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Turkish J. of Public Health     Open Access  
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Turkish Journal of Public Health
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1304-1088 - ISSN (Online) 1304-1088
Published by HALK SAĞLIĞI UZMANLARI DERNEĞİ Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on infant and child nutrition

    • Authors: Hatice PARS; Hilal ÖZCEBE
      Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome infection (SARS-CoV-2), declared a pandemic by WHO in March 2020, has become an unprecedented public health problem leading to economic and social crises. The first confirmed pediatric case was reported in Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China on January 20 and many pediatric case reports and case series have been reported since then. In these reports, it is stated that in addition to the asymptomatic course of the disease in children, there may be more serious complications such as respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. However, it is emphasized that other problems hidden in addition to the direct effects of the disease, especially in children, and the indirect effects of the pandemic, cause and will continue to cause more serious problems. The effects of the pandemic on children’s mental and physical health, along with reasons such as the closure of schools and the decrease in peer interaction, cause concern. During the pandemic process, the problem of food insecurity has deepened and infant and child nutrition has been affected. In this direction, this review aims to reveal infant and child feeding problems, the factors that cause these problems and the strategies to prevent these problems, and our roles in informing and counseling children and families during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • COVID-19 vaccine attitude and related factors in a public institution

    • Authors: Yasemin KALKAN; Alpaslan TÜRKKAN, Seçil DÖNMEZ, Kayihan PALA
      Abstract: Objective: Vaccine hesitancy and vaccine refusal are an important public health problem and limits the response to the pandemic. In this study, it was aimed to examine COVID-19 vaccine attitude and related factors among a public ınstitution workers. Methods: This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study and was conducted in a public institution in September 2021. The universe of the study consists of all employees (2374 people) in this instituti¬on and 1908 people (80.4%) participated in the study. A questionnaire of 31 questions developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regres¬sion tests were used in the analysis of the data. The analyses were performed using SPSS23.0 program and the significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: 71.0% (n=1287) of the participants were male and the mean age was 40.7% (95%, 40.3- 41.1%). Of those who were not vaccinated (14.0%, n=256), 6.6% were undecided about vaccination (n=121), while 0.5% (n=10) were anti-vaccine. The frequency of COVID-19 vaccination increases with being a woman, older age, the presence of chronic diseases in the participants themselves and their household, the fact that their children have received their childhood vaccinations in full, that they and their household do not have a history of COVID-19, that they are worried about experiencing serious health problems due to COVID-19 and that they are afraid of death, and that all other individuals in the household have been vaccinated. Conclusion: It is thought that reaching out to individuals one-on-one and providing accurate and adequate information about the safety and effectiveness of vaccines will make significant contributi¬ons to increasing the success of the COVID-19 vaccination program.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Epidemiological investigation of COVID-19 clusters in healthcare workers
           in a univercity hospital at the first period of the pandemic

      Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the clusters of healthcare workers diagnosed with COVID-19 in a university hospital in terms of epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics. Methods: Since the beginning of the pandemic, healthcare workers who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 and their contacts in our hospital are followed up and risk assessments are made by phone call. In this descriptive study, epidemiological data of clusters formed between March 20-September 10, 2020 at a university hospital were used. Cases, where 3 or more healthcare workers were diagnosed in the same unit in the same time period, were considered a cluster. In addition to descriptive features, transmission chains were created for each cluster. Attack rates were calculated with a (95%) confidence interval. Results: A total of 98 healthcare workers were diagnosed with COVID-19 on the dates evaluated in the study. There were 4 clusters, and a total of 19 cases in the clusters, 9 of which were male (47.4%), mean age is 35.6 (±6.96). There are a total of 171 people in contact with the cases in the clusters. Of these contacts, 14 people were diagnosed with COVID-19. In-hospital secondary attack rate was 8.19% (95% CI: 4.74-13.05). Conclusion: Although healthcare workers have a high-risk working environment, work-related or social contacts among themselves also increase this risk. Our study enabled the determination of the epidemiological characteristics of the clusters by periodically evaluating the data collected through regular surveillance, and contributed to taking measures to reduce the transmission.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Public Health Professionals Association YouTube Channel and Webinar Events

    • Authors: İlke ÜÇÜNCÜ; Lütfi Saltuk DEMİR, Bengü Nehir BUĞDAYCI YALÇIN, Melike YAVUZ, Nesrullah AZBOY, Tacettin İNANDI, Alp ERGÖR
      Abstract: Programs organized by the Association of Public Health Specialists (HASUDER), School of Public Health are broadcast on its own Youtube channel. With this report, it is aimed to examine the viewing characteristics of the videos and webinar events of the channel between 08.10.2012-31.12.2020. Webinars of Kanal HASUDER broadcasted on youtube in 2012- 2020; The subject, the number of views, the duration of watching, the distribution of viewers according to gender-age characteristics were examined. The data recorded on YouTube was used. In the years 2012-2020, the highest number of views and duration were in the videos of 2020. While the highest number of views and duration were reached in the field of biostatistics between 2012 and 2020, the highest average viewing time was in the subjects of infectious diseases. The proportions of female viewers outnumbered males in all years 2012-2020. While the 18-24 and 25-34 age groups were more common among the viewers in 2012-2020, it was observed that the 55-67 age group (56.3%) was more common than the other age groups in 2019. The viewing status of HASUDER Channel has increased over the years. The topics of the webinars are one of the most important factors affecting the viewing. With the pandemic experienced in 2020, Kanal HASUDER’s focus on infectious diseases and reaching the maximum average viewing time on related topics; shows that the interest in the channel has increased with the effect of the years and the pandemic.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determining the changes in the prevalence of consanguineous marriages and
           resistant Groups in Turkey: Analyses by marriage cohorts from the 2018
           Turkish Demographic and Health Survey

    • Authors: İsmet KOÇ
      Abstract: Objectives: Consanguineous marriages are accepted as a public health concern due to its negative effect on infant mortality and genetical diseases. During the last 50 years, the frequency of consanguineous marriages has decreased by 11 percent from 27 percent to 24 percent in Turkey that refers its resisting structure. The study using data from TDHS-2018 has three main objectives: (1) To determine the changes in the prevalence of consanguineous marriages over time, (2) To understand the changes in internal structure of consanguineous marriages over time, (3) To determine the resistant groups by examining their socio-economic determinants.Methods: The study considers many characteristics of women in both descriptive and multivariate analyses together with marriage cohorts from period before 1993 up to 2014-2018.Results: The results show that the rate of consanguineous marriage among women married before 1993 is 40 percent, while it decreases to 16 percent, by declining 60 percent, among women married in 2014-2018 period. The inbreeding coefficient has also decreased from 0.018 to 0.006 in the same period. These findings are closely related with decline in percentage of marriages among first cousins from 85 percent to 46 percent during same period.Conclusion: The results of the logistic regression indicate a higher risk of consanguineous marriage among women who are uneducated, not working, Kurdish or Arabic, living in the poor households, spent their childhood period in East region/rural and has parents in consanguineous marriages. Consequently, such women can be defined as resistant groups that contribute higher level of consanguineous marriage in Turkey.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • An evaluation of victim registration forms for domestic violence against

    • Authors: Sevinç SÜTLÜ; Binali ÇATAK
      Abstract: Objective: The present study attempted to reveal the sociodemographic information, characteristics of violence exposed, and risk situations among women exposed to violence through the data obtained from the victim registration forms and generate a source for further research to prevent violence against women.Methods: In this descriptive study, the victim registration forms (1222 cases) of women applying to emergency departments in Burdur city due to domestic violence is utilized. Then, the data analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 20.0 and presented the descriptive data as numbers, percentages, means, standard deviations, and minimum and maximum values.Results: It was found that almost all cases (93.6%) were exposed to physical violence alone or combined with other forms of violence. The women were exposed to violence at home where they should live safely (88.1%) and from the ones they trust (97.2%; spouse/lover/ family member). About half of the women (51.6%) were exposed to violence in front of their children, and 18.0% of the children got their shares from the violence. It was also discovered that 9.7% of the women had been exposed to violence for more than ten years. Finally, it was concluded that 64.5% of the women had a high risk of being exposed to violence again soon.Conclusion: Regardless of their educational attainment and socioeconomic status, women are often exposed to violence from childhood to advanced ages. Overall, further awareness-raising activities are needed to prevent all segments of society from all kinds of violence.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Publication rates of presentation in national and international public
           health congresses

    • Authors: Sümbüle KÖKSOY VAYISOĞLU
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the publication rates of the papers presened at the 19th National Congress in 2017 and the 2nd International 20th National Public Health Congress in 2018. The data of this descriptive study; the data collection form, which includes the report type (oral, poster), research type, the number of authors, the authors’ teams, the status of publication, the index in which it was published and the time passed for the publication were collected between 01-30 S eptember 2020 by the electronic proceedings booklets and PubMed, Google Scholar, TürkMedline and Ulakbim database search results. The data of the study were evaluated using descriptive statistics, chi-square and T test. Statistically p<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 818 presentations were evaluated in both congresses (oral 41%; poster 59%), and the number of oral presentations n: 274, 61.9%) in the international congress was significantly higher than the national congress (n: 61, 16.3%) (p <0.001). 97.7% of all reports were presented as original research, 2.3% as review and meta analysis, 46.7% by two/three authors, 75.1% by physicians, 10.4% by nurses / midwives. While 11.2% of the total 818 papers were published, this rate was 9.5% in the international congress and 13.3% in the national congress and there was no difference between them (p:0.082). 64.1% of the papers were published in a national indexed journal, and 12% in journals indexed by SCI / SCI-E / SSCI. Among the published presentation in national and international congresses were different (p <0.001) for the type of presentation and the duration of publication. As a result, the publication rate of abstracts is low and it is recommened to develop mechanisms / policies to encourage the publication of abstracts.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Rethinking Xenophobia and Medical Xenophobia

    • Authors: Cem Hakan BAŞARAN
      Abstract: With the increasing refugee population in our country, which has faced an intense wave of migration since 2011, xenophobia is increasing day by day. During the delivery of health services, the immorality of xenophobia, which grows usually by hiding behind the increasing average number of patients and unsolvable communication problems, was discussed from the perspective of the medical profession, which has ethical codes and deontology. First of all, the medical and social science literature on xenophobia, the current, historical and psychopathological background of this phenomenon, and its explicit or implicit relationship with medicine were investigated. The xenophobic attitudes and actions of physicians, who are the main actors of health care delivery all around the world, were evaluated from the perspective of medical ethics and history. In this article, the findings of the socioeconomic, political, and psychological foundations of xenophobia, its relationship and context with new racism theories, and the historical existence of medical xenophobia, which is discussed as a current phenomenon in health services, and especially in South Africa, and what it can cause today are tried to be revealed. The fact that xenophobia may arise against a vulnerable subject who is about to lose his self-respect in the society in a place and encounter, with where all kinds of identity and biographical information are of no importance except for medical reasons, not only puts all kinds of ethical contexts of the patient-physician and physician physician relationship (confidentiality, secrecy, intimacy, mutual respect, professional solidarity, courtesy, etc.) at risk but also it turns the issue into a morality one. Medicine should be practiced by the physician in a neutral space where all kinds of knowledge and identity, except for illness, are ignored.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents and effective factors:
           The case of Erzurum province

    • Authors: Edanur KÖYCEĞİZ; Serhat VANÇELİK, Sinan YILMAZ
      Abstract: Objective: Considering the characteristics of the adolescent age, it is known that adolescents are vulnerable to the negative effects of the internet and are highly susceptible to internet addiction. In this study, it was aimed to determine the internet addiction levels of adolescents and effective factors.Method: The 798 students in secondary schools in Erzurum city center participated in this cross-sectional study. Personal information form and Young Internet Addiction Scale were used to collect study data.Results: In the study, 18.9% of the adolescents (F: 20.6%, M: 17.1%) were pathological internet users. Participants use the internet most often to film / video, etc. used for monitoring (16.9%), social media (16.1%) and education and/or research (15.6%). Internet addiction was significantly higher in smokers (17.0%) (p<0.001).Conclusion: The fact that approximately one out of every five students is found to be a pathological internet user indicates that is an important public health problem in adolescents. It is important to reveal the levels and determinants of Internet addiction through comprehensive studies in determining effective interventions.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A medical anthropological perspective on the relationship between
           malnutrition and the subsistence economy: the prevalence of undernutrition
           and obesity among elderly farmers

    • Authors: Ali Rıza CAN; Derya ATAMTÜRK, Ayşegül ŞAHİN, İzzet DUYAR
      Abstract: Objective: In this study, the relationship between malnutrition in the elderly population and the agriculture subsistence economy was examined.Methods: The study was conducted on two groups (farmers and non-farmers) aged 65 and over living in the province of Hatay, Southern Turkey. Anthropometric measurements of 111 (67 males, 44 females) in the farmer group (Group 1) and 89 (41 males, 48 females) in the non-farmer group (Group 2) were taken and their nutritional status was determined. The stature and body weight of the elderly who accepted to participate in the study were measured following international procedures and then body mass index (BMI) values were calculated.Results: In our sample, both groups had a low rate of undernourishment (Group 1 %2.7; Group 2 %1.1); however, overweight (Group 1 %38.7; Group 2 %32.6) and obesity (Group 1 %35.1; Group 2 %40.5) were more common. Although the prevalence of “overweight + obese” was higher in females in studies of the elderly, the contrary was observed in the farmer group, where the frequency rate was higher in favor of males. In the non-farmer group, results consistent with the general pattern were obtained.Conclusion: Due to daily lives and activity levels of women who live by farming, it has been found that the obesity prevalence in females has declined below that of males, indicating that the gender-based obesity pattern (females>males) in the general population is not valid in the farmer group.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Opinions of employees on the duties, authorities, responsibilities and
           personal rights of occupational medicine specialists

    • Authors: İlke KARABAĞ; Ceyda ŞAHAN, Mehmet Erdem ALAGÜNEY, Ali Naci YILDIZ
      Abstract: Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the improvements that need to be made by taking the opinions of the employees on this field on the duties, authorities, responsibilities and personal rights of the occupational medicine specialists in Turkey and to share with the relevant people. Methods: It was a modified DELPHI study. It was carried out in 2 rounds between 1.05.2021- 26.07.2021 within the scope of Turkey through online surveys.The population of the study was occupational medicine specialization program trainers, specialists and minor specialization students in Turkey. Sample selection was not made. The invitation to participate was sent to the entire universe via e-mail.Questionnaires were sent to 108 people in both rounds.The frequency of participation in the surveys in the 1st and 2nd rounds,respectively, was 43.5% and 31.4%. In the first round of the study,a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions was sent to the participants and the answers were evaluated by the researchers using thematic analysis method. In the second round,a new questionnaire was prepared by creating statements from the themes,and the participants were asked about their participation in the statements via an online survey. Results: In this study, it was observed that the occupational medicine specialization was not sufficiently recognized, job descriptions and personal rights were not clear, there were problems in the standardization of education, and choosing from different specialties could cause problems as well as advantages. Conclusion: There is a need for universities,relevant ministries and non-governmental organizations to cooperate together to solve the problems mentioned in the field of occupational medicine.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Evaluation of the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and memory
           impairment in pathology laboratory employees

    • Authors: Hakkı AKTAŞ; Ahmet Öner KURT, Şükrü Hakan KALEAĞASI
      Abstract: Objective: It was aimed to evaluate the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and memory impairment in pathology laboratory workers in Mersin province. Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected in May-September 2016. All of the six public and one private pathology laboratory staff (n= 98) who constituted the population of the study were included in the study. Formaldehyde ambient measurement was determined by the name badge measurement method. Learning and memory status were evaluated using the auditory-verbal learning test. In the statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann Whitney U test, Spearman and Pearson Correlation analysis were used. Results: The mean age of the participating in the study was 40.06±9.09 years, 63.3% were female. The median of the formaldehyde measurement result of the employees was 0.030 ppm (0.004 - 4.400). Formaldehyde measurement results were lower in those with local ventilation, those with general ventilation, and those who work in the public sector. It was determined that there was no correlation between the learning, short-term memory and long-term memory scores of the employees and the total formaldehyde measurement result, formaldehyde exposure time and formaldehyde exposure index. When occupational groups were evaluated separately, it was determined that there was a negative correlation between the total amount of formaldehyde exposure of pathologists and laboratory technicians and their learning scores (r= -0.484, p= 0.009, r= -0.299, p= 0.049). Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that as the exposure to formaldehyde in pathologists and laboratory technicians increased, learning was impaired.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Accessibility of smoking cessation clinics in Turkey: a descriptive study
           among a population of smokers in İstanbul

    • Authors: Tevfik BAYRAM; Şeyma GÖRÇİN KARAKETİR, Fatma ÖZER, Yağmur TATAR, Mehmet KILINCKIRAN, Nur CAN, Dilşad SAVE
      Abstract: Objective: In 2011, Turkey started the nationwide “Smoking Cessation Treatment Support Program” via Smoking Cessation Clinics (SCC). This study examined the accessibility of these clinics using Levesque’s framework of access to healthcare services. From the (potential) users’ perspectives, it was aimed to find the challenges they face in accessing these clinics, and it proposed solutions for better implementation.Methods: This study was conducted among 304 smokers who visited four Family Health Centers in a geographically defined area in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2018. Result: In this study, it was found that 74% of smokers wished to quit smoking. Within them, 21% didn’t know of SCCs, and half of them didn’t know what services were provided there. Among those who knew of SCCs, 30% used them to quit smoking. The majority (75.7%) of the SCC users found the medications expensive; 41% didn’t use them, and 64% didn’t re-visit the clinics for follow-ups. Eventually, 4.3% of smokers quit smoking through SCCs. Utilization of these clinics were significantly higher among women (35%) than men (18.6%) (p=0.024). T; and there was no other differences in terms of age, marital status, income, and education level.Conclusion: Smoking cessation programs in Turkey and other countries can be implemented more efficiently if the sufficient number of clinics are opened and are accessible at the local level; more health professionals are trained to practice; the clinics are made more visible; smoking cessation medications are made available constantly; and closer monitoring of service users is ensured.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Comparing attitudes towards people with substance use disorders between
           healthcare professionals and general public

    • Authors: Hilmi AKSOY; Neşe MERCAN
      Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to compare attitudes and to examine the variables related to the attitudes and attitudes of health professionals in a psychiatric hospital and the general public towards individuals who use substances. Methods: The study was carried out as a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample study included 212 healthcare professionals employed in a psychiatric hospital and 427 individuals representing the general public. The study data were obtained by using the Introductory Information Form, the Attitudes Toward Treatment of Substance Use Disorders Scale, and the Attitudes and Behaviors of the Society Towards Individuals Using the Addictive Substances Scale. Results: In this study, it was determined that marital status, number of children, educational status, and alcohol consumption related to the attitude. The attitudes of healthcare professionals towards addiction treatment were determined to be positive. When the attitudes scores of an average of healthcare professionals (80.23±19.10) and the general public (91.40±17.76) were compared, a statistically significant difference was found according to the T-test results. Conclusion: The results of this study can increase awareness about the level of attitudes of health workers and the general public toward individuals who use substances. By considering the results of this study, educational activities can be planned to reduce negative attitudes. Individuals who do not or rarely use alcohol, individuals with a low level of knowledge, and those with relatives with substance use disorder can be encouraged to participate more in these training activities. It is recommended to review motivations, the working conditions, and the training curriculum of nurses, and in-depth investigation of the variables that cause the public’s negative attitude.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Evaluation of the results of the 10-year screening program for neonatal
           metabolic and endocrine diseases: The case of Sivas province, Türkiye

    • Authors: İrem AKOVA; Esma KILIÇ, Nagehan EKİCİ KOŞAROĞLU
      Abstract: Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the results of the newborn metabolic and endocrine disease screening program, in Sivas between 2011-2021. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, gender, birth weight, date of birth and sampling date of 84044 newborns whose heel blood was taken between 2011-2021 within the scope of Neonatal Screening Program in Sivas were reached via Neonatal Screening Program Web Application. The number and rates of newborns diagnosed with phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, biotinidase deficiency, cystic fibrosis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia by years were determined, and disease incidences were calculated. Results: The lowest and highest incidences of the screened diseases were 1:1011- 1:233 for congenital hypothyroidism, 1:8375- 1:657 for phenylketonuria, 1:6815- 1:1861 for biotinidase deficiency, 1:7902-1:3614 for cystic fibrosis, and 1:6815- 1:3222 for congenital adrenal hyperplasia respectively. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was higher than the incidence of other diseases screened for. The second disease with the highest incidence was phenylketonuria. There was no significant difference by gender for the five diseases screened. Birth weights of those diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism (p=0.002) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (p=0.039) were lower. Conclusion: It was found that the incidences of congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria among the diseases screened were higher. Those diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia had lower birth weights. It may be recommended to explain to families the importance of screening in these diseases, which are preventable or treatable diseases with early diagnosis and intervention, and to include other similar diseases in the screening program.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
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