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Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy)
Number of Followers: 0  

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ISSN (Print) 2085-2916
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  • Modifikasi Suhu Uji Pemunculan Radikula untuk Mempersingkat Pengujian
           Vigor Benih Jagung

    • Authors: Aghniya Ul Khusna, Ahmad Zamzami, Satriyas Ilyas
      Pages: 266 - 272
      Abstract: Radicle emergence (RE) is a rapid vigor test recommended by ISTA in 2014 for corn seeds at 20 oC for 66 hours. The purpose of this study was to develop an RE test of corn seeds at 25 °C and determine a single observation time to shorten the period of the vigor test. The experiments were conducted at IPB from December 2019 to March 2020. The experimental design used in the RE test was split-plot, with nine seed lots (cultivars) as main plots and 14 observation times (27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 60, 63, and 66 hours after sowing) as subplots. The completely randomized block design with one factor (seed lots) was used in the laboratory and field experiments. The result of the RE test was then correlated with seed and seedling quality parameters. The experimental results revealed that the RE test on corn seeds using between paper germinating method at 25 °C and observed at 51 hours ± 15 minutes after sowing, was closely correlated and could predict the normal germination percentage, mean germination time, vigor index, speed of germination, and mean emergence time. Keywords: correlation, cultivar, normal germination percentage, seed lot, seed vigor, seedling vigor
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.39053
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Analisis Keragaman Genetik Karakter Morfologi Populasi M2 Cabai Hasil
           Iradiasi Sinar Gamma

    • Authors: Kristianto Nugroho, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Muhamad Syukur, Puji Lestari
      Pages: 273 - 279
      Abstract: Mutation is a useful technique that could be used to increase genetic variability of chili as a basis for developing new improved varieties. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of M2 population derived from gamma irradiation based on morphological characters. The analysis was conducted through estimation of genetic variability, broad-sense heritability, and also path analysis to see which characters have a direct and indirect effect on the yield. As many as 350 M2 plants were evaluated for their morphological characters at the ICABIOGRAD experimental field in Bogor from August 2020 to January 2021. The results showed that harvest period and canopy width had a broad genetic variability in M2 population. Several quantitative characters such as fruit length, fruit diameter, weight per fruit, leaf length, leaf width, and canopy width showed high broad-sense heritability values. Path analysis showed that there were two characters namely stem diameter and canopy width with the highest direct effect on the yield. Keywords: correlation, genetic variance, heritability, induced mutation, path analysis
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.38448
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Memperbaiki Serapan Hara dengan Aplikasi Bahan Organik untuk Meningkatkan
           Resistensi Tanaman Cabai terhadap Virulensi Kutukebul

    • Authors: Muhammad Helmy Abdillah
      Pages: 280 - 287
      Abstract: Nutrient balance plays a role in physiological mechanisms. Compost of tea dregs and eggshells powder have been shown to have an effect in providing nutrients but have different abilities, so synergism or antagonism between the compounds may occur. The purpose of this study was to compare the application results of compost from tea dregs and eggshell powder combination on Red-Yellow Podsolic soil to balance NPK and Ca in plant tissue and assess its relationship with plant resistance to whitefly virulence. The benefits of this research is encourage the use of tea dregs and eggshells as soil enhancers. This research was carried out at Polytechnic Hasnur’s screen house in April-October 2021 by applying compost from tea dregs and eggshell powder to Red-Yellow Podsolic soil in a cultivation of cayenne pepper of Anjasmara variety. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with Tukey’s HSD test at α=5%. The results showed that the application of 120 g compost of tea dregs and 40 g eggshell powder combination increased the percentage of N, P, K, and Ca in plant tissue, thereby encouraging plant resistance to whitefly vector begomovirus virulence. There is a fairly strong and positive relationship of 63% between nutrients in plant tissues with plant resistance to virulence. The available and balanced nutrients may help plants to form elicitors optimally. Keywords: compost of tea dregs, eggshells powder, elicitors
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.38254
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Perbandingan Efektifitas Mikroorganisme Lokal Nanas dan Batang Pisang
           terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Jagung Manis di Wamena

    • Authors: Sumiyati Tuhuteru, Rein Edward Yohanes Rumbiak, Patras Pumoko, Tinus Kossay, Yuna Yikwa
      Pages: 288 - 294
      Abstract: Types of nutrient sources other than from fertilizers that are known in general can also be sourced from the use of local microorganisms made from fruit, pineapple, vegetable or banana pseudo stem waste. The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of local microorganisms from pineapple and banana waste on sweet corn cultivation. The study consisted of two separate experiments, namely application of local microorganism pineapple and application of banana waste local microorganism. Each experiment used a completely randomized design consisting of 5 levels of local microorganism concentration, namely control (without local microorganism), concentration of 100 mL L-1, 150 mL L-1, 200 mL L-1 and 250 mL L-1. Each treatment consisted of three replications, so that each experiment consisted of 15 experimental units. The results showed the effectiveness of local microorganism from banana waste is better compared to local microorganism from pineapple as indicated by the of plant height, root dry weight, leaf area, relative growth of plant and corn ear without husk at 8 WAP. Keywords: organic fertilizer, plant nutrients, plant productivity, waste  
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.36591
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Pemanfaatan Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson sebagai Biomulsa untuk
           Meningkatkan Laju Infiltrasi pada Lahan Kelapa Sawit Menghasilkan

    • Authors: Rahmi Khalida, Dwi Guntoro, Hariyadi
      Pages: 316 - 322
      Abstract: Planting cover crop or biomulch as one of land conservation methods could be applied to increase the availability of groundwater. Asystasia gangetica is a plant that has the potential as biomulch on mature oil palm plantations. This research aimed to determine the roles of A. gangetica increasing water availability by improving the infiltration rate. The research was conducted on Cikabayan Experimental Field IPB from August 2020 to January 2021. The treatments were types of biomulch consisting of without biomulch, A. gangetica, Ageratum conyzoides, Borreria alata, and Arachis pintoi which were arranged using a randomized block design with five replications. The biomulches were planted on plots 5 m x 2 m. The results showed that A. gangetica had the best growth and was able to cover the soil faster than other biomulches. A. gangetica could increase the infiltration rate by 42% compared to without biomulch treatment with infiltration capacity of 20.42 cm per hour at 20 weeks after planting (WAP). Keywords: cover crop, land conservation, water availability
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.37818
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Respon Galur-Galur Harapan Padi Sawah Dihaploid terhadap Salinitas pada
           Fase Bibit

    • Authors: Anggita Duhita Anindyajati, Bambang Sapta Purwoko, Iswari Saraswati Dewi, Willy Bayuardi Suwarno
      Pages: 219 - 228
      Abstract: Due to climate change, Indonesian rice breeders have recently experienced salt issues. Salinity has been reported in many studies to cause plant growth reduction and severe yield loss in rice. This research aimed at evaluating salinity tolerance of doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from anther culture at the seedling stage. The research was conducted at ICABIOGRAD’s greenhouse using a split-plot randomized complete block design. The main plot was NaCl concentration (0 mM and 120 mM) and the subplot was rice genotypes consisting of 14 doubled-haploid (DH) lines, four new released varieties (NRV), one tolerant check (Pokkali), and one sensitive check (Inpara 4). Seedlings of each rice genotype were grown hydroponically supplemented with different levels of NaCl. Plant growth and visual injury according to Standard Evaluation System for Rice from IRRI were assessed 14 days after NaCl addition. The results showed that 120 mM NaCl reduced shoot height, root length, leaf number, tiller number, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total fresh and dry weight biomass. The evaluation based on the seedling’s visual injury concluded that 11 DH lines and 2 NRV were tolerant, and 3 DH lines and 2 NRV were moderately tolerant. Keywords: anther culture, evaluation, hydroponically, tolerance
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.37241
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Seleksi Galur-galur Dihaploid Padi Hitam pada Uji Daya Hasil Lanjutan

    • Authors: Danu Kuncoro, Mutiyara Sani, Bambang Sapta Purwoko, Iswari Saraswati Dewi, Willy Bayuardi Suwarno, Awang Maharijaya, Eny Widajati
      Pages: 229 - 234
      Abstract: Black rice becomes a source of carbohydrate with health benefits. Yield trial is an important step for the success of black rice breeding. This study aimed at obtaining information on agronomic performance of doubled haploid lines of black rice and selecting the best doubled haploid black rice lines with good agronomic characters and high yielding for multi-location yield trials. This study was conducted from November 2019 until July 2020 in Bogor, West Java and Malang, East Java. Twenty-three doubled haploid black rice lines and three check varieties namely Aek Sibundong, Jeliteng, and Inpari 24 were used as plant genetic materials. This study was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications for each treatment. The result revealed that interaction of genotype and environment was significant on all observed traits except on grain filling period according to analysis of variance. Fourteen doubled haploid rice lines were selected based on weighted selection index. These lines showed number of productive tillers per hill ranged from 15.8 to 25.9, early maturity from 115.2 to 121.9 days after sowing, and high productivity (>5.4 ton ha-1). The agronomic performance and yield of the doubled haploid rice lines selected in this study required further testing through a multi-site test to obtain a candidate for new high yielding variety for black rice. Keywords: good agronomic, rice anther culture, selection criteria, selection index
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.37179
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Respon Karakter Pengisian Biji dan Hasil terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Urea
           pada Empat Varietas Padi

    • Authors: Renica Nurhermawati, Iskandar Lubis, Ahmad Junaedi
      Pages: 235 - 241
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) plays an important role in rice plants including in increasing crop yields. The difference in grain yields observed in each rice variety is closely related to the grain filling trait. Thus, the response of the grain filling and yield traits from different rice varieties under different N conditions in the soil is relevant to study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of grain filling and yields characters of four rice varieties to the application of urea fertilizer. This study was conducted in the rice fields of Petapahan Village, Kampar District, Riau Province from September to December 2020. The field experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with whole plots arranged as randomized complete block design. The dose of urea fertilizer (0 kg ha-1 and 250 kg ha-1) was the first factor as the main plot, while varieties (Hipa 18, IPB 3S, Ciherang and Way Apo Buru) were the second ones as sub-plots. Results showed that Hipa 18 was a rice variety that remobilizes the highest assimilate during the seed filling stage. Hipa 18 also showed the highest percentage of N usage for panicle formation and development in comparison to other rice varieties. Overall, the highest response for all yield components was also obtained from Hipa 18 except for the 100-seed weight. The results of this study can be used as a basis in breeding new rice varieties possessing high yield trait. In addition, a precise fertilization for each rice variety can be recommended.
      Keywords: assimilate remobilization, dry weight, leaf area index, leaf N content, photosynthesis
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.37655
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Pertumbuhan, Hasil dan Efisiensi Pemakaian Air Padi Inpari 33 pada
           Perlakuan Pupuk Anorganik dan Organikk

    • Authors: Zaqiah Mambaul Hikmah, Eko Sulistyono, Zuziana Susanti
      Pages: 242 - 250
      Abstract: The priority of agricultural development to supply national food in line with increasing population. One of the ways enhancements of rice productions is application of inorganic fertilizers, but the application inorganic fertilizer in long term causes soil and water degradation. The organic fertilizer would be restoring the soil condition. This research aims to determine growth, yield and water use efficiency in rice Inpari 33 under anorganic and organic fertilizer treatments. The research was conducted from July to December 2020 in IP2TP Sukamandi, Indonesian Centre for Rice Research, Subang-West Java. The research design is split plot with three replications. The main plot was anorganic fertilizers, namely no application fertilizer of NPK, N, K, P, and application NPK fertilizer. Sub-plots were organic fertilizers consisting of manure, straw compost, and non-organic fertilizers. The research results showed that no application P, K, and NPK fertilizer increased the number of tillers by 44-49%, SPAD value 11-12%, and rice production 33-51%; and the highest water use efficiency 1.17 g grain L-1 water was obtained on no application of P. Organic fertilizers were not increase growth, rice production, and water use efficiency. However, there was an interaction between inorganic and organic fertilizer treatments that affected the number of tillers, number of panicles per hill, weight of 1,000 grains and total evapotranspiration. Keywords: compost, evapotranspiration, manure, nutrient, NPK
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.38323
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Morphological and Physiological Performances of 18 Soybean Varieties
           Exposed to Salinity Stress

    • Authors: Hesti Pujiwati, Usman Kris Joko Suharjo, Wuri Prameswari, Muhimmatul Husna, Bambang Gonggo, Sempurna Ginting, Edi Susilo
      Pages: 251 - 258
      Abstract: Increasing soybean production can be done by growing the crops in marginal soil, such as saline soil. Therefore, saline-tolerant genotypes are important to support the cultivation. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the performance of 18 soybean varieties grown under salinity stress. The experiment was done from May to July 2021 at the greenhouse of the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bengkulu University, about 10 m above sea level. Soybean seedlings were grown in 10 cm diameter plastic pots fertilized with AB-mix solutions supplemented with 0 or 6 dSm-1 NaCl for 15 days. The growth and stress-tolerant index of the seedlings were measured. The results showed that soybean variety had different growth as responses to salinity. Moreover, salinity stress imposed at 6 dSm-1 NaCl significantly reduced crops growth and promoted leaf senescence. We found that 18 soybeans varieties were classified as salinity tolerant at 6 dSm-1. Keywords: saline, soybean varieties, tolerant
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.37819
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Respon Pertumbuhan Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine max) terhadap Amelioran di
           Lahan Salin

    • Authors: Jhon David, Basuni, Tatang Abdurrahman
      Pages: 259 - 265
      Abstract: The application of ameliorant material and the use of varieties that are tolerant to salinity stress are one of the cultivation technologies that can increase the growth and yield of soybeans on saline soils. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of ameliorant and variety and their interaction to increase the growth and yield of soybean plants on saline soil. The research was conducted on Jl. Budi Utomo, Pontianak City starting from 31 October 2020 to 20 January 2021. The experimental design used a completely randomized factorial design. The first factor is the type of ameliorant with 4 levels (without ameliorant, gypsum, humic acid, and cow manure). The second factor is various soybean varieties with 3 levels (Anjasmoro, Argomulyo, and Grobogan varieties). Variables observed consisted of plant height at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 WAP (weeks after planting), leaf chlorophyll content (leaf greenness), plant toxicity level, number of pods per plant, and salt content. The results showed that cow manure could increase plant growth and yield better than other ameliorants. The Anjasmoro variety gave the highest number of pods compared to Argomulyo and Grobogan on ameliorant manure, and without ameliorant Argomulyo gave the highest number of pods. Keywords: anjasmoro, chlorosis, gypsum, variety
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.36315
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Peranan GA3 terhadap Kerontokan dan Kualitas Buah Jeruk Pamelo Berbiji dan
           Tidak Berbiji

    • Authors: Ummu Kalsum, Slamet Susanto, Ahmad Junaedi, Nurul Khumaida, Heni Purnamawati
      Pages: 295 - 301
      Abstract: Fruit drop occurs frequently and causes low fruit harvesting. The information about the use of the hormone GA3 in suppressing fruit drop in pummelo is still not available. This research aimed to examine the role of GA3 on fruit drop and fruit quality in seeded and seedless pummelo. This research was conducted from December 2019 until June 2020 in Tambakmas Village, Sukomoro District, Magetan Regency. The experiment used a nested design with two factors, i.e., cultivars as the main factor (Bali Merah 1 and Bali Merah 2) and spraying GA3 as a nested factor (without spraying GA3, sprayed with GA3 at 1st week after anthesis (WAA), and sprayed with GA3 at 1st and 3rd WAA). Bali Merah 1 belongs to seeded pummelo, while Bali Merah 2 is a seedless pummelo. The observation variables consisted of the concentration of GA3 at 4th, 5th, and 6th WAA, final set, the number of fruit drop, fruit weight and diameter, edible portion, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), TSS/ATT ratio, and vitamin C. The result showed that the GA3 spraying increased the final set of pummelo but the treatment had no significant affected on fruit weight, fruit diameter, TTA, TSS/TTA ratio, and vitamin C content. The GA3 spraying at 1st and 3rd WAA suppressed fruit drop and increased the GA3 concentration of fruit at 4th, 5th and 6th WAA, the edible portion and TSS of pummelo fruit. Keywords: final set, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.38306
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Respon Fisiologi pada Pembibitan Mangga Kasturi (Mangifera casturi
           Kosterm) terhadap Aplikasi Cahaya LED (Light Emitting Diode)

    • Authors: Alifiya Herwitarahman, Roedhy Poerwanto, Didy Sopandie, Deden Derajat Matra
      Pages: 302 - 307
      Abstract: Kasturi mango (Mangifera casturi Kosterm) is one of the endemic fruit trees from South Kalimantan, with extinct status in the wild by IUCN. Kasturi had a problem with a long period in the nursery due to juvenility. Artificial light such as LED lamps can cut the juvenile phase because it could increase photosynthetic efficiency. This research aimed to determine different responses of physiology seedling using an LED lamp. This research used nested design as the experimental design where Monochromatic LED as the main factor with three levels (red, white, and blue) and accessions as the second factor with three levels (Cuban, Pelipisan and Kasturi) that were nested on the main factor. LED light made different responses for chlorophyll content that red LED made the higher concentration of chlorophyll a, but not for chlorophyll b and the ratio. Blue LED made plants have higher light absorbance, stomata conductance, transpiration, CO2 interception, and photosynthetic rate in Kasturi accession higher than the other lamps. Blue light made glucose concentration on leaf higher, but fructose higher under white lamp than the other lamps. The application of white LED made leaf thicker than the other lamps. Based on this research, different LED light illumination made a different response on Kasturi seedling for cut juvenile phase. Keyword: photosynthetic, chlorophyll ratio, fructose, glucose
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.38250
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Karakterisasi, Variabilitas Genetik dan Heritabilitas Genotipe Tapak Dara
           (Catharanthus roseus)

    • Authors: Venti Novita Sari, Dwi Wahyuni Ganefianti, Merakati Handajaningsih
      Pages: 308 - 315
      Abstract: Characterization, genetic variability and heritability of periwinkle is crucial for breeders to carry out plant selection to increase the quality and quantity of periwinkle as ornamental plants. The objective of this study was to characterize and assess the genetic variability and heritability values of 13 genotypes of periwinkle. The research was conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in a screen house located in Perumahan Rakyat, Bengkulu City. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, single factor, consisting of 13 genotypes of C. roseus with three replications. The results showed a variation among 13 genotypes on leaf shape (oval and oblong); type of stem growth (hanging and upright); the main color of the corolla (pale pink, peach, white, pink fanta, apricot, pink taffy, lavender, magenta, rose pink, reddish-pink, pink, baby pink, orange); and the middle color of the corolla (pale pink, peach, white, fanta pink, red, french rose, baby pink, and orange). Genetic variance estimates among 13 genotypes of periwinkle were 0.01-32.15 (narrow), and the heritability estimates of the traits were low-medium (2-50%). The estimations of genetic gain which has high values are number of florets (23%) and number of branches (20%). Keywords: qualitative character, quantitative character and ornamental plant
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v49i3.37742
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
 
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