Publisher: ACT Publishing Group Ltd (Total: 11 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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J. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Hematology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Nephrology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Neurology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Ophthalmic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dermatological Research     Open Access  
J. of Tumor     Open Access  
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International Journal of Neurology Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-5611
Published by ACT Publishing Group Ltd Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Possible Critical Role of Latent Chronic Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in
           Triggering, Development and Persistence of Autoimmune Diseases

    • Authors: Joseph Prandota
      Abstract: T. gondii is globally distributed with a high proportion of the world population estimated to be seropositive, and in the U.S. the parasite is responsible for approximately million infections each year. T. gondii tachyzoites infect almost all nucleated cells and their intracellular multiplication and lifelong persistence in the host cells play an important role in triggering and development of autoimmune diseases (ADs). Latent chronic T. gondii infection may be associated with iron, iodine, and folic acid  deficiencies that facilitate development and/or progression of ADs. The oral route is the natural portal of entry for the parasite and gastrointestinal manifestations are frequently reported in patients with ADs. Prolactin was found to bind to tachyzoites and this process impairs their adhesion and penetration into the host cells. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) demonstrated in patients with different ADs may therefore reflect host defense against T. gondii infection, and several antipsychotic drugs that induce HPRL also have antitoxoplasmatic activity. Leptin and obesity play an important role of in triggering and maintenance of inflammation and autoimmunity. T. gondii infection causes a significant increase in leptin levels and there is a significant positive association between the parasite seropositivity and obesity. Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a proapoptotic as well as an antiapoptotic biomodulator, and have a variety effects on autophagy. Overproduction of NO during T. gondii infection causes dysfunction of both  these processes and therefore hinders cleaning service of the apoptotic/autophagic cell-derived antigenic remnants, finally leading to triggering and development of ADs. Damage of the olfactory system associated with chronic latent T. gondii infection may affect olfactory bulb volume and various olfactory functions, being therefore at least in part responsible for the smell impairment in ADs. The potent proinflammatory response of macrophages to infection with T. gondii type II may explain the ability of the strain to cause pathology after oral infection. The parasite also triggers the secretion of antiinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, TGF-b, and generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates, thus suppressing the development of the TH1 immune responses and deactivating macrophages. Toxoplasma chronic infection-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte exhaustion leads to development of ADs because of decreased polyfunctionality, cytotoxic capability,  cytokine production, proliferative capacity, and metabolic deficiency. The process of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune exhaustion inhibits the immune response, thus facilitating pathogen persistence. Systemic T. gondii infection triggers a rapid and persistent decrease in the size of naïve CD4+ T lymphocyte pool, and a long-term thymic atrophy and output due to destruction of the thymic epithelium. Chronic parasite infections characterized by lower pathogen burden usually restricted to tissues, suggest alternative driving forces in the induction of T cell exhaustion, such as parasite encystations. A significantly lower occurrence of antibodies to persistent viral infections reported in patients with some ADs compared with controls may be due to suppressed (exhausted) function of host B cells. Both T. gondii- and viral-associated inflammatory processes may be mutually overlapping which lead to worsening or improving clinical course of ADs depending on final temporary or stable proinflammatory/antiinflammatory cytokine constellations. Dual-affinity T cell receptors may at least in part be responsible for frequently observed coinfections of T.gondii with some viruses and bacteria. Commonly reported comorbidities in ADs may at least in part be explained by liver damage caused by the pathogen. Vitamin D deficiency is often found in patients with ADs and there is vast evidence that the vitamin has an important  beneficial impact on both innate and acquired immunity. Moreover, vitamin D exerts toxoplasmacidal effects and therefore should find a firm place in treatment regimens used in ADs.
      PubDate: 2018-12-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2018)
  • Cerebral Function Monitoring In Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    • Authors: Aysen ORMAN, Nilay HAKAN, MUSTAFA AYDIN
      Abstract: Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a method for continuous monitoring of brain activity that is increasingly used in the neonatal intensive care unit. aEEG is accessible by non-expert person, and offers continuous bedside cerebral function monitoring (CFM). In its simplest form, aEEG is a processed single-channel electroencephalogram that is filtered and time-compressed. Several classifications are currently in use to describe patient tracings, incorporating voltage criteria, pattern recognition, cyclicity, and the presence or absence of seizures. The main usage of the CFM currently is for monitoring term newborns after birth asphyxia. Another well-established indication for CFM is monitoring for seizure activity with an addition advantage of monitoring the treatment effect. Current evidences demonstrate that aEEG is useful to monitor cerebral background activity, diagnose and treat seizures and predict neurodevelopmental outcomes for newborns. Thus, the main advantages of this device are its simplicity for both application and interpreting on one hand and the possibility of continuous long-term monitoring with real time assessment of clinical events on the other. This review aims to explain the fundamentals behind aEEG and its clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2018-12-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2018)
  • Oxytocin Release during the Meditation of Altruism and Appreciation

    • Authors: Soho Machida, Masataka Sunagawa, Toku Takahashi
      Abstract: A number of modern researchers have studied the relationship between religion and health. In every religious tradition, virtues such as self-sacrifice, altruism, and appreciation have been considered quite essential. Arigato-Zen (AZ) (Gratitude Zen) is an easy and simple voice-meditation developed by Dr. Machida, which motivates the feeling of altruism and appreciation. By performing AZ, one is able to cleanse the negative subconscious memories that underlie problematic phenomena. Hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the ability to form social attachments, including parental care and pair bonding. It has been shown that social interaction is important to adapt to our daily life stress via the OT expression. It is hypothesized that OT is stimulated via the AZ meditation of altruism and appreciation. Using saliva samples, OT levels were measured in 32 participants before and after AZ. Salivary OT levels were significantly increased after AZ from 66.3 ± 6.7 pg/ml to 90.6 ± 18.7 pg/mL (M ± SE, n = 32, p = 0.028). AZ practice is a quite unique type of meditation, which combines voice-vibration system and traditional Zen meditation in order to synergistically stimulate OT system.
      PubDate: 2018-03-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2018)
  • A Histomorphometric Study on the Neurohypophysis of STZ-induced Diabetic
           Albino Rats

    • Authors: Muhamed Faizal, AIJAZ Ahmed Khan
      Abstract: AIM: To assess the hyperglycemia-induced microscopic changes in the posterior pituitary of streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic adult albino rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: After clearance from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, 36 animals were divided into six groups having six rats each: control, two weeks, one month, two months, four months and six months. Diabetes was induced with a single dose of streptozotocin administered through intraperitoneal route (60 mg/kg). Body weight and blood sugar were monitored at the biweekly interval. At the end of each experimental period, animals were euthanized by deep ether anesthesia and blood samples were collected by direct puncture of heart for biochemical analysis. Tissues were fixed in Karnovsky fixative and processed for paraffin sectioning. Routine and special stained sections were studied under the light microscope and relevant findings were recorded.RESULTS: Data obtained from biochemical analyses and histomorphometry along with the histopathological features revealed that with increasing duration of hyperglycemia was associated with increased serum creatinine and reduction in serum total protein; increased mean percentage of darkly stained large sized pituicytes and notable thickening of perisinusoidal collagen.CONCLUSION: It is therefore concluded that long-standing hyperglycemia which is associated with increased occurrence of predominantly large and darkly stained pituicytes and remarkably increased deposition of perisinusoidal collagen appear to be the important contributing factors somehow responsible for the derangement of the function of the posterior pituitary in chronic diabetes.
      PubDate: 2018-03-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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