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Eksplorium : Buletin Pusat Pengembangan Bahan Galian Nuklir     Open Access  
Atom Indonesia     Open Access  
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Atom Indonesia
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0126-1568
Published by BATAN Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Assessment of TMSR-500 Shutdown Capability

    • Authors: A. Khakim, F. R. Firmanda, Y. Pramono, S. Suharyana
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is a generation IV reactor with liquid fuel having nearly zero excess reactivity. Due to the very low excess reactivity, it requires a small number of control rods worth to shut down the reactor. However, as it operates at high temperatures, the core reactivity increases as the fuel temperature cools down during shutdown. In such a case, the control rods might not be able to keep the reactor at a subcritical state, and consequently, the fuel must be removed from the core for long-term shutdown into a fuel drain tank (FDT) below the core. This paper is intended to assess the shutdown capability of the first active shutdown system and fuel drain tank of ThorCon MSR by doing neutronic calculations with MCNP6. The results indicated that the control rods having reactivity worth ‑1.699 %dk/k are unable to maintain the core at a subcritical state as the core excess reactivity increases to +7.760 %dk/k when the fuel reaches room temperature. Therefore, the fuel must be drained to FDT to be cooled down and kept subcritical. Evaluation for various cases of FDT produced the highest multiplication factor of 0.57008 ± 0.00004 at the most conservative condition. The multiplication factor is well below the critical state of 1.0. The evaluations suggest that soon after the control rods shut the reactor down, the fuel has to be drained to FDT to maintain shutdown condition and dissipate the decay heat.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1145
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • Skin Dosimetric Comparison of 3DCRT and IMRT Planning for Post-Mastectomy
           Breast Radiotherapy

    • Authors: F. K. Hentihu, A. K. Anto, R. S. Nugroho
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer for incidence and mortality among females globally and in Indonesia. Mastectomy is still the most common surgery for female breast cancer in Indonesia. After the mastectomy, several patients will receive a whole breast radiotherapy session. About 68.75% of breast cancer patients in the radiotherapy department at Lavalette Hospital during 2019 had undergone the mastectomy. Radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer can be delivered using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique. This study is aimed to compare the skin dosimetric between IMRT and 3DCRT for post-mastectomy breast radiotherapy. Left-sided breast cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy at Lavalette Hospital during 2019 were included in this study, and 15 patients were selected. All patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks using 6 MV photons. The planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR) were delineated. Skin with 3 mm thickness along PTV was also contoured for evaluating the dose delivered to the skin. The treatment planning was conducted using 3DCRT and 5 fields IMRT planning. The plans were optimized for at least 95% of the prescribed dose to cover 95% volume of the PTV. The mean dose and maximum dose were used for evaluating and comparing each plan. The skin’s mean dose from 3DCRT planning was 24.65 ± 4.12 Gy and 22.85 ± 3.68 Gy (p = 0.002) for IMRT planning. Meanwhile, skin maximum doses were 54.15 ± 0.68 Gy and 53.89 ± 1.05 Gy         (p = 0.001) respectively for 3DCRT and IMRT planning. These results showed that IMRT offered a lower dose to the skin and a better skin-sparing effect than 3DCRT.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1105
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Evaluation of Fission Barrier Height by Fission Toy Model Approach

    • Authors: R. Kurniadi, Z. Suud, Y. S. Perkasa
      First page: 15
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1154
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Effects of High Level Natural Radiation in Mamuju - Indonesia on the
           Immune System of Its Residents

    • Authors: D Darlina, T. Rahardjo, H. N. E. Surniyantoro, N. Rahajeng, M. Syaifudin
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The immune system is one of the most significant defenses against environmental insults including natural radiation. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the effects of high natural radiation to Mamuju residents, by focusing on immune-related blood cell counts (leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) level. The blood samples were collected from 18 adult residents in a high background radiation area (HBRA) while 18 residents in a normal background radiation area (NBRA) served as a control group. The blood components were measured by using the hematopoietic analyzer, and IgE immune biomarker was measured with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) according to standard protocols. The data showed that the level of all blood cells, except for monocytes, of residents in HBRA was higher than that of NBRA. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the blood cell counts and IgE level in both groups and their values were within normal limits. The level of IgE in HBRA was significantly higher than the control area (P≤0.05), as its IgE level in males compared to females in both residents. The relationship between IgE level and age were negative in these residents. From this study, it was concluded that long-term exposure to high radiation may affect the immune system as one of radiation adaptive response.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1118
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • Systematic Projected Shell Model Study of Even-Even Dysprosium Isotopes

    • Authors: H. Aghahasani, S. Mohammadi, Z. Sajjadi
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Back-bending phenomenon is one of the important phenomena usually seen at high spin states of even - even heavy nuclei. As a result, any changes in the behavior of nuclear rotation, such as increase in moment of inertia versus rotational frequency can be shown in the usual back-bending plots which have been studied in many papers before. In this paper we show for the first time that these changes  can be seen in the  ratio of electromagnetic reduced transition probabilities B (E2) and B (M1) in even - even 152-164Dy isotopes using the Projected Shell Model (PSM) theory. The electric quadrupole transition probability B (E2) and the magnetic dipole transition probability B (M1) moments are sensitive to nuclear shape deformation and nuclear charge distribution, respectively. Our findings confirm the well-known back-bending previously seen and are in good agreement with experimental results. While intrinsic quadrupole moments are constant for each Dy isotope, the new findings show that spectroscopic quadrupole moments are increasing with spin.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1190
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • In Vitro Release of Metformin HCl from Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) - Gelatin
           Hydrogels Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

    • Authors: H. Hariyanti, E. Erizal, E. Mustikarani, I. Lestari, F. Lukitowati
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The aim of this present work is to use polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) – gelatin-based  hydrogel prepared by γ-rays irradiation with different gelatin concentrations ranging from 0.5 - 2 %w/v for immobilization of Metformin HCl (MH) at dose range of 0 - 30 mg. The mixture were freezed-thawed for 3 cycles, irradiated using  γ-rays with sterilization dose at 25 kGy (dose rates 5 kGy/h). Gel fraction and water absorption were determined gravimetrically. The surface morphology of hydrogels were observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In vitro release of MH were taken using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. After evaluated, it was found that with increasing gelatin concentrations, gel fraction increases and water absorption decreases. With increasing gelatin concentration and drug dosage, the cumulative drug released decreases. From SEM observation, the hydrogel had a heterogeneous porous. The hydrogel based on PVA-gelatin can be considered as a matrix for controlled drug release and safe for humans since both PVA and gelatin are non-toxic.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1123
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • Detection of Spoilage in Canned Pasteurized Milk Using the Radiographic
           Imaging Technique

    • Authors: D. T. Thuy, H. B. Tien, H. B. Ngoc, T. T. Kim, T. T. Ngoc
      First page: 45
      Abstract: After packed into sterilized containers with a closed and rigorous process, pasteurized milk has been ensured for its hygiene and safety factors. However, distortions can occur during storage and transportation, causing the container to open, allowing harmful microorganisms to enter and damage the product. This research proposed a radiographic imaging technique to detect and evaluate the spoilage of canned pasteurized milk. The X-ray images show that the milk cans, which were left open for three days at 300 K, indicated regions with abnormal density with the smallest detectable size from 100 µm or larger. Density heterogeneity would be clearer in the following days and depending on the sample. An algorithm was developed to identify spoilage products automatically with an accuracy of up to 100 % and a speed of 0.0057 s/product. This approach may be suitable for industrial scale to control the quality of dairy products.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1161
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of Sub-energy Windows’ Parameters on the Triple Energy Window
           Scatter Correction Method Accuracy in 99mTc SPECT Imaging

    • Authors: H. Saikouk, N. E. Khayati, A. Matrane
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Scatter correction in SPECT quantification is of major importance to compensation for the scatter contribution under the photopeak. The triple energy windows method (TEW) is one of the suggested ways for scatter correction that are widely used in clinical routine. However, it can be a source of additional noise if the width or the number of sub-energy windows is not accurately chosen. To determine the precise scatter estimation windows settings under the 99mTc photopeak, scatter fraction was calculated for different sub-energy widths and numbers through GATE Monte Carlo simulation, for a main energy window of 15 %, centered at 140 keV. Four different acquisitions, with cold or hot inserts in a warm or a cold background, were studied. The estimation was done by two methods. The first method was the extraction of the number of detected Compton photons under the photopeak, therefore considered as the true scattered photons. The second method was the application of TEW method to the simulated energy spectra. The comparison of results corresponding to both methods shows a good agreement in two cases: simultaneous 7 % and 5 % sub-energy windows, respectively, positioned on the left and the right of the main energy window, and the second case is a 3 % left sub-energy window without a right sub-energy window. These sub-energy windows were then applied to experimental tomographic acquisitions to assess their impact on contrast, relative noise of the background (RNB), signal‑to‑noise ratio (SNR), integral uniformity (IU), and tomographic spatial resolution. Good results for these quantitative parameters were acquired with simultaneous 7 % and 5 % sub-energy windows. However, there was very little enhancement for tomographic spatial resolution.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1119
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • Correlations Between Body Weight and Size-Specific Dose Estimate on
           Thoracic Computed Tomography Examination

    • Authors: A. L. Wati, C. Anam, A. Nitasari, S. Syarifudin, G. Dougherty
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The dose received by a patient on CT examination is expressed in size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) which is a function of the patient diameter, x-ray attenuation, and scanner output (volume computed tomography dose index, CTDIvol). Patient diameter and x-ray attenuation are represented as water equivalent diameter (Dw). We conducted the research to analyze the relationships between body weight and Dw, CTDIvol, and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) in contrast-enhanced thorax examinations. We used images from 100 patients (50 women and 50 men patients) whose weight range from 2.8 kg to 80 kg. The values of Dw, CTDIvol, and SSDE were automatically calculated from axial CT images using the IndoseCT software. Statistical analysis showed that the patient's body weight correlates linearly with the Dw. The linearity coefficient (R2) values for body weight and Dw is 0.43 (women) and 0.55 (men). However, weight was independent of the patient dose in terms of CTDIvol and SSDE. This was because the CT system used tube current modulation (TCM), which automatically adapted the tube current to patient size, resulting in a relatively constant dose regardless of the patient size (Dw).
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1114
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • A Study on Radiation Hazard of Granite and Marble Widely Used in Jordan
           Using Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    • Authors: A. N. Akour, S. Shakhatreh
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Granite and marble are widely used in building construction, so possible radioactive nuclides inside them may contribute to the exposure dose to human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the natural radioactivity concentration and assess the radiological risk limits and health care. The samples of marble and granite were pulverized into small, fine, smooth pieces and counted with the GAMMA-X (GMX) spectrometer to measure the radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K. The radiological dose, internal and external hazards, and radium equivalent activity were calculated with a standard formula. The results showed that the radioactive concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in granite were higher than those in marble. The external hazard for granite samples was below unity, while its internal hazard exceeded unity. The radium equivalent activity did not exceed the critical legal level of 370 Bq/kg as a safe level. For marble, the external and internal hazards and radium equivalent activities showed good agreement with the safe construction level. Its external and internal hazards were less than unity, whereas the radium equivalent activities were less than the critical legal level.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1184
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cover Atom Indonesia Vol 48 No 1

    • Authors: cover48no1 cover48no1
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1238
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1
  • Preface Atom Indonesia Vol 48 No 1

    • Authors: preface48no1 preface48no1
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1239
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1
  • Acknowledgement Atom Indonesia Vol 48 No 1

    • Authors: ack48no1 ack48no1
      DOI: 10.17146/aij.2022.1240
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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