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Enfoque UTE
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1390-6542
Published by Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Analysis of Ultra-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (UDWDM) in a
           Passive Optical Network (PON)

    • Authors: Christian Tipantuña
      Abstract: Passive Optical Networks (PONs) are essential in op-
      tical communications to meet the increasing demand for network
      capacity and connected users, ensuring reliable and adaptable
      connections for data transmissions. These networks also offer
      efficient energy use and simplification of infrastructures, elimi-
      nating the need for active devices. In this context, Ultra-Dense
      Wavelength Division Multiplexing (UDWDM) is one of the most
      prominent solutions for data transmission; this technology takes
      advantage of the narrow separation between channels from 25
      GHz and even as small as 6.25 GHz to increase the transmission
      capacity. This document analyzes the performance of UDWDM
      considering the transmission of three simultaneous channels in
      a PON network for which three different scenarios have been
      considered for the analysis with the following parameters: i)
      transmission speed from 10 Gbps to 17 Gbps; ii) the distance
      from 10 km to 20 km; and iii) the separation between channels
      of 15 GHz, 20 GHz, and 25 GHz. The performance metrics for
      the analyzed scenario are the bit error rate and the eye diagram.
      To ensure the reception of the transmitted channel, an analysis
      of raised cosine and Gauss filters is also discussed. Including
      these filters allows for verifying whether their use enhances the
      performance of the channels compared to transmission without
      a filter. This is crucial for understanding how filters can optimize
      the quality and reliability of data transmission in a PON, which
      is of great importance in environments where high efficiency and
      connection quality are required.
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1049
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Manicaragua city, Cuba

    • Authors: Roberto Luis López Ferraz
      Abstract: The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are a way to visualize and represent extreme hydrometeorological rainfall events. In this article, an analysis of convective rainfall events recorded at the La Piedra Meteorological Station, Villa Clara, Cuba, was conducted. To develop IDF curves, the 2006-2019 time series was analyzed. A partial duration series was generated, including intervals from 20 minutes to 4320 minutes, subjected to an outlier detection process. The series was divided into two categories: one for durations ≤ 720 minutes and another for durations > 720 minutes. The resulting series underwent non-parametric tests to assess their independence, randomness, homogeneity, and seasonality. Subsequently, they were fitted to the Generalized Pareto probability distribution and to a parametric equation of the Montana model, and then the curves were plotted for return periods of  10, 50 and 100. The Montana model led to obtaining correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 compared to the other methods used, significantly improving the quality of the fit in both categories. This research provides information to understand and plan the management of intense climatic phenomena and adequate risk management in an area where such studies are lacking, facilitating access to crucial data essential in the design and execution of hydraulic engineering projects in the region.
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1046
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • TRPW Thiamethoxam Residuality in Papaya Plant and Fruit (Carica papaya
           Linnaeus) Cultivated in Rotation with Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    • Authors: Juan Valente Megchun Garcia, María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez , Daniel Arturo Rodríguez Lagunes, Fabiola Lango Reynoso , Isabel Araceli Amaro Espejo
      Abstract: There is evidence of the high use of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, in tropical crops, for its effectiveness in the control of soil and plant pests. The objective of this study was to know the residuality and concentration of thiamethoxam in the papaya agroecosystem, in the main papaya fruit producing zone in the central area of ​​the Gulf of Mexico. It was carried out during a papaya growing cycle with watermelon rotation; the taking of samples was according to the technique established by the NOM -AA-103-1988 for leaves and for fruit the NMX -FF-041-1996 by the method of quartering in papaya and watermelon, the samples were analyzed with a HPLC-UV, the data obtained were statistically analyzed by parametric and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests. The presence of thiamethoxam was found in papaya and watermelon cultivation plants, the concentrations in papaya leaves reported a maximum value of 0.29 mg/kg, while for the leaves of the watermelon rotation fruit it was 0.15mg/kg. In papaya fruit, thiamethoxam concentrations are within a range of 0.24 to 0.32 mg/kg. The concentrations and residuality of thiamethoxam mainly exceed the maximum tolerance and residuality limits of the EFSA and FAO.
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1037
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • CFD simulation of surface pumping of heavy crude oil in eastern Ecuador

    • Authors: José Omar Cabrera Escobar
      Abstract: This research addresses the surface pumping of heavy crude oil, specifically crude oil with an API gravity of 15.8, under particular atmospheric conditions in eastern Ecuador. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the temperature loss in a 50-meter segment of an SCH-80 pipe, 4 inches in diameter, used for the transportation of extraheavy crude oil. To achieve this objective, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, a key tool for predicting the thermal behavior of crude oil in interactions with the environment, was used. Through this methodology, we seek to understand how extraheavy crude oil loses temperature and determine the convective coefficient, knowing that the heat that the fluid loses to the environment occurs mainly by convection. This is done with the objective of being able to determine what the temperature losses will be in larger pipe sections. With this database, future research could evaluate potential heating technologies that facilitate the transportation of heavy crude oil. This approach allows for the exploration of innovative solutions to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of heavy crude oil handling, which is one of the main challenges in its transport: managing its high viscosity.
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1034
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Reduction of Setup Times in a Metal Fabrication Company Using a Lean-Sigma
           Approach

    • Authors: Omar Celis-Gracia, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Fabiola Hermosillo-Villalobos, Francisco Javier Estrada-Orantes, Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Noe Gaudencio Alba-Baena
      Abstract: Manufacturing companies face demand fluctuations and must deliver the required quantity of parts to their customers within the required time; however, companies face different challenges in fulfilling them. One is technological advances, which make it impossible for them to compete with other countries, such as China, due to financial issues. Therefore, manufacturing companies use continuous improvement methodologies to achieve better performance in their processes. Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing are some of the best-known approaches. This article briefly presents the application of a lean sigma approach oriented to solving problems. This research proposes a methodology based on Lean Sigma that contrasts what different authors currently do: continuous improvement projects that take up to 12 months to produce results and do not solve a problem. This implementation is conducted in a process that manufactures metal parts and fails to deliver them on time to its customers. Using tools such as the Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) in a production line, on-time deliveries were increased from 89% to 96%; at the same time, the model change times were reduced by approximately 60%, which is required for the implementation of this methodology for only four weeks, unlike the traditional six-sigma approach that can take up to 12 months to improve the process.
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1027
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Eco-friendly Motorcycle Taxi, Reducing Pollution with an Electrolyzer

    • Authors: MANUEL ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ PEREZ
      Abstract: Environmental pollution from transportation has been a fundamental challenge for mankind throughout history, with conventional fuels contributing significantly to environmental degradation. This project seeks to mitigate the pollution generated by motorcycle cabs, whether for personal and/or private use. The main objective of the research work was to implement an electrolyzer in the combustion system of a motorcycle cab to reduce environmental pollution. The materials used were the test vehicle, electrolyzer, 12V battery, caustic soda, flame arrester filter, measuring instruments, tools and workshop equipment. The methods included vehicle preparation, electrolyzer installation, battery adjustment, hydrogen generation, emission measurement, safety, and data collection. As a result, the electrolyzer was successfully implemented in the single-cylinder motorcycle cab; reducing 100% of the pollution. The discussion highlighted that hydrogen is a clean fuel, with zero emissions and only emitting water vapor instead of polluting gases. The conclusion underlines the critical importance of the research, supported by solid evidence of total reduction of 3.739% of carbon monoxide and 1.96% of carbon dioxide, being 100% of the gases emitted by conventional fuel.
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1021
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Investigation of wind effects on UAV adaptive PID based MPC control system

    • Authors: Andres Santiago Martinez Leon, Sergey Jatsun, Oksana Emelyanova
      Abstract: In this paper, an assessment of the state of coastal territories of Ecuador monitoring issue is conducted. The use of an autonomous robotic aerial platform is proposed as a technical solution to enhance the efficiency of remote surveillance missions performed by national security services along coastline. Considering the UAV nonlinear flight dynamics, as well as the missing information of the environment, a UAV hierarchical control structure composed of an adaptive PID based MPC control strategy is designed. The implementation of a an adaptive PID based MPC controller leads to significantly improve the UAV optimal trajectory tracking task, as well as satisfy properties such as adaptiveness, self-learning, and capability of handling uncertainties caused by the unpredictable behavior of sea currents and wind loads retaining robust performance features. In this work, the investigation of external disturbances effects on UAV stabilization and positioning accuracy considers swirling wind flows and short-term wind gusts corresponding to deterministic and random processes mathematically represented as trigonometric functions with random amplitudes determined by the coefficients of gustiness and wind load periods of pulsations in a range established by a set of several wind loads observations in the coastal territories of Ecuador collected from the database of national meteorological stations. The simulation process of the UAV disturbed controlled motion along a linear piecewise trajectory, as well as the graphing-data analysis are carried out in MATLAB environment.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1032
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Internet of Things in health and wellness: characteristics, contributions
           and challenges of publications with Ecuadorian authors

    • Authors: Cristina Vaca-Orellana
      Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling remote patient monitoring, personalized care, and disease prevention. In Ecuador, research on IoT in the field of health is rapidly expanding. However, there needs to be a clearer understanding of the current state of this research. This study analyzes contributions in collaboration with Ecuadorian authors through their publications in two globally impactful bibliographic databases. The methodology employed is a systematic review using the PRISMA statement, resulting in a final stage with 24 articles. The publications encompass system proposals, prototypes, and reviews with applications in areas such as epidemiology, cardiology, and nursing. The recurrent mention of patient in-formation privacy as a challenge in implementing IoT-based healthcare systems is highlighted. In the conclusions, it is emphasized that future work perspectives address challenges encountered, considering Ecuadorian authors' growing trend of publications.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1023
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Nutritional Physiology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Fed on Different Wheat Varieties

    • Authors: Aqsa Amjad, Muhammad Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed, Rafia Umar, Nahdia Perveen, Muqadas Qadeer, Haroon Gul, Emaan Sajid
      Abstract: — Within the context of agricultural ecosystems, understanding the nutritional physiology of insects and their host plant preferences is pivotal for optimizing pest management strategies and enhancing crop production. In this study, we conducted an in-depth examination of the nutritional physiology of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the context of different host plants, specifically wheat varieties, in comparison to maize. Our investigation focused on key parameters, including the relative consumption rate (RCR), relative growth rate (RGR), and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) of S. frugiperda fed on different wheat varieties including Dilkash-20, Fakhar-e-bhakkar-17, Subhani-21, Faisalabad-08, and Akbar-19 in comparison to maize (NK-6654). The results revealed that S. frugiperda displayed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher RCR (8.08 g/g/day), RGR (1.50 g/g/day), and ECI (25.1%) when feeding on maize, followed by Fakhar-e-Bhakkar (RCR =7.00 g/g/day, RGR =1.24 g/g/day and ECI =21.4%) and Akbar-19 (RCR = 6.06 g/g/day, RGR = 1.04 g/g/day and ECI =19.7%) wheat varieties after 1 week of feeding. The lowest values of all these nutritional parameters were recorded on the Dilkash variety (RCR = 2.98 g/g/day, RGR = 0.38 g/g/day, and ECI = 7.94%). These findings offer valuable insights into the nutritional interactions between S. frugiperda and the host plants, shedding light on potential implications for pest management strategies and crop patterns.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1016
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Evolution of the Polygon of the Protected Natural Area "Parque Nacional
           Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano" due to the expansion of the Port of
           Veracruz, Mexico

    • Authors: Xochitl Citalli Hernandez
      Abstract: The growth of jobs in the port area has gained ground in the Veracruzano Reef System National Park (PNSAV), causing disagreements on the part of environmental sectors and productive sectors, which express the situation for or against. The objective of this analysis is to develop a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on research about changes in the PNSAV. It was carried out with exploration, satellite mapping and visual interpretation of images, and study of the documents with the respective research and information guidelines in relation to this investigation. The results show that due to the current process, part of it has been used for the growth of the Port of Veracruz, evident in the historical changes in satellite mapping, which are observed in the development of the present. In the Environmental Impact Manifesto they mention the measures they intend to apply, among which they highlight the reinforcement and relocation of those reefs that could be damaged, to which, there are no official documents on the management of said mitigation, it is unknown if it was carried out and the progress achieved. This gives rise to investigating this port expansion area. This manifesto began in 2006, and where it is stated that for the construction of a Logistics Activities Zone of the Port of Veracruz and associated projects, the official Mexican Standard (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001) should be complied with, speaking in itself of endangered species and protected species. Of which are counted in these areas of analysis in this work, as part of the modification to the PNSAV.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1014
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Distributed congestion control based on utility function

    • Authors: Edison Segarra Guzmán, Patricia Ludeña-González
      Abstract: This paper introduces the Distributed Utility Function Algorithm (D-AFU) as a notable progression in managing and optimizing network traffic within distributed settings. Based on the utility function principle, D-AFU dynamically adjusts data rate in response to ever-changing network demands, with optimal performance and a higher user experience. Contrary to the centralized model, D-AFU employs a distributed, scalable and resilient against failures and system overloads mechanism.
      Its efficiency is validated using the NS-3 simulator. Three main metrics are used: the data rate allocation, utility per session, and fairness (quantified by the Gini coefficient). D-AFU displayes exceptional performance and low latency, particularly vital for real-time applications with high Quality of Service (QoS) requirements.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.994
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Characterization of the Vegetation Community and its Carbon Stock
           Contribution in a Dry Forest

    • Authors: Josselyn Muentes
      Abstract: Ecuador is home to approximately 12.6 million hectares of native forest, which accounts for 50.73% of its territory. These data highlight not only the need to take concrete measures for the protection of natural resources but also the importance of generating information to aid decision-making in effectively addressing the challenges associated with climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the aboveground tree biomass in temporary plots located on one of the hills in Portoviejo, using both direct and indirect methods. Dendrometric data was collected, and the taxonomic identification of species was carried out with the assistance of local experts and complementary international sources. The structural study encompassed four fundamental parameters: Abundance, Frequency, Dominance, and Importance Value Index (I.V.I). The allometric equation proposed by Chave et al. (2005) for mixed dry forests was applied, allowing the estimation of tree aboveground biomass based on dendrometric variables. For the conversion of aboveground biomass to carbon, the guidelines established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were followed. Finally, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis of the carbon values found per plot. A total of 148 individuals were identified, results were obtained in terms of abundance, frequency and dominance of the species, as well as the species with the highest value of IVI. It was also determined that the study area can store 70.47 Mg C/ha-1 in live aboveground biomass.
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.990
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Flow Patterns in Two Nanorefrigerants R600a/CuO and R410A/CuO During the
           Boiling Process

    • Authors: LUIS FERNANDO TOAPANTA RAMOS
      Abstract: The present study aims to know the flow patterns in
      two nanorefrigerants R600a / CuO and R410a / CuO throughout
      the forced boiling process in horizontal square pipes, which are
      obtained using the thermophysical properties of the refrigerants
      R600a and R410A in state liquid and vapor, as well as the
      properties of the CuO nanoparticles. The analysis was carried
      out using two methods: analytical and numerical. The analytical
      method was established by formulas and correlations through
      scientific articles and books to find an improvement in the twophase
      heat transfer, under the conditions at an inlet temperature
      of 8 ° C and with a quality range of 0 to 1, verifying that by
      adding nanoparticles to the refrigerant, the transition between
      the flow regimes increases progressively, while the quality of
      the vapor decreases. For the numerical method, the different
      transition limits are specified in a simulation process in the Ansys
      Fluent CFD Software, under established design conditions, which
      consequently increases the general efficiency of any refrigeration
      system.
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1006
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Containers-Based Network Services Deployment: A Practical Approach

    • Authors: Christian Tipantuña
      Abstract: In recent years, virtualizing network services
      and functions has enabled optimizing hardware resources on
      resource-constrained devices, such as CPU, memory, and storage.
      Traditional virtualization is achieved through virtual machines
      using a layer known as a hypervisor. While this form of virtualization offers advantages such as scalability and portability, it has disadvantages in terms of performance compared to non-virtualized deployments. In this context, alternative virtualization technologies like containers allow virtualization on the same physical infrastructure, improving overall performance, portability, and service scalability. This paper implements the deployment of network services on the Raspberry Pi development platform, which has limited resources. This is achieved through a multi-container virtualization solution using the Docker Compose tool, based on Docker containerization technology. Finally, a performance analysis of the implemented virtualization solution is conducted in terms of resource utilization by each service.
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1005
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Assessing the Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin as
           a Biological Control Agent against Rose Sawfly Larvae

    • Authors: Nahdia Perveen, Haroon Gul, Eman Rashid, Huda Aitzaz, Malaika Shaheen, Haroon Gul, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Irfan Ullah
      Abstract: Increasing concerns over the environmental impact of chemical pesticides have prompted the exploration of alternative, and eco-friendly solutions for controlling insect pests. The use of entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) as a biological control agent is of paramount importance. We aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin on larval mortality and pupal formation, of sawfly larvae, a major pest of rose plants. Our study revealed a concentration-dependent effect of M. anisopliae on sawfly larvae. At 7 days after EPF exposure, the highest concentration (1 × 109 conidia/ml) led to a mortality rate of 65.0% and at the 11th day, the larval mortality was reached up to 82.5%. The highest EPF concentration resulted in a minimal pupal formation (7.5%). This study demonstrates the potential of M. anisopliae as a valuable biological control agent against sawfly larvae infestations in rose plants.
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1004
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Developing fuel efficiency and CO2 emission maps of a vehicle engine based
           on the on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    • Authors: Fredy Rosero Obando, Xavier Rosero , Zamir Mera
      Abstract: A vehicle interacts with the road, other vehicles, and traffic control devices in real traffic conditions. The level of traffic influences driving patterns and, consequently, this can affect the vehicle´s fuel efficiency and emissions. This study aims to develop engine maps of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for a light vehicle operating under real traffic conditions. A representative passenger vehicle of the Ecuadorian vehicle fleet, powered by gasoline, was selected for the experimental campaign that was developed on a test route designed according to real driving emission (RDE) regulation. An on-board diagnostic (OBD) device was used for recording in real-time engine and vehicle operating parameters. Moreover, CO2 emissions were estimated using the fuel rate registered from the OBD system of the vehicle This study proposed a novel methodology for developing two-dimensional contour engine maps based on OBD data.  The result showed that the vehicle engine operated in real traffic conditions with a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 27%, a brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 275 g/kWh, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) energy-emission factor of 716 g/kWh. In terms of distance, the CO2 emission factor for the tested vehicle was approximately 190 g/km. Overall, this study demonstrates that the OBD approach is a potential method to be used to assess the fuel consumption and emissions of a vehicle operating under real-world traffic conditions, especially in Latin American countries, where portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) are not readily available.
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.1002
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Powder detergent packaging line improvement by Lean Six Sigma DMAIC
           methodology

    • Authors: Juan Pushug, Leonidas Ramírez, Isaac Simbaña, David Saquinga
      Abstract: Reducing or eliminating waste within the manufacturing industry becomes necessary for sustainable businesses over time and keeps generating development. This investigation aims to reduce all those wastes that do not add value to the product, increasing the cost of production. To achieve it, the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC methodology was implemented in a detergent powder packaging line, to identify the problems that afflicted and made production more expensive. By using quality tools, such as Pareto and Ishikawa diagrams, 5S application, Poka-Yokes, SMED, training personnel, and standardizing processes, it was possible to reduce unproductive times. Energy consumption was reduced by up to 20 %, also efficiency and machine availability increased by 10.98 and 7.32 %, respectively. The general performance of the line increased by 15.16 %, which translates into significant monthly savings of USD 71 442.05. Hence, it was possible to achieve a reduction in production costs by implementing the DMAIC methodology in the production line.
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.996
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Analysis of the effect of vegetal and coking coals on the surface hardness
           of carburized AISI 8620 steel

    • Authors: Isaac Simbaña, Leonidas Ramírez, David Saquinga, Nicolás Rodríguez
      Abstract: In this investigation, the comparative study of the superficial hardness of AISI 8620 steel thermally treated by carburizing, using vegetable and coking coals, was developed. The objective was to propose an alternative to the element used to generate the carburizing atmosphere. The previous stages have been described, such as the preparation of the material and its verification, as well as the dimensions and characteristics, defined by the ASTM E-18 standard. By considering four variables, each one with two levels, an orthogonal array matrix of 16 experiments was generated. The surface hardness measurements were processed through an analysis of variance (ANOVA), where the significance of each variable considered as a factor was obtained. Coking coal can be used as an element for the generation of carburizing atmosphere since a maximum relative error of 3.86 % was obtained between the experimental values and the values in the literature. In contrast, the vegetable coal did not improve the mechanical properties of the steel, reaching an average hardness of 25.95 HRC after heat treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.29019/enfoqueute.997
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Computer Auditing: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Abraham Benjamin Ordoñez Reyes, Raphael Andre Prieto Pastor, Alberto Carlos Mendoza de los Santos
      Abstract: En el mundo empresarial contemporáneo, la auditoría ha experimentado una notable evolución impulsada por los avances tecnológicos. La auditoría de TI, particularmente con la adopción de la Inteligencia Artificial (IA), ha revolucionado los métodos tradicionales, ofreciendo mejoras en calidad, eficiencia y efectividad. Este estudio emplea la metodología PRISMA, investigando el impacto de la IA en las auditorías de TI. Se plantean preguntas clave sobre el impacto de la IA, los enfoques adecuados y las prácticas efectivas en este campo. La revisión abarca estudios internacionales, lo que demuestra que la IA facilita el análisis masivo de datos, mejora la detección de vulnerabilidades y minimiza los errores humanos. Los hallazgos reflejan un impacto positivo de la IA, evidenciado por mejoras de calidad, reducciones de costos y ventajas competitivas. Sin embargo, la adopción de IA varía según la región y la industria. En resumen,La IA surge como una herramienta esencial para modernizar la auditoría de TI, mejorar los procesos y apoyar las decisiones estratégicas, aunque enfrenta desafíos en la implementación y la aceptación global.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3
       
  • Assessment of animal drinking water quality in livestock farms in
           Galapagos Islands

    • Authors: José Manuel Calderón Pincay
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the quality of water for bovine consumption on livestock farms in the El Progreso parish - Galapagos by applying a quality index following the Brown methodology proposed by the National Sanitation Foundation of the United States. Information was collected from the livestock farms through a socio-environmental diagnosis of the area, where five localities were considered: San Joaquín, Las Goteras, Cerro Verde, Puerto Chino and El Progreso from which fifteen livestock farms were selected for the respective sampling of the sources. of water. Therefore, nine parameters were considered for the analysis of the respective water sources: pH, TDS, Fecal Coliforms, electrical conductivity, hardness, nitrites, phosphates, temperature and turbidity. Of the total livestock farms monitored, three of them presented a rating of Good quality in a range of 70 to 90, while the remaining farms recorded values with a Medium classification, which are those that recorded AQI values between 51 to 70 according to the criteria established by the NSF. This research highlights the importance of frequently carrying out analyzes of the water sources from which cattle drink to determine the quality of the resource, and also provide technical advice to ranchers in the area on the management and cleaning of the reservoirs.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3
       
  • Article Quality Management Model for Software Development Projects

    • Authors: Andres Perez, Marco Satián
      Abstract: In the current context, in which software development is fundamental in several industries, software quality has become crucial for the success of projects. This has generated the need to build a quality management model adapted to the context of software development. This model encompasses various processes, activities, policies, instruments, tools and techniques during the software development life cycle, until the completion of the project. It is essential to create a management model, which incorporates practices to ensure quality in the developed products. Once the proposed quality management model is implemented, it is expected to generate a significant impact on stakeholder satisfaction.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3
       
  • SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW ON ENERGY HARVESTING MECHANISMS USED IN VITAL
           SIGNS MONITORING

    • Authors: Nataly Peñafiel Arteaga, Marlon Navia Mendoza
      Abstract: Vital signs monitoring devices are crucial in the medical field because they allow continuous patient tracking. However, these devices rely on batteries or electrical supply for operation, which may present limitations and inconveniences such as data loss and constant surveillance interruption. Nevertheless, the growing implementation of autonomous energy harvesting mechanisms could replace conventional power methods. This systematic literature review was conducted to identify the most suitable energy harvesting mechanisms for vital signs monitoring devices in living organisms. The analysis includes both environmental sources and those produced by the human body. Information is also provided on the most commonly monitored vital signs and the device's location on the body. Furthermore, the energy production generated by the technologies considered in the analyzed publications is specified. The most used mechanisms were triboelectric and piezoelectric, while radiofrequency and triboelectric were the ones that obtained the highest energy production. It is worth noting that the evaluated mechanisms apply to both humans and other living beings as they share certain similarities with domestic animals.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Carbon Footprint estimation for Divino Maestro campus of Universidad
           Estatal del Sur de Manabí

    • Authors: Iliana Amparo Zorrilla Pionce, Josselyn Mariana Muentes Velez
      Abstract: La Huella de Carbono (HC) es un inventario medido en unidades deCO2e, que permite cuantificar los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) emitidos a la atmósfera, ya sea directa o indirectamente por una organización, producto o servicio. Las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) pueden utilizar este indicador para estimar su contribución al cambio climático debido a las actividades académicas y laborales realizadas por sus estudiantes, docentes, autoridades y trabajadores. Por esta razón, las IES han impulsado iniciativas que buscan convertir sus campus en modelos sostenibles, un primer paso es cuantificar las emisiones de GEI para reducirlas y compensarlas. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la FC en el campus Divino Maestro de la Universidad Estatal del Sur de Manabí (UNESUM) aplicando la metodología de las Directrices del Grupo Intergubernamental de Expertos sobre el Cambio Climático (IPCC) y la norma ISO 14064-1:2006. Como resultado, durante el año base elegido, que comprendió el segundo período académico 2021 (PII 2021) y el primer período académico 2022 (PI 2022), se emitieron un total de 80 TCO2e; Cada fuente de emisión se clasificó en tres alcances propuestos por la norma. La principal contribución al FC fue el Alcance 3 con el 98,44% del total de CF estimado, mientras que los Alcances 2 y 1 contribuyeron con el 1,45% y el 0,11% respectivamente. Posteriormente, se diseñaron medidas de reducción y compensación enfocadas a adoptar un comportamiento sostenible que contribuya a alcanzar la neutralidad de carbono en el área de estudio.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Predicting solar radiation in Manabí: A machine learning approach

    • Authors: Daniel Arteaga Subiaga, Jorge Parraga-Alava, Lucia Rivadeneira
      Abstract: Solar radiation prediction has been studied within the academic context in several geographical locations to determine the variables that affect this phenomenon. However, there are no specific studies that have been carried out in the province of Manabí in Ecuador. To fill this gap in knowledge, this study develops a predictive model using machine learning algorithms to estimate solar radiation. A quantitative methodology is implemented using data collected from a meteorological station in Manabí. The results show that the Extreme gradient boosting algorithm presents the best effectiveness in predicting solar radiation according to the RMSE, MSE, and R2 metrics, being the UV index is the most relevant variable that influences the prediction. The implications of this study are both practical and methodological. It is practical since it allows decision-makers to have tools for predicting solar radiation, which can improve the efficiency of solar energy systems. And, from the methodological perspective, it incorporates the use of meteorological variables that were not previously considered for the development of predictive models. This study sets a precedent for future research in similar geographical areas, expanding the use of machine learning algorithms in meteorology and renewable energy.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • a MDA Group LLC

    • Authors: Vadim Yuriev
      Abstract: MDA Group LLC, established in 2015, is a system integrator aiding the transition to Russian solutions. It specializes in IT consulting, assessing the potential for import substitution and developing strategies for using Russian software and equipment. The company also develops, implements, and supports critical information systems and creates digital twins for various management purposes. Learn more:https://mdagrp.ru/
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Analysis of the number of bibliographic publications on the presence of
           microplastics in sediments in America with the Scopus search tool

    • Authors: Fabiola Castañeda García, María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez, Gabycarmen Navarrete Rodríguez, Rosa Elena Zamudio Alemán
      Abstract: The objective of the analysis was to examine the scientific activity of the American continent in detail during a period of ten years (from 2014 to 2024), using a quantitative methodology, with articles that refer to the presence of microplastics (MPs) in sediments available in the Scopus database. 2,050 articles were collected, of which 123 (6%) corresponded to publications of MPs in sediments, dominating Brazil, the United States, Canada and Mexico, along with the main cited authors Alexander Turra, Patricia L. Corcoran, A.D. Vethaak. The methodology used was diverse: separation by density of microplastics, using an oil extraction protocol and FTIR spectroscopy, among others.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Please don't deleted this. This only for testing

    • Authors: Comité Editorial
      Abstract: text
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • R3D, an educational robotics strategy for the improvement of arithmetic
           skills.

    • Authors: CARLOS FELIPE VERGARA-RAMIREZ
      Abstract: This article presents the design of a teleoperated robot through a mobile application, to strengthen the teaching of arithmetic in basic education children. It is a quantitative cross-sectional investigation, of an applied type, in which users were consulted about the desirable characteristics of the robot. The prototype consists of an LCD screen to show the reactions of the robot and the information of the sensors used in the interactive activities. The robot has a hinge with magnets to facilitate the placement of electrical and electronic components, as well as two static arms and tracked tires that facilitate mobility on different terrains. The field tests showed that children from 11 to 13 years of age are more interested in the subject matter, children from 12 to 14 years old were able to correctly control the robot with the mobile application, while children under 10 years of age are more interested in the appearance of the robot.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Artificial Neural Networks for Classification Tasks: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Eduardo Molina
      Abstract: Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have become indispensable tools for solving classification tasks across various domains. This systematic literature review explores the landscape of ANN utilization in classification, addressing three key research questions: the types of architectures employed, their accuracy, and the data utilized. The review encompasses 30 studies published between 2019 and 2024, revealing Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) as the predominant architecture in image-related tasks, followed by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) architectures for general classification tasks. Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNN) exhibited the highest average accuracy with a 97.12%, with specific studies achieving exceptional results across diverse classification tasks. Moreover, the review identifies digitized images as a commonly utilized data source, reflecting the broad applicability of ANNs in tasks such as medical diagnosis and remote sensing. The findings underscore the importance of machine learning approaches, highlight the robustness of ANNs in achieving high accuracy, and suggest avenues for future research to enhance interpretability, efficiency, and generalization capabilities, as well as address challenges related to data quality.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • The Evaluation of morphological indicators and performance of Coriandrum
           sativum L when using homeopathic medicines

    • Authors: Tatiana Gavilánez Buñay
      Abstract: Coriandrum sativum is an important plant in medicine and cooking. The objective of this research work is to determine the morphological indicators and the performance of the cilantro crop when applying different dilutions of homeopathic medicines. The study was carried out in the Province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador, with a duration of 60 days. A completely randomized block design with factorial arrangement was used, (2 x 3 + 1) where factor A represents the homeopathic medications, and factor B represents the centesimal dilutions and a control, each treatment with four repetitions. Plant height, number of branches, fresh and dry weight of the plant, number of flowers, growth rate and yield were evaluated. The results reflected the highest plant height with 35cm for treatment six, with differences from the rest for P<0.05. The number of branches, fresh and dry weight of the plant showed the highest values for T5, at 60 days, with 13.50, 8.22 g and 2.77g, respectively. Something similar occurred for the number of flowers, this variable showed 11.25 as the highest value at 60, with significant differences for P<0.05, compared to the rest. Thus, the growth rate reflected 0.0453 for T6. The best yields were seen for treatments five and six. The vegetative growth variables in the cilantro crop improved with the use of homeopathic medicines, mainly in treatments five and six. The yield of the plant was higher when using treatments with homeopathic medicines, mainly for five and six, with values that doubled the control after 60 days of the study.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • A Chemical analysis of the buttercup Thitonia diversifolia under the
           conditions of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    • Authors: Hernán Uvidia Cabadiana, Yajanua Alvarado, Sasha Villacis, Erika Casco, Jhoeel Uvidia
      Abstract: El botón de oro, conocido científicamente como Thitonia diversifolia , es una planta de gran importancia en la Amazonía ecuatoriana, por sus propiedades medicinales y beneficios agrícolas. En el estudio se realizó un análisis químico detallado de hojas y tallos de esta planta para determinar su composición nutricional. El proceso incluyó etapas como la determinación de humedad y contenido de cenizas, siguiendo metodologías específicas descritas en la literatura científica. Además, se destacó la influencia de factores climáticos como precipitación, temperatura, humedad relativa y velocidad del viento en la región del Centro Experimental de Investigación y Producción Amazónica (CEIPA), brindando un contexto relevante para el estudio. Los resultados obtenidos del análisis químico revelaron información valiosa sobre la composición de las hojas de ranúnculo a diferentes edades (15, 30 y 45 días) con niveles de proteína cruda que oscilan entre 32,16%, 35,10% y 38,49%, lo que puede ser crucial para su uso en alimentación animal y en la mejora de la salud intestinal de los animales. Este estudio contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento sobre las propiedades de esta planta en la región amazónica, aportando datos útiles para su potencial aplicación en la industria agrícola y ganadera. En resumen, la investigación destaca la importancia del ranúnculo como recurso natural con beneficios potenciales tanto para la salud animal como para la agricultura en la región amazónica.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Occupational Health and Safety Plan to Reduce the Accident Rate in a
           fishing company, Chimbote – 2023

    • Authors: ambar chero gonzalez
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to implement an occupational health and safety plan to reduce the accident rate in a fishing company Chimbote - 2023, is pre-experimental of an applied type, the population was made up of 75 accidents that occurred in the fishing company in a period of 4 months. To know the current situation of the company, a baseline was prepared with a checklist, finding that the company had a low security level of 18.6%. A security policy, a security committee, an IPERC matrix, training programs and internal records are implemented. Subsequently, the checklist is applied, with the final result being a 98.36% safety level, thus reducing the frequency rate by 52.29% and the severity index by 57%, significantly reducing the accident rate in the fishing company. Chimbote. – 2023, it was concluded that the implementation of an occupational health and safety plan reduces the accident rate in a fishing company, Chimbote – 2023.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2
       
  • Solution to the problem of adjusting parameters in ODE using ANN

    • Authors: Francisco Duque-Aldaz, Francisco Duque-Aldaz, Fernando Rodríguez-Flores, José Carmona Tapia
      Abstract: El propósito de la identificación de parámetros es desarrollar o mejorar representaciones matemáticas de sistemas físicos utilizando datos experimentales. Este trabajo se centra en comparar los resultados obtenidos mediante la estimación de los parámetros del modelo mediante métodos numéricos con los resultados obtenidos mediante la modelización de redes neuronales artificiales. Se utilizó una red neuronal multicapa entrenada con el algoritmo de retropropagación, junto con el método de optimización de Levenberg-Marquardt, para aproximar el modelo no lineal de un proceso en un enfoque de aprendizaje supervisado. La red neuronal diseñada logra una emulación adecuada del proceso utilizando los datos reservados para las pruebas de red. Para comparar su rendimiento, se contrastan los resultados obtenidos mediante la estimación de los parámetros del modelo a través de métodos numéricos ODE 45. La red neuronal con 10 neuronas en la capa oculta fue seleccionada como la mejor opción, debido a su capacidad para aproximarse con precisión al sistema utilizando un número reducido de neuronas. Esta red tiene una sola entrada, una capa oculta y dos salidas. Las redes neuronales exhiben una notable robustez y excelentes capacidades de aprendizaje. Pueden reconocer patrones incluso con un cierto margen de error, lo que les permite predecir el comportamiento de los sistemas dinámicos sin depender de un modelo explícito.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • He (Occupational health and safety plan focused on the ISO 45001:2018
           standard as a strategy to reduce accident rates in the distribution of
           industrial gases.)

    • Authors: Richard Alexander Málaga Ramírez
      Abstract: The main objective of this research is to reduce occupational accidents that occur during the distribution of industrial gases in companies in the chemical sector, since these products have specific characteristics that represent a great risk not only during their production, but also during their transfer and storage. Through the implementation of an occupational health and safety plan which takes the ISO 45001:2018 standard as its main focus, the aim is to reduce accidents that occur. It is an applied, quantitative research with an experimental design where the aim is to manipulate one of the variables in order to study the effect produced on the other. As data collection techniques, a checklist was used which serves as a baseline to determine the current level of compliance of the company in reference to what is structured by the ISO standard and technical sheets to determine the current values ​​of each indicator. In conclusion, it was determined that the implementation of a PSSO in a company dedicated to the commercialization of industrial gases managed to successfully reduce its accident rates from having an initial value of 11,183.70 to 1,322.58 as a result of the accident rate analysis.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • the Effect of cutting age on the productive indicators and nutritional
           quality of Brachiaria hybrid vc. Mulatto I

    • Authors: Danis Manuel Verdecia Acosta
      Abstract: with the objective of determining the productive components, chemical characterization, digestibility and energy contribution of the Brachiaria hybrid vc Mulato I at different ages of cuts in both periods of the year. For which a randomized block design with four repetitions was used. It was sampled in plots of 25 m2, to which a uniformity cut was applied 10 cm from the ground, without irrigation or fertilization. The yield of total dry matter, leaves and stems was determined; the length and width of the leaves; the leaf-stem ratio, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, CC, Si, P, Ca, ash and OM), energy contributions and digestibility. A double classification analysis of variance was applied to each variable studied and the means were compared according to Duncan (1955). Crude protein decreased with age for both periods, showing significant differences between all ages. The best values were shown at 30 days of  cutt (9.47 and 10.40% in the rainy and dry periods respectively), the fiber increased with age with its best values at 75 days with (71.39 and 70.11% in the rainy periods and little rain), aspects that conditioned the quality with a decrease in digestibility and energy intake. The yield of the plant was affected by the periods of the year, being higher in the rainy period. It is concluded that the increase in regrowth age directly influences the depression of nutritional quality and yield in both periods of the year.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • The bioaccumulative potential of heavy metals in five forest species
           living in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region.

    • Authors: Yudel García Quintana, Dixon Domingo Andi-Grefa , Luis Ramón Bravo-Sánchez , Samantha García-Decoro , Sonia Vega-Rosete , Sting Brayan Luna-Fox, Yasiel Arteaga-Crespo
      Abstract: Heavy metal contamination of soils and ecosystems is an environmental problem that requires urgent attention due to the ecological problems that it generates. Forest species can be used to mitigate contamination because of their potential to bioaccumulate contaminating metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioaccumulator potential of heavy metals in five forest species that live in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The bioconcentration factor for five forest species, such as: Cedrela odorata, Parkia multijuga, Inga edulis, Cecropia ficifolia and Pourouma cecropiifolia, commonly found in the Ecuadorian Amazon was analysed, based on the relationship between the concentration of the heavy metal in leaves and the soil. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyse heavy metals in leaves and soil samples of each plant specie. The results showed that P. cecropiifolia had the highest bioconcentration factor for lead, C. odorata for cadmium and nickel, and I. edulis had the highest potential for iron and aluminium absorption. No correlation was found between the concentration of each element in the soil and the leaves, which shows that the bioaccumulation capacity of the species studied does not depend on the concentration of the element in the soil. This provides relevant information for the inclusion of these species for phytoremediation purposes.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Generation of an integrated air quality index based on atmospheric
           pollutants using fuzzy logic

    • Authors: Andrés Patiño
      Abstract: In the city of Cuenca - Ecuador, in order to prevent the harmful effects of pollution on the population, an air quality index was developed, based on the recommendations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, which is result of the pollutant with the highest value and uses a scale through crisp sets. The present study proposes an alternative calculation for the air quality index using the pollutants ozone (O3) and particulate matter PM2.5, as well as fuzzy logic techniques to generate a classification by linguistic labels that are closer to human reasoning and expert criteria. Three Mamdani type fuzzy systems were implemented, using triangular, trapezoidal and gaussian membership functions; with 30 inference rules and defuzzification by centroid method. The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying fuzzy logic for the generation of an air quality index
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Validation of the Tensile Test of A36 Steel Through Finite Element Method
           and Experimental Data

    • Authors: Isaac Simbaña, David Saquinga, Marco Macías, Leonidas Ramírez
      Abstract: This study conducts a thorough comparative analysis of tension testing methodologies, combining experimental procedures with stress analysis via CAD and CAE software. Structural steel A36, extensively utilized across diverse industries, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of its mechanical characteristics, notably its tensile strength, capped at 420 MPa. Employing computational numerical analysis serves to streamline design processes, enhance optimization, and mitigate costs. Given the impracticality of conducting destructive tensile testing owing to the absence of a universal testing machine, computational simulations were employed to ascertain the maximum stress tolerance of specimens, adhering to ASTM E8 standards. Experimental testing commenced at an external institution, involving four specimens, with an average maximum stress of 422.45 MPa observed under a load of 34.53 kN. Following this, 3D modeling of the specimens was executed, with SolidWorks facilitating physical discretization, yielding 10 861 elements and 47 060 nodes. Initial fixed support conditions were established, alongside the application of axial loads. ANSYS software was then utilized, specifically within the Explicit Dynamics module, generating a mesh comprised of 3 829 elements and 7 480 nodes, boasting a mesh quality skewness of 0.2403. Subsequent stress analysis in CAD and CAE software revealed maximum stress values of 417.2 and 426.59 MPa, respectively. These findings, accompanied by relative errors of 0.67, 1.56, and 0.56 % concerning manufacturer-specified values for CAD, CAE, and experimental testing, validate these technological tools' efficacy as viable alternatives for tension testing and comprehending material behavior.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Optimización De Una Máquina Pulidora Metalográfica:
           Revisión Sistemática

    • Authors: Ronaldo Villalba
      Abstract: Este estudio se enfoca en la optimización de la selección de elementos para pulidoras metalográficas, esenciales para analizar la estructura microscópica de muestras metálicas. A través de metodologías inductivo-deductivas y analíticas, y una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica, se evaluaron cambios en componentes como banda, rodamiento y motor, así como la selección del sistema de transmisión más eficiente entre los miembros ya mencionados. El objetivo fue mejorar la eficiencia y precisión del pulido. Los resultados, presentados en tablas resumen, detallan las características técnicas de los elementos optimizados, ofreciendo una guía útil para la implementación en laboratorios de materiales. Este documento resalta la importancia de la optimización técnica de las pulidoras metalográficas, considerando sus beneficios y limitaciones, y el impacto de estas mejoras en el análisis de materiales.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ON A 5.5 HP ENGINE OF A GARLIC
           HARVESTER MACHINE

    • Authors: Jorka Fernanda Pozo García
      Abstract: In agriculture, machinery efficiency and durability play key roles in sustaining productivity. Within this context, preventive maintenance emerges as a critical component, especially for specialized equipment such as garlic harvesters. This article underscores the importance of implementing a meticulously planned maintenance program, which not only prevents costly breakdowns but also elevates the overall performance of this vital equipment.
      Highlighting the importance of this approach, analysis of the Honda GX160H1 engine, with efficiencies of 65.48\%. and 66.67\%. at peak and net power respectively, illustrates the relevance of selecting efficient engines and subjecting them to rigorous preventive maintenance. These efficiency indicators highlight optimal fuel usage and superior engineering, which are critical to engine reliability and adaptability to the rigorous demands of agriculture.
      The study adopts a mixed methodology, combining qualitative and quantitative techniques, to provide an in-depth understanding of preventive maintenance on combine harvesters. In addition, a quantitative analysis of historical maintenance records reveals cost patterns and makes it possible to calculate the savings and efficiency improvements that can be derived from the effective implementation of a maintenance program.
      A meticulous approach to maintenance, ranging from daily checks to semi-annual reviews, optimizes the balance between required maintenance frequency and associated operating costs. Detailed procedures for each maintenance task ensure optimal engine care, extending engine life and maximizing reliability and efficiency.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • La IMPORTANCIA DE LA ADECUADA SELECCIÓN DE MOTORES ELÉCTRICOS PARA
           MÁQUINAS PARA USO INDUSTRIAL

    • Authors: Johnny Granizo, Paolo Paredes, Eugenia Naranjo
      Abstract: The article addresses the problem related to the incorrect selection of the electric motor for industrial machines. An analytical approach and a qualitative method were used, including a review of literature focused on the topic. The results highlight that improper motor selection can result in problems such as poor performance, overheating and unplanned downtime, and affects the safety and well-being of workers in the industrial environment. It is concluded that an appropriate selection of the electric motor guarantees optimization, operational efficiency and minimizing costs in industrial and commercial environments without neglecting the safety and well-being of the workers who operate these machines in industrial environments.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • La Importancia Del Correcto Montaje y Desmontaje de Rodamientos

    • Authors: Mishell León, Eugenia Naranjo Vargas, Monica Moreno Barriga
      Abstract: During the mounting or dismounting procedure of a bearing, it is common for component damage to occur due to improper use of tools or methods, which reduces bearing life. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze how this issue impacts machine performance and safety. machine performance and safety. Desk research was conducted on the methods, equipment, and tools available in the industry. Throughout this research process, a comparative analysis was made between the relevant methodologies to determine which is the most effective. The methods chosen were oil injection mounting, tapered bore bearing mounting and for the dismounting of cylindrical and tapered bore bearings, specialized for fast installations. In conclusion, the importance of the process of mounting or dismounting bearings to achieve greater safety and efficiency in the process is highlighted.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Evaluation in-vitro of antifungal activity of Tectona grandis L leaves
           aqueous extract

    • Authors: Dulce Gonzalez Mosquera, Luis R Bravo Sánchez, Yasiel Arteaga Crespo, Jannys Rivera Barreto, Andrea Riofrio Carrión
      Abstract: Fungicidal action of Tectona grandis  aqueous  extract  from leaves was evaluated  in vitro againt three  phytopathogenic, Rhisopus stolonifer, Aspergillus oryzae , and Aspergillus niger , the  leaves extract of T.grandis significantly reduced radial growth of all tested pathogens. T. grandis extract had different degrees of antifungal activity against tested pathogens. Reduction effect on all pathogens was increased by the increase doses of  T. grandis extract. The dose of 75mg/mL achieved maximum effectiveness for all the fungi evaluated, with no growth observed in any of the cases.Figure 3.  The leaves extracts of Tectona grandis may be recommended as a potent natural origen fungicide.In future  assays  can be  use   T. grandis aqueous  extrac againt others  fungi pathogens  as natural fungicide . All of which would allow us to propose a new environmentally friendly antifungal, reducing production costs and the possible damage caused by the chemical substances used for these purposes.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • The bioaccumulative potential of heavy metals in five forest species
           living in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region.

    • Authors: Yudel García Quintana, Dixon Domingo Andi Grefa, Samantha García Decoro, Luis Ramón Bravo Sánchez, Yasiel Arteaga Crespo
      Abstract: Heavy metal contamination of soils and ecosystems is an environmental problem that requires urgent attention due to the ecological problems that it generates. Forest species can be used to mitigate contamination because of their potential to bioaccumulate contaminating metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioaccumulator potential of heavy metals in five forest species that live in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The bioconcentration factor for five forest species, such as: Cedrela odorata, Parkia multijuga, Inga edulis, Cecropia ficifolia and Pourouma cecropiifolia, commonly found in the Ecuadorian Amazon was analysed, based on the relationship between the concentration of the heavy metal in leaves and the soil. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyse heavy metals in leaves and soil samples of each plant specie. The results showed that P. cecropiifolia had the highest bioconcentration factor for lead, C. odorata for cadmium and nickel, and I. edulis had the highest potential for iron and aluminium absorption. No correlation was found between the concentration of each element in the soil and the leaves, which shows that the bioaccumulation capacity of the species studied does not depend on the concentration of the element in the soil.    
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Recommendation system to promote underground music in Trujillo, Peru

    • Authors: Alessandro Moises Venegas Villarreal, Ayrton Oscar Alfonso Soto Alarcon, Juan Pedro Santos Fernandez, Juan Luis Cordova Otero, Luis Enrrique Boy Chavil
      Abstract: The research addressed the problem of the exhibition of independent musicians in Trujillo, Peru, focusing on the low level of discoverability, the limited coverage of the song catalog and the dissatisfaction of the artists. A pre-experimental design was used, including measurements before (pretest) and after (posttest) applying the independent variable, with a sample of 30 artists for satisfaction surveys. A recommendation system was developed in two phases: creation of the application using Ionic, Express, Flask and PostgreSQL, and design of the content-based recommendation algorithm, using the Scrum and CRISP-DM methodologies for each phase. Qualitative instruments, such as the survey, yielded a Kendall coefficient of 0.0192 and an internal consistency of 97% using Cronbach's alpha. The results presented in response to the problems initially raised denoted an increase in the level of discoverability to 90% of diversity of recommended artists, an increase to 23.6% was also obtained with respect to the coverage of the song catalog and, finally, In the level of satisfaction of independent artists there was an increase of 44.97%.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Curvas de Intensidad-Duración-Frecuencia para la ciudad de
           Manicaragua, Cuba.

    • Authors: Roberto Luis López Ferraz, Carlos Lázaro Castillo García, Ismabel Domínguez Hurtado
      Abstract: The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are a way to visualize and represent extreme hydrometeorological rainfall events. In this article, an analysis of convective rainfall events recorded at the La Piedra Meteorological Station, Villa Clara, Cuba, was conducted. To develop IDF curves, the 2006-2019 time series was analyzed. A partial duration series was generated, including intervals from 20 minutes to 4320 minutes, subjected to an outlier detection process. The series was divided into two categories: one for durations ≤ 720 minutes and another for durations > 720 minutes. The resulting series underwent non-parametric tests to assess their independence, randomness, homogeneity, and seasonality. Subsequently, they were fitted to the Generalized Pareto probability distribution and to a parametric equation of the Montana model, and then the curves were plotted for return periods of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 years. The Montana model led to obtaining correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 compared to the other methods used, significantly improving the quality of the fit in both categories. This research provides information to understand and plan the management of intense climatic phenomena and adequate risk management in an area where such studies are lacking, facilitating access to crucial data essential in the design and execution of hydraulic engineering projects in the region.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • EVALUATION OF BEST PRACTICES IN IT GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A
           SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    • Authors: cristopher antoni alvarado armas
      Abstract: The progress of information technologies is continuous and has led organizations to adopt measures to ensure the effectiveness of their processes and security of these and that today we know that the most valuable asset of each company is the information it contains. Organizations should seek to develop strategies to certify the availability, integrity and above all reliability in the management of information, as this can be subject to theft, violation and external and internal threats such as ramsomware and an infinite number of information hijacking techniques, which can be solved with the use of good IT governance practices. This study wants to know what are the best practices of cobit, ITIL frameworks.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • EVALUATION OF BEST PRACTICES IN IT GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A
           SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    • Authors: cristopher antoni alvarado armas
      Abstract: The progress of information technologies is continuous and has led organizations to adopt measures to ensure the effectiveness of their processes and security of these and that today we know that the most valuable asset of each company is the information it contains. Organizations should seek to develop strategies to certify the availability, integrity and above all reliability in the management of information, as this can be subject to theft, violation and external and internal threats such as ramsomware and an infinite number of information hijacking techniques, which can be solved with the use of good IT governance practices. This study wants to know what are the best practices of cobit, ITIL frameworks.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • Análisis costo beneficio en la implementación de medidores
           inteligentes

    • Authors: RONNY
      Abstract: The research focuses on the challenges related to the measurement of energy consumption in the Villa Francia Association, Moquegua. The overall purpose is to analyze the cost-benefit of implementing smart energy meters in the Association. A financial evaluation was carried out taking into account the actual cash flows and considering the 15-year duration of the smart meter. The results obtained are favorable with an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 14% and a Net Present Value (NPV) of $ 2124.69 dollars, for favorable results, the benefits that the service provider entity will obtain, as well as the energy users, must be considered.
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1
       
  • A Efecto de una estrategia de economía circular para mejorar la gestión
           de residuos peligrosos en la empresa Wari Service S.A.C en Lima, 2023

    • Authors: Georgina Milagro Velarde Guerra
      Abstract: The study was based on studying the circular economy strategy that can improve the management of hazardous waste in the company Wari Service S.A.C. in Lima. The study involved a basic, non-experimental study, using observation as a technique, with a sample consisting of the amount of waste generated by the company. A waste management checklist was applied. The results showed that the company generates: Industrial rags with a quantity of 14.176 kg; absorbent cloths=14.403kg; Tivek suits=24.012; contaminated soil=278.212 kg; vehicle oil=15.063kg; used grease=111.57kg; absorbent sausages=7.735 kg; disused filters= 74 kg; tyres=700 kg. In the areas of maintenance (1046,443 kg), volcano project (111,112 kg) and operations (77.8 kg), with the collection period being from April to August. In view of the above, activities such as reuse, recycling and bioremediation were proposed in order to ensure efficient management of hazardous waste. It was concluded that the strategies that can be implemented, such as the circular economy, will improve solid waste management in the company.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • La Mejora continua en el incremento de la Productividad en una Empresa de
           Empaques Flexibles

    • Authors: MARTIN MIGUEL AVALOS TORRES
      Abstract: The flexible packaging industry has remained in constant growth at a global level, the importance of applying continuous improvement to increase productivity in a flexible packaging company is detailed, reducing the various critical defects that exist in the printing area by applying the tool. of Ishikawa and Pareto Diagram, in this way the company can be made efficient and effective. The main objective is to determine how continuous improvement increases productivity in the printing process of a flexible packaging company in Peru. The daily production of coils was analyzed for a period of 65 days before and after the improvement carried out, using observation and documentary analysis as techniques and activity sheets and formats as instruments. The approach used was quantitative and the design was pre-experimental. As results, the improvement in productivity was evident from 53.75 to 73.63%, achieving an increase of 37%; efficiency improved from 75 to 87% and effectiveness from 73 to 85% showing an increase of 16%. Keywords: Continuous Improvement; Productivity; Efficiency; Effectiveness; Flexible Packaging.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • the Seed quality of five corn (Zea mays) genotypes used in Ecuador

    • Authors: Jorge Luis Ramírez de la Ribera
      Abstract: The quality of the seed is vital for its subsequent germination. Evaluate different quality indicators in five genotypes of corn seeds used in Ecuador. The research was carried out from September 2021 to March 2022 in the germplasm laboratory of the Technical University of Cotopaxi. The genotypes SOMMA 6215, NB-7443, 2B-604, INIAP H-554, INIAP H-551 were evaluated, which constituted the treatments in a randomized block design. Seed moisture, standard germination, emerging speed index, electrical conductivity, vigor, viability, plant height and aging were determined. Plant humidity reflected the best values for treatments two and five. Germination reached its highest percentage (95) for the NB-7443 genotype, with no differences for P < 0.05 with respect to treatments three and four. For the index of emerging speed, vigor and viability, the best response was presented by NB-7443 with 24.70, 84.50 and 98.50%, respectively. Electrical conductivity was higher for the first genotype evaluated, with differences compared to the rest. Thus, the plant height at 5, 10 and 15 days after emergence was higher for NB-7443. Something similar occurred with accelerated aging. NB-7443 showed the best results, although it did not reflect differences for P<0.05 compared to NB-7443. The different quality indicators evaluated reflected the best response for the NB-7443 genotype. The INIAP H-554 variety also expressed good results, which can be considered acceptable for the conditions where the experiment was developed.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • “DISEÑO DE VIVIENDA RURAL BIOCLIMATICA PARA EL CONTROL DEL FRIAJE EN EL
           CENTRO POBLADO DE VIZCACHAYOCC, 2023”

    • Authors: ABET HECTOR CASTRO CONGA
      Abstract: El problema que dio origen a este proyecto de tesis se originó en la región Ayacucho, donde muchos pobladores de las zonas altoandinas se ven severamente afectados por el fenómeno climático durante el frío. También podemos mencionar que los pobladores más vulnerables son principalmente los niños y los ancianos, quienes carecen de viviendas adecuadas que mantengan una temperatura agradable dentro de sus hogares. Con mi licenciatura en ingeniería ambiental, espero contribuir creando un prototipo de vivienda rural sostenible, respetuosa con el medio ambiente y térmicamente confortable que ayude a sus ocupantes a gestionar los efectos del frío.  Cabe señalar que se eligió el pequeño poblado de Vizcachayocc, situado en la región natural de (3500 a 4000 msnm) en la región Ayacucho, provincia de Cangallo, distrito de Morochucos, cerca de los pueblos de Chanquil y Pampa Cangallo, comunidad quechua a una elevación aproximada de 3595 msnm. Situada a una elevación de 3595 msnm, esta comunidad quechua cumple con todos los requisitos para la implementación de un diseño adecuado de vivienda rural bioclimática con aislamiento térmico en épocas frías. Esto se debe a que la comunidad es extremadamente susceptible a los embates anuales de este fenómeno. La investigación descriptiva mediante una técnica cuantitativa no experimental es el enfoque de este proyecto de tesis.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • SUPERANDO LAS DIFICULTADES: LA ADOPCIÓN DEL BIM EN EMPRESAS
           CONSTRUCTORAS EN PERÚ

    • Authors: JORGE PABLO AGUILAR ZAVALETA
      Abstract: Building information modeling (BIM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the construction industry, however, Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology has gained popularity throughout the world due to the benefits it offers in terms of efficiency, quality and improvement in the life cycle of a construction project. However, its adoption has not been as fast or easy for all construction companies, especially in developing countries like Peru. This article will explore the specific difficulties that Peruvian construction companies face when trying to implement BIM in their projects. The BIM system in Peru is new, which is why the majority of construction companies and their technicians are still more than 65% unaware of the concept and implementation of BIM. This article aims to know the real difficulties in providing alternatives with a view to to be mandatory in 2030.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Automotive Spare Parts Sales Conducted through
           Physical and Virtual Channels: Post-Pandemic

    • Authors: Angie Alvarez Rivera
      Abstract: Due to the health crisis brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which directly disrupted all sectors contributing to the country's economic development, numerous changes and adaptations were made to maintain financial stability in businesses. This was due to mobility restrictions and the limited operation of commercial and productive establishments. The automotive sector was affected by the lack of access to resources and inventory flow, leading to a decline in the economy generated by transportation and the trade of auto parts due to the global production and importation halt. This situation gave rise to new trends through digital channels, also known as e-commerce. This article presents a comparative analysis of auto parts sales through physical and virtual channels in light of this health emergency that significantly impacted the global automotive sector.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR PEOPLE WITH
           DISABILITIES - CASE STUDY NISSAN PATHFINDER S.E. 4X4

    • Authors: Bryan Jhon Briceño Martínez
      Abstract: This document presents the requirements for the design, manufacture of a mechanical prototype to mobilize people with motor disabilities, in order to reduce the effort when entering or leaving a vehicle, for the assembly several anthropometric factors and the necessary requirements for the passenger seat of the Nissan Pathfinder S.E. vehicle were analyzed. For the manufacture of the mechanism, ASTM A36 steel and an AISI 1045 medium carbon steel plate were used, due to their properties and handling. Subsequently, the modeling was carried out in a CAE program and through the analysis of finite elements, deformation results, maximum stresses and safety factors of the prototype and an auxiliary element such as the running board were achieved. In the operational tests carried out it was evident that the displacements and rotation angles of the mechanism obtained an efficient performance when entering and leaving the vehicle cabin, achieving easy handling, being medical and occupational safety personnel who witnessed the final result.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • The Efficient supply chain management in SMEs of the Automotive Sector in
           Guayaquil

    • Authors: Ronald Flores Torres
      Abstract:  Inventory management is a key indicator in the performance of any supply chain, so its efficiency will be reflected in the efficiency of the entire chain. This article faces the need to promote the sustainable growth of the automotive sector in Guayaquil, so the stated objective was: to propose strategies for efficient inventory management in the supply chain of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Automotive Sector of Guayaquil, such as contribution to its sustainable development. A mixed approach was used, with an exploratory and descriptive scope, inductive and deductive methods were used, and the questionnaire was used as a technique for data collection. The sample was made up of the leaders and owners of 95 SMEs randomly selected in Guayaquil. The main results show the mapping of the supply chain of SMEs in the Automotive Sector of Guayaquil and a general assessment of the current situation of their inventory management. It is concluded that inventory management is considered deficient, taking as a key element the insufficient application of the supply chain approach by not considering key indicators such as stock management, the balance point and the reorder point within the management of inventories. Index terms- Supply chain, Ecuador, efficient management, inventory management, SMEs, Automotive sector.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4
       
  • El Modelo de la cantidad de pedido en producción y la productividad en
           una empresa ensamblaje de carrocería en Lima

    • Authors: MILDER ADEL NOLASCO
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to improve productivity through the production quantity model applied in the RMB SATECI company in the city of Lima. This research is of an applicative type with an explanatory level and a quantitative approach. It also has a pre-experimental design of temporal and longitudinal scope because measurements were taken before and after implementation. The population was 347 items from its warehouse being manipulated in a period of 16 weeks, the measurement instruments were used: Kardex and recording sheets, for measurements of the two variables before and after implementation. The validation of these instruments was carried out by experts in the field. Data processing and analysis were carried out using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using SPSS version 26 software. The result of the implementation of Inventory Management according to the production model improved productivity by 46.03% pretest and 85.52% post-test, likewise with the efficiency before 65.37% it increased to 91.80% and the effectiveness before 70.6% increased by 93.10%.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • THE Improvement of methods in rice production in a company in the Arequipa
           region

    • Authors: antonio henry pinto salas, ANA KARINA Hanco QUISPE
      Abstract: Abstract — The application of the study of methods with a focus on improving the rice production of a company in the Arequipa region, derives from the exhaustive analysis of each of the activities that comprise the production process, in which tasks that do not contribute value to the final product. Where tools such as time taking, diagramming and waste identification allow for the reduction of unproductive times. Therefore, the aim is to increase the productivity of the rice company by increasing the level of compliance with the programmed production quotas. As a result, the company's rice production time was reduced by 37 minutes, which generated a positive impact on productivity with an increase of 15.5%.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Convergence and stability criteria for numerical solutions of partial
           differential equations in science and engineering

    • Authors: FRANYELIT MARÍA SUÁREZ
      Abstract: This paper explores the computational aspects of simulation and modeling applied to the solution of the Heaviside equation, considering the relevance of the stability and convergence of the solutions. For this purpose, a second-order finite difference scheme was implemented as the primary approach for studying atmospheric discharges (ATDI). The programming language used was Matlab, which facilitated calculating the induced currents in the study scenario. The centered, forward, and backward finite difference approaches were considered for the numerical implementation. System validation tests were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design and convergence to the second order with the centered difference approach.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Intention and attitudes to the use of an ERP by the organizations of the
           province of Azuay, Ecuador

    • Authors: María Gabriela Chica Contreras
      Abstract: Technology has played a fundamental role throughout history, especially in organizations due to globalization, which is why Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are essential for the efficient use of Information Technology. Its implementation allows the organization to integrate the different modules and the exchange of data to manage the areas of the company efficiently; however, the expected results are not always obtained. For this reason, this study analyzes the intentions and attitudes toward using an ERP. For this, a survey was applied to 55 organizations in the province of Azuay, applying the convenience sampling technique to identify behavioral aspects regarding computer solutions. The results show that the level of education, the information needs, and the management of business resources positively influence the adoption of ERP systems.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Characterization of the Vegetation Community and its Carbon Stock
           Contribution in a Dry Forest

    • Authors: Josselyn Muentes
      Abstract: Ecuador is home to approximately 12.6 million hectares of native forest, which accounts for 50.73% of its territory. These data highlight not only the need to take concrete measures for the protection of natural resources but also the importance of generating information to aid decision-making in effectively addressing the challenges associated with climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the aboveground tree biomass in temporary plots located on one of the hills in Portoviejo, using both direct and indirect methods. Dendrometric data was collected, and the taxonomic identification of species was carried out with the assistance of local experts and complementary international sources. The structural study encompassed four fundamental parameters: Abundance, Frequency, Dominance, and Importance Value Index (I.V.I). The allometric equation proposed by Chave et al. (2005) for mixed dry forests was applied, allowing the estimation of tree aboveground biomass based on dendrometric variables. For the conversion of aboveground biomass to carbon, the guidelines established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were followed. Finally, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis of the carbon values found per plot. A total of 148 individuals were identified, results were obtained in terms of abundance, frequency and dominance of the species, as well as the species with the highest value of IVI. It was also determined that the study area can store 70.47 Mg C/ha-1 in live aboveground biomass.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Percentage Influence of Polyethylene
           Terephthalate Fibers on the Physical-Mechanical Properties of Concrete
           Blocks - Huaraz 2023

    • Authors: EDY Lopez Quevedo
      Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio fue, evaluar la influencia porcentual de las fibras de polietileno tereftalato en las propiedades físico-mecánicas de bloques de concreto en la ciudad de Huaraz, en el año 2023; la metodología fue de nivel descriptivo, tipo aplicada, con enfoque cuantitativo y diseño experimental puro, la población estuvo conformada por 48 probetas concreto de 210 km/cm2 durante el año 2023, la técnica fue la observación y el instrumento fue la ficha de observación de ensayo de laboratorio. Los resultados fueron; que las propiedades físicas de los bloques de concreto con fibras de PET al 30.00% a los 28 días, demostró una densidad de 2.19 gr/cm3, la absorción fue de 6.38% y la porosidad fue de 7.81%, las propiedades mecánicas mejoraron al 20.00% encontrando que la resistencia a la compresión fue de 224.25 kg/cm2 y a la flexión fue de 42.42 kg/cm2. Los bloques de concreto con fibras de polietileno tereftalato evaluados cumplen con las normas y estándares vigentes. Se concluyó que, la incorporación de fibras de polietileno tereftalato en los bloques de concreto tiene un efecto positivo en las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, los porcentajes de 20.00% y 30.00% de fibras de PET, en reemplazo de la piedra chancada, presentan mejoras significativas en comparación con otros porcentajes evaluados, el porcentaje de 20.00% muestra las mejores características en las propiedades mecánicas; resistencia a la compresión (224.25 Kg/cm2) y flexión (42.42 Kg/cm2) y 30.00% en propiedades físicas; donde la densidad es menor principalmente (2.19 gr/cm3).  
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Intention to Use the Electric Bike-Sharing System in the Cities of
           Ecuador, Case Study: Cuenca

    • Authors: Roberth Castillo
      Abstract: In the city of Cuenca-Ecuador there is a system called BICI Cuenca that uses mechanical bicycles, the user pays a membership to have a bicycle in stations distributed in the urban area. One of the problems that arise is insufficient seasons and lack of incentives for use. It is considered important to provide more mobility options, such as the use of electric bicycles, which are sustainable transport alternatives in cities where the use of private vehicles is prevailing. Research arises that seeks to analyze the intention to use electric bicycles to promote BICI Cuenca. The results show that current customers would use the system more by having a bicycle option with electrical assistance, the potential demand perceives that it would be the incentive to use the system; They are axes that contribute to meeting the objectives of sustainability in transport.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Intention to Use the Electric Bike-Sharing System in the Cities of
           Ecuador, Case Study: Cuenca

    • Authors: Roberth Castillo
      Abstract: Abstract - In the city of Cuenca-Ecuador there is a system called BICI Cuenca that uses mechanical bicycles, the user pays a membership to have a bicycle in stations distributed in the urban area. One of the problems that arise is insufficient seasons and lack of incentives for use. It is considered important to provide more mobility options, such as the use of electric bicycles, which are sustainable transport alternatives in cities where the use of private vehicles is prevailing. Research arises that seeks to analyze the intention to use electric bicycles to promote BICI Cuenca. The results show that current customers would use the system more by having a bicycle option with electrical assistance, the potential demand perceives that it would be the incentive to use the system; They are axes that contribute to meeting the objectives of sustainability in transport.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Greenhouse gas emissions by the biogas from the Abandoned Solid Waste
           Final Disposal Site in City of Veracruz, Mexico

    • Authors: Manuel Alberto Susunaga-Miranda, Benigno Ortiz-Muñiz, Bertha María Estévez-Garrido, Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga-Estévez, Mario Díaz-González, Olaya Pirene Castellanos-Onorio
      Abstract: The Abandoned Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz, located to the north of the municipality, was built and operated in accordance with the existing regulations at the time, however, it exceeded its useful life, collapsing and becoming a controlled final disposal site that It was closed by the state environmental authorities in 2019, through the use of GIS it was determined that it has an area of 167,228 m2 and an accumulated volume of waste of 1,505,052 m3, which has generated an emission of 2,898,064 tons of Biogas and 1,162,154 tons of Methane up to year 2023, which allowed modeling the risks to the surrounding population and its contribution to the formation of greenhouse gases.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • A Feasibility analysis of electrical microgrids with high penetration of
           renewable resources in urban areas: case study shopping center

    • Authors: Pedro Rivera
      Abstract: This document presents an analysis on the projection of a microgrid in a shopping center in the urban part of the city of Cuenca - Ecuador. It is necessary to keep in mind that, according to the advancement of technology worldwide, we must begin to use renewable energy and put aside dependence on fossil fuels. Next, an analysis can be verified to project a self-sustaining shopping center with a photovoltaic system that allows to cover the demand presented by the shopping center in question. Several consumption analyzes are presented, as well as a simulation of the microgrid in the HOMER Pro software, in which we can verify, in the event of the microgrid project, what the initial investment would be and how long it will take to recover said investment.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3
       
  • Moving Object Tracker System: An Implementation

    • Authors: Mohanad
      Abstract: With great attempts being made to give computers the ability to see, the study of computer vision is fast becoming a thriving field of study. Humans are able to observe, recognize various objects based on their distinctive characteristics, and even track their movements if they are in our field of vision. Computers must be able to distinguish between distinct objects and track them in order to truly see. This study focuses on the process of distinguishing between things that the user selects and other objects by comparing their pixel properties. Next, a bounding box is used to track the selected object so that its location may be easily determined. An object has to be chosen and tracked from the area visible within the camera view using a real-time video feed that was recorded by a web camera. The development of a software application that will enable real-time object tracking is the main focus of this paper's scope. The technique used will enable noise and size filtering for easy tracking of the object, and the software module will allow the user to identify the object of interest someone wishes to track
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • English How Artificial Intelligence Is Transforming Ophthalmology

    • Authors: JHON TICONA
      Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming the field of ophthalmology by enabling more accurate and personalized diagnoses. AI is used to analyze images of the retina and optic nerve, detect patterns that indicate the presence of eye diseases and predict their future evolution. In summary, AI is revolutionizing ophthalmology and its use is expected to continue to grow in the future, enabling more efficient, effective and accessible medical care for patients with eye diseases. This attention is evident from the large number of publications in scientific journals that have been published in recent years. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review of recent and cutting-edge articles is vital to chart the past and shed light on future directions. The objective of this article is to review recently published articles on artificial intelligence and ophthalmology in scientific journals. A total of 30 articles published between April 2020 and April 2023 are selected and reviewed. The articles are analyzed and categorized to build a useful base of past research. Finally, gaps in the literature are identified to clarify and suggest future research opportunities.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • for forest biomass Modeling and computational simulation of the shredder
           for forest biomass in Ecuador

    • Authors: Juan Gonzalez
      Abstract: Resumen— Actualmente, los sistemas informáticos CAD permiten el diseño y simulación de prototipos y equipos mecánicos para laboratorios y otras ramas de la ingeniería mecánica e industrial. Estos avances tecnológicos han permitido el modelado y la simulación computacional para obtener el molinillo de biomasa forestal tipo laboratorio. Con la metodología de la industria mecánica, basada en el programa Autodesk Inventor Software, que permitió evaluar los factores de seguridad y trabajo, mostrando las medidas de las cuchillas trituradoras, con partículas del tamaño de malla que van desde (75 - 300 μm), según la Norma Internacional [1], obteniendo un modelo propuesto de trituradora, con un ángulo de 45o, con una tolva vertical de 90O y una eficiencia del 95% de confianza, un modelo matemático, eficiencia y rendimiento del proceso de producción de virutas de molienda a escala de laboratorio, que demuestra un excelente resultado en la obtención de aserrín para la producción de pellets en beneficio de la industria, de acuerdo con el uso de biomasa forestal por sus características fisicoquímicas y térmicas, garantizando como fuente de energía renovable y la conservación del medio ambiente de la Amazonía ecuatoriana.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Regenerative Braking System for an Electric Motorcycle Model Sakura M500

    • Authors: Edgar A. Manzano
      Abstract: Electric mobility development is rapid spreading in the most advanced countries of the world because of the high
      efficiency showed by the current electric vehicles (EVs). On this line, Latin America has started the inclusion of these technologies in some countries. Nevertheless, despite the technological development of EVs, such as electric motorcycles, there are still pending investigations regarding the increase in their autonomy. The present research proposes a regenerative braking system for a specific electric motorcycle: Model Sakura M500, with the purposes of increase the autonomy of the mentioned EV. The VDI 2206 methodology is applied to the development of the regenerative braking system, including conceptual design, detailed design and experimental tests; concluding with positive outcomes of autonomy.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Wanderer Robot

    • Authors: Mohanad
      Abstract: Abstract 
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Line Following robot

    • Authors: Mohanad
      Abstract: Abstract 
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • for forest biomass Modeling and computational simulation of the shredder
           for forest biomass in Ecuador

    • Authors: Juan Gonzalez
      Abstract: Abstract— Currently, CAD computer systems allow the design and simulation of prototypes and mechanical equipment for laboratories and other branches of mechanical and industrial engineering. These technological advances have allowed modeling and computational simulation to obtain the laboratory-type forestry biomass grinder. With the methodology of the mechanical industry, based on the Autodesk Inventor Software program, which allowed evaluating the safety and working factors, showing the measurements of the shredder blades, with particles of the size of mesh size ranging from (75 - 300 μm), according to the International Standard [1], obtaining a proposed model of crusher, with an angle of 45o, with a vertical hopper of 90o and efficiency of 95% confidence, a mathematical model, efficiency and performance of the production process of grinding chips at laboratory scale, demonstrating an excellent result in obtaining sawdust for the production of pellets for the benefit of the industry, according to the use of forest biomass for its physicochemical and thermal characteristics, guaranteeing as a renewable energy source and conservation of the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon.   Keywords— Biomass, efficiency, grinding, particle, shredder and simulation.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • 3D Path Planning Algorithms in a UAV-enabled Communications Systems: A
           Mapping Study

    • Authors: Christian Tipantuña
      Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with communication technologies have gained significant attention as a promising solution for providing wireless connectivity in remote, disaster-stricken areas lacking communication infrastructure.
      However, enabling UAVs to provide communications (e.g., UAVs acting as flying base stations) in real scenarios requires the integration of various technologies and algorithms. In particular 3D path planning algorithms are crucial in determining the optimal path free of obstacles so that UAVs in isolation or forming networks can provide wireless coverage in a specific region. Considering that most of the existing proposals in the literature only address path planning in a 2D environment, this paper systematically studies existing path-planning solutions in UAVs in a 3D environment in which optimization models (optimal and heuristics) have been applied. This paper analyzes 37 articles selected from 631 documents from a search in the Scopus database. This paper also presents an overview of UAVenabled communications systems, the research questions, and the methodology for the systematic mapping study. In the end, this paper provides information about the objectives to be minimized or maximized, the optimization variables used, and the algorithmic strategies employed to solve the 3D path planning problem.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • The Application of the Lean - Six Sigma tool to improve the time of
           attention in the emergency department of a hospital in the department of
           Cauca.

    • Authors: Carlos Andrés Rodríguez Peña
      Abstract: The use of lean methodology tools in the health sector leads
      to important operational and organizational improvements in
      healthcare institutions. This article presents the development
      of a proposal to improve patient care times in an emergency
      unit of a case study in the Department of Cauca. The problem
      presented refers to the non-compliance or excess of time that
      patients must wait to receive medical attention, detecting that
      the main causes of dissatisfaction are difficulty in accessing
      services, errors in care, and lack of medical and nursing
      personnel. The study begins by establishing the current state
      of the care processes in the emergency area, followed by
      the identification of the causes that generate delays and
      dissatisfaction on the part of the patients, and finally, a
      proposal for improvement is made. The results obtained show
      that the processes to be improved are from the moment the
      patient is admitted until he/she is attended to by the physician.
      It was also found that the spaces are poorly distributed and
      this also affects the proper care to be provided by the hospital.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • 3D Path Planning Algorithms in a UAV-enabled Communications Systems: A
           Mapping Study

    • Authors: Christian Tipantuña
      Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with communication technologies have gained significant attention as a promising solution for providing wireless connectivity in remote, disaster-stricken areas lacking communication infrastructure. However, enabling UAVs to provide communications (e.g., UAVs acting as flying base stations) in real scenarios requires the integration of various technologies and algorithms. In particular 3D path planning algorithms are crucial in determining the optimal path free of obstacles so that UAVs in isolation or forming networks can provide wireless coverage in a specific region. Considering that most of the existing proposals in the literature only address path planning in a 2D environment, this paper systematically studies existing path-planning solutions in UAVs in a 3D environment in which optimization models (optimal and heuristics) have been applied. This paper analyzes 37 articles selected from 631 documents from a search in the Scopus database. This paper also presents an overview of UAVenabled communications systems, the research questions, and the methodology for the systematic mapping study. In the end, this paper provides information about the objectives to be minimized or maximized, the optimization variables used, and the algorithmic strategies employed to solve the 3D path planning problem.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Ecuador Modeling and computational simulation of the shredder for forest
           biomass in Ecuador

    • Authors: Juan Gonzalez
      Abstract: Resumen— Actualmente, los sistemas informáticos CAD permiten el diseño y simulación de prototipos de equipos mecánicos de laboratorio y otras ramas de la ingeniería mecánica e industrial, estos desarrollos de nuevos avances tecnológicos. El objetivo fue realizar el modelado y simulación computacional para obtener la trituradora de biomasa forestal tipo laboratorio. Con la metodología de la industria mecánica, basada en el programa Autodesk Inventor Software, que permitió evaluar los factores de seguridad y rodamiento, mostrando las medidas de las cuchillas de la trituradora, con partículas del tamaño de la malla que van desde (75 - 300 μm), según la Norma Internacional [1]. Obtención de un modelo propuesto de trituradora, con un ángulo de 45 o, con una tolva vertical de 90o y eficiencia del 95% de confianza, un modelo matemático, eficiencia y rendimiento del proceso de producción de virutas de molienda a escala de laboratorio, demostrando un excelente resultado en la obtención de aserrín para la producción de pellets en beneficio de la industria, según el uso de biomasa forestal por sus características fisicoquímicas y térmicas, garantizando como fuente de energía renovable y conservación del medio ambiente de la Amazonía ecuatoriana.   Palabras clave: biomasa, eficiencia, molienda, partícula, trituradora.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Non-invasive mechatronic device to determine the instantaneous center of
           rotation of the cruciate ligaments of the knee.

    • Authors: Fernando Valencia Aguirre
      Abstract: The objective of this research is to obtain the Instantaneous Center of Rotation (ICR), of a healthy knee using a non-invasive mechatronic device. This device is based on a proportional mechanism that records the intersection point of the cruciate ligaments during knee flexion and extension. Thus, it can generate the characteristic curve of the ICR and store it for later analysis. The device consists of these elements: a proportional mechanism, a flexible knee pad, potentiometers, and a data storage and processing system. The methodology used involves: 1) analyzing the anatomy of the knee, 2) designing and coupling the proportional mechanism to an in vivo knee to measure its kinematics, 3) processing the data obtained using MATLAB. The ICR is a key indicator that locates the center of rotation of the knee during flexion and extension. This information enables the development and construction of customized devices that improve natural appearance and body control as well as quality of life. The device was tested by three healthy patients, demonstrating its proper functioning, and showing that each person has their own ICR. The tests were performed by flexing the knee with foot fixed to ground, forming an approximate angle of 100 degrees.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Uso del polvo de Guaviduca (Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav) como ingrediente
           funcional en el chorizo parrillero

    • Authors: MIGUEL ANGEL ENRIQUEZ
      Abstract: Currently nutrition is undergoing rapid change in certain areas of interest. Nutritional deficiencies, the biological face of poverty, are no longer research priorities and, on the contrary, the epicenter of current interest is located in the relationship between diet and chronic non-communicable diseases and the effects of nutrition on cognitive, immune functions, work capacity and sports performance. Consumers are increasingly aware of their self-care and seek in the market those products that contribute to their health and well-being, the importance of the formulation of functional foods is currently paramount in the nutritional development of human beings that is taken for granted. current trends in food consumption, this has made it possible to find various products on the market with bioactive compounds that are beneficial for health. The objective of the research was the use of Guaviduca extract as a functional component in the manufacture of barbecue chorizo. This investigation is of an experimental type that uses different levels of extract at 1-2-3 and 4%, to then carry out bromatological, microbiological and antioxidant analyzes, which are later related to current regulations. As a result, it was obtained that there are significant differences between the treatments, but if they are framed in the regulations in relation to the physical-chemical parameters, the microbiological analysis influenced the extract as a natural bactericide, generating safety.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2
       
  • Modificación de los criterios de flujo dominante en la evaluación
           térmica de aerocondensadores.

    • Authors: yanan Camaraza-Medina
      Abstract: El proyecto actual de centrales eléctricas de biomasa (CEB) en la industria azucarera de Cuba, tiene como limitante el acceso al agua requerida para condensación. Una posible solución sería el uso de aerocondensadores (ACC), sin embargo, su evaluación térmica es imprecisa puesto que los métodos disponibles son en extremo complejos y no caracterizan adecuadamente el coeficiente global de transferencia de calor (K), siendo requerido el uso de excesos de área de transferencia de calor, lo cual incrementa los costos iníciales.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • REDUCCIÓN DE CADMIO EN CACAO MEDIANTE LIXIVIACIÓN CON AGUA
           ACIDULADA

    • Authors: Flora Patricia Pablo Ñaupari, Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo, Milber Oswaldo Ureña Peralta
      Abstract: El cacao es uno de los principales productos bandera del Perú por su gran diversidad y calidad del grano. En los últimos años, se encontró presencia de alto contenido de cadmio en cacao en algunas zonas del Perú. El cadmio es un elemento quimico pesado de alta toxicidad. El objetivo general de este trabajo fue implementar un método para reducir el contenido de cadmio en cacao ( Theobroma cacao L .) nativo de Piura mediante lixiviación en agua acidulada. Las muestras de cacao fueron caracterizadas por humedad, materia seca, índice de grano, índice de cascarilla y contenido de cadmio; la concentración de cadmio inicial fue de 2,03 ppm.La extracción del metal pesado cadmio, se realizó utilizando una solución de agua acidulada con ácido cítrico a (0,15 M) a 40°C por 60 minutos para luego pasar a ser secadas y envasadas. Se realizó la extracción con tres tratamientos, bajo las relaciones cacao/solución de ácido cítrico, los cuales fueron: 1/10, 1/15 y 1/20 (g/mL). Se reducirá la concentración de cadmio después de la extracción, obteniendo valores de 1,63; 1,66 y 1,65 ppm. En función de los resultados se encontró que el cadmio requiere en un 20% aproximadamente y no se encontraron diferencias entre los tratamientos de extracción sólido/líquido.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • Mecánica desarrollo industria Modelación y simulación computacional del
           triturador para biomasa forestal en el Ecuador

    • Authors: Juan Gonzalez
      Abstract: Currently, CAD computer systems allow the design and simulation of prototypes of mechanical laboratory equipment and other branches of mechanical and industrial engineering, these developments of new technological advances. The objective was to carry out the modeling and computational simulation to obtain the laboratory-type forestry biomass shredder. With the methodology of the mechanical industry, based on the Autodesk Inventor Software program, which demonstrated the safety and bearing factors, showing the measurements of the shredder blades, with particles of the size of mesh size ranging from (75 - 300 μm), according to the International Standard (UNE-EN ISO 17827-2, 2016). Obtaining a proposed model of a crusher, with a 45o angle, with a 90o vertical hopper and 95% confidence efficiency, a mathematical model, efficiency and performance of the production process of grinding chips at laboratory scale, Demonstrating an excellent result in obtaining sawdust for the production of pellets for the benefit of the industry, according to the use of forest biomass for its physicochemical and thermal characteristics, guaranteeing as a renewable energy source and conservation of the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon  
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • Revisión bibliográfica sobre la medición de la contaminación ambiental
           en zonas urbanas de la región Sierra de Ecuador utilizando IoT.

    • Authors: Lincold Antonio Zambrano Cevallos
      Abstract: The present research aims to define a framework of reference on pollution in developing regions such as Ecuador, using the Internet of Things (IoT) as a current technological resource. A systematic review of articles disclosed between 2018 and 2022 was conducted to analyze pollution measurement. Among the most common measurements are air quality monitoring, as well as water and noise pollution. Regarding the communication technology used, several options were found, including wireless technologies such as Wifi, Bluetooth and LoRa, as well as wireless sensor network technologies. The measurement data obtained are mainly used to determine the impact of pollution on human health, to make real-time decisions and to design pollution mitigation and control strategies. In addition, they allow developing recommendation systems and analyzing the long-term evolution of pollution in a given region. It is concluded that there are several alternatives on IoT technologies to monitor and reduce environmental pollution. It is also important to consider that there is great heterogeneity in the way these technologies are used and in the data they collect, so it is necessary to establish a reference framework that facilitates consistent comparison and analysis of the results.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • Diseño de un deshidratador solar directo pasivo de alperujo

    • Authors: José Omar Cabrera Escobar
      Abstract: In the present investigation, a prototype of a passive direct solar dehydrator of alperujo was developed, with the atmospheric conditions of Jaén, Spain; this city is one of the main exporters of olive oil in the world, which is why they produce high amounts of alperujo; The dehydrator will reduce the percentage of humidity of the alperujo for its later use as an energy source, due to its good energy potential, without consuming non-renewable energy sources. To meet this objective, a prototype is developed in the ANSYS Student software, which meets essential characteristics for dehydration, during the development of the prototype the following process is followed: design, copy of materials, mesh, copy of boundary conditions, selection of physical models to use and simulation. Subsequently, the prototype was built and the simulation was validated with the data obtained from the dehydrator, subjecting a sample of alperujo to the dehydration process, with daily data collection of the process. In the simulation, it can be seen that the dehydrator reaches the appropriate temperatures for the dehydration process, but because the lower area of the chamber has a lower temperature than in the upper area, there is no air flow, which means that the process is not optimal.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • Comparison of Antioxidant Activity in Peptide Fractions obtained from the
           

    • Authors: Mauricio Mosquera
      Abstract: The aim of this research was the evaluation of antioxidant activity in peptide fractions obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen extracted from corvina spines (Sciaenops ocellatus). To determine the best conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis, a multilevel factorial experimental design was stablished to analyze the influence of pH (7; 7.5 and 8) and temperature (40; 42.5; 45; 47.5 and 50 ° C) in the hydrolysis degree (DH). The used enzyme was Flavourzyme to hydrolyze the collagen with an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:10 (v / w). Subsequently, the peptide hydrolyzate was fractionated by diafiltration with membranes of 3, 10 and 50 kDa. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions was evaluated, and its molecular sizes were proved by an electrophoresis process. The best pH and temperature conditions in the enzymatic hydrolysis process were 7 and 40.2 ° C respectively, these values allowed to obtain a DH of 6,74 ± 0,12 %.  It was determined that the antioxidant activity increases as the molecular size of the peptide fractions decreases. The values of antioxidant activity were 34.79; 6.26; 7.32 and 6.90 mg of ascorbic acid Eq / g protein corresponding to fractions <3 kDa, 3-10 kDa, 10-50 kDa and >50 kDa respectively.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • LA Variación Paisajística Debido a la Dinámica del Transporte de
           Sedimentos en el Río Lumbaqui, Ecuador

    • Authors: JUAN PABLO MORALES COROZO
      Abstract: Undoubtedly, urban expansion is a worldwide problem, especially when there are rivers that, due to the conversion of land uses, generate degradation of the banks. This problem is intensified in sectors where there is high rainfall causing sediment dragging, which accumulates in various sectors causing environmental problems due to ecosystem variations and landscape affectation. The main objective of this research is to develop a better understanding of the main problems that the transport of sediments in the Lumbaqui River can cause, the environmental impacts and risks that can cause bad land use and management practices in areas of interest. due to ecosystem services and landscape variation. The Lumbaqui River is a place where a large part of the citizenry agrees to carry out leisure and recreation activities due to its water quality, but the accumulation of sediments is one of the limiting factors that could alter the concentration of visitors due to the fact that the It itself affects the scenic beauty of the sector, at the same time this accumulation can give rise to variations in bioindicators.  
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • Plataformas de Reconfiguración Dinámica Basado en IEC-61499 y
           Multiagentes: Revisión Sistemática de Literatura

    • Authors: Marcelo Garcia Sanchez
      Abstract: Revolution 4.0 marked a before and after in industrial progress. It required the industry to evolve its processes through the use of modern technologies and to keep both the infrastructure and the knowledge of its employees up to date in accordance with the new regulations developed in Industry 4.0. This article presents a scoping literature review on the dynamic reconfiguration of the automatic control of an industrial process based on IEC-61499 and multi-agents, using the PRISMA methodology. Based on 309 articles obtained from major databases such as IEEE Xplore, MDPI, SpringerLink, SCOPUS, and Taylor Francis, a total of 40 articles were selected as the final sample. Here, the types of industrial processes in which dynamic reconfiguration is applied are analyzed, and the types of platforms using the IEC-61499 standard and multi-agents are also identified. The results show that the IEC-61499 standard and multi-agents are used in dynamic reconfiguration and Industry 4.0, which is currently developing a breakthrough for enterprises and enabling higher efficiency and quality in production.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • la Variación paisajística debido a la dinámica del transporte de
           sedimentos en el río Lumbaqui, Ecuador

    • Authors: JUAN PABLO MORALES COROZO
      Abstract: Undoubtedly, urban expansion is a worldwide problem, especially when there are rivers that, due to the conversion of land uses, generate degradation of the banks. This problem is intensified in sectors where there is high rainfall causing sediment dragging, which accumulates in various sectors causing environmental problems due to ecosystem variations and landscape affectation. The main objective of this research is to develop a better understanding of the main problems that the transport of sediments in the Lumbaqui River can cause, the environmental impacts and risks that can cause bad land use and management practices in areas of interest. due to ecosystem services and landscape variation. The Lumbaqui River is a place where a large part of the citizenry agrees to carry out leisure and recreation activities due to its water quality, but the accumulation of sediments is one of the limiting factors that could alter the concentration of visitors due to the fact that the It itself affects the scenic beauty of the sector, at the same time this accumulation can give rise to variations in bioindicators.
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1
       
  • Eco-friendly Motorcycle Taxi, Reducing Pollution with an Electrolyzer

    • Authors: MANUEL ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ PEREZ
      Abstract: Environmental pollution from transportation has been a fundamental challenge for mankind throughout history, with conventional fuels contributing significantly to environmental degradation. This project seeks to mitigate the pollution generated by motorcycle cabs, whether for personal and/or private use. The main objective of the research work was to implement an electrolyzer in the combustion system of a motorcycle cab to reduce environmental pollution. The materials used were the test vehicle, electrolyzer, 12V battery, caustic soda, flame arrester filter, measuring instruments, tools and workshop equipment. The methods included vehicle preparation, electrolyzer installation, battery adjustment, hydrogen generation, emission measurement, safety, and data collection. As a result, the electrolyzer was successfully implemented in the single-cylinder motorcycle cab; reducing 100% of the pollution. The discussion highlighted that hydrogen is a clean fuel, with zero emissions and only emitting water vapor instead of polluting gases. The conclusion underlines the critical importance of the research, supported by solid evidence of total reduction of 3.739% of carbon monoxide and 1.96% of carbon dioxide, being 100% of the gases emitted by conventional fuel.
       
 
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JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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