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Intl. J. of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2476-4698 - ISSN (Online) 2476-4701
Published by Sinaweb Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Spatio-temporal variability of urban particulate matter using GIS: a
           lesson from COVID-19 restrictions

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and its associated health impacts have become a major concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Anthropogenic activities were significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, allowing for the opportunity for source reduction of air pollutants. A number of studies have been conducted in Dhaka, but most of them are concentrated on a single ground-monitoring station, making it impossible to draw a comprehensive pollution scenario for the entire city. In contrast, this study evaluated the spatio-temporal changes of urban Particulate Matters (PM) in 70 locations from five different land use categories. Hence, this study investigated the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on PM1 (aerodynamic diameter ≤1 µm), PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm) concentration during three specific time frames: November 2019 (Pre-lockdown), April 2020 (During lockdown), and November 2020 (Post-lockdown). METHODS: The data were collected through portable air quality meter (AEROQUAL 500) during lockdown (April 2020) and post-lockdown (November 2020) period.  Data set of pre-lockdowns (November 2019) was collected from Center for Atmospheric Pollution Studies (CAPS). The Tukey’s Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test was conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSv26) to address the significant changes in air quality between the periods. Additionally, the GIS (Geographical Information System) platform was used to see the spatial and temporal variations of PMs over the city. FINDINGS: The study found that average ground level PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentration reduced by 75.1, 75.4, 69.6% and 41.1, 32.6, 29.2% respectively during lockdown compared to pre-lockdown and post-lockdown periods. Moreover, the reduction during lockdown was significant at α=0.05 level. The highest reduction was seen in residential areas from the pre-lockdown to lockdown period, whereas in the lockdown to post-lockdown phase that was found in the industrial areas. Interestingly, the northern part of Dhaka city was less polluted than the southern part in all three studied periods. Besides, the Dhaka city dwellers enjoyed comparatively good quality air in lockdown. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that land use-based source apportionment is required to eliminate the particulate concentration from Dhaka city. Besides, 24 hours continuous data is also important to understand the interaction between particulate concentration and climatic forces. Promoting cleaner transportation options, such as electric vehicles and public transportation is recommended as a means of reducing vehicle emissions. Furthermore, governments could consider implementing emissions regulations, setting limits on emissions, or mandating the use of cleaner fuels and technologies to reduce industrial pollution.
  • The social responsibility of dual education in an unstable environment

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In a context of instability caused by various crises, including military crises, the higher education system is at great risk. Practice-oriented (dual) education is one of the most effective ways to address this problem. The innovation of this study is that for the first time a theoretical and practical model for involving all stakeholders in this process has been created and tested. The aim of the article is to substantiate a socially responsible dual education system in an unstable environment.METHODS: In terms of objective, this is an applied and quantitative study. The study population is estimated at 13 universities, 10 companies, 50 students between November 2021 and November 2022. The sample size is estimated using the Cochrane formula. A standard 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data, where groups of questions corresponded to 4 hypotheses. All data were investigated by factor and cluster analysis using STATISTICA software (version 10.0).FINDINGS: All four hypotheses were confirmed. Before the war, the first and second hypotheses were prioritized. According to them, the process approach of social responsibility of dual education allows designing and launching a system of social responsibility of dual education and creating a talent pool at the employing enterprise. After the outbreak of hostilities, the priorities changed. The third and fourth hypotheses allow, through the organization of supportive (enabling) processes, to ensure the effective functioning of the system. As a result, the majority of stakeholders (31%) consider it necessary to modernize the mentoring system and provide graduates with relevant professional skills, while methodological and career guidance came in second and third (16% and 13% respectively).CONCLUSION: Using the theoretical and practical model of formation and implementation of dual education in the unstable conditions of Ukraine will help to solve the problems of the country out of crisis, post-war recovery of higher education system, to bring the requirements of production with the possibilities of training specialists in universities and can be applied in other countries in a similar situation.
  • Transformational leadership, knowledge-based work passion and
           organizational citizenship behavior: A survey dataset from public

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The leadership styles in higher education, especially public universities, face enormous challenges in handling global situations, i.e., the Covid-19 pandemic. The current dataset of this study aims to verify how transformational leadership is more effective in influencing organizational citizenship behavior through knowledge-based work passion. Individuals with a high level of knowledge-based work passion are able to feel happiness, pride, and pleasure, and are totally involved and make sense of their work. In addition, they also show highly positive emotions toward the people around them and are happy to assist them.METHODS: Structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS 21.0 software is used to analyze the data collected from 221 professional lecturers utilizing a purposive sampling technique from a total of 1,242 lecturers in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia public universities. The loading values of the survey instrument, composite reliability, and average variance extracted are tested to justify reliability and convergent validity for the measurement model in this study.FINDINGS: The results show that transformational leadership positively and significantly affects knowledge-based work passion (β = 0.568, C.R. = 6.536; ρ < 0.001) but not organizational citizenship behavior (β = 0.061, C.R. = 0.608; ρ > 0.001). In addition, knowledge-based work passion directly has a positive and significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (β = 0.696, C.R. = 3.571; ρ > 0.001). Further, the mechanism effect of transformational leadership on organizational citizenship behavior through knowledge-based work passion was tested. The result indicates the mediating role of knowledge-based work passion (β = 0.395, ρ > 0.001) in the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. CONCLUSION: This study contributes significantly to organizational management practices, especially in the field of education, by identifying how transformational leadership improves organizational citizenship behavior through knowledge-based work passion. When individuals recognize their leaders as transformational, they are more likely to behave and engage in volunteering for extra tasks, having a positive work environment, feeling more connected to the organization and being flexible in their duties.
  • Urban energy system and climate indicators for urban energy planning

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cities are the main energy consumers; they can be a critical solution to threats to energy resources, the environment, and climate change. Knowing the effective indicators in urban planning and design in the energy field is one of the priorities of urban planners and designers. In this regard, Current research in the first step has tried to define a conceptual framework of urban system indicators influential to energy planning in cities.  And in the second step, since climatic characteristics could be as fundamental factors in urban energy planning, the relationship between climatic indicators and urban energy planning indicators has been identified.METHODS: This study is basic research in terms of purpose and presents a new conceptual framework for the urban energy system. It also aimed to analyses the relationship between the urban energy system indicators and local climate indicators. Its methodology is descriptive-analytical, conducted by library method and survey. Data analysis was done through a combination of quantitative and quantitative methods and descriptive statistical analysis. To do the survey questionnaire and interview experts in the energy field in different countries by using the Delphi method has been done.FINDINGS: The urban energy system conceptual framework was identified, and it has been divided into seven sub-systems (physical, land use, infrastructure, and transportation, movement/accessibility, cultural and technological), 15 components, and 61 indicators. Also, by analyzing the relationship between urban energy and climate indicators, “Air temperature” is the most related climate indicator from the experts’ view with 682 total scores, followed by “Solar radiation and sunny days”, “greenery” and “wind” indicators respectively with the sum points of 624, 596 and 594 scores in the seven defined urban energy system indicators.CONCLUSION: A theoretical framework of urban energy systems has been defined based on previous studies and experts' ideas in a comprehensive framework. And by analyzing the relationship between the defined urban energy system and climate indicators, the important indicators were recognized in each group. That could be academic knowledge and a practical source for future urban plans. For future studies, the institutional and economic dimensions of urban energy systems have to be conducted to complete the theoretical framework.
  • Investigation of the relationship between urban stress and urban

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Making society resilient is considered a critical and challenging issue in mental health planning or stress-relieving urban planning. However; although in recent years, many studies have separately addressed stress and urban resilience, no study has explained the relationship between the two. Therefore, the present study aims to explain the relationship between urban stress and urban resilience in the Region 8 of the District 1 of Tehran Municipality. METHODS: This study is applied descriptive-analytical research. The required data are collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods and analyzed by regression analysis. First, using the library method, the indicators of urban stress and urban resilience were identified, then the study sample was selected using these indicators and the Delphi method. After; that, the information related to the indicators was collected using questionnaire and library methods, and finally, the relationship between urban stress and urban resilience was investigated through multivariate regression.FINDINGS: The research findings indicate a high correlation between the two abovementioned concepts (correlation coefficient= 0.925). Moreover; the adjusted R2 shows that resilience indicators explain 83% of the total variations in urban stress. Also; the most critical indicators affecting the citizens' stress include the status of open space, gender structure of the population, permeability, average building density, education level, resident participation, spatial diversity, citizen's sense of belonging, social diversity, violence, crime, the safeness of the environment, social capital, social solidarity, the strength of buildings, vulnerability to natural hazards, income status, employment status, environmental pollution, access to services, the age structure of the population, and safety, respectively.CONCLUSION: it is possible to significantly reduce urban stress by enhancing urban resilience and paying attention to its effective indicators.
  • Assessment of soil quality after constructing a closure dam on a river

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reducing the salinity intrusion from sea water, a closure dam has been constructed on Little Feni River at Musapur Union in 2016. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality based on the variables, i.e., PH, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, electrical conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids, respectively.METHODS: A total of 21 soil samples were collected from 7 sampling stations with 10-15cm depth. The PH, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, electrical conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids were measured with pH meter, titration, Van Bemmelen factor, spectrophotometer, conductivity meter and salinity meter, respectively. Data were analyzed by statistical package for the social sciences, maps were produced by Arc GIS software and cluster analysis was done by Ward method, respectively.FINDINGS: The mean concentrations of PH, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, electrical conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids were 8.1±0.169, 0.506±0.278%, 0.873±0.465%, 0.044±0.023%, 21.599±8.312ppm, 0.462±0.47ppm, 2.024±526.76dS/m, 2.024±2.382ppt and 222.448±259.927ppm, respectively. The study result revealed that the ranges of these soil parameters were 7.19-8.5, 0.27-1.07%, 0.50-1.82%, 0.02-0.09%, 9.45-32.19ppm, 0.25-1.53ppm, 123.23-1625dS/m, 0.64-7.37ppt and 63.57-802.33ppm, respectively. Strong positive correlation observed between total organic matter and total organic carbon (r=0.999), total nitrogen and total organic matter (r=0.998), potassium and electrical conductivity (r=0.991), salinity and potassium (r=0.994), potassium and total dissolved solids (r=0.989). Likewise, phosphorous was positively correlated with potassium (r=0.444), electrical conductivity (r=0.476) and salinity (r=0.467) with significance level of p ≤ 0.05. The variance test elicited that F value of PH, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, electrical conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids were 25.505 (p<0.000), 18.011 (p<0.001), 14.013 (p<0.003), 23.478 (p<0.000), 29.393 (p<0.000), 17.924 (p<0.001), 9.502 (p<0.009) and 4.944 (p<0.046), respectively. The spatial distribution showed the reducing pattern of concentrations from outside to inside area of the closure dam. The cluster analysis showed the same sources of origin for pH, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and salinity (NaCl) which might be the possible cause of anthropogenic activities, i.e., use of chemical pesticide/fertilizer for agricultural cultivable land.CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that inside soil was more fertile rather than outside soil after the construction of closure dam. Lastly, the rate of crop production will be increased and soil should be more productive in the study area.
  • Human resource lens: perceived performances of ISO 9001:2015 certified
           service firms

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the key indicators in the evaluation of service quality is the execution of a Quality Management System (ISO 9001:2015) and the success of any organization lies in its ability to effectively manage its resources. Human resources play an integral role in this process, and their contribution to quality management systems is invaluable. This study described the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, working experience, employee position, and sector of an organization. This study also assessed respondents' attitudes toward hiring and selection, compensation and rewards, and training and development. Additionally, this study tried to establish a strong correlation between the respondent profile and their attitudes regarding education and training, recruitment and selection, and compensation and rewards.METHODS: This study used a descriptive quantitative method. A total of 150 employees of the ISO 9001:2015 certified service sector within the Cities in Nueva Ecija were surveyed using a survey questionnaire.FINDINGS: Findings present 40% of the respondents came from Generation Y and 26.67 respondents from Generation Z.  The respondents' attitudes toward the training and development practices of various service firms found that the highest mean of 3.52 representing a distinct plan for learning and development and encouraging employees to participate in relevant training programs got the second-highest weighted mean of 3.47. Having a criterion to measure the effectiveness of the training got the lowest weighted mean of 3.09. This study also determines the attitude of the employees on recruitment and selection practices of their respective organizations. Filling up vacancies with internally qualified employees got the highest weighted mean of 3.32 followed by informing the applicants about the job conditions needed to achieve a job before hiring, Furthermore, the posting of job advertisements got a weighted mean of 2.19. Lastly, the respondents' attitude toward rewards and compensation practices showed the highest score of 3.59 that Employees are encouraged to accomplish the company's goals by their compensation packages. Other rewards and compensation practices include satisfactory rewards and compensation system, salary satisfaction, rewarding employee collaboration, and reviewing salary increments, bonuses, and other allowances fairly and justifiably with a weighted mean of 3.37, 3.32, 2.85, and 2.77, respectively.CONCLUSION: The results show that specific practices of Human Resource Management, which have been identified, are crucial to improving organizational performance since they contribute to the success of businesses.
  • Energy risk management in urban projects management

    • Abstract: global and significantly affect (negatively, positively) the state and development of the national and world economy. The purpose of the paper is the formation of methodical-practical foundations of energy risk management in the energy sector.METHODS: The matrix method was used in building the energy security risk assessment matrix. Economic-mathematical modeling was used. Depending on the characteristics of the dynamic series and the available information, the methods of analytical alignment, smoothing using the moving average, the average absolute increase, and the average coefficient of change were applied.FINDINGS: The energy security risk assessment matrix was created. The development of a strategy for the behavior of subjects of market relations in the electricity market should be based not only on the results of risk identification and assessment and the developed risk management plan, but also on the risk response plan and the method of their control (monitoring). The coefficient of use of the installed energy capacity was in the range of 32–26% in Poland in 2021. Calculations of average annual growth rates for each of the dynamic series give reason to state that the highest growth rates of dependence on energy imports were characteristic of coal (+4.17%) and the lowest ones — of oil (+0.35%) during 1990–2021. Considering the forecast values for 2030, a certain decrease in the growth rate of dependence on the import of energy resources (for coal and oil) and an increase- for gas are expected.CONCLUSION: As a conclusion, the method of forecasting the total final energy consumption of the country was improved for forecasting the amount of energy resources in order to use it for building an energy policy that considers such variables as the economic situation and the political situation in the country. The formation of a risk response plan should be based on management plans and documentation of risk manifestations, intellectual and organizational assets of the economic entity (generalized risk management experience, management strategies, templates, etc.). manifestations, intellectual and organizational assets of the economic entity (generalized risk management experience, management strategies, templates, etc.).
  • Ecological intelligence and youth value orientations towards innovation in
           achieving sustainable development goals

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To date, much of the research has addressed the question of how sustainability can be achieved through innovative environmental projects proposed by concepts and theories in the field of sustainable development. This case study reflects the new formation of ecologically valid guidelines. Ecological intelligence caused by the impact of the environmental changes and the related risks. Modern developments and implementation of innovations support the achievement of the sustainable development goals. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of youth value orientation and ecological intelligence towards innovations in the realization of the sustainable development goals, development, and implementation of innovations depending on the differentiations of priorities of these goals.METHODS: The methodology of this study presents the thematic overviews on the subject, related to the study conducted, statistics data and the qualitative research on the online questionnaire designed to collect data. The respondents' answers showed awareness of the problems facing the inhabitants of planet Earth today, and the importance of introducing innovations to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.FINDINGS: The information obtained in the survey on the differentiation according to the priority of the SDGs for the development and implementation of innovations showed that solutions to the problems of environmental sustainability are considered a priority by one in four of the respondents participating in the survey (82.9%). At the same time, in the implementation of the SDGs that focus on achieving environmental sustainability, the fight against change is considered more important. The fact that none of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals has a priority score of 0 indicates that innovation and implementation are needed to achieve each goal.CONCLUSION: Without ecological intelligence and value orientations on the importance of innovative developments, it is impossible to understand the consequences of human impact on the environment and the importance of developing and implementing innovations for the continuation of life on planet Earth. That's the point why over one-third of respondents consider additional environmental knowledge to be significant, regardless of future profession. The study may interest philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and anyone concerned with the stability of planet Earth.
  • Quest for authenticity in reinvention of historic houses in urban areas

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A relatively large number of historic (traditional and old) houses have been restored in Iranian cities in the recent period. Of increasing demand in the era of the experience economy, many are used as cafes, restaurants, galleries, ecolodges, etc. Cultural heritage and urban policies have further provided a general framework and some incentives for the restoration and reuse of these houses. Leveraging a tourism development framework, this paper investigated how authenticity could be achieved in practice in the restoration and reinvention of historic houses.METHODS: A flexible policy research approach was employed to probe the current framework governing the restoration of historic houses. Another part of the analysis was based on a set of semi-structured interviews and field observations targeting restored historic houses in the city of Shiraz. Specifically, interviews were conducted with owners/operators of the most significant category of reused old houses—those turned into ecolodges—along with visitors.FINDINGS: Based on the fieldwork results, five general recommendations were provided for owners/operators of restored historic houses/ecolodges toward realizing authenticity: there is a need for pre-planning and employment of adequate knowledge and knowhow to provide authentic experiences to visitors; objective elements should leverage creativity, balance tradition and modernity, and give the establishment its own personality; subjective elements should be reflective of local culture, history, and hospitality; a major aim is to have tourists emotionally engaged with the place and easily interact with people, places, and things; and allowing for co-creation could instill an enduring sense of belonging into visitors.CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding recommendations for owners/operators of restored historic houses, tourism and urban authorities must focus on the creation of a policy framework that encourages the delivery and management of authenticity. Adopting a stronger socio-cultural approach should help to achieve additional regeneration objectives of local economic development through increased interaction among public-sector agencies, non-governmental institutions, local populations (property-owners or tenants), and investors.
  • Knowledge-based trust and citizens' social commerce: the moderating role
           of citizens' purchase attitude

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social commerce is a subset of electronic commerce and refers to transactions that are conducted through social commerce media. Social commerce creates new channels for consumers that improve not only their purchasing decisions but also their shopping experiences. The attitude of consumers is one of the factors that influence the behavioral intention of consumers. As long as the customer does not have confidence in the social business, he does not want to buy, and the trust that the buyer gains is based on the information, knowledge, transparency and capabilities that social business provide to customers. So, this paper aims to investigate the moderating role of attitude toward purchasing in the relationship between knowledge-based trust and citizens' social commerce and for this purpose, citizens of the east and southeast of Iran are considered as the case of study.METHODS: In terms of purpose, the present study is applied and based on the nature and method, it is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the present study consisted of 361 citizens of the east and southeast of Iran who use social network and were selected by random sampling. Required data were collected by a questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed and analyzed by structural equation modeling and partial least squares method. FINDINGS: Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability and Spearman correlation coefficients were greater than 0.7 and Communality was greater than 0.5, which indicated the high reliability of variables in the model. Also, the Average Variance Extracted square root of all variables was greater than the correlation of them with other variables. So, Discriminant validity of the model was appropriate. Average Variance Extracted was more than 0.5, which indicated the appropriate convergent validity of the variables. According to T-value, knowledge-based trust had a significant and direct effect (0.745) on citizens' social commerce. Knowledge-based trust explained 55.5% of changes in citizens' social commerce. According to T-Value, the attitude toward purchasing had a positive (+0.106) reciprocal role in the relationship of knowledge-based trust and social commerce.CONCLUSION: The findings showed that knowledge-based trust plays a positive role in social commerce; So, strengthening knowledge-based trust can lead to improved social commerce. Also, the attitude toward purchasing is positive moderator in the relationship between knowledge-based trust and social commerce; So, in order to change from a weak attitude to a strong attitude toward purchasing, the relationship between knowledge-based trust and citizens' social commerce is strengthened.
  • Assessment of the spatial pattern, nature, and growth drivers in selected
           peri-urban areas.

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the fascinating and complex realities of global development in the 21st century is urbanization. The present study focused on appraising the spatial pattern, nature, and growth drivers in selected peri-urban areas of Jos Metropolis. Accuracy assessment and classification of Landsat Satellite Images, evaluation of the spatial pattern of growth, the nature of growth, and the driving forces of growth were conducted.METHODS: Data were collected through field observation and questionnaire administration, use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and camera. Satellite imageries used to identify the classes of LULC from 1999 to 2022 were Thematic Mapper (L5_TM) 1999, Landsat 7 ETM+ 2014, and Landsat 8 ETM+ 2022. GPS was used for Ground Truthing, and IDRISI Taiga software was used for image classification and area calculation. ArcGIS 10.1 used to visualize the satellite images and produce maps. FINDINGS: Results revealed a definite growth rate pattern and land modification trends in the peri-urban areas over the study period. Between 1999 and 2014, fast growth was observed in Farin Gada and Rantya at 42.5% and 35.8% change, respectively; there was slow growth in Sabon-Gari at 7.0% proportion. From 2014 to 2022, growth in Farin-Gada (41.9%), Rantya (35.9%), and Rahowl Kanang (21.9%) proceeded rapidly with Sabon-Gari maintaining the least growth (0.3%). The study observed a linear growth pattern along arterial roads and a dispersed pattern proceeded by land fragmentation as built-ups spread farther from the road corridors. The nature of growth in the peri-urban areas was significantly unplanned, irregular, and disorderly and observed to be massively taking over agricultural land and swallowing up adjoining settlements. The study identified eight drivers that contributed to shaping and propelling growth in the areas.CONCLUSION: The study recommended that the government should integrate the peri-urban areas into its physical development planning schemes and should enforce an effective Development Control mechanism to manage the spatial growth of these areas. The findings will help planners and policy-makers make informed and unified decisions beyond administrative boundaries. The study also adds to the body of knowledge globally and provides the bases for further research.
  • Physical, chemical and biological quality assessment of aqueduct (Qanat)
           water for drinking, agriculture and irrigation of urban green spaces

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aqueduct is one of the most complex and amazing inventions of human history, created to meet the most vital needs of human society in arid and semiarid regions areas. If aqueducts are properly maintained, reconstructed, and restored, they can be valuable water supply system from ground water resources. The quality of the water in these sources will have a direct impact on the consumer of its consumption, so it seems necessary to check the water quality of these sources.METHODS: This study investigated the state of five aqueducts in Tehran using parameters such as calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, total coliform and fecal coliform. Then the obtained values were compared with the permissible limits of the World Health Organization and the national standard of Iran. The data was analyzed using SPSS26 software and a one-sample t-test.FINDINGS: The results of water quality during a one-year survey period showed that the parameters of alkalinity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sulfate, and nitrate were below the maximum desirable and permissible standards of the national standard of Iran and the World Health Organization, and therefore will not create any restrictions for drinking and agricultural use. Total hardness, phosphate, turbidity, calcium, magnesium, and chlorine have discrepancies with the national standards of Iran and the World Health Organization and these components must be adjusted for use. According to the one-sample t-test, there was a significant difference between the average and the permissible values of all parameters except magnesium at the 95% confidence level. All aqueducts except the America aqueduct had levels of fecal coliform that were higher than the maximum allowed by the environmental standards therefore, before using the aqueduct, it must be purified to control the environmental standards.. However, the total coliform, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand levels were not a problem. In addition, the water quality of these sources was placed in a group (C3S1) based on the Wilcox diagram.CONCLUSION: The physical and chemical analysis of the studied aqueduct water showed that the water quality is suitable for the irrigation of green spaces and salt-resistant plants. The biological characteristics of the studied aqueduct water also revealed that these sources were polluted by domestic and industrial effluents. This issue will only grow worse with time, as the amount of rainwater decreases and the amount of pollution in the underground water sources increases.
  • Evaluating environmental effects in construction and demolition waste
           recycling plant with the Iranian Leopold Matrix method

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recycling and reusing construction and demolition debris is a productive step toward solving this problem. Still, the recycling process also leaves industrial effluents, which is evident in producing recycled sand. The present research has investigated the environmental effects of recycling construction debris at sand recycling plants. Considering the negative impacts of sand washing mud produced at the plant in the Aab'Ali Landfill of Tehran in Iran, the material's physicochemical characteristics and environmental impact have also been investigated to regulate practices.                        METHODS: The Environmental Impact Assessment has been carried out in physicochemical, biological, socio-cultural, and economic-technical areas. Due to the large dispersion of the studied soil and the composition diversity in each sampling, 30 samples of the sand washing mud and the material mixed with the surrounding soil have been collected. The exploitation phase during the factory construction plan's implementation stage was considered the current research's main phase. Hence, 13 micro activities and 23 environmental parameters were identified, and the results were analyzed in the Environmental Impact Assessment Plus Software using the Iranian Leopold Matrix method and discussed based on the results of the experiments.FINDINGS: According to the results of the matrix calculation, the three micro-activities included washing the sand through a sand-washing machine, fine sand washing through the EvoWash machine with a score of -3.6, converting concrete pieces and large boulders into smaller pieces by jackhammers, transferring to the jaw crusher machine with a score of -2.8, and transferring the remaining sand washing mud produced by the EvoWash machine to the storage pond with a score of -2.7 had the most negative effects. The three micro-activities of waste processing for green space irrigation (+2.2), selling products (+0.9), and hiring employees with a score of +0.5 have the most positive effects on the environment. As ranking smaller than -31 forming 50% of the total average of rows and columns, the activity of the plant and the sand extraction process in this landfill is approved by providing modification alternatives.CONCLUSION: Considering the positive impact on the economy, increasing green spaces in the region, job creation, and also reducing the amount of increasing debris accumulated in the landfill is evaluated positively and can be done considering the reforms; including the prevention of releasing remnant sand washing mud freely and recycling it instead. Reusing the sand washing mud requires improving the water purification systems used in the EvoWash machine.
  • Performance optimization in bitumen properties from different sources
           modified with shredded tier waste

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optimization of bitumen with Polymer modification such as a shredded tier, which serves as a waste in the environment has been used for road pavement to minimize common failure mechanisms associated with roads. The objectives aimed at using a shredded tier to modified bitumen (STMB) in ratio10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40: 60, and 50:50, from Shredded tier were added to bitumen from Agbabu and Loda to study their performances when applied in the construction industry.METHODS: Bitumen, which was obtained from Odigbo and Irele Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria, was mixed at 3000C for two hours at different proportion with a shredded tier. Characteristics such as Penetration, Viscosity, melting point, marshal Stability, specific gravity and mechanical properties were determined.FINDINGS: Marshall Stability (kg) at 600C increased with an increase in shredded tier modified bitumen from10% to 40% improved performance in both modifications and reduced in a 50% increase. This indicated that the increased in shredded tier reduced the measured value of penetration after the attainment values of 40:60 blends. This interaction between the bitumen-tier blends has a penetration value adequately agreed with the predicted value by the penetration index model. The rheological properties from different proportions at temperatures ranging from 450C to 650C at 40% modification were observed to have the least rutting parameter at 3.9 (G*/Sin δ (kPa) in Agbabu and 2.91(G*/Sin δ (kPa) in Loda for defects accountable to paving deformation and ageing as there was a decrease in the rutting parameter with the increase in temperature generally.CONCLUSION: Generally, the values obtained for the physico-mechanical properties increased with an increase in modifiers from 10% to 40% modification in the two samples. Though, Agbabu is preferable and economical due to the percentage yield for road construction.
  • Evaluation of psychological factors affecting the decision of citizens to
           purchase renovated buildings with emphasis on maintaining urban

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the past decades, architects have faced serious challenges in renovating buildings. Renovated buildings require activities that, besides energy savings and less damages to the environment, could have psychologically positive effects on customers. Renovation plays an important role in the development of the city of Tehran so that it can bring environmental, economic and social benefits and preserve the originality of the urban environment of this metropolis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was Evaluation of psychological factors affecting the decision of citizens to purchase renovated buildings with emphasis on maintaining urban environment.METHODS: The present study used a mixed approach to achieve a general model to investigate the effects of such factors on customers’ decision to buy renovated buildings. To validate the model, the qualitative approach was based on the Grounded Theory, and the quantitative approach used Structural Equation Modeling. In the qualitative analysis to identify the influential factors, the interview data were analyzed with ATLAS.Ti8 software version 8.0 by using the Grounded Theory coding method according to Strauss and Corbin’s approach. Finally, the effects of psychological factors on the consumer decision to buy renovated buildings were identified.FINDINGS: Perception index with two components of personality (factor loading 0.60) and experience (factor loading 0.69), learning index with two components of capacity change and behavior change with factor loading 0.56, attitude index with two components of self-esteem (0. 70) and excitement (0.76) and in the motivation index of the external motivation component (0.58) were confirmed in the final model. The indicators of needs and desires (0.31), change of status (0.42), identity (0. 32) and intrinsic motivation (0.49) were rejected and removed from the final model.CONCLUSION: The findings showed that in order to maintain the authenticity of the urban environment as well as the satisfaction of citizens, the managers of architectural companies and senior officials of urban planning can use the investigated methods to make better decisions and encourage citizens to buy renovated buildings.
  • An assessment of redeveloped public spaces in a city: Critical evaluation
           of parks and playgrounds

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Though Public Spaces are the images of the social status of the community, but in case of Dhaka City (Bangladesh), there are intensely shortages of public open spaces. Recently a number of parks and playgrounds in Dhaka South City Corporation area have been redeveloped under a government project. So, this research has highlighted on the state of usefulness of these redeveloped public spaces of Dhaka South City Corporation.METHODS: Amongst many types of public spaces, only parks and playgrounds had been counted for this research purpose. A mixed method approach had been opted as it includes both qualitative and quantitative data for the assessments. Qualitative assessment with pictures of structures in public spaces had been conducted and maps of the area had been produced using ArcGIS 10.5 software. Also, statistical analysis like descriptive analysis, chi-square test, multiple regression model etc. had been conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel software which covered quantitative assessment.FINDINGS: This study found that though the visitors had been increased after redevelopment, but the quality of infrastructures and accessibility were not up to the mark even after redevelopment. These public spaces were abandoned or vacant land formerly. But these places were refurnished with new structures. But there was cave-looked boundary in every public space and the area had been restricted and locked up by the authorities. Elderly people, less-educated people, high income group people, new inhabitants of that area visited most. And also, in every demographic group, visitors have been increased after redevelopments. The selected public spaces only serve 6.44% of the Dhaka South City Corporation area in terms of walking distance (400-meter). ‘Unclean toilet’ is the major problem and almost around 65% to 85% respondents had complaints on it in most of the public spaces. Besides, Women, new inhabitants of that area, visitors who faced problems in accessibility and who can’t feel safe and secure in the public spaces have less satisfaction with these public spaces.CONCLUSION: This research has addressed the efficiency of redeveloped public spaces in Dhaka South City Corporation area. A strong community involvement in public space is beneficial to improve wellbeing. So, it was an important affair to investigate the association between the public involvement in public space and the quality of public space. The research findings may help to the urban planners and policy makers in development sectors of Bangladesh.
  • The effect of team performance on the internationalization of Digital
           Startups: the mediating role of entrepreneurship

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Team performance is one of the ways to deal with successive changes from the point of view of experts. Therefore, continuous changes in the work environment and daily work activities require sharing ideas and the need for continuous learning and entrepreneurship. Neglecting entrepreneurship has a negative effect on companies and by neglecting entrepreneurship, it is impossible to operate effectively in a dynamic environment. Therefore, in today's competitive world, companies will lose their competitiveness. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of team performance on the internationalization of digital startups through mediating role of entrepreneurship.METHODS: In terms of the purpose, it is applied and quantitative research. The research population is estimated to be 375 employees of 101 Iranian international digital startups in the field of technology and city services, which accounted for 10% of exports between 2021 and 2022. The sample size is estimated through Cochran's formula of 190 people. To collect data, a standard 5- point Likert scale questionnaire with 22 items was used. Finally, the data were analyzed by using Smart PLS 3 software.FINDINGS: The results showed that emotional commitment, creating an environment of innovation, and knowledge sharing through mediating role of entrepreneurship have a positive and significant effect on the internationalization of digital startups.  The results of the research indicate positive relationships among Emotional Commitment (2.671) and with entrepreneurship mediating (2.927), Innovative environment (2.478) and with entrepreneurship mediating (2.697), and Knowledge sharing (2.707) and with entrepreneurship mediating (3.333) concerning the internationalization of digital startups. Therefore, these hypotheses were confirmed.CONCLUSION: The team performance of employees plays an important role in the survival and success of companies in the international sector. The knowledge that companies gain from other companies, especially during internationalization, can escalate their competitiveness in the global market. The performance of the team as the primary factor of learning and innovation facilitates trust among the company's employees.
  • Monitoring urban growth and changes in land use and land cover: a strategy
           for sustainable urban development

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, Jos Metropolis, Nigeria is witnessing a strong trend toward urban growth and expansion. This phenomenon has impacted Land Use/Land Cover and efficient management of land. This paper evaluated urban growth and changes in Land Use /Land Cover and examined the land use efficiency of the metropolis. Land Use and Land Cover changes were established from 1999 to 2022; Land consumption rate and population growth rate were determined, and computation of the SDG 11.3.1 framework was done to examine the efficiency of land use.METHODS: Data were collected through official documents, the use of remote sensing, and, geographic information systems. Satellite imageries used to determine the classes and changes in Land Use/Land Cover changes were Landsat 5 TM (1999), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2004, 2009, and 2014), and Landsat 8 ETM+ (2018 and 2022). Global positioning system was used for ground-truthing, IDRISI Taiga software was used for image classification, and ArcGIS was used for map visualization. Four classes of Land Use and Land Cover were identified: Built-up, Meadows, Mountain/Vegetation, and Water bodies.FINDINGS: Results revealed that built-up area increased consistently from 3494.007 hectares in 1999 to 16995.360 ha in 2022 leading to a substantial reduction in other land use and land cover. The study confirmed a burgeoning population growth from 780,000 in 1999 to 1,563,193 in 2022. This growth had a significant impact on urban land use management, consuming a large proportion of land from 3494.007 hectares to 16995.36 hectares in 1999 and 2022 respectively. Results revealed a high land consumption rate of 0.0962 and 0.0884 during 2018-2022 and 1999-2004. A high population growth rate (0.0414) was recorded during 2018-2022. These dynamics intensified the rate of land acquisition for urban development. The average value of the SDG 11.3.1 framework was 2.3 which is higher than 1, indicating that urban expansion is moving away from land use efficiency.CONCLUSION: The paper recommended the establishment of a Growth Management Monitoring system by the state government for effective and efficient management of land resources through a spatial plan for the metropolis. This study has provided insight into the dynamics of Jos metropolitan LULC and land use efficiency management which could be useful to policymakers, urban planners, and researchers in initiating sustainable urban development strategies and inclusive structure for its planning and management.
  • Defining the social-sustainable framework for smart cities

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smart cities have been criticized for being too technologically driven and reinforcing entrepreneurial thinking rather than focusing on citizens and social sustainability.  This paper aims to “define the implementing principles for Smart Cities in Tehran as a social construct”. In this regard, this study tries to develop smart city indicators and suggest a set of implementing principles for smart cities, citizens, and civic organizations in Tehran. Furthermore, this paper illustrates how in-progress smart city projects are meeting the citizens' needs in 22 districts of Tehran Municipality.METHODS: The present study has used a qualitative and quantitative methodology based on theoretical frameworks. In this paper, Maslow's hierarchy of needs acts as a meta-method for defining the principles of social sustainability to implement smart city projects. First, smart sustainable cities and associated indicators were evaluated based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Second, a case study approach was utilized to assess Tehran’s smart city projects. Finally, the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix techniques were used to define strategies based on internal and external environmental factors and relation to social sustainability.FINDINGS: The results indicated that promoting innovation centers and living labs to create a vibrant, active, and healthy public realm was the most effective strategy for smart city development in Tehran (Weaknesses-Opportunities8=.1.323). Two important additional strategies were “involve stakeholders and focus on people and consider urban residents not only as recipients or users of smart cities but also as designers of smart cities” (Strengths-Opportunities3=1.075) and “promote community involvement in council decision-making by developing interactive platforms” (Strengths-Opportunities8=0.884).CONCLUSION: This paper contributes knowledge on how cities such as Tehran can achieve and implement social sustainability using a smart city approach. Plans and projects for a smart city in Tehran were deemed neither realistic nor sufficiently strategic, and they are assumed to satisfy neither policymakers nor citizens. Social sustainability-based principles and strategies are necessary to incorporate citizen perspectives into Tehran’s smart city plan and policies. The present study adds several significant insights to the existing frameworks for implementing smart city frameworks in Tehran.
  • Formation of the intelligent energy system based on digital technologies
           in urban management

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The economic consequences of the introduction of digital technologies are projected both at the level of electricity market participants and at the level of the state as a whole. As a result of the introduction of intelligent electricity metering it is possible to achieve energy savings of 20 % and solve the problem of transparency of energy flows of the national economy (information asymmetry). The purpose of the work is to substantiate the organizational-economic management of the national integrated intelligent energy system of the country in the conditions of the digital economy.METHODS: Statistical analysis for technical-economic analysis of the functioning of the national energy system, technological forecasting and foresight for assessment of future changes in the architecture of energy systems, economic-mathematical modeling and scenario analysis for comparative assessment of future development of separate energy technologies.FINDINGS: Forecasting of development of macrotechnologies in the energy sector is carried out, points of bifurcation of competitiveness of various energy technologies are defined. Assessments of economic consequences of introduction of digital technologies in energy systems both at the level of energy market entities, and at the national level are carried out. In the presence of own generating capacity, the consumer becomes an active participant (producer) in the electricity market, which in turn reduces system technological losses and economic costs of suppliers in the expansion of energy grids.CONCLUSION: For generation companies, the effect lies in reduction of operating costs of up to USD 2 billion annually by smoothing the load schedule in Slovakia. Significant results can be achieved in the electricity distribution sector, in particular by reducing electricity losses by 50 % and reducing equipment maintenance and repair costs by 10 %. It was suggested to consider the technological platform as a business model for the digital development of the infrastructural sectors of the economy, in particular, the digitalization of the energy infrastructure. The authors developed the structure and presented the opportunities of the technological platform for the introduction of an intelligent energy system in Slovakia. Proposals for the implementation of the concept of an intelligent energy network as part of the digital transformation of the economy of Slovakia were developed.
  • The effect of gamification on improving the performance of organizations
           by mediation of knowledge management

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Knowledge is a key factor and strategic resource for gaining assets and non-functional organizational capabilities. Knowledge Management is the knowledgeable process of creating, validating, presenting, distributing and using the knowledge in an organization. Successful organizations consider human resource development as a fundamental principle. Many organization find their knowledge management process to be ignored by the employees. Gamification is a way of enhancing knowledge management with game design elements to increase employee’s engagement, content creation and satisfaction.METHODS: The research method was descriptive-survey and based on variance-based structural equation modeling. The statistical population included 384 employees of the sports organization of selected metropolises. The statistical sample size was determined by stratified random sampling method, 384 employees who answered the research tools: questionnaires of gamification, performance improvement and knowledge management. The validity of the instrument was confirmed by 5 professors of sports management and their reliability was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and combined reliability in the dimensions of the questionnaires, higher than 0.696 and 0.757, respectively. Data analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics tests and sobel test in SPSS 22.0 and SmartPLS 2.0.FINDINGS: The relationship between research constructs with their dimensions, gamification with performance improvement and knowledge management with performance improvement of positive and significant research model (T≥2.86) and research model fit (GOF = 0.589) was evaluated as strong. As a result, managers of metropolitan municipal sports organizations can play a mediating role in the relationship between gamification and performance improvement by implementing knowledge management in the organization.CONCLUSION: According to the research results, although gamification is an effective factor in improving employee performance, but knowledge management plays a crucial role. Therefore, it is suggested that municipal sports managers pay special attention to knowledge management and gamification to improve employee performance.
  • The socio-demographic determinants of urban household demand for road
           travel in urban areas

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The demand for travel is increasing along with the development of the urban city. Since its establishment in 1890, the same situation has been replicated in Uganda, particularly in Kampala, the capital city. The city has grown tremendously, and this has spilled over to neighboring towns. Road transport carries 99 percent of the traffic in Kampala Capital City, causing massive congestion on city roads. Increased traffic could result from residents of the city or visitors from other parts of the country. Thus, understanding societal travel behaviours of city dwellers is necessary for better planning and policy guidance. This study examines the socio-demographic determinants of urban household demand for road travel in Kampala City. METHODS: Data from the Kampala Capital City Authority’s transport and household travel habits survey were used in this study. A sampling plan developed by the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area Transport Master Plan Project was followed. Households were drawn from parishes stratified by residential typology using a simple random sampling method. Based on the social economic groupings, a proportional sample of 1906 households was drawn. Data on household characteristics, personal attributes of the household head and travel habits data were obtained. Given the observed over dispersion, a Negative Binomial Regression was estimated.FINDINGS: The results show that household daily demand for travel increase with the size, age, and education level of the head. Compared to households with 1-3 members, results indicate a significant increase in the difference between the logs of the daily trips taken by 0.329 and 0.587 for households with 4-6 and above 6 members, respectively; the older the household head, the higher the difference between the logs of expected number of trips, compared to households with heads aged 15-24 years, those whose heads are aged 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and above 54 years, the difference of the logs of the expected number of trips taken increases significantly  by 0.0769, 0.149, 0.163 and 0.212 trips, respectively; household heads working in the private sector reduces the difference in the logs of daily travel by 0.0659 trips when compared to the public sector; the more educated the household head, the more trips taken daily. Households with a private car make fewer trips than those without.CONCLUSION: Sensitization programmes for reducing unnecessary and avoidable travel and family size are required. Uptake of distribution and or redistribution polices for development activities and investments to other urban centers and regions.
  • Environmental Worry Index-11: development, validity, and reliability

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Environmental worry involve primarily the thoughts of some hazardous immediate and long-run side effects of degradation that happened to our ecological system. Despite the side effects of this phenomenon, psychometrics measuring environmental worry from the African context are insufficient. Therefore, the Environmental Worry Index (EWI-11) was developed to assess proximal and personal experiences of worry about climate change and environmental degradation. METHODS: This study used a qualitative method among environmental professionals and students (between the ages of 18 to 65) in a university to generate the themes and the pool of items that were used to determine the Environmental Worry Index (EWI-11). Thereafter, 925 participants were purposively selected and assessed from Ibadan city through a cross-sectional survey to ascertain the validity and reliability of this new scale. The participants were selected in Ibadan city, Nigeria. The software of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Version 26.0) was used for all analyses.FINDINGS: Using exploratory factor analysis, the construct validity and Varimax rotation showed that the scale has two components (KMO = 0.892, df=91, p.00), thus showing a strong validity. The reliability dimensions and subscales have meritorious reliability (Proximal, α =.894, and Personal experience of worry, α =.671). The overall Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.894.CONCLUSION: The EWI-11 is adequate for measuring environmental worry and could be useful for experts in mental and environmental research and practice. EWI-11 is therefore recommended as a reliable and valid screening tool for environmental worry and may be acceptable across Africa and other countries as well.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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