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Marine Fisheries : J. of Marine Fisheries Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Tropical Animal Science Journal
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ISSN (Print) 2615-787X - ISSN (Online) 2615-790X
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  • Front-matter

    • Authors: K. G. Wiryawan
      DOI :
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Back-matter

    • Authors: K. G. Wiryawan
      DOI :
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Polymorphism and Association of DMA Gene with Total IgY Concentration and
           ND Antibody Titer in IPB-D2 Chicken Line

    • Authors: D. Lestari, S. Murtini, N. Ulupi, C. Sumantri
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: The DMA (DM α chain) gene, a member of non-classical MHC class II plays an important role in the process of presenting antigen peptides by producing DM protein. This study aimed to identify the polymorphism of DMA gene and their associations with disease resistance traits such as total IgY concentration and ND antibody titers in IPB-D2 chicken line. The total sample used was 101 chickens consisted of 81 IPB-D2 G0 chickens (53 female and 28 male) and 20 SENSI-1 chickens (15 female and 5 male). Blood samples were collected at 21 weeks old for genotyping, total IgY concentration analysis, and ND antibody titer analysis. SENSI-1 chickens were used as a comparison in the analysis of DMA gene polymorphism. The method for DNA polymorphism of DMA gene was direct-DNA sequencing. The total IgY concentration was analyzed using the indirect ELISA method, while the ND antibody titer used the HI test. Data were analyzed using GLM, genotypic, and haplotype mean values compared with t-test. The results showed that 4 SNPs were found, i.e., g.2328 G>A (exon 3), g.2503 A>G (intron 3), g.2612 G>A, and g.2686 G>A (exon 4). The SNPs of DMA gene were found polymorphic with three genotypes (GG, AG, and GG), and the expected SNP g.2503 A>G only had two genotypes (AA and GG). The g.2328 G>A was associated (p<0.05) with total IgY concentration. A combination of 4 SNPs formed 7 haplotypes. Haplotype 1 was associated with total IgY concentration (p<0.05), and haplotype 5 was associated with ND antibody titer (p<0.05). In conclusion, the g.2328 G>A mutation and haplotype 1 could be potentially recommended as a genetic marker for high total IgY concentration, and haplotype 5 could be potentially recommended as a genetic marker for ND antibody titer in IPB-D2 chicken line.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Polymorphisms of Palu Sheep IGF-1 Gene and Their Relationship with
           Skeletal Growth

    • Authors: A. Dg. Malewa, Awaluddin
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the polymorphisms of the IGF-1 gene associated with body weight and size. A total of 60 sheep from different farm locations in Palu City (Villages of Taipa, Poboya, Kawatuna, and Petobo), Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, were used. The variables observed were adult body weight and measurements, such as shoulder height, body length, humerus length, radius-ulna length, metacarpus length, hip height, femur length, tibial length, and metatarsus length as phenotypic characteristics. IGF-1 gene polymorphisms were analyzed using the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with Bsp143ǀǀ as a restriction enzyme. These gene polymorphisms were calculated using the allele and genotype frequency approach, as well as the Polymorphic Informative Content (PIC). Genotype associations with body weight and bone size were analyzed using the General Linear Model analysis method. The PCR-RFLP analysis results showed the presence of polymorphisms with the frequency and genotypes of GG (21.7%), GC (68.3%), and CC (10%). Furthermore, the frequencies of G (55.8%) and C (44.2%) genes with a 49.32% polymorphism rate (PIC) were not in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). In conclusion, the IGF-1 gene polymorphism was detected in Palu sheep with an insignificant effect on body weight and bone size.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.9
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Molecular Detection and Antibiogram of ESBL-Producing and
           Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli from Rabbit, Swine, and Poultry in

    • Authors: M. H. Chai, M. Z. Sukiman, N. Jasmy, N. A. Zulkifly, N. A. S. Mhd Yusof, N. M. Mohamad, S. M. Z. Ariffin, M. F. Ghazali
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: The emergence of multidrug-resistance Enterobacteriaceae such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and carbapenem-resistant E. coli (CREC) has become an urgent veterinary and public health threat. These multidrug-resistant microorganisms are frequently associated with diseases that have high mortality with limited treatment options. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and CREC from the rabbit, swine, and poultry and to determine the antibiogram profile of these E. coli isolates. In this study, 400 fecal swab samples were collected from rabbits, swine, and poultry from several selected animal farms in Malaysia. After incubation and isolation processes, suspected E. coli isolates were subjected to a PCR test to confirm the identity of the bacteria. The antibiogram of the E. coli isolates was determined via the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of 212 (53%) E. coli isolates were isolated from rabbits (51 isolates), poultry (110 isolates), and swine (51 isolates). Screening of antimicrobial resistance genes revealed twelve ESBL producing E. coli (3%; 12/400). Two ESBL producing E. coli were also carrying carbapenemase gene (BlaNDM), indicating ESBL producing and carbapenem-resistant E. coli (ESBL-CREC) in poultry fecal swab samples. The bacteria isolates were found to show resistance against nine antibiotics, including ertapenem, ampicillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. A total of 3.3% (7/212) of the E. coli isolates were found to be multidrug-resistance. This study demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing CREC from poultry fecal swabs in Malaysia.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.16
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Improved Maturation Rate of Bovine Oocytes Following Sericin
           Supplementation in Collection and Maturation Media

    • Authors: F. A. Satrio, N. W. K. Karja, M. A. Setiadi, E. M. Kaiin, M. Gunawan, E. Memili, B. Purwantara
      Pages: 24 - 29
      Abstract: Sericin is a water-soluble protein produced by silk cocoons and known to have antioxidant activity. This study is aimed to analyze the nuclear maturation and the quality of bovine oocytes in the collection and in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplemented with sericin. Bovine oocytes were collected using a collection medium supplemented with sericin in 0 (control) concentrations, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%. Selected oocytes were then matured for 24 h at 38.5 oC in 5% CO₂ and evaluated for nuclear maturation. In the subsequent experiment, oocytes were collected and matured with or without 0.1% sericin at 38.5 oC in 5% CO2. Matured oocytes were counterstained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and Hoechst 33342. Matured oocytes were characterized by oocytes that reached the MII stage. The results showed that supplementation of 0.1% sericin in the collection medium increased the number of oocytes reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the next experiment, sericin 0.1% in the collection and in vitro maturation media increased (p<0.05) the percentage of oocytes reaching the MII stage compared to control without sericin supplementation. Furthermore, the number of fragmented DNA in the oocytes showed no differences in all groups. It can be concluded that supplementation of 0.1% sericin in the collection and in vitro maturation media improved the nuclear status without affecting DNA fragmentation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.24
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Reasons for Culling in Relation to Longevity and Lifetime Efficiency of
           Landrace and Large White Sows in a Nucleus Breeding Farm in the

    • Authors: O. Bondoc, J. Isubol
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Information on the reasons for sow removal is limited and often unreported for nucleus breeding farms. This study analyzed the distribution of culling type (planned vs. unplanned) and culling reasons in relation to longevity – parity at culling (PAC) and productive herd life (PHL), and lifetime efficiency – lifetime pigs born alive (LPBA) and total pigs weaned (TPW) using data recorded from 2017 to 2019 by a local nucleus breeding farm. The study revealed a considerable amount of unplanned removal (84.1%) compared to planned culls, which is due to old age (11.4%) and poor farrowing performance (4.6%). The most common reasons for unplanned sow removal were reproductive failures (26.2%) and health disorders (23.4%), followed by physical defects (15.3%), leg/foot problems (10.8%), and mortality (8.5%). A high proportion (22.1%) of sows was culled at their first parity. The proportion of culled sows decreased up to parity 4, especially for unplanned sow removals due to reproductive failures, leg/foot problems, and mortality. Unplanned culling corresponded to lower PAC (3.8), PHL (459 days), LPBA (14.1 pigs/year), and TPW (12.4 pigs/year). Average PAC and PHL were significantly higher (p<0.05) for Large White sows (PAC= 5.2; PHL= 696 days) than Landrace sows (PAC= 4.6; PHL= 588 days). However, the LPBA and TPW were not significantly different between breeds. Information about sow removal could be used to develop management strategies to avoid unplanned culling in purebred sows and extend their productive life.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.30
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Density and Diversity on the
           Growth and Biomass of Corn and Sorghum Forage in Trapping Culture

    • Authors: M. Husein, N. Umami, A. Pertiwiningrum, M. M. Rahman, D. Ananta
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the absorption of nutrients in trapping culture and its effects on the growth and biomass production of corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum sp.). Soil samples with rhizosphere were collected from three different places: Bambusa sp., Cichorium intybus L., and Pinus merkusii. The density and genus of AMF spores were evaluated. AMF effectiveness was tested using six levels of rhizosphere and two species (corn and sorghum) of plants with a 2×6 factorial experiment with eight replications of each treatment. Six types of rhizospheres were: (i) bamboo rhizosphere (Bambusa sp.) (T1), (ii) control for T1 (C1), (iii) chicory rhizosphere (C. intybus L.) (T2), (iv) control for T2 (C2), (v) Pine rhizosphere (P. merkusii) (T3), and (vi) control for T3 (C3). The control treatment was derived from sterilized planting media. The results showed that the root rhizosphere of Bambusa sp. had more density and diversity of AMF spores than the root rhizosphere of C. intybus L. and P. merkusii. At the end of the trapping culture, the host plants sorghum and corn increased the density of spores in the carrier medium or propagules of the three rhizosphere types. The difference in the amount of initial AMF had a significant (p<0.05) effect on plant height, the number of leaves, and the biomass production of trapping plants. It can be concluded that more density and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores show higher growth and biomass of trapping plants.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.37
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Blood and Intestine Profile of Broilers Fed Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit, Wheat
           Bran, and Yeast Blends

    • Authors: A. Pratama, T. Yudiarti, S. Sugiharto, T. Ayaşan
      Pages: 44 - 55
      Abstract: A. bilimbi fruit filtrate, wheat bran, and S. cerevisiae contain bioactive components favorable to broiler health. The use of these compounds in combination was expected to exert synergistic effects on broilers. The study investigated the effect of a combination of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate, wheat bran, and S. cerevisiae on haematological indices and intestinal selected bacteria and morphology of broilers. A total of 280 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 7 replications, including CONT (chicks offered diet without additive), TBLEND1, BLEND2, and BLEND3 (chicks offered diet with 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% of the additive combination of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate, wheat bran, and S. cerevisiae), respectively. For data collection, the chicks were blood sampled at day 21 and 35, and slaughtered at day 35. The data were statistically treated with analysis of variance according to a completely randomized design. On day 21, the erythrocytes and haemoglobin levels were lower in BLEND2 and BLEND3 than those in CONT and BLEND1 (p<0.05). The leukocytes and lymphocytes values were lower in BLEND2 and BLEND3 than those in CONT (p<0.05). On day 35, erythrocytes were lower (p<0.05) in BLEND3 than that in CONT and BLEND1. The increased additive levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) erythrocytes, haemoglobin, and haematocrits values. At day 21, total triglyceride was lower (p<0.05) in BLEND3 than that in BLEND1 and BLEND2. The LDL level was lower (p<0.05) in BLEND3, whereas the HDL level was higher (p<0.05) in CONT than that in other groups. Creatinine was higher (p<0.05) in BLEND3 than in other groups. The ileal lactose negative Enterobacteriaceae counts were lower in BLEND1, BLEND2, and BLEND3 than in CONT (p<0.05). The duodenal villi height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD ratio) was higher (p<0.05) in BLEND1 than that in CONT and BLEND2. In the ileum, the VH/CD ratio linearly increased (p<0.05) with the elevated additive levels. In conclusion, the combination of A. bilimbi fruit filtrate, wheat bran, and S. cerevisiae was beneficial in reducing intestinal pathogen load and improving intestinal morphology of broilers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.44
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Influence of Plant Age and Microbes-Enzymatic Additives on
           Fermentation of Total Mixed Ration Silages of Capia├žu Grass (Pennisetum
           purpureum, Schum)

    • Authors: J. P. Alves, E. S. J. Galeano, M. A. P. Orrico Junior, T. Fernandes, M. Retore, M. S. J. da Silva, A. C. A. Orrico, L. da S. Lopes
      Pages: 56 - 63
      Abstract: The conservation of elephant grass cultivar Capiaçu in the form of total mixed ration (TMR) silage can help to improve the quality of the fermentative process and optimize feed management. However, the best cutting age of grass and the necessity of using microbes-enzymatic additives to aid in the process have not been determined thus far. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate cutting age and different microbes-enzymatic additives on the fermentative and nutritional quality of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on BRS Capiaçu. A completely randomized design was used in a 3×3 factorial scheme, with three cutting ages of grass (60, 90, and 120 days of regrowth), associated with three types of additives [CON (control), HOM (homofermentative inoculant + fibrolytic enzyme), and COMBO (homofermentative inoculant + heterofermentative inoculant + fibrolytic enzyme)]. The fermentative losses, the production of organic acids, chemical composition, and the aerobic stability of the tested silages were measured. The TMR silages containing 60-day-old grass showed the lowest dry matter contents, highest effluent production, and lower aerobic stability. The COMBO inoculant application provided higher acetic acid contents and greater aerobic stability of the 90- and 120-day-old grass silages. The highest lactic acid concentrations were observed in silages produced with the 60- and 90-day-old grass silages. It is concluded that the TMR produced with BRS Capiaçu at 90 days of age and in association with COMBO is the best option to balance the nutritional and fermentative quality of this type of silage.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.56
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Performance, Microbial Populations, and Jejunal Morphology of Broilers
           Supplemented with Nano-Encapsulated Graviola Leaf Extract

    • Authors: U. Maesaroh, N. D. Dono, Zuprizal
      Pages: 64 - 72
      Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate the effects of adding nano-encapsulated graviola (Annona muricata Linn.) leaf extract (NGLE) to drinking water on microbial populations, jejunal morphology, and growth performance of broilers. A total of 300 seven-day-old Lohmann male broilers were allocated into 6 treatments with 5 replications and 10 chicks in each replicate pen. All birds were given the same basal diet but given drinking water treated with: drinking water only as a negative control (T1), drinking water + 25 mg/L Tetracycline (T2), drinking water + 15 mL/L GLE (T3), drinking water + 30 mL/L GLE (T4), drinking water + 15 mL/L NGLE (T5), or drinking water + 30 mL/L NGLE (T6). Variables observed in the current study included: body weight gain (BWG), final body weight (FBW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed intake (FI), carcass percentage, jejunal lactic acid bacteria (LAB), jejunal coliform bacteria, villus height and width, crypt depth, and crypt depth ratio. All variable data were statistically analyzed using a completely randomized design with one-way arrangement. Results showed that the addition of NGLE in drinking water improved (p<0.05) jejunal morphology, jejunal LAB, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The height of jejunal villus and population of jejunal LAB increased (p<0.01) when NGLE up to a dose of 15 mL/L was added into the drinking water. Supplementing 15 mL/L NGLE reduced (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio and improved (p<0.01) final body weight and carcass production compared with the other treatments. It is concluded that supplementation of 15 mL/L NGLE might be useful as an alternative for antibiotics growth promoters in poultry.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.64
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Performances of KUB Chickens Fed Diets with Different Nutrient Densities
           and BS4 Enzyme Supplementation

    • Authors: A. P. Sinurat, T. Haryati, A. Herliatika, N. Pratiwi
      Pages: 73 - 83
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary enzyme supplementation (E) on the performance of KUB chickens fed different nutrient densities (ND). Diets with three densities: 70.7 g crude protein/Mcal or high (H), 66.1 g crude protein/Mcal or medium (M), and 59.3 g crude protein/Mcal or low (L), were formulated and supplemented with or without enzyme. Diets were given in four feeding programs, i.e., H-M-L, H-M-M, M-M-L, and M-L-L during the starter (1–28 d), grower (29–56 d), and finisher (57–84 d) periods, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times. Bodyweight gain (BWG), feed intake, and FCR were measured each period. At the end of the trial, carcass yield and internal organs were measured. Results of the experiment (1–84 d period) showed that the feed intake was significantly affected by ND. Chickens fed the H-M-L diets have the highest feed intake, while the lowest was found in chickens fed M-M-L diets. A significant interaction was found in the FCR. The best FCR was found in chickens fed the H-M-M diets without enzymes, but the best FCR was found on the M-M-L diets with enzymes. Livability, carcass yield, abdominal fat, liver, proventriculus, and gizzard weights were not affected by the treatments. The jejunum sizes of chickens were significantly longer when fed the low-density diet than those fed the higher nutrient density diet. The ileum sizes of chickens were significantly shorter than chickens fed the diet without enzymes. The highest income over feed cost was achieved when chickens were fed the M-M-L diets supplemented with enzymes. It is concluded that the best performance of growing KUB chickens was obtained when fed M-M-L diets supplemented with BS4 enzymes (30 Units of saccharification/kg diet) and when fed H-M-M diets without enzyme supplementation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.73
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Clinical Signs and Blood Variables of Pregnancy Toxemia Goats during Late
           Gestation and Postpartum

    • Authors: A. A. Affan, A. Salleh, M. Zamri-Saad, A. Jayanegara, H. A. Hassim
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Pregnancy toxemia is one of the common metabolic diseases in ruminant, which has caused a huge economic impact on the dairy industry. Thus, this study aimed to describe the clinical and blood changes in pregnant goats following induction of pregnancy toxemia. Twelve pregnant goats were divided into control (n=3) and treatment (n=9) groups. The control was fed a diet with adequate energy while the treatment group was exposed to 50% reduction in the energy intake to induce pregnancy toxemia. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for biochemical analyses, which included glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), free fatty acid (FFA), calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, cortisol, and insulin. On days 20 (PK20) and 40 (PK40) post-induction, 3 induced and 1 control goat was slaughtered while the remaining 3 induced goats were provided with a normal balanced diet to allow recovery (PKRD). The induction resulted in acute pregnancy toxemia after 20 days with clinical signs including weakness, loss of body condition, and recumbency. At 40 days, chronic pregnancy toxemia resulted in signs such as incoordination and abortion. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the glucose, insulin, calcium, and potassium levels in the induced goats while the concentrations of BHBA, FFA, and cortisol were significantly (p<0.05) higher. Furthermore, the blood profiling was significantly (p<0.05) different between the PK20, PK40, and PKRD groups and was strongly associated with the presence of clinical signs and ketone bodies in the urine. The 50% reduction in energy intake resulted in acute pregnancy toxemia after 20 days and chronic pregnancy toxemia after 40 days. In conclusion, serum biochemical profile is a potential biomarker to assess the mild and severe pregnancy toxemia in does during the late gestation and postpartum period through changes in blood profiling.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.84
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Presence of Antibiotic-Resistant in Staphylococcal Subclinical Mastitis in
           Several Regencies of East Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: D. C. Widianingrum, H. Khasanah, H. S. Addy
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: Staphylococcal mastitis has been reported as a serious dairy disease in various regions around the world. The occurrence of resistant strains in Staphylococcus species to antibiotics has triggered alternative treatment substituting antibiotic usage on the global scene. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes in Staphylococcal subclinical-mastitis cases present in several regencies of East Java Province, Indonesia. A total of 592 quarter milk samples were collected from 62 farms in the region with high dairy cattle populations in Lumajang, Banyuwangi, Malang, Sidoarjo, Jember, Pasuruan, Probolinggo, and Mojokerto. Subclinical-mastitis samples were screened using the California mastitis test (CMT). Positive CMT samples were grown on the selective Staphylococcus media and tested for their biochemical properties. The polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes in all isolates (Staphylococcus sp) using a specific pair-primer for mecA, blaZ, tetK, and tetM genes. The result showed that about 67% of milk samples were subclinical mastitis in several regencies of East Java. About 17.12% of subclinical mastitis was caused by Staphylococcus species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and other non-aureus Staphylococci (NAS)). The most prevalent region of Staphylococcal subclinical-mastitis was recorded in Jember. However, only NAS species obtained from Mojokerto, Malang, Probolinggo, and Banyuwangi were detected to have a blaZ gene responsible for penicillin resistance. In conclusion, the appearance of the antibiotic-resistant gene in NAS species found in several regencies of East Java can be used as important information to evaluate Staphylococcal subclinical-mastitis treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.91
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • Detection and Dietary Exposure Assessment of Fluoroquinolones Residues in
           Chicken Meat from the Districts of Malang and Blitar, Indonesia

    • Authors: R. Widiastuti, E. Martindah, Y. Anastasia
      Pages: 98 - 103
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) residues in fresh chicken meat and evaluate its consumption risk to the adult population in Indonesia. A total of 55 fresh chicken-meat samples were collected from Districts of Malang and Blitar, East Java Province, Indonesia, in April 2017. Detections of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a PDA detector. It was found that ciprofloxacin was detected with a frequency of 67.3% at a maximum concentration of 275.00 ng/g. Enrofloxacin was detected with a frequency of 41.8% at a maximum concentration of 242.40 ng/g, or totally as a sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues detected in 76.4% samples at a maximum concentration of 367.50 ng/g. The estimated dietary intakes of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin were 44.90 ng/kg body weight/day and 7.91 ng/kg body weight/day, respectively, resulting in the hazard indexes of 0.0063 and 0.0013 for the consumptions of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin residues in chicken meat. Therefore, the risk associated with the consumption of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin residues in chicken meat by the adult population in Indonesia was considered negligible.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.98
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Properties of Wet Blue Added Crude Enzyme from Rhizopus oligosporus in
           the Acid Bating Process

    • Authors: A. W. Nugraha, O. Suparno, N. S. Indrasti, Hoerudin
      Pages: 104 - 111
      Abstract: Bating is one of the processes in leather production. This process is generally performed under slightly alkaline conditions, but it can also be done under acidic conditions. Rhizopus oligosporus is categorized as a microorganism that can synthesize acidic enzymes optimally in acidic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bating process using acid protease from R. oligosporus on the leather qualities tanned by chromium sulfate. The study used a completely randomized design where crude enzyme activity (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 U mL-1) was a single treatment as an experimental design. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and furtherly tested using Duncan. The results show that the protease synthesized from R. oligosporus is potential to be used as a bating agent. The treatment with 2.5 U mL-1 activity was the best treatment in this study to improve leather (wet blue) properties like shrinkage temperature, ash content, and chrome oxide content. The quality of wet blue produced was better than that produced with conventional treatments. It can be concluded that the enzyme activity of 2.5 U mL-1 could be used as a bating-agent alternative in the acid bating stage.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.104
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Probiotic Properties of Lactobacilli in Organic Pigs

    • Authors: D. Liu, K. Direksin, M. Panya
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: Indigenous Lactobacilli are suitable probiotics because they adapt well in the hosts and ecological niches. Here we test local Lactobacillus for future application in the pigs as the farm-autogenous strains. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus isolated from the feces of antibiotic-free organic pigs. The properties include bile salt and pepsin tolerance, survival in storage (37 & 4 oC) and probiotic-packaging (50 oC) temperatures, antibiogram, and antagonistic activity against Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 13311 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Eighteen isolates with three different species were tested in this study as follows: L. reuteri (seven strains), L. mucosae (ten strains), and L. plantarum (one strain). Four isolates—L. reuteri-OP1, L. mucosae-OP2, L. mucosae-OP3, and L. reuteri-OP17—had good in vitro probiotic characteristics. Eleven isolates completely inhibited both E. coli and S. typhimurium. The other isolates are perfectly disabled, either E. coli or S. typhimurium. Despite that, they caused a reduction in the numbers of each pathogen. All Lactobacilli tested were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin, and imipenem. Most isolates were sensitive to clindamycin (72%), gentamicin (56%), and tetracycline (50%). Half of the proportions were somewhat sensitive/resistant to cefotaxime (39/44%), tetracycline (50/39%), and streptomycin (39/56%). One hundred percent of Lactobacilli were resistant to norfloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and vancomycin, while 94% were resistant to enrofloxacin. Most of the local Lactobacilli passed in vitro tests, but the efficacy of probiotics in pigs awaits further in vivo investigation. Therefore, the potential probiotic strains derived from this study could be selected for further evaluation of their probiotic roles in economic pigs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2022.45.1.112
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2022)
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