Publisher: IZA   (Total: 3 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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IZA J. of Labor Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.021, CiteScore: 1)
IZA J. of Labor Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.584, CiteScore: 1)
IZA J. of Labor & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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IZA Journal of Labor Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.584
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2193-9004
Published by IZA Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Does the early release of retirement savings prolong labor market
           participation for workers approaching retirement' Evidence from
           Australia's “Transition to Retirement Income Streams” program

    • Abstract: Australia's “Transition to Retirement Income Streams” (TRIS) program aims to prolong labor force participation for older workers (aged 55–65 years) by offering early access to a worker's compulsory retirement savings (superannuation). Using a difference-in-differences design, our results suggest a small labor supply response, which increases after the program's initial years. The size of the effects appears to be consistent with the program adoption profile, which was low initially. For this reason, our estimates should be viewed as a lower bound for the true effects. We find that individuals with higher incomes are more likely to adopt TRIS. At least half of the program participants appear to be using strategies to minimize tax, a behavioral response that seems at odds with the program's intent.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Social and fiscal impacts of statutory minimum wages in EU countries: a
           microsimulation analysis with EUROMOD

    • Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of hypothetical MW (HMW) increases on social and fiscal outcomes in 21 European Union (EU) countries with a statutory national MW (NMW) based on a microsimulation approach using EUROMOD. The methodological challenges related to the use of available EU household survey data are described, along with the choices made to address these challenges. The paper assesses hypothetical scenarios in which countries with a statutory NMW increase their minimum wage (MW) to various reference values, set in relation to the gross national median and average wage. The model simulations suggest that MW increases can significantly reduce in-work poverty, wage inequality, and the gender pay gap, while generally improving the public budget balance. The implied wage increases for the beneficiaries are substantial, while the implied increases in the aggregate wage bill are generally modest. Extensions explore possible effects on employment and labor supply at the intensive margin.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The effect of time-saving household appliance ownership on outcomes for
           children and married women: evidence from India

    • Abstract: We use microlevel data from the India Human Development Survey to test our hypothesis that ownership of time-saving household appliances results in the following: an increase in employment rates for married women; an increase in school enrollment rates; and a decrease in employment rates for children. We address the concern of endogeneity of appliance ownership by instrumenting household ownership of time-saving appliances by two family-specific time-using household assets and (1) average ownership rate among single women living in the same primary sampling unit (for the adult female sample) or (2) average ownership among households with no children living in the same primary sampling unit (for the child sample). Our results suggest a decrease in married women's and children's employment when ownership of time-saving appliances increases. Disaggregating our measure of employment, we find that married women use time-saving appliances as a substitute for human capital and increase their probability of working in more productive employment outside of the household.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Training during recessions: recent European evidence

    • Abstract: We use European Union Labour Force Survey data for the period 2005–2018 to investigate the cyclicality of training in Europe. Consistent with the view that firms use recessions as times to update skills, we find that training participation is moderately countercyclical for the employed. Within the not-employed group, this is true also for the unemployed, who are likely to be involved in public training programs during recessions, but not for the inactive, who may be affected by liquidity constraints.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of a national work hours restriction in a high hours country

    • Abstract: This paper examines the effect of a new maximum work hour restriction introduced in South Korea in 2018 that limited maximum working hours from 68 h/week to 52 h/week. I use difference-in-differences analysis with continuous treatment measuring the prevalence of those working longer than 52 h/week prior to the policy change across industry-occupation-education groups. I find that the policy reduces work hours while increasing monthly earnings and hourly wages for male full-time workers. However, I find that the policy does not significantly affect total work hours, total employment, and total worker pay at the industry-occupation-education group level.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Economics of Healthy Aging in India: A Multidimensional Perspective

    • Abstract: Aging is the foremost challenge in recent times, given the demographic shift in populations across the world. It implies the costs of healthcare burden and involves economic and social security challenges through shortage of labor supply, consumption–saving paradox, increase in expenditure on healthcare, and most importantly, social capital among the developing countries. Furthermore, there is a likely challenge of old age security in terms of income and expenditure due to increasing healthcare costs and low earning incentives at older ages. India currently has the second largest population globally, with >9% of its population accounting for aging. Based on the multidimensional aging index (AI) using the latest longitudinal survey data of older adults in India, we examined the possible challenges of the economics of aging in India while examining the economic health and social outcomes of the elderly. Our results found that the elderly in India are highly exposed to negative impacts due to vulnerability in socio-economic and health spheres of life. Low labor force participation, lack of skills, and low literacy are the prevalent challenges faced by the elderly Indian population, particularly women. Similarly, the fiscal challenges include increased income tax and insurance coverage for the elderly, while health challenges imply a greater proportion of the disabled and multi-morbid, leading to more burden on the health and welfare system of India. Thus, given the possible short- and long-term effects of aging on the path of economic growth in India, policy incentives are required to minimize the impact and avert the burden of population aging in the country.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Countercyclical fiscal policy and gender employment: evidence from the G-7

    • Abstract: Would countercyclical fiscal policy during recessions improve or worsen the gender employment gap' We answer this question by exploring the state-dependent impact of fiscal spending shocks on employment by gender in the G-7 countries. Using the local projection method, we find that, during recessions, a positive fiscal spending shock increases female employment more than male employment, contributing to gender employment equality. Our findings are driven by disproportionate employment changes in female-friendly industries, occupations, and part-time jobs in response to fiscal spending shocks. The analysis suggests that fiscal stimulus, particularly during recessions, could achieve the twin objectives of supporting aggregate demand and improving gender gaps.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • How effective are hiring subsidies in reducing long-term unemployment
           among prime-aged jobseekers' Evidence from Belgium

    • Abstract: Hiring subsidies are widely used to create (stable) employment for the long-term unemployed. This paper exploits the abolition of a hiring subsidy targeted at long-term unemployed jobseekers older than 45 years of age in Belgium to evaluate its effectiveness in the short and medium run. Based on a triple-difference methodology, the hiring subsidy is shown to increase the job-finding rate by 13% without any evidence of spillover effects. This effect is driven by a positive effect on individuals with at least a bachelor's degree. However, the hiring subsidy mainly creates temporary short-lived employment: eligible jobseekers are not more likely to find employment that lasts at least 12 consecutive months compared with ineligible jobseekers.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Unemployment transitions and the role of minimum wage: From pre-crisis to
           crisis and recovery

    • Abstract: During the last decade, unemployment in Greece climbed up to 28%, almost quadrupling due to the economic crisis that hit Greece. In the present paper, we examine the determinants of the unemployment dynamics and the impact of the minimum wage on the probability of making a transition into and out of unemployment. We use micro-level data from the Greek Labour Force Survey (LFS) of the period 2004 to 2019 and control for several demographic factors, macro-economic conditions, regional differences, and changes in the statutory minimum wage. The results suggest that individual-level characteristics play an important role in making a transition into or out of unemployment. Changes in the real minimum wage are estimated to have either a statistically insignificant or a very small impact on unemployment entries and exits. Further, the impact of economy's growth rate follows the theoretical predictions as higher growth rates increase unemployment outflows and decrease inflows, while the regional differences are also important. Our findings persist even when we split the sample in three periods (pre-crisis, crisis, recovery). The results have important policy implications. Given that the disemployment effect of the minimum wage seems to be very limited in the Greek labor market, while the socioeconomic characteristics and regional characteristics play an important role, improving the skills of individuals through the educational system and reskilling or up-skilling programs while targeting specific regions may facilitate labor market mobility.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Directing young dropouts via SMS: evidence from a field experiment

    • Abstract: Although short message services (SMS) are constantly used to transmit information, little is known about the use of SMS by public institutions to direct people. This paper presents a field experiment in France about the effectiveness of SMS in directing disadvantaged people toward public services. Two types of treatment SMS were provided: one type had its content written in a formal style; the second type SMS style was much informal. All the SMS were individualized and included specific information about the agencies. Results indicate that the SMS had no significant effect on enrollment. There is also no apparent heterogeneous effect according to individual, agency, or location characteristics. In line with other academic evidence, these findings suggest that SMS have very limited effectiveness in directing this population toward public services.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Heterogeneous effects of minimum wage on labor market outcomes: A case
           study from Turkey

    • Abstract: We assess the effects of a sharp minimum wage increase on wages, informality, and employment in Turkey, a large developing economy with one of the highest minimum wage-to-average wage ratios among OECD countries and widespread discrepancies between labor market outcomes of women and of men. We look at the quasi-experimental 2016 minimum wage increase and pay attention to identifying information coming from demographic groups. We find that the increase in the minimum wage had an economically substantial and statistically significant positive impact on wages. Despite the positive wage effects of the increase, we find no negative employment effects. However, we show that the minimum wage increase may have caused an increase in the share of informal employment among workers with less than tertiary education, especially for such workers working for small firms.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Do foreign-educated nurses displace native-educated nurses'

    • Abstract: We examine whether there is any movement in the employment of native-educated nurses due to the influx of foreign-educated nurses. To avoid conflating the short- and long-term reactions to the entry of newly arrived foreign-educated nurses, we implement a multiple instrumentation procedure. We find that there is no significant effect of foreign-educated nurses on the employment of native nurses in both the short- and the long-runs. Our results suggest that relying on foreign-educated nurses to fill gaps in the US healthcare workforce does not harm the employment of native nurses.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Tackling disabilities in young age—Policies that work

    • Abstract: Work impairment is an increasing concern in advanced economies, particularly among young people. Activation, rather than passively providing economic support, is often regarded as the preferred strategy for addressing this issue. However, little is known about which measures are effective for improving youth work impairment. A hazard rate competing risk model with unobserved heterogeneity applied to rich Norwegian panel data provides some insights. Wage subsidies, and to some extent education/training programs, have the intended effect. In other words, work-impaired youths who participate in these measures have a higher probability of obtaining work/starting an education and a lower probability of experiencing a transition to social security than those youths who do not participate in any measure. The impacts of follow-up initiatives and work practice programs are more mixed.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Oct 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • The effects of a place-based tax cut and minimum wage increase on labor
           market outcomes

    • Abstract: The benefits of place-based policies are still under debate. In this study, we analyze what is probably one of the boldest interventions in the recent history of Mexico and the rest of the world: the Northern Border Free Zone (NBFZ). Launched in January 2019, this program doubles the minimum wage and substantially lowers taxes in 43 municipalities along the border with the United States, aiming to improve living standards for low-wage workers and foster economic activity within the region. Given the unique features of the NBFZ, we estimate its short-run effects on labor outcomes: employment, wages, and formality. Our primary identification strategy follows a synthetic control method employing monthly administrative data at the municipality level for the period 2015–2019. Using administrative data for formal employment, we find that the policy substantially increased labor income in the NBFZ by approximately 9% over the control municipalities. The results for employment are less clear. Formal employment showed 1.6% less growth in the NBFZ than in the control municipalities, but the estimate is imprecise and we cannot reject a null impact of the program on employment. These results are robust to alternative control groups, including metropolitan areas in the United States. We also use the labor force survey to estimate the effects on formality at the individual level and find results closer to a null effect. These two results suggest that the NBFZ did not substantially affect employment, and the intersection of confidence intervals for the two estimates implies a maximum loss of employment of approximately 24,000 jobs.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Oct 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Trade shocks and youth jobs

    • Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of trade on youth employment in the United States. The overarching goal is to link lessons from the decline of manufacturing jobs in the past decades to future prospects for the US economy. We find higher rates of job losses with exposure to import competition for US youth, than for older workers. Our analysis uses buyer–supplier relationships between sectors of the US economy to show that the direct effects of trade on the importing sectors underrepresent the impact of trade on jobs.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Oct 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Not everyone is engaged: an innovative approach to measure engagement
           levels on the labor market

    • Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the Individuals’ level of engagement on the labor market and the engagement heterogeneity across individuals in matters of labor market outcomes and the effectiveness of policy interventions. Emerging economies with highly segmented and distorted labor markets typically exhibit strong heterogeneity in labor market engagement. This paper develops an innovative index that measures individuals’ labor market engagement across three dimensions (preferences, intensity, and barriers) and across three labor market categories (employed, unemployed, and out-of-labor force) based on a recent special labor market survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Clustering individuals with similar engagement levels permit more effective targeting of labor market interventions. Findings confirm the strong heterogeneity of labor market engagement in the KSA and the index’s usefulness in the construction of differentiated policies across these clusters.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Poverty and labor informality in Colombia

    • Abstract: Labor informality and poverty are at high levels in Latin America. In developing countries, poverty and the labor market are related not through unemployment but through employment. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the link between labor informality and poverty in Colombia. To do so, earnings gaps associated with labor informality are estimated; then, the effect of formalization on poverty is calculated, as the influence of changes in labor informality on Colombia’s poverty reduction from 2002 to 2013. The findings show that the earnings gap between formal and informal workers is 37–44%, and if informality were eliminated, poverty would decrease by approximately 40%. However, even though informality has great potential to reduce poverty, its actual effect on Colombia’s poverty reduction in the years analyzed was low.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Does Census Hiring Stimulate Jobs Growth'

    • Abstract: Governments perform national, labor-intensive censuses on a regular schedule. Censuses represent many of the largest peacetime expansions and contractions in federal hiring. The predetermined occurrence and scale of the census offers an economic experiment in the effects of temporary government hiring. This paper describes the construction of a data series on census hiring in the United States since 1950 and also collects available data on census employment in England and Wales, Canada, Korea, and Japan. Regressing total employment changes on census hiring yields coefficients extremely close to 1, indicating that there is no spillover from census hiring to the rest of the economy. Using census hiring and occurrence as instruments for government hiring in the US, Canada, and Korea, I estimate the effect of federal hiring on overall employment. Different samples yield varying jobs multipliers, with point estimates varying from -0.01 to 1.48. Including Korean and Canadian data yields lower multipliers, while including pre-1990 US data yields higher multipliers. In no specification can I reject the hypothesis that the job multiplier equals 1. In all specifications, standard errors are large enough that I can reject neither Keynesian nor crowd-out effects.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Examining the Impact of Legal Arizona Worker Act on Native Female Labor
           Supply in the United States

    • Abstract: Low-skilled immigration has been argued to lower the price of services that are close substitutes for household production, reducing barriers for women to enter the labor market. Therefore, policies that reduce the number of low-skilled immigrants who work predominantly in low-skilled service occupations may have an unintended consequence of lowering women’s participation in the labor market. This article examines the labor supply impact of the Legal Arizona Workers Act (LAWA), which led to a large decline in the low-skilled immigrant workforce of the state. The analysis shows no evidence that LAWA statistically significantly affected US-born women’s labor supply in Arizona. This finding is partly explained by an increase in native workers in household service occupations due to LAWA, which offset the decline in immigrants in these occupations and caused the cost of household services to be relatively uninfluenced by the passage of LAWA.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • From better schools to better nourishment: evidence from a school-building
           program in India

    • Abstract: This is a short paper analyzing the potential effects of a targeted school-building program on health indicators. The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) program in India intended to build residential schools for girls from historically disadvantaged sections of the society, providing a unique multifaceted policy setting with tenets of gender equality, affirmative action, and infrastructure reform in education. Exploiting the potentially exogenous cross-sectional variations generated by the institutional features of implementation of this intervention, I run triple-difference regressions to find that the program led to increases in body mass index (BMI) among the underweight. There seems to be a positive correlation between KGBV exposure and probability of being in the “healthy” band of BMI indicators.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
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