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Journal of Economy Culture and Society
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ISSN (Print) 2602-2656 - ISSN (Online) 2645-8772
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  • Confronting the First-Level Digital Divide in the Digital Age: A
           Comparison Between Public and Private University Students in Turkiye

    • Authors: İsa DEMİR; Cem Koray OLGUN, Cihad ÖZSÖZ
      Abstract: Although access to ICT tools is improving worldwide, the first-level digital divide is still one of the major problems for university students. The inequality that can be seen in the level of access to ICT tools among university students shows that there is more to be said about this problem in the field of higher education. This paper discusses the problem through the example of university students in Turkey. The variables are fixed broadband subscription, ownership of smart TV and paid smart TV applications, a personal computer, and paid mobile applications for ICT access. As a result of the survey given to 2,206 respondents, it showed that private university students have more access to ICTs than public university students, - this difference does not depend only on income level. Additionally, it was determined that there is a significant relationship between income level, parents' education level, where a student lives and ICT ownership. This is significant because as higher education opportunities in Turkey are spread all over the country many students do not have equal access to ICT tools. This study analyzed the effects of the first-level digital divide in Turkey by using a quantitative method.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Moral Boundaries and Cultural Membership: Perceptions of the LGBTQ in
           Turkiye

    • Authors: Murat ERGİN; Fatoş GÖKŞEN
      Abstract: Sexual minorities consistently rank as the most disapproved of group in Turkey although the LGBTQ community remain largely invisible. To explain this disparity, we examine private and public responses to “homosexuality” along four dimensions: demographic factors, social context, religion and religiosity, and public morality. The data come from a nationally representative survey (N=1893). We tested four sets of variables to explain the persistence of mistrust toward sexual minorities. The first two, demographic factors and social context, show limited explanatory power. The third dimension of personal morality is also limited, because boundaries against LGBTQ individuals also cut across religion and religiosity. The fourth dimension, public morality, a vision of moral values shaping public life and political discourse, explains the particularity of the views toward non-straight sexual orientations as the specific alignment of a moral worldview with exclusionary cultural membership. Results are significant in two ways. First, they show that the mistrust of sexual minorities is high. Second, the public displays of mistrust are different from the forms of prejudice expressed toward other groups, such as ethnic minorities. The symbolic boundaries drawn vis-àvis LGBTQ individuals tells us more about the core values of belonging and solidarity in Turkish society.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Market Liberals at a Crossroads in Post-Gezi Turkiye: Making Sense of a
           Framing Dispute

    • Authors: H. Bahadır AKIN; Mustafa Cüneyt ÖZŞAHİN, Şeyma AKIN
      Abstract: The Gezi protests were a watershed moment for market liberals since it triggered inter-movement and intra-movement schisms. A flagship institution of market liberals, Liberal Düşünce Topluluğu (the Association of Liberal Thought) underwent such a schismatic process and, consequently, new market-liberal organizations arose from the schism, which was characterized by a frame dispute with the ALT over the policies pursued by the incumbent government, Justice and Development Party (JDP). The framing dispute between the two factions occurred along the lines of securing democracy versus the restriction of state power. This study delineates the root causes of the framing dispute between market liberals. To this end, two factors are proposed to account for it within the context of this paper. These two factors can be encapsulated as the growing conservative/liberal division among market liberals and entrenched interpersonal patronage networks within political circles which is closely related to the changing nature of government-civil society relations in Turkey. Drawing from semi-structured interviews, publications of market liberals, and a good number of secondary sources, we aim to shed light on the rift within market liberals in post-Gezi Turkey.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Intergenerational Differences in Communication Processes with the
           Homeland: Turkish Immigrants Living in Australia

    • Authors: Duygu TOSUNAY GENCELLİ
      Abstract: The focus of this study is the first-generation Turkish immigrants who went to Australia to work after the bilateral agreement signed between Australia and Turkey in 1968 and their second and third generation relatives. The objective is to reveal the communication processes of different generations of Turkish immigrants living in Australia with Turkey in terms of transnationalism. The research was designed as a holistic single case study in accordance with the qualitative method. Accordingly, triangulation was ensured by using data collection tools such as online observation, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The field research was carried out in Sydney, Australia between September 2018 and January 2019. During the research, semi-structured interviews were held with 30 participants who were reached by snowball sampling. Of the 30 participants, 14 are from the first generation, 13 are from the second generation and 3 are from the third generation. Findings show that the means of communication and engagement with their homeland, which have evolved significantly since the beginning of Turkish immigration to Australia, directly affected the migrants' lives. Additionally, it has been observed that transnational ties are strengthened by thechoice of communication tools that provide instant communication. It was also revealed that the developing technology and historical conditions had different effects on different generations of migrants.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Dominant Religion, Radical Right-Wing, and Social Trust: An Empirical
           Investigation

    • Authors: Sacit Hadi AKDEDE; Jinyoung HWANG, Nazlı KEYİFLİ
      Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the impact of dominant religion and radical right-wing political views on social trust, using data taken from the World Values Survey on 60 countries over the period 2010–2014. To supplement the existing literature, we consider both religion and political views at the same regression equation, and relatively recent data to reflect terrorism and anti-immigration policies in recent years. It is found that people living in Asian countries where Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, and Shintoism are the dominant religions trust others more than people living in Christian and Muslim countries. A plausible explanation is that Asian religions are closely related to the ethics of life regarding relations with neighbors, which may have a positive impact on trust among people. However, when classified according to the frequency of participation in prayer, it is observed that these religions may not have a distinctly discriminatory impact on social trust. The impact of radical right-wing political views on trust is negative and statistically significant, meaning that people with radical right-wing political views have a relatively lower social trust than others. The empirical results suggest that religion and political views influence trust and can be a factor in producing either harmony or division among people.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Iranian Merchants as a Religious Community in Late Ottoman Istanbul

    • Authors: Abdülkadir YELER
      Abstract: Long-term peace between the Ottoman Empire and Iran provided an opportunity for Iranians to carry out various activities, especially trade, in the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul, the link between Asia and Europe, had become a point of interest to Iranian merchants as early as the 18th century, but it was particularly during the second half of the 19th century that one could speak of a well-organized Iranian community at the heart of the social and commercial life of the city. This community, formed mainly by merchants, was also a religious community belonging to the Shia sect, which enabled them to act together and form an organized community in Ottoman Istanbul, the population of which consisted mainly of Sunni Muslims. The combination of religious, cultural, social, and other practices of the Iranian merchants had brought an institutionalization along with it, and thus memories were created that would leave a legacy in the cultural history of Istanbul. Through an investigation of state archives in Turkey, this study aims to explore the story of Iranian merchants during the 19th century Ottoman period in Istanbul, focusing on their commercial, social and religious lives. The findings of the study shed light on the institutionalization of Iranian merchants as a close-knit community based on their commitment to sect-based practices.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Orientalist Encounters at School: Security and Inclusion in the Education
           of Syrian Refugee Children in Istanbul

    • Authors: Şule CAN SAYAR; Taha BARAN
      Abstract: After the Syrian crisis, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey is estimated to be approximately four million. Currently, one of the most significant aspects of the integration process of refugees in Turkey is the education of refugee students. Investigating the process of the co-education of refugee and Turkish citizen students in public schools provides some insight into what the future might hold for these refugees and sheds light on the dynamics of living together with locals. The first aim of this research is to explore the reception of the refugee students by the teachers in order to understand inclusion and/or exclusion mechanisms in education. Second, this study examines the roles that ethno-religious and political identities play in relations between teachers and refugee students by focusing on ethno-religious identity and discrimination. Drawing on the debates on orientalism and securitization in migration, it explicates the ways in which teachers justify their judgments and impressions of the refugee students through orientalist codes. To achieve this, public school teachers from two districts of Istanbul were invited to take part in this ethnographic research which was conducted in 2018.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Exploring Transformation Through Travel by Means of the Movie The Way

    • Authors: Umut MORKOÇ; Burhan ÇINAR, Tuğba PALA MORKOÇ
      Abstract: Transformation through travel is attracting scholarly attention due to its potential to trigger a radical transformation extending beyond the traveler’s unique experience during the trip of a lifetime. As one of the most common ways of encountering the different, tourism can enable people to become aware of their hidden assumptions and make volitional decisions about them, resulting in a transformation. This study aims to understand how transformation takes place through touristic experience, based on Mezirow’s learning theory. To do this, the movie The Way (Emilio Estevez, 2010), which depicts the relationship between touristic experience and the transformation of the individual in an artistically powerful manner, was utilized. To analyze the document that constitutes the data source of the research study, a narrative analysis, and a qualitative research design, was followed. The results of the narrative analysis demonstrated that the representations in the movie coincide strongly with the literature on transformation through travel. It showed that transformation begins with the traveler’s questioning of self or the perceived world, and that the various difficulties experienced, encounters with the different, and going out of one’s comfort zone and habits facilitate transformation through travel. It was also concluded that the authenticity of the touristic experience strengthens its transformative aspect. Thus, the study proposes that in order to strengthen the transformative aspect of the touristic experience, tourists should be offered touristic products and services that contain transformative experiences whose authenticity is preserved.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Materialistic Tendency and Conspicuous Consumption Behavior: The Mediating
           Role of Social Media Usage

    • Authors: İbrahim AVCI
      Abstract: This research focuses on the materialistic tendencies and conspicuous consumption behaviors of consumers, especially in today's social media age. The research's goal is to determine the effect of materialistic tendencies on conspicuous consumption behavior and to investigate the role of social media usage in mediating this effect. The data were collected in this context using a prepared survey form, and 596 consumers participated in the survey during the data collection process. SPSS and AMOS programs were used to analyze the collected data. As a result of the analyses, it was discovered that the materialistic tendency had a positive and significant effect on both conspicuous consumption behavior and social media usage; it was also discovered that social media usage had a positive and significant effect on conspicuous consumption behavior. Furthermore, it was determined that social media usage has a partial mediation in the effect of materialistic tendency on conspicuous consumption behavior; in other words, a portion of the effect of materialistic tendency on conspicuous consumption behavior is realized through social media usage. Suggestions for both theory and practice were made in light of these findings.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Effect of Agglomeration Strategy on Rural Resilience from the
           Perspective of Homestay Tourism Operators

    • Authors: Sun FEİHAN; Granovskaya OLGA, Miao XUMEİ, Ye CHONGLİANG
      Abstract: Homestay tourism villages (HTVs) represent a path for the transformation, revitalization, and sustainability of rural communities. However, due to the risks inherent in homestay tourism, they are often vulnerable to internal and external environmental changes which derive from the fragility and instability of integration of rural culture and tourism, unstable outcomes of science and technology, etc. Resilience theory provides a new perspective for homestay tourism rural sustainability research and is of great significance for exploring how rural tourism stakeholders can resist and resolve internal and external disturbances and enhance the capability of sustainable development. To address this issue, we conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of data from HTVs, proposed a theoretically hypothetical model of the impact of agglomeration strategy on the resilience of HTV, finding that homestay operators’ agglomeration strategy promoted HTVs’ resilience against environmental changes. Similarly, operators’ willingness to reach a consensus regarding strategic decisions improved rural resilience. Therefore, homestay operators’ agglomeration strategy can have a positive effect on HTVs’ resilience by promoting consensus development. Our findings provide a guideline for homestay tourism and rural resilience in the post-pandemic era.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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Publisher: İstanbul Üniversitesi   (Total: 18 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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