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Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1841-9364 - ISSN (Online) 2344-4576
Published by Banat´s University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Effcts Of Fertilizer Types On Morphological Characterstics, Forage Yield,
           Seed Yieldand Chemical Composition Of Rhodes Grass At Bahir Dar,
           Northwestern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Bimrew Asmare, Anteneh Getie, Yeshambel Mekuriaw
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fertilizer types on plant characteristics, forage yield, seed yield and chemical composition of Rhodes grass at Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design(RCBD).The treatments were: -T1, Control group(no fertilizer), T2, Bio-slurry compost: 64 qt/ha, T3, NPS fertilizer: 100kg/ha, T4, Mixing of Bio-slurry with NPS (50%: 50%)with 4 replications giving a total of 16 plots, each measuring4×2=8 m2. Data collected were morphological characteristics such as plant height, number of tillers per plant, leaf length per plant, leaf to stem ratio (LSR), number of leaves per plant, forage dry matter yield and chemical composition analysis of the forage sample at 90 days(50% of blooming stage) except seed yield at three weeks after full flowering stage. Samples of forages were weighed, dried and then ground subsamples taken for analyses of crude protein (CP), ash, dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). All data were subjected to two wayANOVA procedures of SAS version 9.0. The results showed that the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer had a significant (p<0.01) effect on all of morphological charactersics were better result with mixing of NPS and bioslurry fertilizer application than other treatments, but a lone of bioslurry and NPS fertilizers also almost similar result but less than in some extent from combined fertrilier treatment. Combining chemical fertilizers with bioslurry gave the highest DM yield (12.63 t/ha) of forage than sole bioslurry (11.8 t/ha) and sole chemical fertilizer (12.03 t/ha). Combined chemical fertilizers with bioslurry gave the highest CP contents (11.25%) of forage than other treatments. Similarly, CP content was not significantly different among sole chemical fertilizer (10.34%) and sole bioslurry (10.23%). In contrast, at control plot obtained lowest result in all morphological parameters. DMY, seed yield and lowest nutritive value with hiher fiber contents.Thereforethe application of combination of bio-slurryand inorganic fertilizer shown the best result in terms of morphological, nutritive value, forage dry matter and seed yield followed by either of fertilizers. Hence, based on the current result, it can be conclude that use of combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer is the best fertilizer as far as Rhodes grass production is concerned in the current study area.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of 2 types of yeast on rumen fermentation in Carpatina crossbred
           goats – short term study

    • Authors: Ana Elena Cismileanu, Alexandra OANCEA, Catalin DRAGOMIR
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of introducing brewer’s spent yeast (BSY) and viable yeast (VY) in the concentrate diets of Carpatina crossbred goats (18 months old, after 2-nd lactation, body weight of 34.08 ± 5.97 kg) on feed intake and  rumen fermentation parameters. Three concentrate diets were formulated to contain no yeast (diet C), 3.0% VY (diet D-a) and 1.5% BSY (diet D-i), respectively, in a complete randomized design with eight animals per diet. After feeding for 21-days period, we determined digestibility and nitrogen retention rate. Afterwards, rumen samples were taken on 2 consecutive days and analyzed for volatile fatty acids, pH and ammonia. Digestibility and nitrogen balance were not affected by yeast treatment, as well the rumen pH. The rumen ammonia increased for both yeast diets. The total volatile fatty acids production was increased only for D-a diet, but the relative proportions of these acids were similar between the diets, as well the acetate:propionate ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Liposoluble vitamins importance into laying hens nutrition

    • Authors: Gabriela Maria Cornescu, Tatiana Dumitra Panaite, Arabela Elena Untea, Mara Ioana Muntiu-Rusu, Ovidiu Avram
      Pages: 19 - 23
      Abstract: Liposoluble vitamins play an important role in poultry metabolism. Vitamin A assures normal growth and development, reproduction performances, and immune function. Vitamin D is requested for proper calcium absorption, prevents oxidative stress, and helps the immune system. Also, vitamin E, which cannot be synthesized by poultry, is crucial for growth and reproduction, improves the immunity system, efficient against oxidative stability. Vitamin K is a key factor for the blood clotting process, has anti-inflammatory effects, and improves bone quality and feed efficiency. Vitamin requirements in laying hens' diets increased compared to the minimum levels published 28 years ago in National Research Council, therefore became vital to update it. Due to the poultry and feed industry's increasing challenges and demands the present requirements must sustain the development and productive potential of modern poultry strains. Therefore it is mandatory that experimental data with different inclusion levels of liposoluble vitamins and with positive effects on growth, production, and health parameters be taken into consideration. Certainly, updated information about liposoluble vitamin variability and efficiency transfer rate from diet to egg would help tremendously the farmers interested in foods biofortification by dietary vitamin supplementation. Overall, liposoluble vitamins are considered essential micronutrients very important to assure balanced poultry nutrition that provides an optimized animal status health.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Contribution of feeding processes to the environmental impact of broiler
           chicken production

    • Authors: Nikolett Éva Kiss, János Tamás, Attila Nagy
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: The environmental impact of broiler chicken production was evaluated in this study utilizing life cycle analysis (LCA). The research examined at 11 different impact categories (abiotic depletion potential for elements (ADPe); abiotic depletion potential of fossil fuels (ADPf); acidifcation potential (AP); eutrophication potential (EP); global warming potential (GWP); ozone layer depletion potential (ODP); photochemical oxidation potential (POP); human toxicity potential (HTP); fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity potential (FAETP); marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential (MAETP); terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TETP)). The goal of the study was to determine the environmental critical points in broiler production for each impact category, as well as the contribution of feed and related processes to the environmental burden when compared to transportation, natural gas and electricity consumption, and other chicken house processes.The results show that feed and related activities were the largest contributors to the environmental burden in the case of 8 out of 11 impact categories (ADPe, AP, EP, GWP, POP, FAETP, HTP, TETP). In fact, animal feeding contributed more than 80% to five of these impact categories (AP, EP, POP, FAETP, and TETP). Natural gas consumption and transportation processes were the main contributing activities for the ADPf and ODP impact categories, whereas electricity consumption was the main contributing activity for MAETP.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The effects of including cinnamaldehyde or carvacrol in wethers’ diets
           on the main parameters of rumen metabolism

    • Authors: Alexandra Gabriela Oancea, Catalin Dragomir, Ana Cismileanu
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Essential oils are plants’ secondary metabolites that have the potential to be valorized as feed additives. Literature background indicates that cinnamaldehyde (main component of the cinnamon oil) and carvacrol (present in oregano leaves) possess properties that might influence the rumen metabolism. In order to assess this potential, a 3x3 Latin square experimental design was organized using wethers fed diets supplemented with cinnamaldehyde or carvacrol and pH, ammonia concentrations and VFA concentrations (total and individual) of the rumen fluid were determined. Supplementation with cinnamaldehyde and, in a lesser extent, with carvacrol improved some of the parameters related to the rumen pH level. Slight decreases, not statistically significant, was observed in case of ammonia and total VFA concentrations, for both cinnamaldehyde- and carvacrol-supplemented diets. However, the cinnamaldehyde-supplemented diet significantly influenced the VFA profile, leading to a decrease of the butyric acid (P=0.044) and a decrease tendency for valeric acid (P=0.067). These changes confirmed the potential of the two essential oils to influence the rumen metabolism, especially in the case of cinnamaldehyde.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of feeding Faba bean hull, Wheat bran and their mixtures on
           performance of growing local sheep fed a basal diet of Sudan grass hay at
           Gondar zuria, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Alemu Tarekegn Tiruneh, Kifetew Adane Kesete, Dessalegn Amsalu Gelaye, Eyaya Gashaw Bekele
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Conventional sources of feed supplements are costly and mostly unavailable for smallholder farmers. Due to its better nutritional characteristics feeding Sudan grass hay for sheep can contribute in reducing the amount of protein source supplements and can help in improving animal performance. An experiment was conducted using twenty four male local yearling lambs with an initial body weight of 21.77±1.87kg (mean ± SD) to investigate feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and economic benefits using local sheep fed a basal diet of Sudan grass hay supplemented with Faba bean hull, Wheat bran and their mixtures. The experiment lasted 90 days of growth and 7 days of digestibility period. The experiment was undertaken using a randomized complete block design having six blocks with four treatments (T1= Sudan grass hay ad libitum + 300 g Wheat bran (WB); T2= Sudan grass hay ad libitum + 200 g WB + 100 g FBH; T3= Sudan grass hay ad libitum + 100 g WB + 200 g FBH and T4= Sudan grass hay ad libitum + 300 g Faba bean hull (FBH)). Three hundred grams of treatment diets were offered daily on dry matter basis. Feed intake and body weight were measured on a daily and ten days interval basis, respectively. All the collected data on dry matter (DM) and nutrient intake, DM and nutrient digestibility, body weight changes and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were subjected to ANOVA using General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS (2003). Sudan grass hay offered had 11.75% CP, 52.12% NDF and 36.58% ADF on DM basis. Supplement feed at 300g WB (T1), 200g WB + 100g FBH (T2), 100g WB + 200g FBH (T3) and 300g FBH (T4) had 19.19, 17.73, 16.28 and 14.82% CP, 44.20, 51.03, 57.87 and 64.70% NDF and 12.84, 27.59, 42.35 and 57.10% ADF on DM basis, respectively. Supplementation with high protein content feeds (T1, T2 and T3) improved dry matter, organic matter and crude protein intake and apparent digestibility. Dry matter intake (925.74- 947.38g day-1) and crude protein intake (123.46- 131.09g day-1) were higher for T1, T2 and T3. The dry matter digestibility (75.26- 79.58%) and CP digestibility coefficient (78.46- 84.22%) were also higher for T1, T2 and T3. Final body weight (29.88- 31.75kg) and average daily gain (98.89- 107.22g) were higher for T2 and T3 but with same effect to T1. The partial budge analysis result indicated that sheep fed Sudan grass hay supplemented with 200g WB + 100g FBH (T2) had the highest net return (931.62 ETB) and highest MRR (3.32) compared to the other supplemented treatments. Thus, it is recommended that supplementation of Sudan grass hay with 200g WB + 100g FBH g head-1 day-1 (T2) is biologically efficient and potentially profitable in the feeding of growing local ram lambs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of Different Levels of Vitamin D3 in Laying Hens Diet on Various
           Aspects of the Eggs

    • Authors: Petru Alexandru Vlaicu, Tatiana Dumitra Panaite, Alexandra Oancea, Gabriela Maria Cornescu, Ovidiu Avram
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of vitamin D3, on laying hens' performances, egg yolk fatty acid profile (FA), antioxidant compounds and vitamin transfer in the eggs. For that, one hundred twenty, 34 weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens, were allocated to completely randomized block arrangement of three dietary treatments: T1, control (C) with 2500 IU/kg vitamin D3; T2 with 3000 IU/kg vitamin D3 and T2, with 3200 IU/kg vitamin D3. All diets had identical basal diet structure containing 17.50% crude protein and 2780 kcal/kg, metabolizable energy, being isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p<0.05) lower in T2 and T3 groups compared to T1, without any impact on average egg weight. Egg production was significantly (p<0.05) higher only in T2 group, compared with T1 and T3. No significant (p>0.05) contribution of vitamin D3 supplementation was observed on total saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) classes determined in egg yolk. From the sum of cis FA, significantly (p<0.005) higher was palmitoleic FA in T1 egg yolk compared with T2 and T3 egg yolks. On the other hand, from the total trans group, nervonic FA was significantly (p<0.05) higher in eggs belonging to higher vitamin D3 supplement groups. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T2 and T3 egg yolks compared with T1 egg yolk. However, n-3 increase significantly only in T3 yolks being with 43.92% higher compared with T1 yolk and with 35.51% higher compared with T2 yolk. From the antioxidant compounds, total polyphenol content, total antioxidant capacity, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin A and vitamin E registered slightly higher values in T2 and T3 eggs versus T1 eggs, but without significant (p>0.05) effect. Vitamin D3 transfer in eggs increased significantly (p<0.05) in T3 compared with T1 and T2 eggs, as a main effect of supplemental vitamin D3 in laying hens' diets.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The effect of GnRH and PGF2α administration on estrus onset and dairy
           buffaloes conception rate

    • Authors: Remus Chiorean
      Pages: 60 - 62
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GnRH and PGF2α administration on the manifestation of estrus and on the conception rate in Romanian buffalo dairy buffaloes. Twenty-eight dairy buffaloes from the Șercaia Buffalo Breeding Research and Development Station, aged between 5 and 12, in the postpartum period, were divided into four batches of seven heads each, as follows: Lot I (between 25 and 30 postpartum days), Lot II (40 to 45 days postpartum), Lot III (55 to 60 days postpartum) and Lot IV (75 days postpartum). Dairy buffaloes were given intramuscularly GnRH (2.5 ml Receptal) on day 0, followed by intramuscular injection of PGF2α (2.5 ml Alfabedyl) on day 7 after GnRH injection. Estrus was observed 24-48 hours after PGF2α injection. Artificial insemination was performed 12-18 hours after visible signs of estrus. The results of the study showed that there were no differences (p> 0.05) between estrus treatments (100%), estrus onset (35.8 to 36.4 hours), estrus duration (17 to 18 hours) and conception rate (100%). In conclusion, in Romanian buffalo dairy buffaloes, estrus can be synchronized from 25-30 days after calving using a combination of GnRH and PGF2α.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The effect of flaxseed on the porcine uterus

    • Authors: Martina Lecová, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Drahomíra Sopková, Katarzyna Kozioł, Radoslava Vlčková
      Pages: 63 - 67
      Abstract: Flaxseed is an important supplement in animal feed. It contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lignans acting as phytoestrogens, which can alter cell functions in various organs. The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of supplemental flaxseed in pigs on the morphophysiological properties of the uterus. The experiment included 12 Landras fattening pigs. The control group was fed with a standard feeding mixture for fattening pigs and the experimental group was fed a standard mixture with an addition of 10 % milled flaxseed. After six weeks of fattening, six animals of each group were slaughtered and samples of the uterine horns were taken for the routine histological (height of the endometrium and its compartments, number of endometrial glands, and myometrium height) and for immunohistochemical (expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptor markers) analyses. In the experimental group fed a flaxseed supplement, significant thickening of the superficial epithelium, endometrium, and lamina propria layer was found. The number of endometrial glands was higher than in the control uteri by about 1/3. Moreover, a flaxseed-enriched diet significantly increased the expression of oestrogen receptors α and β, as well as progesterone B receptors in all uterine compartments. The addition of flaxseed in the feed for six weeks had a stimulating effect on the monitored parameters of the uterus of fattening pigs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Quantitative Evolution of the Wild Animals Populations for Hunting from
           20-Bara

    • Authors: Dorel Dronca, Ioan Pet, Lavinia Stef, Gabi Dumitrescu, Liliana Ciochina Petculescu, Silvia Patruica, Mihaela Ivancia, Marius Maftei, Marioara Nicula, Adela Marcu, Sorin Voia, Mihaela Cazacu, Sandro Pogialli, Mirela Ahmadi
      Pages: 68 - 72
      Abstract: After Romanian integration into European Union the hunting populations need special attention. The observed size of an animals’ population, which is opposed to the genetic size, is given by the number of the individuals from all categories and also by the total number of males and females participating in the production of the descendant generation. The study presented in this paper aimed to analyze the quantitative evolution of 13 wildlife populations and environmental conditions, on the background of hunting 20-Bara, between 2018 and 2021, thus contributing to the knowledge of the hunting heritage in Timiș County, for a sustainable management and conservation. Thereby, this study recommends the revival of the existing population on this hunting area, through “blood refreshing” actions, as well as the permanent monitoring and limitation of populations from the Canidae family, especially of the Jackal (Caniș aureus L.) species, and the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes L) species.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Possibilities for capitalizing on organic matter from livestock farms

    • Authors: Erika Beilicci, Camelia Ștefănescu, Robert Beilicci
      Pages: 73 - 77
      Abstract: Today, as global energy demand continues to grow and global warming measures tighten, renewable energy has come to the fore. Governments' support for renewable energy has also increased, mainly due to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions and diversify energy sources. These incentives, along with high fossil fuel prices, have persuaded many investors to turn to renewable energy. Biomass is the most abundant renewable resource on the planet, including absolutely all the organic matter produced by the metabolic processes of living organisms. This paper presents the possibilities for capitalizing on organic matter from livestock farms, with an emphasis on the production of biogas from biomass resulting from animal manure. An example of calculating the amount of biogas is also made.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Bega River Water Quality Using Biotic Indices

    • Authors: Florica Morariu, Ioan Peț, Anca Andreea Marin, Alexandra Ferencz, Adina Horablaga, Marinel Horablaga, Lia Sanda Rotariu
      Pages: 78 - 82
      Abstract: The main purpose of the topic is to research ecological indices resulting from the analysis of zoo-benthos communities in order to use them combined as a method of diagnosing the water quality of the Bega River in the area of Timisoara. A major importance in achieving the strategy of conserving the biodiversity of benthic habitats is the study of benthos, especially for understanding the changes that occur in the qualitative parameters of zoo-benthic communities, but also their habitats under the influence of different types of anthropogenic pressures. The present study started in February 2014 and took place over a period of two years in which quantitative samples of benthos were taken seasonally. By locating the sampling stations at various representative points of the Bega River, upstream and downstream of the central area of Timisoara, it was possible to conduct a general analysis and investigation of benthic macro invertebrates communities.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Study on the Vector Role for Calicophoron daubneyi of Some Aquatic Snails
           form Western Romania

    • Authors: Cătălin Bogdan Sîrbu, Ioan Peț, Florica Morariu, Claudia Alexandrina Goina, Miruna Magda Morariu, Beatrice Ana-Maria Sîrbu, Sorin Morariu
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: In the last decade, Calicophoron daubneyi parasites have been found in animals in many European countries. Its development and spread are predicated on the presence of numerous intermediate hosts, but mainly on the presence of the aquatic snail Galba truncatula. Natural infestations of three freshwater snail species with Calicophoron daubneyi were studied from April to June 2020 in western Romania. Were collected 235 snails belonging to the species Galba truncatula (115 snails (48.94%)), Stagnicola palustris (48 snails (20.43%)), Planorbis corneus (72 snails (30.64%)). Out of a total of 235 snails harvested, 165 were positive for the presence of cercariae, but of these only 93 (39.57%) had Calicophoron daubneyi cercariae. These results indicate that Calicophoron daubneyi may be able to infect and grow in aquatic snail populations in western Romania. Calicophoron daubneyi has demonstrated its ability to adapt to an intermediate host in a new environment. The aim of this study was to identify aquatic snail species in grassland areas on the basis of shell morphological characteristics and to identify juvenile life cycle forms of the trematode Calicophoron daubneyi from aquatic snails, intermediate hosts, by PCR method in order to determine areas where infestation with this parasite causes economic losses to livestock farmers.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Is Forage Chicory a Viable Livestock Feed Option'

    • Authors: Radu Ionel Neamt, Saplacan Gheorghe, Neciu Cristian Florin, Ilie Elena Daniela, Mihali Ciprian Valentin, Mizeranschi Eugeniu Alexandru, Saplacan Ilie Silviu, Cziszter Toma Ludovic, Neamt Radu
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to test the viability of including chicory in cows’ diet. A total of 2250 data were recorded from 150 Romanian Spotted cows related to 6 forage structures: alfalfa (αα), chicory (C), mixed alfalfa and chicory (αC), mixed gramineous (G), mixed gramineous and alfalfa (Gα), mixed gramineous and chicory (GC). Data aimed total daily duration of forage consumption (TDD), daily round frequency (DRF) and average consumption round (ACR) according to forage structures. The effects of chicory were assessed based on ANOVA protocol with categorical factor “chicory”. Chicory significantly influenced (p≤0.05) TDD and ACR. No significant influence (p>0.05) was recorded related to DRF. Chicory significantly increased TDD and DRF compared to G (294 vs. 190.8 min./day, 12.1 vs. 9.37 rounds/day, p≤0.001), being superior compared to αα (264 min./day, 11.3 rounds/day, p≤0.05). Also, chicory improved the forage consumption in mixed GC compared to Gα (243.6 vs. 224.4 min./day, 10.1 vs. 9.8 rounds/day, p≤0.01). In mixed αC, chicory increased TDD and DRF compared to αα (283.8 vs. 264 min./day, 12.6 vs. 11.3 rounds/day, p≤0.05). In conclusion, the use of chicory in cows’ diet could improve the feeding behavioural traits with economically benefits.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of longevity in Romanian Spotted, Simmental type cattle breed

    • Authors: Rodica Stefania Pelmus, Horia Grosu, Mircea Catalin Rotar, Mihail Alexandru Gras, Cristina Lazar
      Pages: 96 - 100
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for productive life in Romanian Spotted, Simmental type cattle breed using a survival model. The Weibull proportional hazard model was used in this study. The data of productive life of cattle were obtained from Romanian Breeding Association Romanian Spotted, Simmental type. The data consisted of records of 1064 Romanian Spotted, Simmental cows.The average productive longevity was 1020.9 days for Romanian Spotted, Simmental type cattle breed. The heritability values for productive longevity in this population was 0.097. The breeding values for productive longevity of cattle ranged from -0.827 to 0.478 months. Longevity is a important trait in breeding program.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Efficacy of Herbicides on Controlling Ambrosia Artemisiifolia in Maize
           Crop

    • Authors: Sergiu Avram, Saida Roxana Feier-David, Lavinia Stef, Gabi Dumitrescu, Ioan Pet
      Pages: 101 - 105
      Abstract: Although, morphologically, maize is one of the most vigorous species, with a well-developed root system and stem, lately it has become sensitive to one particular species of weeds, namely Ambrosia artemisiifolia. With devastating effects on agriculture, on the environment and on human health, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, comonly named ragweed, is one of the most harmful invasive species. Currently, it belongs to the category of dominant weeds in some agricultural crops, which causes significant damage in production and from observations made in the maize crop, its frequency exceeds 50 individuals on a square meter. This paper presents the results of herbicides efficacy tests regarding the control of this invasive species in maize crop. The researches were carried out in the Timiș Plain, on a eutricambosoil soil type, poorly glayed, with high fertility, due to good physical and chemical properties. Of the four herbicides applied post-emergence in maize crop, the best efficacy was obtained by Glyfos Ultra herbicide, applied in doses of 3.5 l / ha, which ensured a significant reduction in coverage, of over 90% 15 days after application, while Kideka herbicide has been situated at the opposite pole, with an efficacy of about 82%. Also, the results of the same set of herbicides applied indicate very high efficacy of Glyfos Ultra herbicide, which exceeds a percent of 98% 30 days after application, while the lowest results were obtained by the herbicide named Dicash 480 SL of approximately 67%.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The influence of soil fertility and precursor plant on Triticosecale crop
           production

    • Authors: Saida Roxana Feier-David, Daniel Dorin Dicu, Alexandra Maria Ferencz, Ioan Pet
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: As a result of the intercross between wheat - Triticum and rye – Secale, Triticale - Triticosecale is a new variety of grains, used as fodder, which is cultivated on different soil types and in different climate conditions arround the world. By intergenetic crossing, the species has obtained both the rusticity of rye and the productivity of wheat. Through the studies and researches carried out in the last years, in the Mureș-Crișul Alb interfluve area, more specifically the Arad Plain landform, it has been persued the behavior of this species, on different soils, in terms of fertility and texture. Under the same cultivation conditions, two different genetic materials have been tested – the native Haiduc variety, as well as a variety from Hungary. Also, the precursor plants chosen for the two cultivation variants, one of the legumes, respectively lucerne and an oleaginous species commonly for the reference area - autumnal rape, proved to be representative for the cultivation of triticale. The main physical, hydrophysical and chemical properties of the two studied soils, combined with a balanced level of fertilization, significantly influenced the production of grains in the triticale crop and the differences were observed mainly due to soil texture and precursor plant. Still, it is important to highlight that the variations in production were determined by a complete series of factors such as soil fertility, the genetic material used, the precursor plant and the climate conditions of the agricultural year. The average harvest over the three years of cultivation, for all of the varieties was close to 6 t / ha. Among these agricultural years, the period between the years 2018-2019 stood out, as the production exceeded 6 t / ha, having, more precisely, a value of 6.021 kg / ha. Regarding the fertility of the two soils, it has been observed an excedent of about 5% in the productions obtained on the typical chernozem soil type.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The exploitation of grazing lands from suckler cows in the Region of
           Central Macedonia, Greece

    • Authors: Dimitrios Gourdouvelis
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: In this study, the potential use of available grazing land to suckler cow herds was examined and we determined their stocking rate in the Region of Central Macedonia, in 2019. Data were collected by field research and through interviews from a stratified sample of 66 breeders, in order to identify the livestock population and achieve the characterization of pastures. The pastures included public and private grazing lands that are used by suckler cows and their calves during the six-month summer grazing period that takes place in most cases by moving the animals from the farm's facilities. The survey revealed that the average stocking rate of the Region was 0.70 Livestock Units/ha with strong variability within the study area. Also, the relatively high unsafety of pastures and their seasonal use, on the one hand, do not help to achieve satisfactory productive yields and, on the other hand, pastures are at risk of direct deterioration due to over-grazing.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of enzymatic potentialities of Bacillus subtilis using as
           substrate different animal raw materials feed

    • Authors: Mihaela Dumitru, Lefter Nicoleta, Idriceanu Lavinia, Habeanu Mihaela
      Pages: 118 - 125
      Abstract: In the present investigation, the production of amylase, cellulase, and protease activity by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a was evaluated on different raw materials (soybean meal, peas, sorghum flour, corn) and combined feed (CF). The effect of various fermentation conditions (24-72 h) on enzymatic production through shake-flask culture (Erlenmeyer 100 mL) in optimum conditions (150 rpm, pH 7.0±0.2, 37◦C) was investigated. The inoculum strain presents 1.907 optical density (OD) 600 nm with a concentration of 1.6 x 109 CFU/mL. The screening showed a capacity of amylase, cellulase, and protease strain production. The maximum amylase level was obtained at 72 h when the strain was cultured in CF fermentation medium (13.19±0.15 U/mL), followed by corn (11.72±0.15 U/mL), peas (9.22±0.11 U/mL), soybean meal (7.29±0.19 U/mL) and sorghum (6.31±0.2 U/mL). For production of cellulase by DNS method, the activity was noticed in corn (4.39±0.04 U/mL), sorghum (4.05±0.02 U/mL), peas (2.94±0.06 U/mL), soybean meal (2.87±0.04 U/mL) and CF medium (1.41±0.02 U/mL). Maximum protease activity was observed after 24 h in CF (4.91±0.08 U/mL), with minimum enzyme production in the rest of fermentation media, both at 48 h and 72 h. In conclusion, qualitative analysis revealed that Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a could be successfully used for high scale production of amylase, cellulase and to less extend protease, particularly in fermented medium containing CF or corn, and may be considered a potential candidate for supplementation of animal feed. 
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cinnamomum cassia and Cananga odorata in the vapor phase

    • Authors: Lucia Galovičová, Petra Borotová, Veronika Valková, Miroslava Kačániová
      Pages: 126 - 131
      Abstract: Cieľom tejto štúdie bolo porovnať účinnosť kontaktnej a parnej aplikácie esenciálnych olejov Cinnamomum cassia a Cananga odorata . Pomocou diskovej difúznej metódy sme zistili, že esenciálny olej Cinnamomum cassia dosiahol dobré účinky proti grampozitívnym, gramnegatívnym baktériám a kvasinkám pri kontaktnej aplikácii. Veľmi slabá účinnosť bola zistená proti vláknitým mikroskopickým hubám. Esenciálny olej Cananga odorata po kontaktnej aplikácii vykazoval veľmi slabé antibakteriálne účinky. Inhibícia kvasiniek a vláknitých mikroskopických húb bola slabá až stredná. V parnej fáze C. cassiaesenciálny olej dosiahol veľmi dobré antibakteriálne účinky a výrazne sa zvýšil jeho účinok na inhibíciu vláknitých mikroskopických húb. C. odorataesenciálny olej vykazoval výrazne lepšie inhibičné účinky proti gramnegatívnym a grampozitívnym baktériám. Jeho účinnosť proti vláknitým mikroskopickým hubám bola vyššia ako pri kontaktnej aplikácii. Tieto zistenia naznačujú, že esenciálne oleje s vyšším podielom prchavých zlúčenín môžu zvýšiť svoju účinnosť pri aplikácii pary. Hoci ešte stále neexistuje štandardná metodika na určovanie aktivity esenciálnych olejov v parnej fáze, doteraz uvádzané výsledky sú povzbudivé a naznačujú možné aplikácie pri konzervovaní potravín. Pri vyššej účinnosti postačujú nižšie množstvá esenciálnych olejov, čo znižuje vplyv na senzorické vlastnosti.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Lameness detection and foot lesions identified during hoof trimming in
           lactating Holstein Friesian cows

    • Authors: Constantin Gavan
      Pages: 132 - 136
      Abstract: The present descriptive study was designed to identify the type of foot lesions found in lame dairy cows and to describe the distribution of foot lesions between front and hind limbs and lateral and medial claws. A total of 379 lactating Holstein Friesian cows were included in this study. All cows were scored for locomotion using a scale from1 (normal) to 5 (severely lame) based on gait and posture. Lame cows were defined as having locomotion score (LS) of 34 or 5. Each lame cow was properly restrained in trimming chute and each foot was examined for any lesion using Dutch 5 steps method. Lesions were identified in 231 cows. Infection type lesions were diagnosed in 52 cows (22.5%) and non-infection type lesions were diagnosed in 179 cows (77.5%). A total of 377 lesions were identified and the number of lesions recorded per cow ranged from 1 to 2 (median 1.6). Sole haemorrhage (SH), white line disease (WLD) and digital dermatitis (DD) made the majority of lesions. A higher mean number of DD, interdigital necrobacillosis (IN), WLD, and toe ulcer (TU) per cow was found in the ≥ 3 lactation cows compared with 1st or 2nd lactation cows. Increasing parity was associated with a increasing trend in mean number of infections diagnosed per cow. A higher proportion of cows was diagnosed with lesions on the hind limbs compared with front limbs (198 vs 33 cows). Fifty three lesions were found on the front limbs and 324 lezins were on the hind limbs. The hind lateral and medial claws were affected by 234 and 50 lesions respectively (72.2% vs 15.4%). Inspection of foot lesions as a routine management practice facilitates earlier identification and treatment of lesions enhancing herd productivity and welfare.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Bioengineered Meat and it’s Potential Contributions to Food Security in
           the Future- A Literature Review

    • Authors: Emanuela Diana Gherman, Ioana Mihaela Bălan
      Pages: 137 - 144
      Abstract: The theoretical possibility of bioengineering meat grown in an industrial setting has long captured scientists' imagination. Almost a century after Churchill wrote that we should be growing separate parts of a chicken in a suitable medium, we still grow the whole animal to consume roughly 68% of it. [1,2] Animal farming is responsible for 15% of the global GHG emissions, but also provides income and food security for farmers in developing countries. [3] With a predicted rise in consumption of meat, reaching 374MT in 2030, due to developing countries increased access to animal-sourced foods, the environmental impact of livestock follows an ascending trend. [4] Can bioengineered meat break the trend while proving to be a viable product for mass consumption'We aim to evaluate the possible beneficial contributions of bioengineered animal products to ensuring food security for a growing population, through reducing the environmental cost of animal farming for food purposes.An extensive review of the existing scientific literature reveals that currently, a thorough life cycle analysis for bioengineered meat is still based on incomplete data, although said data is gathered directly from the industry, and has some degree of uncertainty regarding the levels of environmental impact and potential for development.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils

    • Authors: Miroslava Kačániová, Lucia Galovičová, Veronika Valková, Petra Borotová, Simona Kunová
      Pages: 145 - 152
      Abstract: Essential oils are natural, aromatic and volatile liquids, which are frequently obtained by steam or water distillation from plants. In general, they have a pleasant odor and their proven antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antifungal, insecticidal and antiparasitic properties have been known for several years. The aim of this work was to monitor antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms using two methods. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils was determined using the disk diffusion method and the broth dilution method. We found that wild thyme and peppermint essential oils were the most effective against the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 3955 in both cases with size of an inhibition zone 20.66 mm measured by disk diffusion method. Coriander essential oil had the best antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogenic microorganisms in the range of concentrations from 0.75 µg.ml-1 to 13.35 µg.ml-1 with broth dilution method.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mycological and Mycotoxinic Investigations of Plant Substrates in the
           Moldavian Plateau Area

    • Authors: Ioana Poroșnicu, Andra Sabina Neculai-Valeanu, Adina Mirela Ariton, Nicolae Iulian Badilas, Bianca Maria Madescu, Ioana Crivei
      Pages: 153 - 159
      Abstract: Mycological and mycotoxinic contamination of plant substrates endangers the most important sectors globally - agriculture, animal husbandry and the food industry. The starting point of contamination is the spread of pathogens in the field, transport and even handling before storage. Increasing the temperature and humidity of these seeds can be an important factor in the development of fungi and mycotoxins. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the fungal and mycotoxinic potential in the samples that characterize the area of the Moldavian Plateau. From agricultural farms, samples such as corn grains, wheat, barley, soybeans, rapeseed, peas and sunflowers were collected and analyzed and a series of 10 determinations / sample were performed in order to establish the fungal and mycotoxinic load. The results clearly indicate the presence on the seed coat of fungal spores of the genera Penicillium (60%), Aspergillus (52.8%), Fusarium (48.5%) together with species from the Mucoraceae family (38.5%). The most contaminated samples were corn, wheat and barley grains. The climatic conditions in this geographical area are favorable for these species of micromycetes and regarding the mycotoxinic examination performed by the TLC technique, the mycotoxins identified in the 70 plant substrates were aflatoxins B1, G2, ochratoxin and zearalenone.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium Genera and Contamination
           Control Strategies

    • Authors: Ioana Poroșnicu, Andra Sabina Neculai-Valeanu, Adina Mirela Ariton, Nicolae Iulian Badilas, Bianca Maria Madescu, Madalina Alexandra Davidescu
      Pages: 160 - 170
      Abstract: Contamination of plant substrates with micromycetes from the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium is favored by the existence of optimal environmental conditions for their development, with negative consequences on production, animal health and food safety. The development of micromycetes causes a great loss of nutritional value and the production of extremely toxic metabolites - mycotoxins. The situation is very complicated when it is found that there are a multitude of secondary fungal metabolites. There is a problem with global food and feed safety, so we live with a certain degree of risk. Although the research effort has been immense in trying to delineate several aspects of mycromicetes and mycotoxin contamination, many questions remain unanswered. It is essential to carry out several investigative studies on this scourge for consumer safety, therefore the role of each manufacturer, control bodies and regulators should be paramount in the current mycological and mycotoxin situation, in order to obtain favorable results to facilitate the improvement of the quality control system of plant substrates, food and this desideratum can be achieved only through certain control strategies to prevent contamination.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Rosalina, Niaouli and Fir Essential Oils: Strong Antifungal but Weak
           Antioxidant Activity

    • Authors: Veronika Valková, Hana Ďúranová, Lucia Galovičová, Miroslava Kačániová
      Pages: 171 - 176
      Abstract: Antioxidant and antifungal activities of three essential oils (EOs): Melaleuca ericifolia Smith (rosalina; REO), Melaleuca quinquenervia (niaouli; NEO) and Abies alba (fir; FEO) were determined. The antioxidant capacity was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the disc diffusion method was applied to evaluate their antifungal efficacy (in four concentrations 62.5 μL/L, 125 μL/L, 250 μL/L, 500 μL/L used) against Penicillium (P.) expansum microscopic filamentous fungus isolated from bread samples. From the findings it can be clearly evident that antioxidant activities of the EOs were very weak with values ranging from 25.81 ± 7.8 TEAC (6.2 ± 1.4%; FEO) to 162.0 ± 2.1 TEAC (15.9 ± 0.4%; NEO). Regarding antifungal properties, our results revealed that the effects of the EOs on P. expansum growth inhibition were dose-dependent, and they were proportionally increased with increasing EOs concentrations. Detected inhibition zones ranged from 0.00 ± 0.00 mm (for all EOs at 62.5 μL/L) to 11.67 ± 1.15 mm (for REO at 500 μL/L). In conclusion, all analyzed EOs possess promising in vitro antifungal activity (despite their weak antioxidant capacity) suggesting their use as a promising natural preservative in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Seasonal changes in blood parameters in juvenile Cyprinus carpio

    • Authors: Elena Eugenia Mocanu, Floricel Maricel Dima, Viorica Savu, Marcel Daniel Popa
      Pages: 177 - 182
      Abstract: Temporal variations in the biochemical and haematological parameters of blood must be taken into account as it is a useful indicator for assessing the nutritional status, non-specific immunity and health of fish in general.The aim of this study was to analyse changes in the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) depending on the environmental changes characteristic for each season. The lower mean haematocrit, identified in the spring, which correlates with the lower erythrocyte count, implies a more pronounced anaemia in carp after the winter period. The specimens analysed in spring and summer show an increase in the percentage of neutrophils by 60%, compared to the specimens analysed in autumn. Lower values for albumin in spring (0.65±0.22 g/dL) suggest a disruption of protein synthesis function in liver, which is not true for biological material during summer (0.90±0.60 g/dL), and autumn (0.95±0.25 g/dL). CK and CRE values are within normal limits throughout the study period, indicating no injury or muscle atrophy for the analysed specimens. These results suggest that seasonal changes in the environment cause temporary changes in the indicators of the biochemical and haematological profile of the blood of Cyprinus carpio.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • USE OF APICULTURE PRODUCTS IN AQUACULTURE - REVIEW

    • Authors: Dragoș Moraru, Adrian Grozea, Silvia Pătruică
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: Produsele apicole sunt substanțe naturale secretate sau produse de albine, care pot fi utilizate în acvacultură prin alimente, administrare intramusculară sau direct în apă, pentru a îmbunătăți sănătatea datorită efectului antioxidant, antifungic și antimicrobian pe care îl au aceste produse și, de asemenea, pentru a îmbunătăți creșterea și performanța reproductivă a speciilor de pești de interes economic. În această revizuire, ne propunem să evidențiem principalele studii efectuate până în prezent cu privire la utilizarea produselor apicole în acvacultură pentru a putea prezenta o imagine de ansamblu a acestui subiect de interes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Environmental conditions assessment for the carp cultured in floating
           cages on the irrigation canals

    • Authors: Elena SÎRBU
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract:  Aquaculture in cages is considered an alternative to fishing in natural waters, by increasing fish production and using new water resources. This production method confers efficiency for fish farming and varies according to the ecological quality of the body of water used, its depth, and its potential for renewal. Integrated aquaculture in irrigation canals is a relatively new technological concept, used to maximize water efficiency by designing and placing removable fish raising facilities and establishing cages fish farming technologies, located on small bodies of water such as irrigation canals. The experiment was conducted over 30 days. The biological material for the floating cages has been represented by common carp with a body mass average of 453 g. A number of 450 carp specimens were distributed in a floating cage with a size of 5m×3m×3m made of galvanized panels. Results from the analysis of the gained weight was the 56.88 kg, with an initial fish loading weight per cage cubic meter of 5.43 kg/m3 and a finally result of 6.95 kg/m3 carp. In conclusion, the Cyprinus carpio species is of great interest for raising in floating cage located on the irrigation canal, because it supports a high level of adaptability and technological plasticity suitable for aquaculture. 
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of the Use of Essential Oils on the Organoleptic Characteristics
           of Honey

    • Authors: Roxana Nicoleta Lazar, Lazar Roxana Roxana Nicoleta, Lazar Roxana Roxana Nicoleta
      Pages: 198 - 203
      Abstract: AbstractThe paper presents the results of the organoleptic analysis of honey after feeding colonies with sugar syrup with addition of essential oils. The honey samples were collected from the Murani apiary, Timis County, between 29.03.2021 - 10.05.2021, totaling a number of 135 samples. These were classified into samples collected before the administration of the sugar syrup with essential oil, samples collected after the administration of the syrup with the addition of essential oil and samples collected after the rapeseed harvest. In the sugar syrup administered to colonies, the following essential oils were used: essential oil of thyme, rosemary, basil, mint, juniper, oregano, cloves, cinnamon. The honey samples were transported, stored and processed in appropriate conditions. The organoleptic evaluation was performed in terms of taste, smell, consistency, appearance and color. Results with improvement effects were recorded by the essential oils used, in terms of the sensory characteristics analyzed, compared to the control variant. Key words: organoleptic evaluation, honey, essential oils
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Research on the use of herbal products in the treatment of varroa
           infestation

    • Authors: Dragoș Moraru, Adrian Rășinar, Roxana Nicoleta Lazăr, Denis Cimpoca, Silvia Pătruică
      Pages: 204 - 208
      Abstract: Varroa destructor is a parasite that affects all stages of development of the bee colony, and currently represents one of the greatest dangers in the loss of colonies worldwide. Currently, different types of treatments have been researched and administered, both synthetic products and based on natural substances. as a result in this study we made a comparison between the effectiveness of two natural treatments. As a result, in this study we made a comparison between the effectiveness of two natural treatments (Thymo Varo San and Herba Strip) compared to the same number of synthetic treatments (Varachet Forte and Scabatox), all of which are used by beekeepers to control bee infestation with the mite Varroa destructor. The experiment was carried out in August 2021 in Caransebeș, Romania, on a number of 40 bee colonies, distributed in batches of 10 colonies for each treatment used. The results were evaluated at an interval of 1 day, respectively 7 days after administration, and the best results were recorded in the case of the treatment with Thymo Varo San.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Farm Size on Selected Milk Quality and Hygiene Traits in
           Romanian Spotted Cows

    • Authors: Ligia Berzava
      Pages: 209 - 215
      Abstract: Researches were carried out on 1707 Romanian Spotted cows raised in farms from Hunedoara County that were under the official performance control scheme. According to the number of milking cows (farm size), farms were divided into three categories small (n≤10 cows), middle (n=11 to 25 cows) and large (n>25 cows). The influence of the farm size on the milk dry matter percentage, milk pH, urea content in milk, and milk somatic cell count was determined by using ANOVA, and lactation curve for these traits was drawn using the gamma incomplete function. Generally, the farm size had a significant influence on all studied milk traits (p<0.01). Dry matter percentage in milk varied from 11.6% in middle farms to 12.6% in large farms. The highest value for pH was found, on average, in small farms (6.61), while the lowest value was in large farms (6.57). Urea content of the milk Had higher values in middle farms (32.4 to 33.1 mg/100g), followed by small farms (29.5 to 32.5 mg/100g) and the lowest values were observed in large farms (28.0 to 295 mg/100g). Somatic cell count was, on average, higher in middle farms (652.33x1000), while the lowest value was observed in small farms (440.54x1000).
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Farm Size on Milk Production Indices in Romanian Spotted Cows
           from Hunedoara County

    • Authors: Alin Bucur
      Pages: 216 - 223
      Abstract: Researches were carried out on 1707 Romanian Spotted cows raised in farms from Hunedoara County that were enrolled in official performance control scheme. According to the number of milking cows (farm size), farms were divided into three categories small (n≤10 cows), middle (n=11 to 25 cows) and large (n>25 cows). The influence of the farm size on the daily milk yield and milk components (fat, protein, casein and lactose) was determined by using ANOVA, and lactation curve was drawn using the gamma incomplete function. Generally, the farm size had a significant influence on all studied milk indices (p<0.01). For the daily milk yield and fat percentage, the highest values were obtained in the small farms (25.50 kg milk with 3.82% fat), followed by the large farms (23.45 kg milk with 3.76% fat) and the middle farms (21.46 kg with 3.69% fat). For protein percentage and casein content, the highest values were obtained in middle farms (3.32% protein and 25.66 g/L casein) followed by small farms (3.27% protein and 25.41 g/L casein) and large farms (3.25% protein and 25.58 g/L casein). The highest values for milk lactose percentage were obtained in large farms (4.81%) followed by middle and small farms (4.78% and 4.76%, respectively). In conclusion, we can state that the farm size had an influence on daily milk yield and its chemical components, due to feeding and housing technologies employed in those farms. Small farms had the highest daily milk yield and fat percentage, middle farms’ milk was higher in protein and casein content, while large farms had the highest lactose percentage in the milk.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Research On The Differences In The Average Daily Gain Recorded In Aubrac
           Bulls

    • Authors: Bianca Maria Mădescu, Roxana Lazăr, Andra Sabina Neculai-Văleanu, Ioana Poroșnicu, Paul Corneliu Boișteanu
      Pages: 224 - 227
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the difference in the average daily gain recorded in the bulls of the Aubrac breed, exploited in the conditions of our country. The database was made up of data recorded in 2 fattening bull farms of the Aubrac breed. The average daily gain of the animals recorded at the age of 12 months was followed, respectively the average daily gain at the age of 18 months, in total being studied a number of 30 animals (15 animals from farm 1, respectively 15 from farm 2). The results were interpreted statistically, which showed that there were no significant differences between the animals from the two farms studied, but there are statistically significant differences between the average daily increase recorded at 12 months compared to the average daily increase recorded at 18 months.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Farm Size on Estimated Breeding Values and Selection Indices
           in Romanian Spotted Cows

    • Authors: Bogdan-Roberto Mihuța
      Pages: 228 - 234
      Abstract: Researches were carried out on 3186 lactations obtained from Romanian Spotted cows raised in farms from Bihor County that were enrolled in official performance control scheme. According to the number of milking cows (farm size), farms were divided into three categories small (n≤10 cows), middle (n=11 to 25 cows) and large (n>25 cows). The influence of the farm size on five selection indices (global, for milk, for fitness, for reproduction and for functionality) and eight estimated breeding values (milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, age at first calving, inseminations per gestation, calving ease, longevity and somatic cell count) was determined by using One-way ANOVA. Reference population had an average ME milk production of 6028 kg with 3.67% fat and 3.28% protein, calved for the first time at 29 months and 14 days, had an average calving interval of 389 days and days dry of 51 days. Generally, the farm size had a significant influence on selection indices (p<0.05). Selection indices and estimated breeding values were similar between small and middle farms. Global selection index and selection index for milk were significantly higher (p<0.05) in large farms compared to small and middle size farms, while selection indices for fitness, reproduction and functional were higher (p<0.05) in small and middle farms compared to large farms. Estimated breeding values differed among farms according to their size (p<0.05), being higher for milk yield and somatic cell count in large farms, while in small and middle farms, the values for reproduction and longevity were higher than in large farms.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Protosan Infection In Flocks Of Small Ruminants In Belgrade Area During
           2020

    • Authors: Ivan Pavlović, Violeta Caro-Petrović, Jovan Bojkovski, Renata Relić, Nemanja Zdravković, Dragana Ružić Muslć
      Pages: 235 - 239
      Abstract: During our examination we examined flocks of small ruminant originated from 23 vilages from city districts Mladenovac, Lazarevac, Obrenovac, Grocka, Zemun, Surčin, Palilula, Vozdovac and Zvezdara. In more than 80 percent of the flock, sheep and goats were kept together. Using standart coprological methods we examined 273 faecal samples from 41 flocks. Determination of parasites we performed by morphological characterist. Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. we not performed.Coccidiosis were found at 27 flocks. We usally occured mixed infection with 2-3 coccidia species. At sheep most abundant coccidia were E faurei, followed by E.ovinoidalis, E.  pallida and E.ahsata. At goats most abundant species were E.arlongy, folwed by E.nina-kohl-yakimovae, E. hirci and E. caprina. Clinical sign of disease were present only at young animals but oocyst were found at both, adult ant young animals. Cryptospoidium spp. was found at 19 flocks Clinical sign of cryptosporidiosis were established only at young animals. They has moderate morbidity and mortality rate. Infection with Giardia duodenalis was found only at 2 flocks. Giardia-infected animals generally had no clinical symptoms.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • FATTY ACIDS PROFILE FROM LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE IN LOCAL SWINE BREEDS
           BAZNA AND MANGALITSA

    • Authors: Aipatioaie Marius Gavril, Tritean Nicolae -, Russu Florin Marian, Urda Camelia Anca, Deac Alexandru Marius, Musca Adriana Sebastiana, Miclea Ileana Raluca, Zahan Marius Ioachim
      Pages: 240 - 245
      Abstract: The Bazna and red Mangalitsa native swine breeds are known for their resistance to extensive farming. Worldwide, there is a high interest in analysing swine meat regarding the fatty acids profile for obtaining healthier food. Healthier meat has a higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and a favourable balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids). The objective of this study is to determine the meat quality, more precisely the fatty acids composition content in longissimus dorsi muscle from two indigenous swine breeds, Bazna and red Mangalitsa. The biological material subjected to qualitative determination was represented by longissimus dorsi muscle samples collected from two experimental groups where we had both males and females with a body weight of over 90 kg, the difference between the groups consisted in breeds, the feed mixtures being the same. The samples obtained were analysed by gas chromatography. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids is higher in the case of the red Mangalitsa breed. A higher distribution of monounsaturated fatty acids in Bazna breed was revealed. The main fatty acids were palmitic and stearic from the saturated category, respectively oleic from the unsaturated category. Our results suggest that the breed has a positive influence on the level of intramuscular fatty acids.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Entrepreneurship - An Opportunity For Young People In Romania

    • Authors: Ana-Mariana Dincu, Ioana Mihaela Bălan, Manuela- Dora Orboi, Diana Cornelia Marin, Claudia Sîrbulescu
      Pages: 246 - 250
      Abstract: Lately, there is more and more talk about the notion of entrepreneurship, which is the occupational and social impact of entrepreneurial activities and what are the benefits and risks of a person who decides to start a business on their own. Therefore, in this article we set out to present the importance and role of entrepreneurship for young people in Romania. Entrepreneurial activity has a major impact on the economy, because they are the ones who make the world move forward and things move in the right direction. According to our studies, one in two urban Romanians would like to become an entrepreneur, even if they encounter several obstacles when they decide to open a business, regardless of their field of activity. In 2019, 134,220 companies were established, and in 2020, due to the pandemic, their number decreased to 109,939.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Romania facing the problem of food waste

    • Authors: Anamaria Roxana Martin
      Pages: 251 - 255
      Abstract: In Europe, an estimated 87.6 million tonnes of food is wasted in one year. Romania is in the middle of the European ranking in terms of the volume of food thrown away, a fact mentioned in the study published by the ONU. It is estimated that 1.35 million tons of food are dumped annually in our country, indicating only food from people's households. So, every year, 70 kilograms of food per person is thrown in the trash. The COVID pandemic has caused an increase in food waste, both because of the population that has procured very large quantities to stock up and because of the distribution chains that have undergone changes in their functioning.The EU and its Member States have set themselves the goal of reducing food waste by 50% by 2030, using the ONU targets. Concrete measures have been taken to reduce food waste and losses. Where this cannot be done, they urge the reuse, recycle and use the food for another purpose. Citizens of the EU are urged: to reduce the production of food waste from production to distribution, to reduce the amount of food thrown away from households, to stimulate food donations, to monitor and account for the application of measures to combat food waste.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Importance Of Evaluation For Financial Reporting

    • Authors: CLAUDIA SIRBULESCU, Mariana Chirila, Daniel Chirila, Andreea Feher, Luminita Pirvulescu
      Pages: 256 - 260
      Abstract: In order to be able to make informed decisions, the managers of the economic entity must know in detail and at all times the real situation of the patrimony. The quality of financial accounting information is closely linked to the possibility of evaluating and knowing how to centralize and collect it.Evaluation is the operation of appreciating, establishing value, price, number, calculating, counting, etc. Valuation is a process of the accounting method without which it would not be possible to achieve its objective. The evaluation is used to express the value of the existence and movement of the patrimonial elements. The exact knowledge of the volume and structure of the patrimonial elements can ensure at any moment, the obtaining of the information necessary for the decision-making by the managers of the patrimonial entities.The competitiveness of economic entities is largely influenced by the quality of the decisions necessary to carry out the economic activity that are taken by their management.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • African swine fever continues to be a problem in Romania and Timiș
           county

    • Authors: Daniela Marina Mot, Emil Tîrziu
      Pages: 261 - 269
      Abstract: African swine fever continues to evolve in Europe and in our country, even in the last two years of the pandemic, and is currently the main threat to the global swine industry. It affects more than 50 countries on 5 continents, with several epidemiological scenarios. Even this year, Romania was not bypassed by this serious disease, which causes many economic damages: in the case of domestic pigs, in the EU Member States were registered, between 01.01-16.01.2022, 24 outbreaks, of which 22 in Romania. In the same period, 565 outbreaks of PPA were reported in wild boars. Most evolve in Poland (177), Bulgaria (120), Germany (78) and Romania (59). Europe is waiting for an effective vaccine against African swine fever (PPA) by 2024, the main risk to pig health worldwide, being the only way to eradicate the disease. Veterinary services continue their efforts to prevent the spread of the African swine fever virus (PPA), those for the management of disease outbreaks, with the aim of reducing outbreaks and spreading this disease, which already has a history in our country, evolving since 2017 almost constantly.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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