Publisher: Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services   (Total: 9 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Avicenna J. of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Research in Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Journal of Research in Health Sciences
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-7795 - ISSN (Online) 2228-7809
Published by Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Ethics and Effectiveness of US COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates and Vaccination
           Passports: A Review

    • Authors: Alexa G. Canning, Kyleigh E. Watson, Katelyn E. McCreedy, John O. Olawepo
      Abstract: Background: The highest-income countries procured 50 times as many COVID-19 vaccines as low-income countries, a global health inequity that resulted in only 4.6% of the poorest 5th of the world receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. High-income countries are considering vaccine mandates and passports to contain the spread of COVID-19. This study is a curated discourse aimed at examining how vaccine mandates and passports may impact global vaccine equity from an ethics perspective. Study design: Narrative review adapted for a debate. Methods: In November 2021, we conducted a review of studies examining global vaccine mandates for an upper-level global health course at Northeastern University, Boston, United States (U.S.). In total, 19 upper-level students, one research assistant, and one instructor participated in the data collection, analysis, and discussion. Results: The review showed vaccine mandates are ethical and effective if autonomy-centered alternatives like soft mandates are first exhausted. Unwarranted stringent public health measures degrade public trust. In the U.S. alone, COVID-19-related deaths hovered above 300,000 before COVID-19 vaccination began in mid-December 2020. Since then, the number of COVID-19 deaths more than doubled, despite the wide availability of the vaccine. For many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) vaccines are not available or easily accessible. Global collaboration to facilitate vaccine availability in LMICs should be a priority. Conclusions: It is essential to get as many people as possible vaccinated to return to some normality. However, vaccine mandates and passports need to be used only sparingly, especially when other options.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2022)
  • Bivariate Survival Copula Analysis of Glaucoma Patients during Blindness:
           Glaucoma Cases at Alert Hospital in Addis Ababa City of Ethiopia

    • Authors: Firomsa Shewa Gari, Gurmessa Nugussu Gelcho
      Abstract: Background: Glaucoma is a worldwide problem that causes vision loss and even blindness, with a prevalence rate ranging from 1.9% to 15%. In Ethiopia, glaucoma is the fifth cause of blindness. This study aimed to explore the dependence between blindness of the right and the left eyes of glaucoma patients and assess the effects of the covariates under the dependence structure. Study design: A retrospective cohort study. Methods: The study population included the glaucoma patients at Alert hospital from January 1, 2018, to December 30, 2021. The copula model was used to estimate the time to the blindness of the right and the left eyes of the glaucoma patients by specifying the dependence between the event times. Results: Out of 537 glaucoma patients, 224 (41.71%) became blind at least in one eye during the follow-up period. The results of the Clayton copula model revealed that factors, such as age, residence, diabetes mellitus, stage of glaucoma, and hypertension are considered the most prognostic factors for blindness in glaucoma patients. The findings also revealed that there was a strong dependence between the time to the blindness of the right and the left eyes in the glaucoma patients ( . Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, high age, urban residence,  hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and higher stage of glaucoma were factors associated with time to the blindness in the glaucoma patients. There was also a dependence between the right and the left eyes of the glaucoma patients. The results revealed that the Clayton Archimedean copula model was the best statistical model for accurate description of glaucoma patients’ datasets.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2022)
  • Modeling Time to Blindness of Glaucoma Patients: A Case Study at Jimma
           University Medical Center

    • Authors: Meskerem Getachew Gebremariam, Reta Habtamu Bacha, Demeke Kifle Demissie, Kibrealem Sisay Wolde, Kenenisa Tadesse Dame, Geremew Muleta Akessa
      Abstract: Background: Glaucoma is a significant public health problem due to its substantial increase in the projected number of glaucoma cases. In Ethiopia, glaucoma accounts for 5.2% of irreversible blindness and is the fifth main cause of blindness. The main objective of this study was to modeling time to blindness of left and right eyes of glaucoma patients. Study Design: An institution-based retrospective cohort study. Methods: This study was conducted among 315 glaucoma patients admitted to the Ophthalmology Department of Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia, from January 1, 2016, to August 30, 2020. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and semiparametric and parametric copula models were applied to identify factors that affect time to the blindness in glaucoma patients and the dependence between time to the blindness of the left and right eyes, respectively. An Akaike information criterion was used to select the best non-nested model. Results: In total, 211 (66.9%) out of 315 glaucoma patients were blind, whereas 104 (33.1%) patients were censored. The median time to the blindness of the left and right eyes was determined to be 12 months. The result suggested that the risk of the blindness in male patients was 1.005 (P=0.01) times higher than that in female patients, and the risk of the blindness in patients who had early, moderate, and advanced glaucoma was estimated to be 0.582 (P=0.002), 0.485 (P=0.001) and 0.887 (P=0.003) times less than that in the patients with absolute glaucoma, respectively. Conclusions: Age, place of residence, gender, type of medication, diabetes disease, stage of glaucoma, duration of treatment, Intraocular Pressure, and cup-disk ratio were significantly associated with and affected by the time to the blindness of left and right eyes in glaucoma patients. Awareness should be given to the community to reduce the burden of glaucoma.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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