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Cancer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 4.26, CiteScore: 7)
Clinical Cancer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.929, CiteScore: 8)
Cancer Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 6.996, CiteScore: 5)
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Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1055-9965 - ISSN (Online) 1538-7755
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  • Selected Articles from This Issue

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      Pages: 303 - 303
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-31-2-HI
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of Fecal Sample Collection Methods for Microbial Analysis
           Embedded within Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs

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      Authors: Zouiouich, S; Mariadassou, M, Rue, O, Vogtmann, E, Huybrechts, I, Severi, G, Boutron-Ruault, M.-C, Senore, C, Naccarati, A, Mengozzi, G, Kozlakidis, Z, Jenab, M, Sinha, R, Gunter, M. J, Leclerc, M.
      Pages: 305 - 314
      Abstract: Background:Colorectal cancer screening programs with fecal sample collection may provide a platform for population-based gut microbiome disease research. We investigated sample collection and storage method impact on the accuracy and stability of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes and bacterial quantity across seven different collection methods [i.e., no solution, two specimen collection cards, and four types of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) used in four countries] among 19 healthy volunteers.Methods:Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the relative abundance of the top three phyla, the most abundant genera, alpha diversity metrics, and the first principal coordinates of the beta diversity matrices to estimate the stability of microbial profiles after storage for 7 days at room temperature, 4°C or 30°C, and after screening for the presence of occult blood in the stool. In addition, accuracy was estimated for samples frozen immediately compared to samples with no solution (i.e., the putative gold standard).Results:When compared with the putative gold standard, we observed significant variation for all collection methods. However, interindividual variability was much higher than the variability introduced by the collection method. Stability ICCs were high (≥0.75) for FIT tubes that underwent colorectal cancer screening procedures. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria (0.65) was an exception and was lower for different FIT tubes stored at 30°C (range, 0.41–0.90) and room temperature (range, 0.06–0.94).Conclusions:Paper-based collection cards and different types of FIT are acceptable tools for microbiome measurements.Impact:Our findings inform on the utility of commonly used fecal sample collection methods for developing microbiome-focused cohorts nested within screening programs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0188
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Associations of A Body Shape Index (ABSI) with Cancer Incidence,
           All-Cause, and at 23 Sites--Findings from the UK Biobank Prospective
           Cohort Study

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      Authors: Parra-Soto, S; Malcomson, F. C, Ho, F. K, Pell, J. P, Sharp, L, Mathers, J. C, Celis-Morales, C.
      Pages: 315 - 324
      Abstract: Background:Few studies have explored the emerging adiposity marker A Body Shape Index (ABSI) with cancer risk. This study investigated the associations between ABSI and the incidence of cancer at 23 sites and all cancer combined.Methods:Data from 442,610 participants from the UK Biobank prospective study were included in this study. ABSI was used as the exposure. Incidence of cancer at 23 sites was the outcome. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to explore the association of ABSI, and combined ABSI and body mass index (BMI) with cancer risk, after adjusting for multiple testing.Results:36,961 individuals developed cancer during the 8.8 years median follow-up. In multivariable analyses, participants in the highest tertile of ABSI had higher risk of lung [HR, 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44–1.74], liver (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18–1.77), esophagus (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12–1.57), colorectal (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10–1.28), and breast (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04–1.17) cancers, and all cancers combined (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08–1.14) compared with the lowest tertile. These associations remained significant after adjustment for BMI. When ABSI was combined with BMI, participants in the highest ABSI who also had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were at higher risk of uterus, esophagus, liver, stomach, colorectal, and breast cancers, as well as all cancers combined, compared with those in the lowest ABSI tertile with a normal BMI.Conclusions:ABSI is associated with an increased risk of five cancers as well as all cancers combined, independently of BMI.Impact:ABSI is a useful marker for adiposity. However, cancer risk prediction improves with the combination of BMI.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0591
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Excess Body Fatness during Early to Mid-Adulthood and Survival from
           Colorectal and Breast Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Five International
           Cohort Studies

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      Authors: Charvat, H; Freisling, H, Noh, H, Gaudet, M. M, Gunter, M. J, Cross, A. J, Tsilidis, K. K, Tjonneland, A, Katzke, V, Bergmann, M, Agnoli, C, Rylander, C, Skeie, G, Jakszyn, P, Rosendahl, A. H, Sund, M, Severi, G, Tsugane, S, Sawada, N, Brenner, H, Adami, H.-O, Weiderpass, E, Soerjomataram, I, Arnold, M.
      Pages: 325 - 333
      Abstract: Background:Here, we explore the association between excess weight during early to mid-adulthood and survival in patients diagnosed with breast and colorectal cancer, using a pooled analysis of five cohort studies and study participants from 11 countries.Methods:Participant-level body mass index (BMI) trajectories were estimated by fitting a growth curve model using over 2 million repeated BMI measurements from close to 600,000 cohort participants. Cumulative measures of excess weight were derived. Data from over 23,000 patients with breast and colorectal cancer were subsequently analyzed using time-to-event models for death with the date of diagnosis as start of follow-up. Study-specific results were combined through a random effect meta-analysis.Results:We found a significant dose–response relationship (P trend = 0.013) between the average BMI during early and mid-adulthood and death from breast cancer, with a pooled HR of 1.31 (1.07–1.60) and the time to death shortened by 16% for average BMI above 25 kg/m2 compared with average BMI less than or equal to 22.5 kg/m2, respectively. Similar results were found for categories of cumulative time spent with excess weight. There was no association between excess body fatness during early to mid-adulthood and death in patients with colorectal cancer.Conclusions:Excess body fatness during early to mid-adulthood is associated not only with an increased risk of developing cancer, but also with a lower survival in patients with breast cancer.Impact:Our results emphasize the importance of public health policies aimed at reducing overweight during adulthood and inform future studies on the relationship between excess weight and cancer outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0688
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Shifts in the Proportion of Distant Stage Early-Onset Colorectal
           Adenocarcinoma in the United States

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      Authors: Montminy, E. M; Zhou, M, Maniscalco, L, Heda, R, Kim, M. K, Patel, S. G, Wu, X.-C, Itzkowitz, S. H, Karlitz, J. J.
      Pages: 334 - 341
      Abstract: Background:Carcinoids, frequently classified as "colorectal cancer" contribute to rising early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) incidence rates (IR) and have distinct staging distributions compared to often advanced stage adenocarcinomas (screening target). Thus, assessing temporal shifts in early-onset distant stage adenocarcinoma can impact public health.Methods:2000–2016 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 18 yearly adenocarcinoma IRs were stratified by stage (in situ, localized, regional, distant), age (20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–54-year-olds), subsite (colorectal, rectal-only, colon-only), and race [non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), Hispanics] in 103,975 patients. Three-year average annual IR changes (pooled 2000–2002 IRs compared with 2014–2016) and cancer stage proportions (percent contribution of each cancer stage) were calculated.Results:Comparing 2000–2002 with 2014–2016, the steepest percent increases are in distant stage cancers. Colon-only, distant adenocarcinoma increased most in 30–39-year-olds (49%, 0.75/100,000->1.12/100,00, P < 0.05). Rectal-only, distant stage increases were steepest in 20–29-year-olds (133%, 0.06/100,000->0.14/100,000, P < 0.05), followed by 30–39-year-olds (97%, 0.39/100,000->0.77/100,000, P < 0.05) and 40–49-year-olds (48%, 1.38/100,000->2.04/100,000, P < 0.05). Distant stage proportions (2000–2002 to 2014–2016) increased for colon-only and rectal-only subsites in young patients with the largest increases for rectal-only in 20–29-year-olds (18%->31%) and 30–39-year-olds (20%->29%). By race, distant stage proportion increases were largest for rectal-only in 20–29-year-old NHBs (0%->46%) and Hispanics (28%->41%). Distant colon proportion increased most in 20–29-year-old NHBs (20%->34%).Conclusions:Youngest patients show greatest burdens of distant colorectal adenocarcinoma. Although affecting all races, burdens are higher in NHB and Hispanic subgroups, although case counts remain relatively low.Impact:Optimizing earlier screening initiatives and risk-stratifying younger patients by symptoms and family history are critical to counteract rising distant stage disease.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0611
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Survival Trends of Right- and Left-Sided Colon Cancer across Four Decades:
           A Norwegian Population-Based Study

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      Authors: Hamfjord, J; Myklebust, T. A, Larsen, I. K, Kure, E. H, Glimelius, B, Guren, T. K, Tveit, K. M, Guren, M. G.
      Pages: 342 - 351
      Abstract: Background:Patients with right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC) differ clinically and molecularly. The main objective was to investigate stage-stratified survival and recurrence of RCC and LCC across four 10-year periods.Methods:Patients diagnosed from 1977 to 2016 with colon adenocarcinoma were included from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Primary tumor location (PTL) was defined as RCC if proximal and LCC if distal to the splenic flexure. Multivariable regressions were used to estimate HRs for overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), survival after recurrence (SAR), and excess HRs (eHR) for relative survival (RS).Results:72,224 patients were eligible for analyses [55.1% (n = 39,769/72,224) had RCC]. In 1977 to 1986, there was no difference between LCC and RCC in OS [HR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97–1.06; P = 0.581] or RS (eHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.90–1.02; P = 0.179). In 2007 to 2016, LCC had significantly better OS (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80–0.87; P < 0.001) and RS (eHR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72–0.81; P < 0.001) compared with RCC. The gradually diverging and significantly favorable prognosis for LCC was evident for distant disease across all time periods and for regional disease from 2007 onward. There was no difference in RFS between LCC and RCC in patients less than 75 years during 2007 to 2016 (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91–1.08; P = 0.819); however, SAR was significantly better for LCC (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.53–0.71; P < 0.001).Conclusions:A gradually diverging and increasingly favorable prognosis was observed for patients with LCC with advanced disease over the past four decades.Impact:Current PTL survival disparities stress the need for further exploring targetable molecular subgroups across and within different PTLs to further improve patient outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0555
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Validation of Genetic Markers Associated with Survival in Colorectal
           Cancer Patients Treated with Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy

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      Authors: Park, H. A; Seibold, P, Edelmann, D, Benner, A, Canzian, F, Alwers, E, Jansen, L, Schneider, M, Hoffmeister, M, Brenner, H, Chang-Claude, J.
      Pages: 352 - 361
      Abstract: Background:Associations between candidate genetic variants and treatment outcomes of oxaliplatin, a drug commonly used for colorectal cancer patients, have been reported but not robustly established. This study aimed to validate previously reported prognostic and predictive genetic markers for oxaliplatin treatment outcomes and evaluate additional putative functional variants.Methods:Fifty-three SNPs were selected based on previous reports (40 SNPs) or putative function in candidate genes (13 SNPs). We used data from 1,502 patients with stage II–IV colorectal cancer who received primary adjuvant chemotherapy, 37% of whom received oxaliplatin treatment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models for overall survival and progression-free survival were applied separately in stage II–III and stage IV patients. For predictive SNPs, differential outcomes according to the type of chemotherapy (oxaliplatin-based vs. others) were evaluated using an interaction term. For prognostic SNPs, the association was assessed solely in patients with oxaliplatin-based treatment.Results:Twelve SNPs were predictive and/or prognostic at P < 0.05 with differential survival based on the type of treatment, in patients with stage II–III (GSTM5-rs11807, ERCC2-rs13181, ERCC2-rs1799793, ERCC5-rs2016073, XPC-rs2228000, P2RX7-rs208294, HMGB1-rs1360485) and in patients with stage IV (GSTM5-rs11807, MNAT1-rs3783819, MNAT1-rs4151330, CXCR1-rs2234671, VEGFA-rs833061, P2RX7-rs2234671). In addition, five novel putative functional SNPs were identified to be predictive (ATP8B3-rs7250872, P2RX7-rs2230911, RPA1-rs5030755, MGMT-rs12917, P2RX7-rs2227963).Conclusions:Some SNPs yielded prognostic and/or predictive associations significant at P < 0.05, however, none of the associations remained significant after correction for multiple testing.Impact:We did not robustly confirm previously reported SNPs despite some suggestive findings but identified further potential predictive SNPs, which warrant further investigation in well-powered studies.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0814
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Multiple Primary Cancers in Patients Undergoing Tumor-Normal Sequencing
           Define Novel Associations

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      Authors: Liu, Y. L; Cadoo, K. A, Mukherjee, S, Khurram, A, Tkachuk, K, Kemel, Y, Maio, A, Belhadj, S, Carlo, M. I, Latham, A, Walsh, M. F, Dubard-Gault, M. E, Wang, Y, Brannon, A. R, Salo-Mullen, E, Sheehan, M, Fiala, E, Devolder, B, Dandiker, S, Mandelker, D, Zehir, A, Ladanyi, M, Berger, M. F, Solit, D. B, Bandlamudi, C, Ravichandran, V, Bajorin, D. F, Stadler, Z. K, Robson, M. E, Vijai, J, Seshan, V, Offit, K.
      Pages: 362 - 371
      Abstract: Background:Cancer survivors are developing more subsequent tumors. We sought to characterize patients with multiple (≥2) primary cancers (MPC) to assess associations and genetic mechanisms.Methods:Patients were prospectively consented (01/2013–02/2019) to tumor-normal sequencing via a custom targeted panel (MSK-IMPACT). A subset consented to return of results of ≥76 cancer predisposition genes. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2004 rules for defining MPC were applied. Tumor pairs were created to assess relationships between cancers. Age-adjusted, sex-specific, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for first to second cancer event combinations were calculated using SEER rates, adjusting for confounders and time of ascertainment. Associations were made with germline and somatic variants.Results:Of 24,241 patients, 4,340 had MPC (18%); 20% were synchronous. Most (80%) had two primaries; however, 4% had ≥4 cancers. SIR analysis found lymphoma–lung, lymphoma–uterine, breast–brain, and melanoma–lung pairs in women and prostate–mesothelioma, prostate–sarcoma, melanoma–stomach, and prostate–brain pairs in men in excess of expected after accounting for synchronous tumors, known inherited cancer syndromes, and environmental exposures. Of 1,580 (36%) patients who received germline results, 324 (21%) had 361 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (PV), 159 (44%) in high penetrance genes. Of tumor samples analyzed, 55% exhibited loss of heterozygosity at the germline variant. In those with negative germline findings, melanoma, prostate, and breast cancers were common.Conclusions:We identified tumor pairs without known predisposing mutations that merit confirmation and will require novel strategies to elucidate genetic mechanisms of shared susceptibilities.Impact:If verified, patients with MPC with novel phenotypes may benefit from targeted cancer surveillance.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0820
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations and ABO Blood Group of
           Pancreatic Cancer Probands on Concomitant Risk to First-Degree Relatives

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      Authors: Antwi, S. O; Rabe, K. G, Bamlet, W. R, Meyer, M, Chandra, S, Fagan, S. E, Hu, C, Couch, F. J, McWilliams, R. R, Oberg, A. L, Petersen, G. M.
      Pages: 372 - 381
      Abstract: Background:ABO blood group is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Whether ABO blood group alone or when combined with inherited mutation status of index pancreatic cancer cases (probands) can enhance pancreatic cancer risk estimation in first-degree relatives (FDR) is unclear. We examined FDRs' risk for pancreatic cancer based on probands' ABO blood group and probands' cancer susceptibility gene mutation status.Methods:Data on 23,739 FDRs, identified through 3,268 pancreatic cancer probands, were analyzed. Probands' ABO blood groups were determined serologically or genetically, and 20 cancer susceptibility genes were used to classify probands as "mutation-positive" or "mutation-negative." SIRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, comparing observed pancreatic cancer cases in the FDRs with the number expected in SEER-21 (reference population).Results:Overall, FDRs had 2-fold risk of pancreatic cancer (SIR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.79–2.22). Pancreatic cancer risk was higher in FDRs of mutation-positive (SIR = 3.80; 95% CI = 2.81–5.02) than mutation-negative (SIR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.57–2.04) probands (P < 0.001). The magnitude of risk did not differ by ABO blood group alone (SIRblood-group-O = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.20–2.03, SIRnon-O = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.53–2.17; P = 0.33). Among FDRs of probands with non-O blood group, pancreatic cancer risk was higher in FDRs of mutation-positive (SIR = 3.98; 95% CI = 2.62–5.80) than mutation-negative (SIR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.35–2.03) probands (P < 0.001), but risk magnitudes were statistically similar when probands had blood group O (SIRmutation-positive = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.09–5.47, SIRmutation-negative = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.06–5.47; P = 0.16).Conclusions:There is a range of pancreatic cancer risk to FDRs according to probands' germline mutation status and ABO blood group, ranging from 1.48 for FDRs of probands with blood group O and mutation-negative to 3.98 for FDRs of probands with non-O blood group and mutation-positive.Impact:Combined ABO blood group and germline mutation status of probands can inform pancreatic cancer risk estimation in FDRs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0745
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Asian American/Pacific Islander and Hispanic Ethnic Enclaves, Neighborhood
           Socioeconomic Status, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence in
           California: An Update

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      Authors: Sangaramoorthy, M; Yang, J, Guan, A, DeRouen, M. C, Tana, M. M, Somsouk, M, Thompson, C. A, Gibbons, J, Ho, C, Chu, J. N, Cheng, I, Gomez, S. L, Shariff-Marco, S.
      Pages: 382 - 392
      Abstract: Background:Using more recent cancer registry data, we analyzed disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence by ethnic enclave and neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) among Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) and Hispanic populations in California.Methods:Primary, invasive HCC cases were identified from the California Cancer Registry during 1988–1992, 1998–2002, and 2008–2012. Age-adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000 population), incidence rate ratios, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for AAPI or Hispanic enclave, nSES, and the joint effects of ethnic enclave and nSES by time period (and the combination of the three periods), sex, and race/ethnicity.Results:In the combined time period, HCC risk increased 25% for highest versus lowest quintile of AAPI enclave among AAPI males. HCC risk increased 22% and 56% for lowest versus highest quintile of nSES among AAPI females and males, respectively. In joint analysis, AAPI males living in low nSES areas irrespective of enclave status were at 17% to 43% increased HCC risk compared with AAPI males living in areas of nonenclave/high nSES. HCC risk increased by 22% for Hispanic females living in areas of low nSES irrespective of enclave status and by 19% for Hispanic males living in areas of nonenclave/low nSES compared with their counterparts living in areas of nonenclave/high nSES.Conclusions:We found significant variation in HCC incidence by ethnic enclave and nSES among AAPI and Hispanic populations in California by sex and time period.Impact:Future studies should explore how specific attributes of enclaves and nSES impact HCC risk for AAPI and Hispanic populations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-1035
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Examining Rural-Urban Differences in Fatalism and Information Overload:
           Data from 12 NCI-Designated Cancer Centers

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      Authors: Jensen, J. D; Shannon, J, Iachan, R, Deng, Y, Kim, S. J, Demark-Wahnefried, W, Faseru, B, Paskett, E. D, Hu, J, Vanderpool, R. C, Lazovich, D, Mendoza, J. A, Shete, S, Robertson, L. B, Balkrishnan, R, Briant, K. J, Haaland, B, Haggstrom, D. A, Fuemmeler, B. F, for the Rural Workgroup of the Population Health Assessment in Cancer Center Catchment Areas Consortium
      Pages: 393 - 403
      Abstract: Background:Rural populations experience a disproportionate cancer burden relative to urban populations. One possibility is that rural populations are more likely to hold counterproductive cancer beliefs such as fatalism and information overload that undermine prevention and screening behaviors.Methods:Between 2016 and 2020, 12 U.S. cancer centers surveyed adults in their service areas using online and in-person survey instruments. Participants (N = 10,362) were designated as rural (n = 3,821) or urban (n = 6,541). All participants were 18 and older (M = 56.97, SD = 16.55), predominately non-Hispanic White (81%), and female (57%). Participants completed three items measuring cancer fatalism ("It seems like everything causes cancer," "There's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer," and "When I think about cancer, I automatically think about death") and one item measuring cancer information overload ("There are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it's hard to know which ones to follow").Results:Compared with urban residents, rural residents were more likely to believe that (i) everything causes cancer (OR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17–1.43); (ii) prevention is not possible (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19–1.51); and (iii) there are too many different recommendations about cancer prevention (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13–1.41), and cancer is always fatal (OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11–1.33).Conclusions:Compared with their urban counterparts, rural populations exhibited higher levels of cancer fatalism and cancer information overload.Impact:Future interventions targeting rural populations should account for higher levels of fatalism and information overload.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0355
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Contributions of Social Factors to Disparities in Prostate Cancer Risk
           Profiles among Black Men and Non-Hispanic White Men with Prostate Cancer
           in California

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      Authors: Press, D. J; Shariff-Marco, S, Lichtensztajn, D. Y, Lauderdale, D, Murphy, A. B, Inamdar, P. P, DeRouen, M. C, Hamilton, A. S, Yang, J, Lin, K, Hedeker, D, Haiman, C. A, Cheng, I, Gomez, S. L.
      Pages: 404 - 412
      Abstract: Background:Black men are more likely than Non-Hispanic White (NHW) men to be diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer. We examined the extent to which social factors were associated with differences in prostate cancer risk profiles between Black men and NHW men [using a modification to the original D'Amico risk groups based on prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score (GS), and TNM stage (stage)], based on individual and combined clinicopathologic characteristics.Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 23,555 Black men and 146,889 NHW men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the California Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2017. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of year of diagnosis, block group-level neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), marital status, and insurance type on differences in prostate cancer risk profiles between Black and NHW men.Results:High PSA (>20 ng/mL), GS, stage, individually and combined prostate cancer risk profiles were more common among Black men versus NHW men. In fully adjusted models, relative to NHW men, we observed a persistent 67% increased odds of high PSA among Black men. nSES was the factor most strongly associated with racial disparity in high PSA, accounting for 25% of the difference. Marital status was the factor that was second most associated with a racial disparity.Conclusions:nSES was the factor most strongly associated with racial disparities in high PSA prostate cancer.Impact:The influence of nSES on racial disparities in PSA, GS, stage, and prostate cancer risk profiles warrants further consideration.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0697
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Racialized Economic Segregation and Breast Cancer Mortality among Women in
           Maryland

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      Authors: Connor, A. E; Kaur, M, Dibble, K. E, Visvanathan, K, Dean, L. T, Hayes, J. H.
      Pages: 413 - 421
      Abstract: Background:Our objective was to determine the association between racialized economic segregation and the hazard of breast cancer mortality in Maryland.Methods:Among 35,066 women (24,540 White; 10,526 Black) diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer in Maryland during 2007 to 2017, exposure to racialized economic segregation was measured at the census tract level using Index of Concentration at the Extremes metrics. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for the association between racialized economic segregation and the hazard of breast cancer mortality, accounting for clustering at the census tract level. Models were adjusted for age and stratified by race, median age (
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0923
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Air Pollution and Breast Cancer: An Examination of Modification By
           Underlying Familial Breast Cancer Risk

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      Authors: Niehoff, N. M; Terry, M. B, Bookwalter, D. B, Kaufman, J. D, O'Brien, K. M, Sandler, D. P, White, A. J.
      Pages: 422 - 429
      Abstract: Background:An increased familial risk of breast cancer may be due to both shared genetics and environment. Women with a breast cancer family history may have a higher prevalence of breast cancer–related gene variants and thus increased susceptibility to environmental exposures. We evaluated whether air pollutant and breast cancer associations varied by familial risk.Methods:Sister Study participants living in the contiguous United States at enrollment (2003–2009; N = 48,453), all of whom had at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer, were followed for breast cancer. Annual NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations were estimated at the enrollment addresses. We predicted 1-year familial breast cancer risk using the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA). Using Cox regression, we estimated HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between each pollutant dichotomized at the median and breast cancer with interaction terms to examine modification by BOADICEA score.Results:NO2 was associated with a higher breast cancer risk among those with BOADICEA score>90th percentile (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56) but not among those with BOADICEA score ≤90th percentile (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.90–1.06; Pinteraction = 0.01). In contrast to NO2, associations between PM2.5 and breast cancer did not vary between individuals with BOADICEA score>90th percentile and ≤90th percentile (Pinteraction = 0.26).Conclusions:Our results provide additional evidence that air pollution may be implicated in breast cancer, particularly among women with a higher familial risk.Impact:Women at higher underlying breast cancer risk may benefit more from interventions to reduce exposure to NO2.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-1140
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Sun Exposure Is Associated with Reduced Breast Cancer Risk among Women
           Living in the Caribbean: The Atabey Study in Puerto Rico

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      Authors: Nazario, C. M; Rosario-Rosado, R. V, Schelske-Santos, M, Mansilla-Rivera, I, Ramirez-Marrero, F. A, Nie, J, Piovanetti-Fiol, P, Hernandez-Santiago, J, Freudenheim, J. L.
      Pages: 430 - 435
      Abstract: Background:Though inconsistent, there is evidence that sun exposure is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Previous studies have been conducted in geographical regions with seasonal variation in UV radiation, including periods of low to no exposure, and among participants mostly of European descent. Puerto Rico has no significant seasonal fluctuation, with continuous exposure to very high UV radiation.Methods:We conducted a population-based case–control study of breast cancer among women in metropolitan San Juan, Puerto Rico, examining a cumulative sun exposure index (SEI) based on a comparison of reflectance of sun-exposed and non-exposed skin. A chromameter was used to measure skin reflectance and estimate the difference between constitutive (unexposed) and facultative (exposed) skin pigmentation in 307 cases and 328 controls. Breast cancer risk factors were ascertained with interviewer-administered questionnaires. OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with unconditional logistic regression.Results:Adjusted breast cancer odds were lower for the highest tertile of the SEI (ORadj = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29–0.74). Results were similar within strata of estrogen receptor status. In analyses stratified by constitutive skin pigmentation, among participants with darker skin color, breast cancer risk was lower with more sun exposure (ORadj = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16–0.70).Conclusions:We found lower risk of breast cancer associated with greater sun exposure in a population living with high, continuous sun exposure. This beneficial finding should be placed in the context of other effects of sun exposure.Impact:Sun exposure is a modifiable factor that may contribute, directly or indirectly, to lower breast cancer risk.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0932
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Associations of Oral Contraceptives with Mammographic Breast Density in
           Premenopausal Women

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      Authors: Yaghjyan, L; Smotherman, C, Heine, J, Colditz, G. A, Rosner, B, Tamimi, R. M.
      Pages: 436 - 442
      Abstract: Background:We investigated the associations of oral contraceptives (OC) with percent breast density (PD), absolute dense area (DA), nondense area (NDA), and a novel image intensity variation (V) measure in premenopausal women.Methods:This study included 1,233 controls from a nested case–control study within Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Information on OCs was collected in 1989 and updated biennially. OC use was defined from the questionnaire closest to the mammogram date. PD, DA, and NDA were measured from digitized film mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding technique; the V measure was obtained with a previously developed algorithm measuring the SD of pixel values in the eroded breast region. Generalized linear regression was used to assess associations between OCs and density measures (square root–transformed PD, DA, and NDA, and –untransformed V).Results:OC use was not associated with PD [current vs. never: β = –0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), –0.37–0.24; past vs. never: β = 0.10; 95% CI, –0.09–0.29], DA (current vs. never: β = –0.20; 95% CI –0.59–0.18; past vs. never: β = 0.13; 95% CI, –0.12–0.39), and NDA (current vs. never: β = –0.19; 95% CI, –0.56–0.18; past vs. never: β = –0.01; 95% CI, –0.28–0.25). Women with younger age at initiation had significantly greater V-measure (
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0853
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • High Prediagnosis Inflammation-Related Risk Score Associated with
           Decreased Ovarian Cancer Survival

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      Authors: Brieger, K. K; Phung, M. T, Mukherjee, B, Bakulski, K. M, Anton-Culver, H, Bandera, E. V, Bowtell, D. D. L, Cramer, D. W, DeFazio, A, Doherty, J. A, Fereday, S, Fortner, R. T, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Goode, E. L, Goodman, M. T, Harris, H. R, Matsuo, K, Menon, U, Modugno, F, Moysich, K. B, Qin, B, Ramus, S. J, Risch, H. A, Rossing, M. A, Schildkraut, J. M, Trabert, B, Vierkant, R. A, Winham, S. J, Wentzensen, N, Wu, A. H, Ziogas, A, Khoja, L, Cho, K. R, McLean, K, Richardson, J, Grout, B, Chase, A, Deurloo, C. M, Odunsi, K, Nelson, B. H, Brenton, J. D, Terry, K. L, Pharoah, P. D. P, Berchuck, A, Hanley, G. E, Webb, P. M, Pike, M. C, Pearce, C. L, for the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium
      Pages: 443 - 452
      Abstract: Background:There is suggestive evidence that inflammation is related to ovarian cancer survival. However, more research is needed to identify inflammation-related factors that are associated with ovarian cancer survival and to determine their combined effects.Methods:This analysis used pooled data on 8,147 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The prediagnosis inflammation-related exposures of interest included alcohol use; aspirin use; other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use; body mass index; environmental tobacco smoke exposure; history of pelvic inflammatory disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis; menopausal hormone therapy use; physical inactivity; smoking status; and talc use. Using Cox proportional hazards models, the relationship between each exposure and survival was assessed in 50% of the data. A weighted inflammation-related risk score (IRRS) was developed, and its association with survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models in the remaining 50% of the data.Results:There was a statistically significant trend of increasing risk of death per quartile of the IRRS [HR = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.14]. Women in the upper quartile of the IRRS had a 31% higher death rate compared with the lowest quartile (95% CI, 1.11–1.54).Conclusions:A higher prediagnosis IRRS was associated with an increased mortality risk after an ovarian cancer diagnosis. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate whether postdiagnosis exposures are also associated with survival.Impact:Given that pre- and postdiagnosis exposures are often correlated and many are modifiable, our study results can ultimately motivate the development of behavioral recommendations to enhance survival among patients with ovarian cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0977
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Short NK- and Naìˆve T-Cell Telomere Length Is Associated with Thyroid
           Cancer in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer
           Survivor Study

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      Authors: Man, T.-K; Aubert, G, Richard, M. A, LeJeune, W, Hariri, E, Goltsova, T, Gaikwad, A, Chen, Y, Whitton, J, Leisenring, W. M, Arnold, M. A, Neglia, J. P, Yasui, Y, Robison, L. L, Armstrong, G. T, Bhatia, S, Gramatges, M. M.
      Pages: 453 - 460
      Abstract: Background:Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for therapy-related subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN), including thyroid SMN. Telomere length (TL) is associated with cancer risk, but the relationship between TL and SMN risk among survivors is less clear.Methods:We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of radiation-exposed 15-year+ adult survivors of childhood cancer with thyroid SMN (cases) and without SMN (controls). Forty-six cases were matched to 46 controls by primary diagnosis, chemotherapy (yes/no), radiation field, and follow-up duration. Lymphocyte TL (LTL) was measured by telomere flow-FISH cytometry using blood samples banked at a mean of 38.9 years (cases), 39.2 years (controls). Genetic variation in telomere genes was assessed by whole genome sequencing. Point estimates for LTL
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0791
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Vaccination History and Risk of Lymphoma and Its Major Subtypes

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      Authors: Kleinstern, G; Larson, M. C, Ansell, S. M, Thompson, C. A, Nowakowski, G. S, Call, T. G, Robinson, D. P, Maurer, M. J, Mwangi, R, Feldman, A. L, Kay, N. E, Novak, A. J, Habermann, T. M, Slager, S. L, Cerhan, J. R.
      Pages: 461 - 470
      Abstract: Background:Vaccinations have been hypothesized to play a role in lymphoma etiology, but there are few studies, mixed results, and limited data on lymphoma subtypes. Herein, we investigate the association of vaccinations with risk of major lymphoma subtypes.Methods:We studied 2,461 lymphoma cases and 2,253 controls enrolled from 2002 to 2014. Participants self-reported history of vaccinations against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, yellow fever, and influenza. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders.Results:After multivariable adjustment, vaccination against influenza was inversely associated with lymphoma (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66–1.02), which was stronger for last vaccination 1+ years before enrollment (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56–0.91) and for>5 influenza vaccinations (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46–0.68). Ever vaccination against hepatitis A (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66–1.00) but not hepatitis B (OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81–1.18) was associated with lymphoma risk, although more recent vaccinations were inversely associated with lymphoma risk for both hepatitis A (
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0383
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Association between Coffee Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer in
           Japanese Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Japan

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      Authors: Imatoh, T; Sawada, N, Yamaji, T, Iwasaki, M, Inoue, M, Tsugane, S, for the JPHC Study Group
      Pages: 471 - 478
      Abstract: Background:Although numerous epidemiological studies have examined whether coffee consumption is associated with prostate cancer risk, the results remain controversial. Moreover, there are few studies in Asian populations. Therefore, we investigated the association between coffee consumption and the risk of prostate cancer in a large-scale prospective population-based cohort study in Japan.Methods:Study subjects were 48,222 men (40–69 years) who completed a questionnaire that included questions about their coffee consumption in 1990 for Cohort I and 1993 for Cohort II and were followed up until December 31, 2015. Newly diagnosed cases were classified into localized and advanced using information on local staging, the Gleason score, and degree of differentiation. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidential intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox regression analysis.Results:A total of 1,617 participants were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer during a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years. Of these, 1,099 and 461 patients had localized and advanced cancer, respectively. There was no association between coffee intake and prostate cancer risk. Comparison between the highest and lowest category of coffee consumption produced HRs of 1.08 (95% CI, 0.90–1.30), 1.08 (95% CI, 0.84–1.38), and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.67–1.47) for risk of total, localized, and advanced cancer, respectively. The same results were obtained even when we limited the analysis to patients with subjective symptoms.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that coffee consumption has no impact on prostate cancer risk in Japanese men.Impact:Coffee has no protective effects against prostate cancer among Japanese men.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0484
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Regular Aspirin Use and Mortality in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

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      Authors: Marinac, C. R; Lee, D. H, Colditz, G. A, Rebbeck, T. R, Rosner, B, Bustoros, M, Ghobrial, I. M, Birmann, B. M.
      Pages: 479 - 485
      Abstract: Background:Inflammation is important in multiple myeloma pathogenesis, and regular aspirin use has been shown to confer a reduced risk of multiple myeloma. The influence of aspirin on survival after multiple myeloma diagnosis is unknown.Methods:We identified 436 men and women diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1980 and 2016 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study who reported aspirin intake biennially on follow-up questionnaires. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with the effect of aspirin use on multiple myeloma–specific and overall mortality.Results:Compared with nonusers, participants who used aspirin after diagnosis had a multivariable HR for multiple myeloma–specific mortality of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.46–0.79) and for overall mortality of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.49–0.80), after adjustment for age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, sex, body mass index, prediagnosis aspirin use, and number of comorbidities. For postdiagnosis aspirin quantity, we observed a modest trend of reduction in multiple myeloma–specific and all-cause mortality with increasing number of 325-mg tablets of aspirin per week, although the CIs for 1 to
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0946
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The Improving Risk Informed HPV Screening (IRIS) Study: Design and
           Baseline Characteristics

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      Authors: Gage, J. C; Raine-Bennett, T, Schiffman, M, Clarke, M. A, Cheung, L. C, Poitras, N. E, Varnado, N. E, Katki, H. A, Castle, P. E, Befano, B, Chandra, M, Rydzak, G, Lorey, T, Wentzensen, N.
      Pages: 486 - 492
      Abstract: Background:Cervical cancer screening with high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV) testing is being introduced. Most HrHPV infections are transient, requiring triage tests to identify individuals at highest risk for progression to cervical cancer. Head-to-head comparisons of available strategies for screening and triage are needed. Endometrial and ovarian cancers could be amenable to similar testing.Methods:Between 2016 and 2020, discarded cervical cancer screening specimens from women ages 25 to 65 undergoing screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California were collected. Specimens were aliquoted, stabilized, and stored frozen. Human papillomavirus (HPV), cytology, and histopathology results as well as demographic and cofactor information were obtained from electronic medical records (EMR). Follow-up collection of specimens was conducted for 2 years, and EMR-based data collection was planned for 5 years.Results:Collection of enrollment and follow-up specimens is complete, and EMR-based follow-up data collection is ongoing. At baseline, specimens were collected from 54,957 HPV-positive, 10,215 HPV-negative/Pap-positive, and 12,748 HPV-negative/Pap-negative women. Clinical history prior to baseline was available for 72.6% of individuals, of which 53.9% were undergoing routine screening, 8.6% recently had an abnormal screen, 30.3% had previous colposcopy, and 7.2% had previous treatment. As of February 2021, 55.7% had one or more colposcopies, yielding 5,563 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2), 2,756 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), and 146 cancer histopathology diagnoses.Conclusions:This robust population-based cohort study represents all stages of cervical cancer screening, management, and posttreatment follow-up.Impact:The IRIS study is a unique and highly relevant resource allowing for natural history studies and rigorous evaluation of candidate HrHPV screening and triage markers, while permitting studies of biomarkers associated with other gynecologic cancers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T00:05:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0865
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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