characteristics were evaluated in six schools in Shiraz. The research method is descriptive-analytic based on quantitative and qualitative strategies. A semi-structured questionnaire and interview with students and teachers were used. The results indicated that among the various spatial features of the school yard, green area in the yard, as well as the diversity of open and semi-open spaces in the school yard, had the greatest effect on reducing student behavioral disorder.
       
  • Study of Factor effecting on Development in sport schools with Using the
           Structural Modeling Interpretative Model

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to a Study of Factor effecting on Development in sport schools with Using the Structural Modeling Interpretative Model. The present study was descriptive -analytical study that was carried out fieldwork. The statistical population of the study consisted of physical education experts, sports teachers, and education experts in the field of education that had sufficient experience in sport education in the field. Based on a Snowball sampling, 17 individuals were identified as the sample of the study. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire with 23 questions that included 23 factors influencing development of ICT in school sports, which were identified based on a comprehensive study of resources. The whole process of analyzing the data was done in SPSS and MicMac software. The present study revealed that some factors, as key independent actors have a significant role in the development of information and communication technology in sports schools. In order to develop information and communication technology in sport schools, comprehensive planning is needed to develop some key independent factors. Planning on the key factors identified in this study can create the ground for the development and promotion of information and communication technology in school sports.
       
  • The Impact of Interactive Book on Students' Learning and Remembering.

    • Abstract: Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the use of the interactive book on learning and remembering of students. The statistical population consisted of the students of Imam Hassan Mojtaba (pbuh) Conservatory in the academic year of 1396-97 and among this sample size, 60 subjects (30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group) were selected by available sampling method. . The research method is semi-experimental with pre-test-posttest design with control and experimental group. To collect information, two researcher-made questionnaires (pre-test and post-test) with appropriate validity and validity of 0/73 and 0/76 have been used. Data analysis has been used central tendency and dispersion at the descriptive level and also in inferential analysis has used covariance test. In addition, the correlation t-test, second post-test scores was compared to the post-test scores which were performed with a one month interval from the first pre test. The results of the findings indicate that the use of the interactive book has a positive effect on students' learning. The use of an interactive book also has a positive impact on student recollection
       
 
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