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International Journal of Public Health Science
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2252-8806 - ISSN (Online) 2620-4126
Published by Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Development and Validation of a Functional Health Literacy Instrument in
           the Philippines

    • Authors: Ma. Carmen C. Tolabing, Kim Carmela D. Co, Martin Aaron M. Mamangon
      Abstract: Functional Health Literacy (FHL) involves skills in writing, reading, oral expression, comprehension, and numerical calculations to successfully function and complete health-related tasks. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring FHL in the Philippines using a mixed-method design. FHL-5TEST is an instrument consisting of five questions developed in consultation with local experts, translated to major Philippine languages, and underwent translation analysis, pretesting, cultural adaptation, and validation.. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 15-70-year-old Filipino residents to validate the instrument. The FHL-5TEST demonstrated high internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.7690. Across different cut-off values, the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument in detecting limited FHL ranged from 60.9% to 86.0% and from 61.6% to 97.2%, respectively. The study demonstrated that the FHL-5TEST is a valid and reliable instrument to measure functional health literacy in the Philippines.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21755
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Dengue in Banjarmasin, Indonesia From
           2016 to 2020

    • Authors: Nur Afrida Rosvita, Nia Kania, Eko Suhartono, Adi ‪Nugroho, Erida Wydiamala
      Abstract: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an acute febrile disease caused by four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This article aims to analyze monthly trends in cases and climates as well as spatial analysis and autocorrelation in 52 urban villages of Banjarmasin City. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases from 2016 to 2020 were analyzed for trends in malaria cases. Decomposition analysis was performed to assess seasonality. The annual spatial grouping of incidents, identified by Moran's I. The Result shows the annual dengue incidence fell significantly to 72% in 2017 and lasted until 2020. Dengue infection is more common in men with an age range of 15-64 years. The monthly dengue season is highest from January to May along with increased rainfall. The high incidence is spatially clustered which is identified in the east and borders neighboring districts, especially 6 urban villages. A trend and spatially explicit decision support system are needed to support surveillance and control programs in identified high-risk areas to succeed in dengue eradication goals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21780
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Larval Survey of Dengue Endemic Area In Samarinda, East Kalimantan,
           Indonesia Guide to determine of risk containers

    • Authors: M Rasyid Ridha, Sri Sulasmi
      Abstract: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has been reported in Indonesia since1968, the cases tend to increase and spread every year. In 2015-2019 almost all districts in Indonesia had dengue cases. This study aimed to determine the value of the entomological index and its relationship with the treatment of various types of containers, and spatial epidemiology. A larval survey was conducted to determine the presence of larvae in water containers. Logistic regression and spatial data analysis were performed to see the distribution and make buffer area map of Aedes spreading risk. The types of containers observed in this study were water tubs, drums, buckets, refrigerator containers, dispenser containers, and other categories. There were 221 containers found containing Aedes larvae. Container types affected the presence of larvae with adjusted ORs of 2.779 (95% CI: 1.441-5.360) on buckets, 9.812 (95% CI: 1.249-77.051) on refrigerator holders, and 0.301 ( 95% CI: 0.147-0.617) on dispenser holders, while the other variables were constant. The spatial analysis found that many houses are at risk of dengue transmission within a radius of 100m. The discovery of containers as potential breeding sites for Aedes provides a chance for an increase in dengue cases in Samarinda. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21727
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Prevention Practices (Community
           Survey in Endemic Areas, Kubu Raya Regency, West Kalimantan Province,

    • Authors: Iskandar Arfan, Ayu Rizky, Andri Dwi Hernawan
      Abstract: Prevention practices and the factors that influence them are important to know for spread control and effective strategic planning. This study aims to find factors related to the practice of preventing dengue fever in people in endemic areas of Kuburaya Regency, West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. This is an observational study with a cross-sectional design. The research sample was 379 households in endemic areas using a questionnaire. Collecting data using a questionnaire with interviews. Bivariate analysis used chi-square test, multivariate analysis used logistic regression. Most respondents have less prevention practices (59.9%), variables related to dengue fever prevention practices are income, education, knowledge about prevention and health education (mass media), In the regression analysis only variables are education, knowledge about prevention, education mass media health related to dengue fever prevention practices. The results of this study indicate that in formulating an approach to dengue fever prevention, strategies that must be developed in preventing dengue fever are to cultivate prevention practices and increase prevention campaigns using mass media, and can focus on areas that have low education and low knowledge of dengue fever prevention
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21784
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Incidence in Indonesia Using Trend Analysis and
           Spatial Visualization

    • Authors: Helmy Gani, Rizky Maharja, Hamdan Gani, Nurilmiyanti Wardhani, Nurani Nurani, Nur Fadhilah Gani, Muhammad Akbar Salcha, Riadnin Maharja
      Abstract: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has caused a public health risk in many developing countries, so understanding their incidence trend is needed to prepare an early warning prevention.The multi-year DHF trend analyses are necessary but have not been accomplished to this day in Indonesia. This study examined time trends using yearly data on the incidences of DHF for all provinces. Univariate forecasting model constructed on the data up to 2019 predicted the future trends in the disease's incidences up to 2022. At the same time, a trend analysis test was developed to explain the disease trend for all regions. The results per province showed a declining trend of DHF cases and TDC in Java Island (i.e., Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, DKI Jakarta, and Banten). Then, there was an increasing trend in the majority of regions outside of Java Island. For the CFR and IR, most provinces had decreasing trend except for Gorontalo, Kalimantan Utara, and Maluku. Overall, trend analysis showed a continually decreasing trend of DHF, TDC, CFR, and IR incidence over the past 16 years in Indonesia. The findings highlight the need for preventive policies for several provinces with the increasing trend of DHF incidences.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21533
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Uniting Hearts and Minds: Experiences from a Pilot Festival of Youth
           Creative Expressions on Mental Health in India

    • Authors: Shivani Mathur Gaiha, Gulfam Fazlur Rahman, Iram Siddiqui, Vijayluxmi Bose, Sujaya Krishnan
      Abstract: IntroductionMental-health-related social stigma prevents youth from seeking timely help for mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot arts intervention to reduce such stigma among college youth in India.MethodThe intervention included three sessions, focused on 1) mental health education, 2) developing art, and 3) a mental-health-themed festival to display art for an invited audience. We assessed feasibility through creation of student-generated art and acceptability in post-intervention surveys and video recordings.Results and ConclusionThe intervention was completed by 371 participants who created 86 works of art (paintings, puppet-shows, drama, dance, and poetry), which was displayed to 434 audience members at Uniting Hearts and Minds: A Festival of Creative Expressions on Mental Health. Participants self-reported understanding causes and symptoms of mental health problems, interpreting experiences and expressed empathy (n=194). Our pilot intervention engaged youth, showing potential to reduce mental-health-related stigma and to address feasibility issues related to reaching all colleges uniformly.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21804
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Relationship of Self-Confidence, Perception of Barriers, and Partner
           Support with Providing Reproductive Health and Sexuality Information from
           Parents to Adolescents

    • Authors: Tanjung Anitasari Indah Kusumaningrum, Diah Laras Suci, Dini Wulandari
      Abstract: Adolescence is a period of searching for identity that requires information on reproductive health and sexuality so as not to fall into premarital sexual behavior. Parents play an important role in providing reproductive health information to adolescents, but parents are often reluctant to provide this information due to lack of support, and lack of confidence in providing reproductive health information. The purpose of this study was to determine the most influential factors between partner support, perceived barriers, and self-confidence in adolescent reproductive health education. The research method used analytical observation with a cross sectional approach which was conducted online in June-August 2020 to 300 parents who have teenagers aged 15-19 years in Surakarta. The sampling technique is Double Sampling using a self-confidence, partner support, perceived barriers and behavior in providing reproductive health information questionnaire that has been tested for validity. Bivariate analysis was performed using chi square and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression test. The results showed that parents' self-confidence was the most influential factor in reproductive health education for adolescents (OR=3.052, CI=1.534-6.071). Parents who have low self-confidence tend not to provide comprehensive reproductive health information to adolescents. Lack of skills to explain the topic of sexuality to teenagers is one of the things that affects parents' self-confidence. The lack of knowledge of the material that will be given and the shame when conveying sexuality material also affects the self-confidence of the parents. Training efforts are needed for parents on how to provide information on reproductive health to adolescents.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21440
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Psychological Impact of Parent-Adolescent Communication: A Critical

    • Authors: Shanthi Bavani V Raja Mohan
      Abstract: The parent-adolescent relationship is an essential part of growing up and it is the key determinant of an adolescent’s growth. An adolescent is a stage of life which is unique as it is the phase for personality development. The nature of the relationship with their families during the adolescence stage determines their character.  The parental connection including the right kind of parenting style and inter-communication determine their growth. Previous studies have highlighted the relationship between parent-adolescents communication and the impact on adolescents’ psychological well-being.  However, the findings have not been conclusive.  In view of this, the current research aimed at assessing the level of parent-adolescent communication and the impact on adolescents’ self-esteem and the perceived stress inclusive of comparing differences between genders in Malaysia. The study was conducted using a quantitative research method through an online survey. The findings proved there is a significant relationship between parent-adolescent communication and the impact on self-esteem as well as stress levels among adolescents, where positive communication with parents, resulted in better self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Further, it was proven that female adolescents had lower self-esteem and higher stress compared to male adolescents. The study ends with a recommendation for further research.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21461
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Acceptability and attributes of the COVID-19 vaccine: an application of
           the diffusion of innovation theory in the Philippines

    • Authors: Engracia Arceo, Genevieve Dizon, Michael Dizon, Nestor Sibug, James Ryan Mendoza, Raphael Enrique Tiongco
      Abstract: With the Philippines’ experience on vaccine hesitancy, the study aimed to determine the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination in the country and understand its attributes using the Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) Theory.  The cross-sectional study included 327 respondents recruited for four weeks through various social media platforms. Participants were requested to answer a self-administered online questionnaire. Majority of the respondents belong to age group 21-30 (46.2%), mostly female (65.4%), relatively healthy (86.2%), college graduate (37.6%), and currently unemployed (50.8%). While the majority have the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19 (70.0%), only 16.8% are innovators belonging to the age group 21-30 (p value = 0.03), male (p value <0.001), and employed (p value= 0.01). Relative advantage (p value <0.001), compatibility (p value <0.001), observability (p value <0.001), and perceived risk (p value <0.001) are significantly associated with the intention for COVID-19 vaccination and adopter category. Findings prove that the attributes of DoI are predictors for the acceptability and timing of COVID-19 vaccination. Strategies that promote trust, information transparency, and better information dissemination on the benefits and safety of vaccination can motivate more Filipinos to adopt the innovation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21788
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Community-based quit smoking intervention using 5A’s and 3A’s
           approaches in Sarawak, Malaysia

    • Authors: Muhammad Siddiq Daud, Md Mizanur Rahman, Sabrina binti Lukas, Kamarudin Bin Kana, Merikan Bin Aren, Rudy Ngau Ajeng, Mohd Faiz Gahamat
      Abstract: Rising worldwide adolescent smoking necessitates national and global research to establish intervention methods. This research evaluated the efficacies of 5A’s and 3A’s interventions. Self-reported quit-smoking attempts were the outcome measure. Methods: Six villages were randomly selected and equally divided into three groups: 5A’s, 3A’s, and Control (no intervention). Five hundred nineteen current participant-smokers aged 13-17 were followed-up by phone (first and third months) and face-to-face interviews (sixth and ninth months). Most 3A’s participants (n = 12, 7.1%) quitted smoking in the first month, followed by the 5A’s (n = 9, 5.3%) and the Control (n = 3, 1.9%).  In the third month, 5A’s participants topped the rank (n = 16, 10.7%), followed by the 3A’s (n = 14, 9.2%), and Control (n = 5, 3.4%). As per sixth-month follow-up, the 5A’s group maintained its position on top of the list (n = 27, 21.4%), followed by the 3A’s (n = 22, 17.1%) and the Control (n = 5, 4.0%). The majority of 5A’s participants quitted smoking after nine months (n=36, 33.0%), followed by the 3A’s (n = 27, 25.5%), while Control maintained its position (n = 5, 5.0%). 5A intervention prevented adolescent smokers from becoming chronic smokers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21832
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)

    • Authors: Sri Handayani, Syarifah Nuraini, Indah Pawitaningtyas, Aan Kurniawan
      Abstract: To tackle the COVID-19 case, the COVID-19 task force in Indonesia urges the public to carry out COVID-19 prevention behaviours including wearing masks. To find the determinants factors that affect public compliance with using masks, an online survey was conducted in Indonesia from 27 June to 7 July 2020. The analytical technique used in this study consisted of descriptive and inferential analysis. Of the 8,425 respondents, the majority (67.1%) had moderate mask compliance. Age, gender, education, income and risk of infection have a significant relationship with mask compliance. Female respondents have higher compliance of wearing masks than men. Most respondents with high compliance in wearing masks are highly educated and have high incomes. The Boomer (elderly) group has the highest percentage who has low adherence to wearing masks. Respondents who stated they might be at risk of contracting COVID-19 had a high compliance score for wearing masks compared to respondents who stated they were unlikely to be infected. Socio-demographic factors significantly influence compliance with the use of masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. To improve compliance with the implementation of health protocols, the government needs to provide socialization, supervision, and evaluation to implement health protocols in the community.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21882
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social media use for patient care: An evaluation of health practitioners
           in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    • Authors: Veronica Akwenabuaye Undelikwo
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the extent to which health practitioners in Cross River State, Nigeria, use social media for patient care and to assess the barriers militating against its liberal use for patient care. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design and used 550 respondents selected through the cluster, simple random and purposive sampling techniques, from selected secondary and tertiary health facilities. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative methods involving the questionnaire and key informant interview respectively were used to elicit information from respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while content analysis was used to handle qualitative data. The result of data analysis revealed that health practitioners in Cross River State, Nigeria, do social media use for patient care very minimally and this is attributed to a wide range of factors, including the absence of a clear-cut regulatory framework governing social media use in health care delivery, lack of institutionally provided resources for social media use etc. The study thus recommends that healthcare administrators must, as a matter of necessity, mainstream social media use into health care practice by flexible guidelines, regulations, and materials that would make social media use for patient care desirable by health practitioners in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21765
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Influence of Social Media Exposure on Knowledge and Behaviour of COVID-19
           Preventive Measure

    • Authors: Putu Ayu Indrayathi, Putu Erma Pradnyani, Pande Putu Januraga, Luh Putu Sinthya Ulandari, Laszlo Robert Koloszvari, Benny Tjahjono, Desak Putu Yuli Kurniati, Monika Sri Yuliarti
      Abstract: A lot of misinformation about COVID-19 on social media possibly hinder the practice of healthy behaviors that are essential to protect individuals. This situation is exacerbated by the lack of health literacy in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the influence of social media information exposure on the knowledge and behavior of Indonesians in compliance with COVID-19 protocols. An online survey of 909 people was conducted from July 2nd to August 10th, 2020. The data collected were knowledge and behavior of preventing COVID-19, while independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics and exposure to social media information. Inclusion criteria were defined as follows: minimum age of 18 years and domiciled in the country during the data collection period. The analysis used for the data collected were univariate and multivariate. The result showed that gender, age, marital status, and social media presence significantly affect a person's knowledge about COVID-19 with a p-value of 0.05. Enforcement behavior of health and healthy living protocols is significantly influenced by the respondent’s gender, marital status, education level, the island of residence, and exposure to online information. The frequency of exposure to information affects people's knowledge and behavior to implement health protocols and healthy living in the COVID-19 era, and it is further influenced by socio-demographic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21926
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Health belief model in prevention of type II diabetes among high-risk

    • Authors: Fateme Behesht aeen, Fateme Afrasiabi, Marzieh Kargar jahromi
      Abstract: Objective: This descriptive study aimed to determine the diabetes prevention behaviors based on the health belief model among high-risk individuals.Methods: 220 randomly selected patients at risk of type II diabetes completed a 65-item questionnaire based on the constructs of the health belief model. Data analyzed by SPSS.Results: The mean score of knowledge among responders was 5.54+2.60, which indicated that 50.36% of the participants had gained the maximum score of knowledge. The results indicated that the constructs of the health belief model determined 19% of the variance in type II diabetes prevention behaviors.  Perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge were the significant positive predictors of diabetes prevention behaviors. Based on the results, single respondents had higher knowledge levels, higher perceived severity, and lower perceived barriers compared to married ones. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between age, economic status, and education level and some constructs of the health belief model.Conclusion: The results indicated that the high-risk patients obtained moderate mean scores in type II diabetes prevention behaviors. These results could help improve educational programs with regard to beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors in order to promote type II diabetes prevention and self-care behaviors among at-risk populations, eventually enhancing their quality of life.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21908
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Mothers Role Function among Adolescent Menstrual Hygiene in Banten

    • Authors: Tri Wahyuni, Ritanti Ritanti
      Abstract: Purpose: These study aims were to determine the prevalence of menstrual hygiene and the association between mother’s role function and menstrual hygiene among early adolescent girls in Banten Province, Indonesia.Methodology: This cross-sectional study used simple random sampling technique. The target population including early adolescent girls age 12-15 years old, had menarche. There were 367 respondents in this study that passed the inclusion criteria for the analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association.Results: 46.32 % of respondents noticed the prevalence of good menstrual hygiene. There were 170 out of 367 respondents reported the presence of good menstrual hygiene. The final model of a multiple logistic regression indicated that Mother Support (adj. OR = 6.89, 95% CI: 3.84 – 12.38, p <0.001) and Information Exposure (adj. OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.36 – 3.45, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with the bad menstrual hygiene among early adolescent girls in Serang District, Banten Province. Other significant covariate factors were Organization (adj. OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10 – 2.91, p = 0.018).Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of good menstrual hygiene. Mother support and Information exposure as well as Organization were associated with menstrual hygiene among early adolescent girls in Serang District, Banten Province, Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21272
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Age, Gender and Duration of Dating with Involvement in Dating Violence

    • Authors: Suci Musvita Ayu, Erni Gustina, Mohammad Zen Rahfiludin
      Abstract: Males and females tend to engage in Dating Violence (DV). This research aims to analyze the relationship between age, gender, and dating duration with the involvement of perpetrators of violence in dating. A cross-sectional study was used as the method. The sample size for this study was 351 adolescents who were selected using the purposive sampling technique. The sample inclusion criteria are active students, have a partner, and are willing to be respondents. Data were analyzed using a chi-square test with a 95% Confidence Interval. This study shows that younger adolescents are more likely to be involved in DV. Almost all females have acted as perpetrators of physical and psychological violence in dating. Females and males have equal opportunities to engage in dating violence. The dating duration is also predicted as one of the causes of adolescent involvement in violence during courtship. The dating duration is predicted to be more prone to being involved – being the perpetrator – in dating violence. Victims must have the courage to take a stand and stop the relationship if they experience violence, and they must be wise and selective in help-seeking.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21487
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Activity among Antenatal Women During
           COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross Sectional Study

    • Authors: Siti Roshaidai Mohd Arifin
      Abstract: The prevalence of mental health problems among antenatal women has escalated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. Many strategies have been proposed to reduce depression and anxiety, one of the techniques being physical activity. This study aimed to assess the association between physical activity with depression and anxiety among antenatal women during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study applied convenience sampling to recruit 544 antenatal women from March to June 2021. Questionnaires including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) were distributed via social media to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and physical activity level. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis tests. Out of 544 antenatal women, 24.1% of them had depressive symptoms and 82.4% had anxiety. Only 12.1% of the women were sufficiently active during the pandemic. There was no association between physical activity, depression, and anxiety. The high prevalence of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among Malaysian antenatal women underscores the urgent need for addressing this public health burden. Interventions to alleviate the symptoms should include strategies beyond physical activity, for example, a mobile application or telephone-delivered social support that is made easily accessible throughout the pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21579
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Determinants and perception of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive
           device services in Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Jayashree Sachin Gothankar, Prakash Doke, Prasad Pore, Arvinder Pal Singh Narula, Sudhanshu Mahajan, Rupesh Kumar Deshmukh
      Abstract: Undesired and unintended pregnancies increase unwanted births or induced abortions, consequently increasing maternal morbidity and mortality. Postpartum insertion of the Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (PPIUCD) is an effective method for population control. The authors conducted the study to assess the determinants of PPIUCD services by identifying beneficiaries and healthcare workers' perceptions. We conducted this study in Maharashtra State, India having five geographical divisions and 36 districts. The authors visited 10 Primary Health Centers and three Community Health Centers from five districts, randomly selecting one from each division. We interviewed 45 women who had undergone insertion one day to one year prior and 17 health care workers. About one-third of women received counseling during pregnancy. The medical officers obtained the consents mostly during delivery. They inserted about 85% of devices within one hour of delivery. About 38% of women had at least one complication. Lower abdominal pain (22.22%), irregular bleeding (20.00%), the expulsion of CuT (13.33%), pain during periods (13.33%) were common. The removal rate was 6.67%. The complication rates observed in the present study are comparable to the hospital studies. Thus, the study reassures that the services in small institutions are very safe, and governments can fearlessly implement the program.Keywords: ComplicationsCounselingExpulsionHealth center Quality Removal 
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21281
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Factors Influencing Provision of Basic Emergency Obstetric Care Services
           in Luzon, Philippines

    • Authors: Maria Stephanie Fay Samadan Cagayan
      Abstract: The Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) strategy was designed to provide evidence-based interventions at the primary level to control maternal and newborn mortality. With less than a decade until the conclusion of the Sustainable Development Goals, much work remains to be done in the Philippines to achieve the set target on maternal mortality. Recognition of the determinants affecting its implementation may elucidate what still needs to be addressed. This study aims to identify the facilitators and barriers to accessibility of quality BEmONC services. Eight focus group discussions consisting of BEmONC providers were conducted from February to April 2021. These were recorded, transcribed, then translated into English. Data then underwent thematic analysis using NVivo to identify emerging themes and subthemes. 102 health care providers participated in the study. Four main themes emerged: institutional capacity, service capacity, personnel capacity, and external factors. Each had its corresponding subthemes, such as infrastructure, human resources, referrals, and local government support, respectively. Factors and/or barriers to each subtheme were identified during the discussions. The study provided important insight on the factors influencing BEmONC utilization. Focal points recognized may be used by policy makers and key stakeholders to allow optimal provision of BEmONC services.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21718
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Informational and instrumental support related to menstruation:
           Adolescents’ perspective

    • Authors: Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati, Nur Anisah Rahmawati, Cahyani Tiara Safitri, Safa Salsabila Hanum
      Abstract: Adolescent girls can experience puberty and[a1]  menstruation in their school environment, especially when they decide to study in a boarding school for girls. Schools must provide support for menstrual hygiene therefore adolescent girls can remain productive in their education. The study aims to describe the adolescent perception of informational and instrumental support related to menstruation. The descriptive study was conducted at a single institution-boarding school for girls- in East Java, Indonesia. 236 students in junior high school were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Almost all adolescents had received information about menstruation before they experienced menstruation. Absenteeism due to menstruation was experienced by 35 students with 1-2 days of absence. In terms of informational support, more than 50% of students received information related to menstruation from their teachers. The school did not provide materials on menstrual hygiene on the toilet walls that could be accessed by adolescents. In terms of instrumental support, most adolescents reported that clean water was available but soap for washing hands was not always available. Closed trash cans and access to a sanitary pad are available. According to most of the adolescents, the latrines in their school were easy to clean, but there were still around 10% who stated that the latrines were difficult to clean. Schools need to provide correct information about reproductive health through collaboration with the health office and health education institutions and ensure that facilities for menstrual hygiene are available and can be used by students properly. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21806
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Mortality and morbidity of pregnant woman with COVID- 19 Infection : A
           meta analysis

    • Authors: Aida Musyarrofah, Anung Putri Illahika, Probo Yudha Pratama Putra, Dinda Amalia Eka Putri, S.Khansa Zatalini, Yohanes Eddy Prasetyo
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and declared as a global pandemic in March 2020. There is a special immune tolerance in pregnant woman, predisposes to a viral infection, then increased risk severe complication. A comprehensive literature study was performed in July 2021 through Science Direct, Cochrane, and PubMed, with keywords “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “Pregnancy”, “Pregnant”, and “Complication”. Nine studies with 30.257 infected patients and 1.678.974 non infected patients were included. The data show that preterm birth (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.17-1.74; p = 0.0004, I2=90%) less in non infected groups, no camparable finding in vaginal delivery (OR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-1.06; p<0.030, I2=75%) and caesarian delivery (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28; p<0.045, I2=96%). ICU admission reported high percentage in infected patients (OR =4.87, 95% CI: 3.08-7.71; p<0.0001, I2=93%), we found that obstetric complication in subgroup (OR =1.31, 95% CI: 0.13-1.52; p<0.0003,I2=54%) and mortality (OR =17.41, 95% CI: 11.04-27.46; p<0.0001, I2=0%) less in non infected patients. Pregnancy with infected COVID-19 has high percentage of mortality and morbidity events. Infected and non infected patients has equal chance for vaginal or caesarian delivery.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21769
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Babies born to obese mothers: How are the characteristics and

    • Authors: Julia Kasab, Ari Yunanto, Pudji Andayani, Pricilia Gunawan Halim
      Abstract: Obesity during pregnancy puts the mothers at risk of significant medical conditions and is also associated with some medical problems in neonates. This study aims to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of babies born to obese mothers at a tertiary hospital in Banjarmasin, Ulin General Hospital. This study was observational using secondary data of neonates born at Ulin General Hospital Banjarmasin, January 2020 - October 2021. The total number of subjects included in this study was 110, divided into two groups based on the obesity status of the mother (obese and non-obese). Common maternal characteristics of the obese mothers were having higher education (43.6%), being a housewife (67.3%), being diagnosed with severe preeclampsia (58.2%), and having infection risk (54.5%). Of the babies, 100% were delivered by C-section, 21.8% were premature, 12.7% had excessive birth weight, and 54.5% were requiring treatment before being discharged. For the outcomes, the average length of stay was 4.5±3.6 days (p<0.05) and the need for NICU admission was 20% (p>0.05). The most compelling characteristics and outcomes of babies born to obese mothers in this study were delivered by C-section, had excessive birth weight, unwell babies, and had a longer hospital stay.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21810
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Awareness on female contraceptives safety, efficacy and side effects among
           nursing undergraduates at KIU, Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Razzaag B.A, Mizna F, Shaamila H, Saffath H, Tanika Gayani Kanchana
      Abstract: Nurses being an integral part of the health care system should have sufficient awareness on contraceptives since unplanned pregnancies have rapidly emerged as a social issue that severely deteriorates the quality of life of parents and children. The objective of the study was to assess the awareness on contraceptive safety, efficacy and side effects among nursing undergraduates at KAATSU International University (KIU). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 362 undergraduate nurses studying at KIU, higher education institute of Sri Lanka using convenient sampling method. The data was collected using pre-tested questionnaire and data was analyzed using descriptive statistic and Pearson Chi square test. The questionnaire consisted with four parts; demographic variables, safety, efficacy and side effects related questions. Out of total, 74.6% of the participants had an average knowledge regarding different type of female contraceptives and 74.5% had average knowledge regarding major side effects of female contraceptives. When the knowledge regarding efficacy of different contraceptive methods was found to be only 37% related to female condom. Overall findings of the study reflect that majority of the nurses had average knowledge regarding safety and major side effects of female contraceptive methods and a poor knowledge was identified regarding the efficacy of female contraceptive methods among undergraduate nurses.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i3.20893
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Decision making power over reproductive health service utilization among
           married Ethiopian women: cross sectional study

    • Authors: Dessalegn Nigatu Rundasa, Zerihun Bayabil, Tarekegn Fekede
      Abstract: Decision-making power of women is one of the essential factors which influence maternal health service utilization. Women's lack of decision over reproductive health service utilization affects their protection from unwanted childbearing, unsafe sex, and their consequences. To assess decision-making power on Reproductive Health service utilization and its associated factors among married women in South West Ethiopia, 2020. Cross-sectional study was conducted from May to July 2020 among 584 married women of the reproductive age. A total of 288 in urban and 288 in rural married women were interviewed and these yields a response rate of 98.6% both in urban and rural. Decision-making power over reproductive health service utilization in urban and rural was 55.2% [95% CI (52.7-64.6)] and 40.3% [95% CI (39.9-52.5)] respectively. In urban, being wives of government-employed spouses [AOR 2.102 95% CI (1.16, 3.81)], knowledge on RH [AOR 3.33, 95% CI (1.20, 12.49)], above five years in marriage [AOR 1.91, 95% CI (1.19,7.70)], were found to be predictors of women’s decision-making power over reproductive health use. The study revealed that in urban settings those women who had marriage duration five and more than five years, being wives of government-employed spouses had more likely decision-making power on reproductive health utilization but not in rural settings. Hence, reproductive health interventions in the area should be promoted by considering empowering married women on reproductive health service utilization.

      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i3.21276
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Menstrual hygiene practices among the adolescent schoolgirls in the rural
           area of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mst. Rokshana Rabeya, Md Nazrul Islam, Umme Hafsa, Nadiatul Ami Nisa, Gopal Kumar Ghosh, Afsana Yesmin, Khairun Nahar Juthi, Tamima Rahman, Tanjina Sharmin
      Abstract: Adolescence is a time of tremendous opportunity. However, inadequate menstrual hygiene habits are related to lower academic achievement and enrollment at school, with possible effects on longer-term socio-economic status and impaired overall quality of life. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 adolescent schoolgirls in Bangladesh between July 2019 and February 2020 with the aim of examining menstrual hygiene practices. Data indicate that the mean age of menarche in 422 adolescents was 12.71±0.97. According to the data, 47% had well, and 53% had poor hygiene practices. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, educational status of respondents’ mother at secondary level [AOR = 2.023, 95% CI: 1.159-3.532], fathers at graduate and above level [ AOR = 3.150, 95% CI: 0.883-11.238], high level of household income [AOR = 2.580, 95% CI: 1.480-4.495], and knowledge about complication of poor hygiene practice among girls [AOR = 2.286, 95% CI: 1.160-4.504] were significantly associated with the level of hygiene practices. Poor menstrual hygiene practice was found among more than half of girls. Attitude toward safe menstrual materials should initiate to improve good hygiene practices. Awareness campaigns for parents and teachers to assist their children would be a vital strategy to ensure good hygiene practices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21938
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Does mouthwash degrade the force of orthodontic latex elastics'

    • Authors: Ananto Ali Alhasyimi, Sri Suparwitri, Niswati Fathmah Rosyida
      Abstract: With the surge of COVID-19 pandemic, orthodontists have recommended the use of mouthwashes. However, this product often includes substances that change the pH of the oral environment and potentially alter orthodontic elastic force. This study aimed to investigate the effect of several mouthwashes on the force decay of latex elastics. A total of 100 orthodontic latex elastics (1/4”) were separated into five groups: control, zinc sulfate 0.2%, chlorhexidine 0.2%, sodium fluoride 0.2%, and povidone–iodine 1%. The samples were all stretched to 19.05 mm, stored in artificial saliva solutions, and housed in an incubator. Every 12 hours, the specimens from groups 2–5 were immersed in the test mouthwashes for 60 seconds and immediately returned to the artificial saliva. A tension gauge with five times that of the activation was used to measure force. Elastic force was tested at five-time intervals: baseline, 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Statistical analysis was conducted using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Results showed statistical differences for the time intervals and force degradation of orthodontic latex elastics (P<0.05). The majority of force loss occurred within 6 hours of extension and immersion. Mouthwashes had no influence on the reduction in elastic force (P>0.05). The force degradation of orthodontic latex elastics was unaffected by mouthwashes. The lowest force degradation was generated by povidone–iodine, followed by zinc sulfate, sodium fluoride, and chlorhexidine.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21923
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Nurse's Foci of Commitment Model to Decrease Turnover Intention

    • Authors: Nursalam Nursalam, Nurul Hikmatul Qowi, Tri Johan Agus Yuswanto, Ferry Efendi
      Abstract: The hospital is an organization in the service sector with nurses as the main hospital resource. Increasing the commitment of the nurses was one of the ways used to retain nurses. This study explained nurse’s foci of commitment model to decrease turnover intention.This study used a cross-sectional approach. Variables in this study included nurse characteristics, job characteristics, work experience, organizational factors, nurse commitment, and turnover intention. The population was nurses who have worked in Islamic hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. The 119 nurses taken as sample based on simple random sampling. Data collected using questionnaires and analyzed using partial least squares (PLS). Nurse characteristics influenced nurse commitments (path coefficient=0.252; t=2.953) and turnover intention (path coefficient= -0.239; t=2.458). Job characteristics influenced nurse commitments (path coefficient=0.190; t=2.409) and turnover intention  (path coefficient= -0.183; t=2.107). Work experience influenced nurse commitments (path coefficient=0.208; t=2.231) and turnover intention (path coefficient= -0.153; t=1.964). organizational factors influenced nurse commitments (path coefficient=0.218; t=2.170) and turnover intention  (path coefficient= -0.174; t=2.330). Nurse commitment influenced turnover intention (path coefficient= -0.226; t=2.084). The nurse's commitment as moderate these factors in reducing turnover intention. The influence of job satisfaction, nurse commitment, and perceived  organizational support to turnover intention needs further research
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.22000
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Potential hepatic-protective effect of Physalis Peruviana against
           Lead-induced Toxicity in Albino Rats

    • Authors: Fatma Ismail, eglal Ghoneim, ossama Abdullatef, samar Aborhyem
      Abstract:  ABSTRACT Lead toxicity poses a serious threat facing humanity. This research aims to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effect of Physalis Peruviana (P.P.) fruit against lead toxicity (10ppm (1/45 LD50)) in male albino rats. Toxicological induction lasted for 28 days followed by treatment with 200, 300, and 500 mg/kg of lyophilized P.P. fruit extract for another 28 days. Antioxidant enzymes including; SOD, MDA, CAT, and GSH using a spectrophotometer and lead concentration in liver tissues were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy after 4 and 8 weeks, in addition to liver function ALT and AST, and CBC.  Lead acetate induced substantial elevation in MDA levels, and a significant decrease in SOD, CAT, and GSH activities. Treatment with 200, 300, and 500 mg/kg P.P extracts showed an improvement in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of P.P fruit extract ameliorates the damage caused by lead acetate. Physalis Peruviana solution showed a reduction in the mean lead concentration in a dose-dependent response to 0.26±0.02, 0.21±0.02, and 0.14±0.03 ppm for groups III, IV, and V, respectively. In conclusion, P.P fruit extract can induce antioxidant activity and exert a beneficial effect for the treatment of Pb-induced hepatotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21737
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Maternal risk factors in stunting of children aged 24-59 months

    • Authors: Keke Susilowati Sholehah, Endang Sutedja, Hadyana Sukandar
      Abstract: Stunting is a height that is not appropriate with the age, it is characterized by delayed growth of the child who results in failure to reach normal height. The high prevalence of stunting in the world, 14-17% of child mortality is caused by stunting. Pandeglang Regency, Indonesia is an area with the highest prevalence of stunting in Banten Province and the prevalence is 39.5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the maternal risk factors that the most influence prevalence of stunting in children with aged 24-59 months in Pandeglang Regency, Banten Province, Indonesia. This research is an analytic observational study with a case control study design and using 200 respondents. The case group were mothers who had stunted children and the control group were mothers who had children with normal stature. Data obtained from filling out the mother's questionnaire include maternal and child health books. The results of multivariable analysis with multiple logistic regression found that close birth spacing ORadj (95% CI): 9.61 (1.16-79.56), nutritional status of pregnant women (KEK) ORadj: 4.37 (1.79-10.64), short mother's height was ORadj L: 2.38 (1.21-4.67) and preterm gestational age was ORadj: 1.98 (1.06-3.72) and Fe minimum consumption ORadj: 1.75 (0.94-3.26). Birth spacing are the most influential maternal risk factors for the prevalence of stunting in children aged 24-59 months. Long-term contraceptive methods such as IUDs and implants need to be held to increase long-term family planning acceptors so they can be more optimal in spacing pregnancies at least two years.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i3.20869
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Impact of socioeconomic change and hygiene sanitation during pandemic
           covid-19 towards stunting: an analytical study in coastal area

    • Authors: Diyah Arini, Dwi Ernawati, Dewinta Hayudanti, Arie Dwi Alristina
      Abstract: The global COVID-19 pandemic has raised the risk of malnutrition in children, particularly those under the age of five, including stunting. Stunting is common in low-income regions, when families cannot afford nutritious meals. Certain types of food may not be available or cheap for some families during the COVID-19 epidemic. Stunting may become more common as a result of changes in family socioeconomic circumstances, personal cleanliness, and environmental sanitation during the pandemic. This study is to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors and hygiene sanitation during COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of stunting in coastal areas. This type of research was analytical survey with cross sectional approach. The total sample was 3886 families who had children had toddlers aged 0-59 months in the coastal areas in Surabaya City, Indonesia. The instrument in this study was filling out a questionnaire using Google Form on socioeconomic and hygiene sanitation factors to determine the incidence of stunting. Socioeconomic determinant which impacted stunting was family income. While whole hygiene and sanitation determinants have significant impact to stunting by chi square test (pvalue=0,002). Highest odds ratio from logistic regression was 15,4 higher between other socioeconomic determinants. Whereas the hygiene and sanitation factor which has the highest impact was hand-washing habit with odds ratio 75,3. Hand-washing habit has significance impact which was proved by chi square test (pvalue=0,000). Low family income, hand-washing habits, clean water sources, sewer access, waste management, and healthy latrine have significant impact to malnutrition, especially stunting.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21602
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Factors Influencing Hand Washing With Soap Compliance Level Among Beach
           Tourism Workers

    • Authors: Musfirah Musfirah, Ahmad Faizal Rangkuti, Fenni Nurul Khotimah
      Abstract: The compliance level of beach tourism workers is the most important factor to prevent COVID-19 spread in tourism destinations. The availability of hand washing facilities and COVID-19 health protocol media can influence beach tourism workers' compliance with Hand Washing With  Soap (HWWS). The study aimed to determine  the related factors toward HWWS compliance level among beach tourism workers. A cross-setional study involved 60 beach tourism workers using total sampling technique from September 2021 to November 2021. Questionnaires were used to assess the  availability of hand washing facilities, health protocol media, and HWWS compliance levels in beach tourism workers. The descriptive and fisher’s tests are used in the analysis. The finding study demonstrates that majority of respondents "support" the availability of hand washing facilities, the COVID-19 health protocols media, and had a good HWWS compliance among beach tourism workers. We concluded that the availability of hand washing facilities as main factor with related to HWWS compliance level among beach tourism workers.Keywords : COVID-19, Compliance level, Beach  tourism workers, Facilities, Hand washing
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21720
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sociodemographic Factors Related to Food Security During COVID-19 Pandemic
           in Indonesia

    • Authors: Chica Riska Ashari, Vebby Amellia Edwin, Dyah Suryani, Sunarti Sunarti, Erni Buston, Hairil Akbar, Agnesia Clarissa Sera, Suyitno suyitno
      Abstract: The condition of the COVID-19 pandemic with uncontrolled transmission led to the government implementing the Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) regulation. It was implemented to overcome the spread of COVID-19 and will also have an impact on community food security. The cross-sectional study aimed to examine socio-demographic factors and food security among communities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. A total of 1,017 respondents partake in this rapid online survey. The result of multi logistic regression showed that who had stress or depression (Adj. OR = 2.81, 95% C.I = 2.03-3.89), poor dietary habit (Adj. OR = 1.94, 95% C.I = 1.46-2.57), and who live alone (Adj. OR = 6.53, 95% C.I = 2.99-14.25) strongly significant associated with poor food security. Who female of sex (Adj. OR = 1.47, 95% C.I = 0.04-2.07), no have working status (Adj. OR = 1.45, 95% C.I = 1.03-2.05), and not living on java island (Adj. OR = 1.35, 95% C.I = 1.02-1.83) have low associated correlation with poor food security. These findings suggested that the government should give intervention for communities that got stressed, have poor dietary habits, and those who live alone without family during pandemic COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21803
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Job satisfaction of nurses at inpatients primary health care in Demak

    • Authors: Edy Soesanto, Arief Yanto, Ninin Irani, Satriya Pranata, Sri Rejeki, Priyo Sasmito
      Abstract: The majority of activity among nurses in primary health care in Indonesia is still high for non-productive activities. Non-productive activities are closely related to job dissatisfaction then has an impact on work performance. This study aims to analyze the job satisfaction of nurses in primary health care facilities in Indonesia. This study used a quantitative descriptive design. The research used a cross-sectional approach. The subjects of this study are nurses (N= 226 people) who served in 15 inpatients' primary health care. The sampling technique uses a proportionate simple random sampling technique. Nurse job satisfaction instruments assess context factors and content factors. Nurse job satisfaction on context factor is in a good category by a big responsibility for nurse's work (55.2%), progress in work developed well (63.4%), nurses had the opportunity to achieve achievement (54.5%), nurses get great recognition for performance (58.6%) and feel their work is valuable (65.5%). Job satisfaction was supported by policy indicators, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationships, and good working conditions. On the other hand, nurses' job satisfaction on the content factor still needs to be optimized. This is supported by the job satisfaction of nurses on the indicators of responsibility, achievement, performance recognition that has not reached 60%. Therefore, job satisfaction among nurses in inpatient primary health care was quite good enough but still requires optimization on the content factor.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21529
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Secure Relationship does not mean Satisfying Relationship during the
           Pandemic: The Role of Mattering and Life Satisfaction

    • Authors: Hong Chun Yeoh, Susanna Lin Hong Poay, Kususanto Ditto Prihadi, Endah Kurniawati Purwaningtyas
      Abstract: Relationship satisfaction is one of major component of mental health that often ignored by mental health practiticoners in general due to cultural reasons. Moreover, because numerous studies had indicated that when individuals have insecure attachment styles (insecurity in loving someone else), they would never develop any relationship satisfaction with anyone, including friends, spouses, parents, children, ans relatives. Th COVID-19 pandemic had triggered different social patterns among individuals all over the world, and studies during the pandemic indicated the significance of some factors such as the sense of mattering and perceived life satisfaction to the mental health of the general adults. Our references led us to hypothesize that the interpersonal mattering significantly predicts relationship satisfaction, mediated by life satisfaction, under the condition of low secure attachment style. Randomly selected 405 adults from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, were financially compensated to complete the scales of interpersonal mattering, satisfaction with life, secure attachment style section of MOAS, and relationship satisfaction index. The results indicated that the mediation of life satisfaction on the link between mattering and relationship satisfaction was only significant when the level of secure attachment style is at the low and moderate levels. Further implications, limitations, and suggestions are discussed
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21691
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • They can handle it, they are leaders: a look into organizational
           leaders’ mental health

    • Authors: Josephine Octavia, Kususanto Ditto Prihadi, Hong Chun Yeoh, Endah Kurniawati Purwaningtyas
      Abstract: Few studies have examined the mental health of people in a leadership positions. Most of the time, mental health-related policies were created for the non-leaders to cope with the perceived pressure from their leaders. Nevertheless, the mental health of organizational leaders itself might be at stake due to the leadership ‘acts’ they have to perform. This current study aims to investigate the moderating effect of social support and self-compassion on the relationship between organizational leaders’ emotional labor and their psychological well-being. A hundred and twentyone mid-level working executives in leadership positions provided data on their emotional labor, social support, self-compassion, and psychological well-being. It was predicted that social support and self-compassion will both moderate the relationship between organizational leaders’ emotional labor and their psychological well-being. The results indicated that surface acting is correlated with psychological wellbeing while deep acting is not. Social support and self-compassion do not moderate the relationship between emotional labor and psychological wellbeing. However, age is significantly correlated with psychological wellbeing, social support, and self-compassion, indicating its importance in leaders. Implications and limitations are discussed
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21719
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Mattering and Perfectionism among Gen-Z: The Role of Personal Standards
           and Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism on Mattering

    • Authors: Zoe Lee, Kususanto Ditto Prihadi, Eva Nur Rachma
      Abstract: Mattering is the sense that one matters to others, and it is one of the most significant protective factors against depression and anxiety. To date, most studies of mattering have established that it is contingent upon interpersonal factors, such as how one socializes with others and perceives how others value them; little did we study any internal psychological trait that might help in developing better mattering. In the light of that, this current study aims to investigate whether a personality disposition called perfectionism plays a significant role in predicting the sense of mattering. The role of two major elements of perfectionism, namely evaluative concern perfectionism (ECP) and personal standard perfectionism (PSP) was investigated. ECP was considered as the predictor due to the nature of its contingency upon one’s perception of others’ standard of acceptance, while PSP was included as a moderator because the level of personal standard might determine how ECP predicts the sense of mattering. Participants were purposively recruited to make sure that they were members of Generation-Z (Gen-Z). As many as 130 undergraduate students aged 18 to 24 years old were asked to respond to the subscales of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Interpersonal Mattering Scale through an online survey. The data was analyzed with a help of the software of PROCESS Macro for bootstrapping method with 95% confidence interval and 5000 samplings, and the results revealed that when PSP is at its highest levels, the link between ECP and mattering is no longer significant.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21611
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Colchicine as adjuvant therapy in COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis

    • Authors: Betty Rachma, Probo Yudha Pratama Putra, Zakiya Zulaifah, Arlinda Silva Prameswari, Dinda Amalia Eka Putri
      Abstract: SARS CoV-2 infection results in hyperinflammatory responses through the activation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory drug that reduces superoxide production, TNF-a activation, and neutrophil chemotaxis. This study aims to determine the effect of adjuvant colchicine on mortality in COVID-19 patients. Systematic literature searching was conducted on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, and medRxiv with keywords colchicine, Coronavirus Disease, COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, and mortality. Five randomized controlled studies with 15.779 patients were included. There was no significant difference between colchicine group and standard group (OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.91-1.09], p=0.94), Invasive mechanical ventilation necessity also did not show significant difference (OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.83-1.17 p=0.88). There was no significant difference in the incidence of cardiovascular disease (OR 1.11 [95% CI 0.50-2.46], p = 0.79), also the incidence of pneumonia was lower in colchicine group (OR 0.68 [95% CI 0.49-0.93], p=0.02), while the incidence of gastrointestinal complaints was higher in colchicine group (OR 2.09 [95% CI 1.84-2.37], p<0.00001). Colchicine as COVID-19 adjuvant therapy did not significantly reduce mortality, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the colchicine group had lower pneumonia incidence and higher gastrointestinal complaints incidence.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21837
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • The burden of depression and malnutrition in the elderly population of
           western Rajasthan

    • Authors: Shikha Upadhyay, Neha Mantri, Akhil Dhanesh Goel, Nitin Kumar Joshi, Nitesh Kumar, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Kuldeep Singh
      Abstract: Background: With changing demography, developing countries will be outnumbered by the elderly and their associated chronic diseases. The geriatric population is at increased risk of malnutrition with multifactorial factors, especially Depression. The current study aims to explore potential linkages between malnutrition and depression in the geriatric population.Method: A cross-sectional study was planned at Tertiary healthcare facilities at Jodhpur, Western Rajasthan, India from April to June 2018. After consent from 310 elderly patients attending OPD, a pre-tested questionnaire was directed to record socio-demographic data. Assessment of Malnutrition status using Mini Nutritional Assessment, Depression using Geriatric Depression Scale, Physical frailty using Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living was done. Chi-square, Fischer test, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare nominal data as counts and percentage. The mean and standard deviation were used to characterize continuous data. Multiple logistic regression was used to compute the corrected ODDs ratio. Significant was defined as a p-value of less than 0.05.Results: Out of 310 elderly, 192 (61.9%) participants on the MNA scale were categorized as having poor nutrition and 99 (31.9%) were suffering from depression. The elderly at risk of malnutrition among depressed was 75.8 % (n=99) with preponderance for females, and minor disabilities. Multivariate analysis suggested an association of lower socioeconomic status and rural residence in the elderly.Conclusion: Nutritional deficit and depression are interrelated. Depression and malnutrition are linked in a destructive cycle but the causality remains elusive. This synergy could be detrimental to survival.Keywords: Malnutrition, Depression, Aged, Geriatric, Elderly, Frailty, Nutrition Disorders, Chronic disease, Tertiary healthcare, India.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21254
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Care and protection for healthcare workers during a pandemic COVID-19: A
           descriptive qualitative study in Indonesia

    • Authors: Mochamat Helmi, Djayanti Sari, Andreasta Meliala, Laksono Trisnantoro
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the perspectives of care and protection of healthcare workers during the pandemic COVID-19 using a descriptive qualitative study in Indonesia. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach in COVID-19 National Referral Hospitals. The sample in this study is a medical team who actively engaged in delivering COVID-19 services. Purposive sampling was used to collect the sample. There were 45 respondents, with 22 men and 23 women taking part in this study. The qualitative data were analyzed using the content analysis. Three themes that emerge from the data analysis: health protection, legal protection, and incentive schemes. Health protection including calculation of the medical team's workload and lack of a systematic procedure for medical team quarantine. There was a lack of legal basis for medical practice in long-term disaster services. Dimension of incentive scheme, including incentives shift from rewards to demands, changes in incentive regulations, and discrepancy in incentive calculation. The medical team that provides services in a biological crisis, particularly for volunteers, must have a clear direction to follow legal protection and obvious health protection. By stressing protection and rewards for each level of the medical profession, it is hoped to boost motivation in actively participating and supporting the service of COVID-19 patients in critical conditions across Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21771
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • The trend of sharenting among Malaysian parents: A preliminary study of
           intention and motivation

    • Authors: Li Hua Heng, Crendy Yen Teng Tan, Saroja Dhanapal
      Abstract: Social media platforms and applications are increasing exponentially and has become a part of life for everyone. It is widely used by people to connect with large numbers of people without investing much time and effort. This led to the emergence of a new term, ‘sharenting’ which refers to parents sharing their children’s information on social media. The trend of sharenting is very predominant and has raised a lot of concerns in the western countries, but in Malaysia there is still a lack of adequate knowledge on this trend. Past research on this topic mainly focuses on the usage frequency, content and consequences of sharenting in Western countries. However, there is a dearth of literature on the intention and motivation of Malaysian parents’ inclination to this trend. In view of this, the current study employed a qualitative approach in exploring Malaysian parents’ intention and motivation of sharing children’s information on social media through the framework of Bandura’s social learning theory. The study targeted parents in Malaysia aged between 20 to 40 who often share their children’s information on social media. The research was conducted through one-to-one interviews and the findings from the interviews were analyzed using a thematic approach. This research is significant as it provides knowledge on the trend of sharenting of Malaysian parents. The paper ends with recommendation for further future research. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21758
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Interpersonal Mattering and Students’ Friendship Quality as
           Predictors of Subjective Wellbeing

    • Authors: Kylie Kai Ni Yap, Kususanto Ditto Prihadi, Susanna Lin Hong Poay, Fahyuni Baharuddin
      Abstract: This non-experimental correlational study aimed to investigate whether interpersonal mattering would be a better predictor of subjective wellbeing than friendship quality. 119 emerging adults drawn from the public responded to the Google Form posted on social media. Participants were asked to fill up the McGill Friendship Questionnaire-Friend’s Functions (MFQFF), Mattering to Others Questionnaire (MTOQ), and Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). The study hypothesized that friendship quality would predict subjective wellbeing (H1), interpersonal mattering would predict subjective wellbeing (H2) and interpersonal mattering would be a better predictor of subjective wellbeing than friendship quality (H3). Results showed that H2 and H3 were supported but H1 was not supported. Therefore, when people increased their sense of mattering, it may be likely to increase their subjective wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21890
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Interplay of Social, Emotional and Cognitive Factors of Risk
           Perception and Engagement in Precautionary Behaviors during COVID-19
           Lockdown (4.0) in India

    • Authors: Kirti Tyagi
      Abstract: To handle the pandemic of COVID-19, global health authorities are trying to identify factors that influence people’s behavioral patterns to engage in preventive measures. The present study examines the predictors of precautionary behaviors by adopting a socio-emotional-cognitive model of risk perception and provides a descriptive picture of people’s risk perception and precautionary behaviors during COVID19 lockdown in India. This was a cross-sectional online survey study, where data was collected from 203 participants in the age group of 18-67 years from different covid active zones of India using convenient sampling. The descriptive findings indicated that Indians displayed high participation in various precautionary behaviors (e.g., social distancing, washing hands, others) high level of awareness about the disease’s spread and symptoms, and high-risk perception (e.g., high perceived psychological vulnerability, disease severity, & personal impact). The participants also displayed a moderate to high level of worry towards the pandemic, with a moderate level of trust in the government’s ability to fight the pandemic. On the other hand, a significant positive relationship was observed between risk severity, perceived personal risk impact (cognitive factor) and level of anxiety towards pandemic (affective factor) and between the level of awareness (cognitive factor) and engagement in precautionary behaviors. However, only cognitive factors of risk perception (e.g., perceived psychological invulnerability & awareness about the diseases) were found out to be significant predictors for engagement in precautionary behaviors. Therefore, the present study emphasizes how health agencies should focus on creating risk messages that increase people’s estimation of personal risk and awareness towards the virus in order to raise community’s engagement in precautionary behaviors.
       Keywords: Risk Perception, Precautionary Behaviors, COVID19
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21563
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Depression, Anxiety, Coping Strategies and Quality of Life of the Elderly
           During the Covid-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Iswatun Iswatun, Ah. Yusuf, Joko Susanto, Makhfudli Makhfudli, Abd. Nasir, Amellia Mardhika
      Abstract: Background and aims. Covid-19 is currently a global health problem, with the spread and transmission to the population almost all over the world. This has a psychological impact on the elderly which will affect mental health and quality of life. This study aims to identify the relationship of depression, anxiety, coping strategies with the quality of life of the elderly during the covid-19 pandemic in Lamongan. Method and materials. This study uses a cross sectional design, the population is all the elderly in the Lamongan area. The sampling technique used cluster sampling technique, with a total sample of 232 respondents. The independent variables are depression, anxiety and coping strategies, while the dependent variable is the quality of life of the elderly. Instruments for depression used the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), anxiety using the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and quality of life using the WHOQOOL-BRIEF questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Multiple linear regression test.Result. The results showed that there was a relationship between depression and quality of life (ρ=0.001), there was a relationship between anxiety and quality of life (ρ=0.000) and there was also a relationship between coping strategies and quality of life (ρ=0.027). Conclusion. The study provides important information about the psychological impact of developing appropriate psychological interventions to improve mental health and quality of life, especially for at-risk groups, especially the elderly.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21768
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Resilience during the Lockdown: Insignificance of Perceived Social Support

    • Authors: Sheng Yee Wan, Cherilyn Nicole Rhui Yen Yeo, Shi Qi Foo, Kususanto Ditto Prihadi
      Abstract: Pre-pandemic studies had established that human resilience is mainly based on the social feedback that enables the formation of one’s perceived social support. In the Malaysian context, the enforcement of the movement control order (MCO) amidst the pandemic altered the social interaction pattern. The shift had involved more dependence on online communication (i.e., social media). Therefore, the way perceived social support (PSS) plays its role in predicting resilience could have been affected. Due to the reason mentioned above and the reports that Malaysians tend to increase their levels of spirituality during the MCO, we hypothesized that the sense of being empowered fully mediates the contribution of PSS on resilience while moderated by the levels of spirituality. Four hundred and five adults who reside in Malaysia during the MCO 2 were recruited to respond to scales of perceived social support, spirituality, empowerment, and resilience through the online survey. Our results suggested that the sense of empowerment significantly and fully mediated the relationship between PSS and resilience among individuals with low and moderate levels of spirituality. Scope, limitations, implications, and suggestions were also discussed at the end of this paper.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21924
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Bacterial and parasitic contamination of raw vegetable in Jember regency,
           Indonesia : potential risk for food-borne diseases

    • Authors: Diana Chusna Mufida, Elvia Rahmi Marga Putri, Dini Agustina, Enny Suswati, Muhammad Ali Shodikin, Yunita Armiyanti, Bagus Hermansyah, Wiwien Sugih Utami, Angga Mardro Raharjo
      Abstract: A raw vegetable is one of the transmission factors in human food-borne infection. Contamination might start from the plantation, distribution, until at serving time in the dining table. A higher level of contamination will increase the risk of food-borne illness. The study aims to determine bacteria and parasite contamination in some raw vegetables that people usually consume in Jember Regency, East Java, Indonesia. In this study, we collected raw vegetable from eight traditional markets. We chose randomly at each market five samples of vegetables that usually directly consumed, like lettuce, tomato, cabbage, basil, long bean, and cucumber. Pathogens we identified limited on bacteria and parasite like helminth and protozoan group. This study showed that 91% contaminated by E. coli, 84% by Staphylococcus aureus, and 79% contaminated by Vibrio cholerae. Besides bacteria, 36% of samples contaminated by the helminth group, and protozoa contaminated 27%. The most vegetables contaminated was lettuce, even in bacterial or parasitic contamination. This study concluded that there is contamination in raw vegetables usually directly consumed in Jember Regency. It will be a potential risk factor for food-borne illness in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21875
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Factors associated with utilization of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid
           in Nepal

    • Authors: Tara Ramtel, Kamaliah Mohamad Noh, Prof. Dr. Narbada Thapa, Prof. Dr Krishna Gopal Rampal
      Abstract: Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is an optional cervical cancer screening method. National guideline of Nepal has emphasized using the VIA and intended to achieve at least a 50% screening rate by 2015 but the overall coverage is only 2.4% in 2019. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors associated with the utilization of VIA screening in Bagmati Province, Nepal. A convenience sample of 400 women aged 30 to 60 years were included in the study.   A semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on VIA test and factors associated with it. Awareness, economic status, socio-psychological beliefs, service availability and accessibility, perception on service providers’ performance were associated with low VIA use in the province. VIA screening was associated with socio-demographic variables (χ2=29.9; df=4; p= <0.001), knowledge factors (χ2=69.29; df=3; p= <0.001) and with the perception on service providers’ performance (χ2=433.82; df=6; p= <0.001). Service providers’ approach during the VIA screening mattered on the acceptance of this service. The disparity was observed in the knowledge of cervical cancer and screening by the women. Based on this,there is a need for massive improvement  on the awareness of the community about the cervical disease and screening services.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21873
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Does the Increase in the Cigarette Excise Tax Affect Cigarette

    • Authors: Neni Susilawati, Daffa Abyan, Sabrina Cristalia Aruan, Marcel Angwyn
      Abstract: The level of cigarette excise rates is one of the factors of cigarette costs. However, it is unclear how high the cigarette excise rate should be in order to reduce smoking in Indonesia. The aim of this research was to see how effective the cigarette excise tariff policy was at lowering public cigarette usage. The study conducted a quantitative approach, employing survey data collection techniques on a number of smokers as well as in-depth interviews. The data indicated that a 12.5% increase in the cigarette excise charge had a negligible effect on reducing cigarette consumption. The author identified numerous variables that contributed to the tobacco excise tax increase's ineffectiveness as a policy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21887
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Comparing well-being and health among rural and urban Indonesian older
           people: analysis of the related factors

    • Authors: The Maria Meiwati Widagdo, Maria Fransiska Pudjohartono, Meilina Meilina, Angela Rosalia Mete, Adhiyasa Primagupita, Kadek Dewi Armitha Putri Sudarsana
      Abstract: Indonesia has the fourth highest population of older people in the world, with Yogyakarta Province having the highest percentage of older people in Indonesia. There is a need to ensure the well-being of older people. This study aimed to compare the well-being and health of older people living in urban and rural areas in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, as well as analyze the predictors of well-being. A total of 142 (80 rural and 62 urban) older people aged 60-75 years participated in this study. Well-being was assessed using the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The factors measured included sociodemographic data (age, sex, educational level, living arrangements, and current employment status), physical function (mobility and balance), cognitive function, depression, independence, and attitude towards aging. Data of the two groups were compared using t-tests and chi-square analysis. Correlations with well-being were analyzed using univariate correlation and multivariate hierarchical regression. The urban group had slightly older age, higher education, lower mobility and balance, higher attitude scores, and higher well-being. Depression was a significant variable in well-being for both communities. Physical capacity was an important factor in urban populations, while well-being in rural areas was better predicted by independence and cognitive function.Keywords: aging, elderly, Indonesia, mental health, older people, physical health, quality of life, rural, urban, well-being
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i4.21752
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Assessment on Knowledge and Perception Regarding Health Risks of Pesticide
           Usage Among Farmers

    • Authors: Priyanka Anbazhagan
      Abstract: Pesticides are essential substances that is economical, labor saving and efficient tool among the farmers with significant importance in increasing food production and pest management in developing countries. Although, the serious concern about the health risk of pesticide toxicity should be investigated. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge & perception of health risks of pesticide usage among farmers. This online-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu. A validated questionnaire was prepared in two languages for convenience, assessing the sociodemographic and analyzing the level of awareness, perception of pesticide usage among farmers. About 412 farmers participated, in which 98.5% use pesticides and 64.5% were males. Among them, 72.4% of farmers do not use personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying pesticides, 75.5% dispose and 24.5% of farmers re-use the empty pesticide bottle. Also, 68 % are not aware of the harmful effects of pesticides even though 94.5% experienced health related problems while using them. Therefore, 95.4% of farmers think it is necessary to create awareness about safe handling practice and health risks regarding the usage of pesticides. Our study reveals that farmers do not have adequate knowledge about safe pesticide handling and are not aware of pesticide toxicity levels along with the risk associated with the degree of toxicity which is essential for implementing strategies regarding pesticide safety education and training.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i3.21230
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Use of Sansevieria Sp and Cymbopogon Nardus extracts on Humidifier
           Modification to Reduce Airborne Germs

    • Authors: rachmaniyah kesling
      Abstract: It turns out that indoors is not 100% safe from harmful pollutantsThere was even a special study that examined Sick Building Syndrome. Other factors that also play a role are occupant activities, building materials, furniture and equipment, as well aindoor temperature/humidity. Therefore, an alternative technology is needed to control room air quality, in this case is a humidifier filled with natural ingredients such as mother-in-law's tongue (Sansevieriasp) and lemongrass (CymbopogonNardus) extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and potential of Sansevieriasp and CymbopogonNardus as anti-fungal and anti-germ substances in a room. Sansevieria sp and Cymbopogon Nardus extract can be aromatherapy that prevents sick building syndrome.This study used an experimental method and One Group Pre-test Post-test Design. In this case, ansevieria sp and Cymbopogon Nardus extract were used as humidifier modification material to reduce airborne germ. Sansevieria extract was provided atconcentrations of 30%, 40%, and 50%. Furthermore, the data analysiswas conducted through Anovatest.Based on the effectiveness test that has been done, it showed that the Sansevieriaspand Cymbopogon Nardus extracts at concentration of 30% decreased the germs by 78.2%, while at the concentration of 40%, it decreased the indoor air germs by 74.2%, and at the concentration of 50%, it decreased the germs by 65.11%. Furthermore, the results of the Anova test showed that the Sansevieria,sp extracts at the concentration of 30% 40%, and 50% had a p-value > 0.05. It means that there was no significant or insignificant difference between the concentrations employed so that in this study, the extracts of Sansevieriaspand Cymbopogon Nardus extracts had the same effective antibacterial power.Based on the results, it was concluded that Sansevieria spand Cymbopogon Nardusextract as modified humidifier solution at concentrations of 30%, 40%, and 50% have the same effectiveness in reducing the Germ in the room air.
      PubDate: 2021-12-04
      DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i2.21381
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
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