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Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları
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ISSN (Print) 1303-3123 - ISSN (Online) 2458-7982
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  • A Neglected Department: The Second Surgery Department of Ankara University
           Faculty of Medicine

    • Authors: Sarper YILMAZ
      Abstract: Until recently, some medical faculties of universities and state-funded teaching hospitals had multiple departments under the name of the same medical specialties. More than one clinic or department (i.e., the Anabilim Dalı) for a certain specialty had occurred at the same time and been named things such as I. Cerrahi Kliniği [First Surgical Clinic], II. Üroloji Kliniği [Second Urology Clinic], III. Dahiliye Kliniği (Third Internal Medicine Clinic). These departments were administratively independent from one another, with each department enjoying a chief of medicine, vice chairs, and research assistants. The dynamics that ensued following their emergence, as well as the rationale and abolition of these now nonexistent organizations, require a distinct comprehensive study. The objective of the current study is to look at the history of foundation and evolution of the İkinci Cerrahi Kliniği [Second Surgical Clinic] at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine as one these types of departments. Each stage of this department including its foundation was disputed and contentious. Whether one belonged to the Birinci [First] or İkinci [Second] Cerrahi Kliniği particularly mattered even after the surgery clinics combined. A result of this was that studies and contributions from the Second Surgical Clinic were intentionally ignored in favor of the first clinic.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Fight Against Trachoma During the Turkish Republic Era The Case of
           Malatya

    • Authors: Gulten DİNC
      Abstract: Trachoma is an infectious eye disease and a significant public health issue in terms of the history of Turkish medicine. Trachoma was endemic to Southeast Anatolia until World War I, when it then spread all over the country and caused vision loss and blindness in many people. The fight against trachoma went on the government’s agenda only after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic. Due to the country having three million trachoma patients in 1923, the Minister of Health Dr. Refik Saydam added trachoma to the list of infectious diseases to be fought. As a result, the Ministry of Health (Sağlık Bakanlığı) and the Department of Public Hygiene (Hıfzıssıhha Dairesi) instigated a great initiative to eradicate infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, syphilis, and trachoma. The present article focuses on the fight against trachoma in the city of Malatya. As only general information is available about the trachoma initiative conducted in the region, the present article examines new sources in order to study it in detail. The study has obtained new detailed information by going through newspapers of the period and interviewing researchers specialized in the history of Malatya, revealing the work undertaken in the fight against trachoma in Malatya during the Republican era.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Global Origins of Modern Science

    • Authors: Abdüssamet YILMAZ
      Abstract: Have you ever wondered what the world would be like if global trade networks had never existed' Would the West have ever questioned their knowledge of the natural world unless the Americas had been discovered' Starting with the discoveries of the New World and then taking key moments in global history, James Poskett’s book titled Horizons: The Global Origins of Modern Science1 attempts to show how modern science has been made through global encounters. Horizons joins the flourishing body of knowledge in motion by giving scientific credit to as many cultures as possible. As a result, Poskett challenges the Eurocentric history of science narratives and argues the story that four or five isolated, disinterested, brilliant minds made modern science to be nothing but a myth. Furthermore, Poskett claims that a global history of science is now needed more than ever, as the world we live in today should form a future between the twin forces of globalization and nationalism (p. 440). In the epilogue titled “The Future of Science”, James Poskett argues that we are in a New Cold War characterized by a scientific rivalry over artificial intelligence and space exploration and that we need to remind ourselves how the legacies of the scientific past and their unequal power relations had resulted in the contexts of slavery, empire, and war.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Exhibition – Educate Through Experience: Experimental Physics at the
           Lycée Saint-Joseph of Istanbul (April 5th – May 28th, 2023)

    • Authors: Mustafa AKTAR
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Recollections of Nahide Bursa (Torolsan), a Student at Istanbul
           University’s School of Pharmacy During World War II, and her Herbarium
           Notebook on the Princes Islands

    • Authors: Berrin TOROLSAN
      Abstract: In the 1940s, during World War II, Nahide Bursa (Torolsan) was a student at Istanbul University’s School of Pharmacy, which was then part of the Faculty of Medicine. After graduating, she completed her internship at the Beyazıt Apothecary. Two of her tutors were legendary figures: Professor Dr. Rosenthaler and Professor Dr. Heilbronn. Among the books, notes and memorabilia lovingly preserved by her daughter, Berrin Torolsan, are Nahide Bursa’s diploma, pharmacist badge, and a herbarium notebook in which she annotated plant samples collected during botanical excursions made with Heilbronn to the island of Heybeliada in the Sea of Marmara and to Çamlıca hill in Istanbul. Berrin Torolsan recalls her mother’s anecdotes about her student years, school, and the teachers who shared their immense knowledge with her. Those years were a time of limited resources with the threat of calamity ever present, but the era’s hopes and idealism still shine through.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Century-Long Adventure of Nutrition in Diabetes: An Assessment and
           Transliteration of Dr. Mehmet Kâmil and Dr. Muzaffer’s What Should
           Diabetics Consume'

    • Authors: Elif GÜNALAN
      Abstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels and has been known for centuries to be closely related to nutrition. The first scientific approaches to medical nutrition therapy regarding diabetes intensified at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the literature on dietary recommendations and clinical practices for this disease is quite limited. This study investigates medical nutrition therapy regarding diabetes from a century ago in light of information obtained from a booklet titled What Should Diabetics Eat' (Istanbul, 1929), which was published in Ottoman Turkish while the Alphabet Reform being implemented in the early years of the Turkish Republic. The booklet was written by Dr. Mr. Mehmet Kâmil, an internist at Şişli Etfal Hospital, and by Dr. Mr. Muzaffer, the physician at Galatasaray High School. The work was prepared as a diabetes booklet and includes nutritional recommendations that diabetic individuals should follow within the framework of the medical experience of that period. This study compares the recommendations given in the booklet both with the scientific literature of the period and with current practices and evaluates the changes that have occurred in clinical nutrition therapy regarding diabetes up until the present day. The present article also includes information about the authors of the booklet, as well as its full text in Latin characters.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Pharmacist Association Established in Samsun During the Turkish War of
           Independence: The Turkish Pharmacists Union of Anatolia (1922)

    • Authors: Eyüp Talha KOCACIK
      Abstract: Pharmacists in the Ottoman Empire organized for the first time on November 6, 1863 and established the Société de Pharmacie de Constantinople (Cemiyet-i Eczacıyan der Asitâne-i Aliyye, Dersaadet Eczacı Cemiyeti). These Ottoman pharmacist associations flourished under the control of civilian pharmacists, with the vast majority in the Empire being non-Muslim. After the declaration of the Second Constitutional Monarchy in 1908, societal activities among pharmacists reached a new stage, and Turkish and Muslim pharmacists leagued together to found the Osmanlı Eczacı İttihad Cemiyeti [Society for the Union of Ottoman Pharmacists] in Istanbul on August 20, 1908. The establishment of pharmaceutical societies outside Istanbul had started, albeit rather late. The proclamation of the Second Constitution paved the way for the establishment of pharmacist associations in Thessaloniki, Edirne, İzmir, Samsun, and Trabzon. This article will focus on the Anadolu Türk Eczacı Birliği [Turkish Pharmacists Union of Anatolia], which was established in Samsun in 1922 during the Turkish War of Independence. Its founding president was Lieutenant Colonel Eyüp Sabri Bülgin, Chief Pharmacist of the Third Army Corps in Sivas. The present study will provide information on its activities and introduce its founders, as well as its journal, Genç Eczacı [Young Pharmacist].
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • How New is New Medicine (Tıbb-ı Cedîd)' Debates on Novelty in Ottoman
           Medicine and the Nature of the New (1650-1750)

    • Authors: Mustakim ARICI; Esra AKSOY
      Abstract: The 17th century was a period characterized by profound transformations in various areas of the Ottoman Empire, and the medical literature and developments that emerged at that time offer an insight into the journey of Ottoman medicine until the end of the 19th century. In understanding this transitional çerçe period, the concept of the new and the phenomena it encompasses play a central role. In addition to its defining and descriptive functions, new as a term also corresponds to a mentality as being universal. However, this concept, which forms the basis of many discourses, has not been thoroughly examined and analyzed in modern research with regard to its particular and universal dimensions. This article stated the new to not be something completely new, especially in the universal sense of mentality and its relationship with the old paradigm, but to be seen as an attempt to expand the ancient paradigm. This study aims to question the nature of the new in the medical literature between 1650-1750, to analyze the associated mentality, and to establish a general framework applicable to specific issues through complementary articles.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • “Confirmed by Experiment”: Notes on Physics Instruments and
           Experimentation in 19th-Century Istanbul (1809-1876)

    • Authors: Feza GÜNERGUN
      Abstract: The present study examines the emergence of experimentation in the Ottoman schools of engineering, medicine, and military arts that were founded in Istanbul to teach modern sciences, as well as in Mekteb-i Sultani, an Ottoman-French secondary school. The study also addresses how the Istanbul population encountered experiments through the public conferences organized at Darülfünun [House of Sciences] that opened in 1863. This article also questions the fate of experimentation in Darülfünun-i Osmani, which was established in 1870. The students in these institutions first encountered experiments in the Turkish translations of European physics textbooks. Because demonstrations (bi’t-tecrübe ispat) depend on the availability of scientific instruments, didactic instruments were purchased from European instrument makers in order to establish cabinets of physics in these schools. However, the scarcity of archival documents related to imported instruments and the absence of collections render making a full assessment of experimental teaching in Istanbul’s educational institutions difficult. The present article is introductory in nature, and future research on instruments purchased for Ottoman secondary schools and the collections kept in non-Muslim schools of the Empire will surely provide a greater picture.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Admonitions for Writing History of Science in the Islamic and Ottoman
           Period: Cevdet Pasha’s Critique of Ahmed Midhat’s Tarih-i Ulûm

    • Authors: Kenan TEKİN
      Abstract: Various late Ottoman contributions to the history of science have been identified as pioneering works in the field. However, contributions from two late Ottoman intellectuals, namely Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (d.1895) and Ahmed Midhat Efendi (d.1912), have hitherto been neglected. In fact, both wrote works that dealt with the history of science. Cevdet Pasha translated the last chapter of Ibn Khaldun’s (d. 1406) Muqaddimah, which he considered as a kind of history of science and made original contributions to the account, while Ahmed Midhat translated John Draper’s (d.1882) History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, which contains Midhat’s own addendums. This paper, however, draws attention to one work that brings together Ahmed Cevdet’s and Ahmed Midhat’s interest in the history of science, Cevdet’s review of Ahmed Midhat’s unpublished work titled Tarih-i Ulûm [The History of the Sciences]. Cevdet Pasha’s draft review of Tarih-i Ulûm is actually preserved in the Ottoman Archives in Istanbul. By considering Cevdet’s acute analysis of some concepts such as ‘ilm [science], fann [discipline], ma‘ârif [knowledge of particulars], sınâ‘at [arts], and san‘at [crafts] and his still relevant warnings for writing about the history of science in the Islamic and Ottoman periods, I closely analyze the review and provide a transcription of the document in the addendum. I conclude that Cevdet Pasha’s review indicates that late Ottoman laudatory and many times critical reviews (taqrīds) contain narratives about the history of science and thus should be placed within that literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Foucault Pendulum of the Phanar Greek Orthodox College in Istanbul:
           The First in Istanbul'

    • Authors: Panagiotis LAZOS
      Abstract: Foucault’s pendulum is one of the most important scientific achievements of the French physicist Léon Foucault. The performance of the experiment in 1851 was the first tangible proof of the Earth’s rotation. The relative technical simplicity and beauty of the experiment led to many repetitions of it, the manufacture of related pendulums by scientific instrument manufacturers, and the permanent or temporary installation of such pendulums in educational institutions for teaching as well as aesthetic reasons. The Phanar Greek Orthodox College in İstanbul is the oldest operating school of the city’s Greek community. After many moves during the first four centuries of its operation, the College found a permanent home in an impressive privately owned building in Fener in 1881. The building hosts a rich collection of scientific instruments, acquired mainly in the last quarter of the 19th century by French manufacturers and at the beginning of the 20th by Germans and Austrians. In 1912 special changes were made to the building to house a Foucault pendulum which was manufactured by the German company Max Kohl. This paper presents the history of this device, which is one of the first (perhaps the first) used in the Ottoman Empire.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Chemist to His Majesty the Sultan: Engineer Chemist Dr. Phil. Kyriakos
           Leonidas Syngros (1869-1955)

    • Authors: Emre DÖLEN
      Abstract: Kyriakos Leonidas Syngros (1869-1955) is the fourth person to have obtained a doctorate degree in chemistry in Ottoman Türkiye. He was born in Istanbul in 1869 to a family originally from Chios. He graduated from the Eidgenössischen Polytechnikum [Federal Polytechnic School] in Zurich as an engineer in chemistry and earned his PhD from the University of Zurich in 1892 with a doctoral dissertation on the complex compounds hydroxylamine makes with various metals. His supervisor was Prof. Dr. Heinrich Jacob Goldschmidt. Syngros returned to Istanbul, where he worked in the chemical analysis laboratory of Pierre Apéry (1852-1918). In 1896, he was appointed Chemist to the Imperial Palace by Sultan Abdul Hamid II and established his own chemical analysis laboratory. In 1908, he was dismissed from his position in the Palace. He was among the founders of the Arslan Ottoman Joint Stock Company, which had been established in 1910 to produce cement and water lime. He ran a pharmaceutical warehouse in Beyoğlu in the early 1900s alongside a partner. In 1922, Syngros left Türkiye and settled in Athens. He worked in various public and private companies, one of these being the Greek Chemical Products and Fertilizer Industry Joint Stock Company. He went on to become the vice-president of the Association of Greek Chemists. He retired in 1945 and passed away in Athens on October 23, 1955. This article aims to present his biography with a particular focus on his doctoral thesis and activities as a chemist.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Kraepelin in Ottoman-Turkish Psychiatry

    • Authors: Şahap ERKOÇ; Fatih ARTVİNLİ
      Abstract: Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), a German psychiatrist, had a significant role in the development of contemporary principles in psychiatry and disease classification. The principles, the nomenclature, and the classifications he devised for diseases are still in use today. Kraepelin was instrumental in the training of many neuropsychiatrists not only in Germany but all over the world. Kraepelin holds a distinctive place in Ottoman-Turkish psychiatric history and had a significant impact on the shaping of psychiatry in Turkey. Starting in the late Ottoman period, three generations of physicians who contributed significantly to the institutionalization of psychiatry in Turkey were taught in Kraepelin’s school and had the opportunity to work directly under him. This article investigates Kraepelin’s impact on Ottoman-Turkish psychiatry and the relationship between Kraepelin and psychiatrists of different generations in Turkey.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Medical Students Martyred in the 1915 Gallipoli Campaign: A Myth'

    • Authors: Fatma ÖZLEN
      Abstract: The Ottoman Empire fought on many fronts in World War I, and as the young population decreased rapidly, it recruited university students as they were all young people of conscription age. The exact number of students who lost their lives on the battlefield and their distribution by school are unknown. On the other hand, the narratives of students who were known to have voluntarily joined the Gallipoli front, where heavy losses were experienced and many were martyred, can transform into myths over time in the oral tradition. A narrative covering medical students who were martyred on the Çanakkale front during the Allied attacks on May 18-19, 1915 claims that all the volunteer first-year students in the Turkish troops were martyred and that Darülfünun’s Medical School in Istanbul had no graduates in 1921. This study plans to investigate the Darülfünun’s Medical School students who participated in the Çanakkale War in 1915 and has been carried out over the archives of the following institutions: Istanbul University, General Staff Military History and Strategic Studies Department (ATASE), the Ministry of National Defense, and the Presidency of the Republic of Türkiye - Directorate of State Archives. The research establishes that eight doctors had died in the battle of Gallipoli and that no records exist of medical students lost in the battle. Due to the Medical School being closed for the year 1915, the students were conscripted, which is why no graduates appear in the faculty’s registers for this year. In fact, students did graduate in 1921 from the military and civil sections of Darülfünun’s Medical School. This research concludes that the year in which no students graduated from the Medical School was not 1921, but 1915.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Nazi Doctor in Istanbul: Max Clara and the Search for Victims of Medical
           Terror

    • Authors: Erdem BAGATUR
      Abstract: The present study aims to examine Max Clara’s (1899–1966) life and his scientific activities in Istanbul between 1950-1966. Clara’s career before and during the National Socialist era has been extensively studied. However, information is lacking regarding his later years and his relationships with his old colleagues and the academic world after being dismissed from academic life in the postwar period. This article presents information about Max Clara’s life in Istanbul based on primary sources kept at the Istanbul University Archives. Archival documents were supplemented by analyses on literature about the history of Istanbul University, refugee scholars in Turkey, Max Clara’s life, and his publications. Furthermore, the study attempted to find the histological and anatomical material Dr. Clara had brought with him from Germany in order to identify the National Socialist era victims from whom the materials had been harvested. This article clearly and extensively brings Max Clara’s life, academic work, and relations with the outside world during his Istanbul years into light. However, his histological and anatomical collection, which was divided into three parts after his passing, could not be accessed due to the reluctance the relevant institutions, faculty members, and new owners of the materials had. This study also deals with Clara’s involvement in unethical practices during the National Socialist era, such as medical experiments on prisoners and the use of the unethically procured bodies of the executed. The analysis of his academic publications reveals that they involved great inconsistencies and distortions and that these publications were not as important as was thought.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Familiar Story: The Istanbul General Directorate of Public Assistance
           (1909-1912)

    • Authors: Cem Hakan BAŞARAN
      Abstract: The Müessesat-ı Hayriye-i Sıhhiye Müdiriyeti [The Constantinople General Directorate of Public Assistance] was established after the Second Constitutional Era (II. Meşrutiyet) with the aims of solving the physical and administrative problems of existing health institutions and of opening new hospitals and charitable institutions. The directorate was active between 1909-1912. The Director Dr. Muhittin Nuri and General Inspector Dr. Ahmed Nureddin were sent to Europe to inspect municipalities and health institutions, and the Directorate was established with a program based on their reports. From its establishment until its closure, the Directorate tried to modernize existing institutions and open new ones while dealing with financial problems and budget constraints. The Board of Directors encountered problems with the Meclis-i Umur-ı Tıbbiye-i Mülkiye ve Sıhhiye-i Umumiye [Council of Civil Medicine and Public Health] while working on its statutes regarding the appointment of physicians to the hospitals under its administration. The Directorate experienced financial difficulties due to subsidy non-payment, costs for fighting the cholera epidemic, and the opening of the Haseki Mecanin Müşahedehanesi [Haseki Mental Observatory]. Accused of corruption and other charges, the Director Dr. Muhittin Nuri Bey was suspended in June 1912. Finally, the Directorate was closed down in October 1912 at a meeting of the Cemiyet-i Umumiye-i Belediye [Municipal Council of Istanbul] that had been convened under Istanbul Mayor Dr. Cemil Topuzlu.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Hanging as a Form of Execution in Pisanello

    • Authors: Şefik GÖRKEY
      Abstract: Hanging as a form of execution has attracted the attention of artists for centuries, with Giotto (d. 1337), Ambroggio Lorenzetti (d. 1348), Leonardo da Vinci (d.1519), Andrea del Sarto (d. 1531), Annibale Carracci (d. 1609), and Pisanello (c.1395-c.1455) being among the first examples to come to mind. Executed figures are also frequently encountered in the depictions of hell in Italian frescoes. The first thing that comes to mind here in terms of medical history is to make an evaluation about whether artists had seen a real execution or not and how realistically they conveyed what they had seen. Pisanello’s depiction of a hanging located in the back left corner of the Saint George and the Princess of Trebizond fresco in the Pellegrini Chapel in the Church of Sant’Anastasia, Verona, North Italy, constitutes this study’s subject. The hanging scene sketches Pisanello prepared for this fresco have survived to the present day. The placement of the rope on the neck of the figure on the left in the fresco corresponds to an atypical hanging, while the situation of the figure on the right corresponds to a typical hanging. This shows that Pisanello had seen the executed figures in real life and had had a very strong power of observation.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Disaster Caused by Drought and Famine: The Plague of Benghazi in 1858-1859
           According to the Physicians of the Ottoman Sanitary Administration

    • Authors: Özgür YILMAZ
      Abstract: Although plague epidemics which killed millions of people throughout history, ceased to be a problem for Western Europe from the early eighteenth century on, outbreaks continued to occur in the Ottoman Empire. Located at the crossroads of major trade routes, Ottoman lands experienced plague outbreaks until the first half of the nineteenth century. If plague lost its former power after the 1830s and was partially controlled, it continued to be seen in different parts of the empire. One of the places where it emerged, surprising the medical authorities of its time, was Benghazi. The epidemic that emerged in 1858 was previously thought to be typhus; however, later investigations revealed that it was plague. One of the features that made this epidemic interesting was the activities of the physicians that the Ottoman Sanitary Administration sent to the region as part of the battle against the epidemic. The reports of these physicians about their investigations and the activities they carried out in the region make possible to conduct a detailed study of the 1858-1859 Benghazi plague epidemic. This study aims to reveal the story of this epidemic through physicians’ reports and archival documents.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Theses in Latin as Sources for Turkish Medical History: Dissertatio
           Inauguralis Medica De Peste Orientali,… Marcus Marchand,
           Constantinopolitanus (1831)

    • Authors: Tomas TERZİYAN; Şeref ETKER
      Abstract: Dr. Marcus Marchand (b. Istanbul, 1807 – d. Istanbul, 1879) graduated on January 29, 1831 from the Vienna University Medical Faculty after defending his inauguration thesis on the so-called “Oriental plague” titled De Peste Orientali. This text was composed in Latin, and printed at the Mechitarist Congregation Press in Vienna as a small, 34-page (5,600 word) booklet in the same year. Marc Marchand had also attended the St. Petersburg Academy, and was appointed as a member of the General Health Council (Meclis-i Umur-ı Sıhhiye) in 1839 on his return to Istanbul. He was renown as Marshan Effendi within bureaucratic circles, and as Markos Marsan (Μάρκος Μαρσάν) within the Greek Catholic community. Dr. Marchand was one of the founding members of La Société impériale de Médecine de Constantinople (later as the Turkish Medical Society, est. 1856), and of the Ottoman Red Crescent (est. 1868), and served as the Sanitary Intendant on the International Quarantine Board in Istanbul. Marcus Marchand stated that “the reason he felt impelled to choose that subject matter for his medical thesis, was because the disease [pest] itself, which had been an implacable foe in his homeland, could not, at that time be quelled”. In his thesis, Marchand reviews the literature on the plague as penned by lœmologists (i.e. physicians treating plague and pestilential/infectious diseases), and includes personal observations highlighted with the remark “novi ipsemet Constantinopoli” [as known by myself in Constantinople]. The present study gives a biography of Dr. Marc Marchand based on a published obituary and on archival records, followed by a reading and Turkish translation of De Peste Orientalis – as a notable, yet overlooked source for the history of medicine.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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