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Journal of Research in Economics
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2636-8307 - ISSN (Online) 2636-8307
Published by Marmara University Homepage  [6 journals]
  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UNEMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS AND
           HAPPINESS IN TURKEY FOR THE YEARS: 2003-2018

    • Authors: Melodi Buket KANLIOĞLU; Devrim DUMLUDAĞ
      Abstract: This study analyses the relationship between employment/unemployment, expectations, and happiness in Turkey by using the Life Satisfaction Survey conducted regularly by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) since 2003. In the study, happiness of unemployed individuals comprising of different people between 2003-2018 has been analyzed through a comparison of those in employment versus those outside of the workforce. In addition to the relationship between unemployment and happiness; the entire sample between the ages of 18-64 and the unemployed were compared in terms of their employment expectations for the following year for the country as well as their personal employment expectations and happiness. The results of the study indicate that being unemployed is correlated with negative life satisfaction, and there is a negative correlation between happiness and unemployment. As a result of the study, it is determined that there is a difference between those who live in the region with a high unemployment rate and those who live in the region with a low unemployment rate. Accordingly, the life satisfaction of an unemployed person living in an area with a high unemployment rate is less negatively affected than an unemployed person living in an area with a low unemployment rate.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • AN ANALYSIS OF HOW CHINA IS EMERGING AS THE CHAMPION OF FREE TRADE WITH A
           LONG-TERM GLOBAL STRATEGY

    • Authors: Soner KISTAK
      Abstract: With the United States (US) distancing itself from free trade during the Trump administration, China has been successfully positioning itself as the new free trade champion. During its disengagement process, the US has also been perceived to have snubbed some of its traditional partners like Turkey in terms of trade policies. These traditional allies have since been wooed by the Chinese through attractive commercial deals. China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a comprehensive set of infrastructure projects which aim to stimulate trade in Eurasia. With its immense financial resources, China has been investing in logistics and infrastructure projects in more than 72 countries. While criticismsand concerns have been raised, of Chinese state mercantilism, for instance, countries interested in diversifying their trade relationships like Turkey have welcomed the free trade approach.The paper aims to disprove the hypothesis that China’s international investments are solely short-term, profit-oriented, and transactional in nature. Instead, the paper argues that these investments should be seen as a part of the long-term strategy of a country that aims to be both a political and economic world power. Moreover, this paper sees China’s overall trade contribution positively and argues that its strong position as a trading partner can help strengthen smaller economies’ negotiation positions. Hence, countries like Turkey can negotiate and choose the best deals offered by different trading centers. In the post-Covid context, the world economy cannot afford to exclude any major economies. The US and China are encouraged to settle their differences in the context of global rule-based systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS
           EMISSIONS VIA ENERGY SUBSTITUTION AND CARBON TAX

    • Authors: Reyhan ÖZEŞ ÖZGÜR; Selim ÇAĞATAY
      Abstract: Accordingly, with the decisions taken under Paris Conference-2015, Turkey has committed to constraint greenhouse gas emissions. An environmentally efficient way to do this is controlling industrial processes and fossil fuel use. Turkey has also determined her energy use targets as documented in Energy Strategy Document in which partial substitution of natural gas used in electricity production with some other energy sources is suggested as an alternative instrument in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims at developing a policy package to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions and to carry out the environmental and economic impact analysis of the policy package. Findings suggest that energy substitution will not be enough to achieve the targets proposed under Paris Conference commitments. Carbon taxing should be applied besides energy substitution, but rather on all industries it should be applied on selected polluter industries. In this way, while environmental targets are reached contraction in the economy will be less.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS AND TAX BURDEN IN THE IRANIAN ECONOMY: A
           MACROSIMULATION APPROACH

    • Authors: Ebrahim REZAİ
      Abstract: Using dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model, this paper addresses the effects of demographic changes on tax dynamics. In fact, the DSGE framework involves main demographic features such as working and retirement periods as well as life cycle characteristics on one hand andother special conditions of Iran’s economy such as rigidities in nominal variables, distinct trait of government budget and lack of monetary and fiscal standard rules on the other. After calibration of parameters and determination of steady state values of the variables, we identified some demographic scenarios, such as reduction in the labor growth rate, increasing retirement age and improvement life expectancy and then assessed macro variables, particularly tax share, reaction to these shocks. Our results highlight that, demographic negative shocks have a significant effect on the budget deficit. A plummet (surge) in labor growth rate would increase (shrink) tax share to rebalance (smooth) a probable budget deficit(surplus). An analogous result can be attributed to the life expectancyimprovement. However, any upswing (slump) in the retirement age has negative(positive) influence on the tax share. In other words, all positive demographic shocks provide opportunity to smooth tax policies and postpone revenue collection.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • THE ROLE OF POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS ON ECONOMIC FREEDOM:
           EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PMG ARDL MODEL ESTIMATION

    • Authors: Bünyamin Fuat YILDIZ
      Abstract: This study focuses on investigating the political and institutional factors that impact economic freedom. The factors addressed for the study are those that have resulted in disputed outcomes in prior works— but have not been evaluated holistically. Using annual data collected from 2003 to 2017, a panel ARDL technique was performed for 17 nations to examine both the short-run and long-run impact of political and institutional factors. The results of the study suggest that government effectiveness and political stability have a favorable impact on economic freedom, but government size is not. Furthermore, the study shows that corruption has a detrimental impact on economic freedom. The most likely answer is that corruption is not grease for the economic system’s wheels. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that democracy has a negative influence on economic freedom. Hence, as a policy implication, there is a necessity to improve institutions’ effectiveness, reduce government size and provide political stability to construct economic freedom on economies.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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