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ISSN (Print) 2088-4559 - ISSN (Online) 2477-0256
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Homepage  [18 journals]
  • In silico study of the active compounds in bitter melon (Momordica
           charantia L) as antidiabetic medication

    • Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tresna Lestari, Tita Nofianti, Lilis Tuslinah, Dudi Nurmalik
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Antidiabetic are many drugs available in the market, but most medications have side effects that are relatively high and cause toxicity, so it needs tobe develoved search of new drug compounds were more potent drugs with side effects as low. Various research have shown that bitter melon (Momordica charantia L) has an effect antidiabetic. But it is not known specifically as antidiabetic compounds that act on bitter melon (Momordica charantia L). This study was conducted to predict the active compounds of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L)potent as antidiabetic in silico, through the molecular docking, Drug scan, PreADMET and molecular dinamics simulation. The results of the 26 active compound bitter melon (Momordica charantia L) obtained one potential compounds that are active against nuclear reseptor RORα that is goyaglikosida-h and more potent than Rosiglitazon
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • The potentiation effect of Bawang Dayak (Sisyrinchium palmifolium L.)
           extract on T47D cell growth inhibition after 5-fluorouracil treatment

    • Authors: Azizah Yuniarti, Elza Sundhani, Nunuk Aries Nurulita
      First page: 204
      Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is chemotherapy agents that used in breast cancer treatment that has toxic effects such as myelotoxicity. its effectiveness relatively low. Bawang Dayak has been widely empirically used as a breast cancer treatment. This study's aims were to determine the sensitivity of 5-FU against T47D cells, as single and its combination with EBD, to determine apoptotic induction, and the inhibitory effect of T47D cell cycle. The cytotoxic assay was using the MTT method with the concetration of 5-FU (0-600μg / mL) and EBD (0-250μg / mL). Apoptotic induction analysis were determined by PI/annexin V. Both of apoptotic and cell cycle analysis was performed by flowcytometry. The results of the 5-FU and EBD cytotoxic test on T47D cells obtained IC50 274μg/mL and 75μg/mL, respectively. The combination of 5-FU and EBD has a mild to strong synergistic effect (CI 0.829 and 0.779). its ombined treatment induced apoptosis in T47D cells by 21.33%. Combination of these combinations caused cell accumulation in G0-G1 phase of 57.11%, greater than control (41.20%). Provision of 5-FU and EBD combination treatments causes disturbance and damage to cells that cause cell cycle arrest in the G0-G1 phase and can not proceed to the next phase. The combination of 5-fluorouracil and EBD has a synergistic effect as breast cancer co-chemotherapy is able to induce apoptosis against T47D cells by triggering cell accumulation in G0-G1 phase. The extract of Bawang Dayak has a high potential to be developed as co-chemotherapy in breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • In silico toxicity prediction of 1-phenyl-1-(quinazolin-4-yl) ethanol
           compounds by using Toxtree, pkCSM and preADMET

    • Authors: Yeni Yeni, Supandi Supandi, Fajar Merdekawati
      First page: 216
      Abstract: The 1-phenyl-1-(quinazolin-4-yl) ethanol compounds are alkaloids of quinozoline class found in many Hydrangeaceae families. A survey revealed that most of the identified quinazolin derivatives have anticancer activity. Toxicity prediction of 1-phenyl-1-(quinazolin-4-yl) ethanols were performed to obtain the best three compounds with high activity and the lowest toxicity. Toxicity prediction was conducted using Toxtree, pkCSM and PreADMET. 2D structure of compounds were formed using ChemDraw. The decision tree approach was used in Toxtree application with endpoints including Cramer rules, Kroes TTC, carcinogenicity (genotoxic and non genotoxic) and in vitro mutagenicity. Graph based signature was used in pkCSM application with endpoints including mutagenicity, maximum daily dose, LD50 and hepatotoxicity. In PreADMET application, a method based on drugs similarity and ADMET properties was used with endpoints including mutagenicity, carcinogenicity to rat and mice. The results of data analysis showed that the best three anticancer compounds that have high activity and the lowest toxicity are compounds 14, 16 and 19.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Neuropharmacological Activity of Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus L.) Rhizome

    • Authors: Lusi Putri Dwita, Ema Dewanti, Vera Ladeska, Sediarso Sediarso, Adnan Muntashir, Ulfa Safni, Rahma Wulan Sari
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Research in the area of herbal neuropharmacological effects has increased markedly over the past decades. This research was aimed to further investigate neuropharmacological properties of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes fraction by measuring hypnotic-siccative and anticonvulsant activities. The exploratory behavior test was performed using Hole Board method while motor coordination was assessed using Rotarod Test. The result showed that the 70% ethanol fraction of Cyperus rotundus rhizome in has significant (p <0,05) neuropharmacological activities. All three fractions tested (ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane), the ethanol fraction showed the best hypnotic-sedative and anticonvulsant activities. Ethanol Cyperus rotundus rhizome fraction could decrease the duration of HLE equal to sodium valproate and potentiated the phenobarbital-induced sleep by decreasing the onset and prolonging the duration of sleep. The highest dose of 70% ethanol fraction of Cyperus rotundus rhizome (356.7 mg/kg) showed the best anxiolytic activity comparable to diazepam (p> 0.05). In conclusion, Teki ladang (Cyperus rotundus) rhizome appeared as potent neuropharmacological drug candidate with abilities comparable to synthetics drugs. 
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Inhibition of HMG CoA Reductase and Lipid Peroxidation in The Rats Liver
           by Selected Zingiberaceae

    • Authors: Patonah Hasimun, Agus Sulaeman, Hendra Mahakam Putra, Heni Lindasari
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. One of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease is hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to determine the potential of Zingiberaceae (10 species) as inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation. This study was conducted by 2 methods including assay of HMG CoA reductase inhibition and lipid peroxidation test. The study was performed by in vitro method, using 20% rat liver homogenate. The inhibition of HMG CoA reductase enzyme was done by reacting liver homogenate, HMG CoA substrate, which added the Zingiberaceae extract compared with simvastatin as standard drug. The absorbance of the mixture was measured by a Microlab 300 spectrophotometer at a 340 nm wavelength. Lipid peroxidation assay was induced by the FeSO4.7H2O solution. The absorbance value measured using a spectrophotometer at a 532 nm wavelength. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was characterized by absorbance of the test extract, compared with the control group. The obtained data was calculated as percent of inhibition and was used to calculate IC50 extract test. The results showed that the 10 ethanolic extracts of Zingiberaceae rhizomes have activity as enzyme inhibitor HMG-CoA reductase with IC50 value range 65.8±4.1 – 203.3±15.2 ppm, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 value range 13.5±5.0 – 219.6±4.3 ppm. This study can be concluded that the Zingiberaceae rhizomes have potential role as antihyperlipidemic agents through inhibition of HMG CoA reductase enzyme activity and preventing lipid peroxidation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Anti Inflammatory And Anti Bacterial Activity Of Sumbawa Oil

    • Authors: Taufan Hari Sugara, Baiq Nurbaety
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Sumbawa oil is a traditional ingredient that known as local wisdom of the island society of Sumbawa. It is believed to treat wounds, sprains, rheumatism, thrush and toothache. This study aims to determine the the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity of sumbawa oil products based on the types of raw materials and its phytochemical compounds. There are 3 stages in this research, consists of collecting various trademark of sumbawa oil product, determining type of raw material and analysis of phytochemical compound, followed by pharmacological activity test (Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial). Anti-inflammatory test was performed by observing the decrease of percentage inflammation of 21 white rats in 7 groups of egg white injection treatment. Antibacterial test using TSA method by observing the inhibition zone against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. The results showed that Sumbawa oil products are known to contain secondary metabolite compounds of saponins, Triterpenoids, steroids and Flavonoids. All samples of Sumbawa oil products showed anti-inflammatory activity based on a decrease in the percentage of inflammation in the white rats leg for 6 hours of observation. Sumbawa oil also shows antibacterial activity in the strong category and has a wide spectrum because it can inhibit the growth of gram positive and negative bacteria each of 11,83-14,67 mm and 10,67-12,33 mm.  This study concluded that Sumbawa oil was shown to have antiinflamatory and antibacterial activity even though its value was still lower than standard drug.
      PubDate: 2018-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)

    • Authors: Iis Wahyuningsih,M.Si; Apt, Wahyu Widyaningsih, Silviana Wulandari
      First page: 248
      Abstract: Piroxicam is antiinflammatory non-steroidal (AINS) drug group that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. Like most other AINS drugs, piroxicam has low solubility and has gastrointestinal (ulcerogenic) side effects on long-term use. The nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) is one of the technologies that can be used to overcome it. This study aims to determine the effect of ulcerogenic SNEDDS piroxicam compared with piroxicam formulas instead of SNEDDS. This study uses white rats male strain SD age 2-3 months and weight 100-200 grams of 40 rats. Rats divided into 5 groups. Group I was a normal control group, the test animals were given only water. Group II was a suspending control group treated with a 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution, group III is a carrier control group treated with SNEDDS carrier which is a mixture of tween 80, virgin coconut oil (VCO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, group IV was a group of piroxicam drugs suspended with piroxicam 1.08 mg/kg in 1% PVP, group V was treated with SNEDDS piroxicam.Treatment was done for 28 days. After treatment, the gastric of rats were taken to be observed for ulcerogenic effects. Observations were made macroscopically by looking at ulcer scores followed by histopathological observations of tissue. The ulcer score data from each group were analyzed using one-way ANOVAand LSD test. The results showed that the normal control group, 1% PVP suspension and carrier group had a ulcer index of 0.0, 0.0 and 0.0, while the piroxicam suspension group and the SNEDDS group had an ulcer index of 0.88 and 0.0. These results were confirmed by histopathologic results of SNEDDS piroxicam to decrease the effect of pyroxicam ulcerogenic with results in the piroxicam suspension group has ulcer with necrosis by neutrophil infiltration, lymphocytes and mast cells in the mucosal tunica to submucosa. In the SNEDDS piroxicam group there is erosion with necrosis of the mucosal tunica epithelium with infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells in submucosal tunica. It can be concluded the SNEDDS piroxicam can decrease the ulcerogenic effect.
      PubDate: 2018-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • The validation of patient knowledge questionnaire for patients with
           diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia

    • Authors: Ginanjar Zukhruf Saputri, Haafizah Dania, Imaniar Noor Faridah, Faiza Chusnuni A
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with Hyperlipidemia increased in Indonesia, where both diseases have a risk of complications towards cardiovascular disease. DM patients with hyperlipidemia require proper management to control blood sugar, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Knowledge is one of the important factors in improving adherence therapy and quality of life of DM-hyperlipidemia patients, especially in controlling blood glucose level and total cholesterol levels. This study aims to develop a patient questionnaire of DM-hyperlipidemia.The study used cross sectional method. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 18 – 70 years old, diagnosed DM-Hyperlipidemia, getting at least 1 oral antidiabetic and oral anti-cholesterol. The questionnaire item of knowledge was developed based on gudeline therapy and previous research reference. Expert validation is done on Doctor who had expert in DM and clinical psychologist. The pilot test was performed on 10 healthy patients and 10 patients of DM-hyperlipidemia who had eligible inclusion criteria. Validation of questionnaire was done on 30 patients of DM-Hyperlipidemia who undergoing therapy at outpatient clinic of PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital Yogyakarta. Data collection was done by interviewing questionnaires in patients. Analysis of data using SPSS with product moment validation test and cronbach alpha to see the reliability of questionnaire.Validation results show there are some invalid items that are in questions 9, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 17, the range of questions about knowledge about hyperlipidemia, medication and general health. Re-validation without invalid item was done and obtained value r> 0.3, with value of Cronbach alpha 0,715.The DM-Hyperlipidemia patient questionnaire was valid and reliable to measure the level of knowledge of DM patients with Dysipidemia.  
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effect of the ethanolic extract of red roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa
           L.) on hematocrit, platelets, and erythrocytes in healthy volunteers

    • Authors: Siti Setianingsih, Laela Hayu Nurani, Abdul Rohman
      First page: 266
      Abstract: Kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) memiliki kandungan flavonoid terutama antosianin dan quersetin yang berpotensi sebagai antioksidan, hepatoprotektor, diuretik, antikolesterol serta imunostimulator. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian serta keamanan ekstrak etanol kelopak bunga rosella merah selama 30 hari dan selama 15 hari setelah tidak mengkonsumsi rosella terhadap nilai hematokrit, trombosit dan eritrosit. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan pre-post treatment design study. Dua puluh satu sukarelawan sehat digunakan dalam penelitian yang telah memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi serta bersedia mengisi informed consent. Sukarelawan diberikan kapsul dengan dosis 500 mg sebanyak 1 kali sehari, 10-15 menit setelah makan pada malam hari selama 30 hari. Pemeriksaan hematologi dilakukan pada hari ke-0; 31; dan 45 yang meliputi parameter hematokrit, trombosit, dan eritrosit menggunakan hematology analyzer. Hasil yang diperoleh dibandingkan secara statistik menggunakan paired t test dan wilcoxon test. Hasil rerata hematokrit, trombosit, dan eritrosit pada sukarelawan laki-laki dan perempuan hari ke-0, hari ke-31 dan hari ke-45 masuk dalam rentang normal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna (p>0,05) nilai hematokrit, trombosit dan eritrosit perbandingan hari ke-0 dengan hari ke-31, hari ke-31 dan hari ke-45, serta hari ke-0 dan hari ke-45. Pemberian kapsul ekstrak etanol rosella merah 500 mg selama 30 hari dan setelah 30 hari tidak mengkonsumsi kapsul ekstrak etanol rosella tidak mempengaruhi semua parameter hematologi pada sukarelawan sehat.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Evaluation of Adherence, Distress and Quality of Life For Type 2 Diabetes
           Melitus Patients In Puskesmas Wedarijaksa I and Puskesmas Trangkil
           Kabupaten Pati

    • Authors: Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Siti Urbayatun, Oni Yulianta Wilisa
      First page: 274
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is chronic disease that needs the complex and a long term medical treatment. Patient adherence and level  of distress can  affect patient quality of life.  The purposes of this study is to examine patients adherence, distress, and quality of life patients type 2 diabetes mellitus in KabupatenPati.This study used cross sectional design and data patients collection techniques were conducted prospective data. The subjects of research were patients with Type 2 diabetes amounted to 126 people. Instruments used in this research is Medication Adherence Respon Scale (MARS) questionnaire to measure patients adherence, Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) to measure distress, and EQ-5D-5L questionnaire to measure quality of life. Data analysis statistic used Mann Whiney test, and regresi linier.        This study was dominated by female patients 78.6%. The mean age of DMT2 patients was 54.49 ± 6.19 years. The average value of adherence (MARS) was 21.33 ± 2.90 including in moderate adherence. The mean total of  DDS score was 1,56±0,42  including not distress level and the highest is the emotional burden domain. The mean value of  EQ5D5L index was 0.729 ± 0.161. The results showed a significant association (p <0.05) between patient characteristics age and duration of sick with adherence. There were  significant association (p <0.05) between age to physician distress, gender with emotional, marital status with emotional and interpersonal distress, duration of sick to physician distress and management teraphy distress. Marital status and income had  significant relationship  to quality of life. Emotional burden domain had significant relationship to quality of life. Multivariate analysis showed that the relationship of adherence and distress by the emotional burden to quality of life. This study concluded  the significant relationship between adherence, distress and quality of life.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Evaluasi terapi erytropoetin pada pasien hemodialisa di rumah sakit PKU
           Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

    • Authors: Adnan Adnan, Haafizah Dania, Woro Supadmi
      First page: 282
      Abstract: Most of the patients with end-stage renal disease who undergoing hemodialysis received erythropoietin (EPO) therapy for the anemia treatment. Deficiency anemia erythropoietin is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). EPO therapy is expected to improve the anemia and can improve the quality of life of patients.This study was conducted in an analytic observational with Cross Secsional design. The purpose of this study was to know there was a difference of red blood cell profile involve hemoglobin (Hb), Mean Corpusculair Volume (MCV), Mean Corpusculair Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpusculair Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and quality of life of CKD patients who received EPO and non EPO therapy in PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Hospital. Inclusion criteria in this study were PGK ICD N18.9 patients who were undergoing hemodialysis therapy at RS PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, outpatient, can read and understand the questionnaire, and accept to be a respondent.The results of this study showed no significant difference (p>0,05) in red blood cell (Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC) between EPO and non EPO therapy groups. The associated of EPO with the quality of life of patients in all of KDQOL domains was p> 0.05.The conclusions of this study showed that there was no significant difference between EPO and Non EPO therapy and there was no correlation between EPO and non EPO therapy with quality of life of hemodialysis patients.
      PubDate: 2018-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • The physical properties and stability of purple yam (Ipomoea batatas (L.)
           Lam ) lipstick

    • Authors: susmiatun susmiatun, Anjar mahardian kusuma, Arif Budiman, Indri Hapsari
      First page: 290
      Abstract: Ubi jalar ungu memiliki antosianin yang bermanfaat sebagai pewarna alami yang lebih aman dari pewarna sintesis. Antosianin mempunyai daya antioksidan yang dapat menangkap radikal bebas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai pengaruh penggunaan konsentrasi ekstrak ubi ungu terhadap sifat fisik dan stabilitas fisik lipstik.. Lipstik dibuat dalam 3 macam formula yaitu L01, L02, L03. Untuk evaluasi kualitas produk tersebut maka dilakukan uji sifat fisik dan uji stabilitas terhadap lipstik ubi ungu. Uji sifat fisik terdiri atas uji organoleptik, uji titik leleh, uji kekerasan, uji homogenitas, uji daya oles, uji pH lipstik dan pengujian stabilitas lipstik dilakukan dengan menyimpan lipstik selama 30 hari dalam suhu ruang 25°C kemudian dilakukan pengamatan terhadap adanya perubahan bentuk, warna dan aroma selama penyimpanan. Sebagai pembanding digunakan  lipstick top leader market di Indonesia yaitu merk “W”. Data pengamatan titik leleh, kekuatan dan pH lipstik dianalisis dengan menggunakan One Way Anova dan dilanjutkan dengan Turkey serta data organoleptik, homogenitas, daya oles dan stabilitas lipstik dijelaskan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan tidak ada perbedaan bermakna antara lipstik L01, L02, L03 pada organoleptik lipstik, titik leleh, kekerasan lipstik, homogenitas, daya oles lipstik, pH serta stabilitas fisik lipstik.  Namun apabila dibandingkan dengan lipstik merk “W” terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada titik leleh, kekerasan dan daya oles antara lipstik L01, L02, L03 dengan lipstik merk “W”. Kesimpulannya penggunaan ekstrak ubi ungu dengan bermacam konsentrasi tidak berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisik lipstik ubi ungu dan stabilitas lipstik ubi ungu yang dihasilkan. Kata kunci : Lipstik, Ubi ungu, Sifat fisik, Stabilitas 
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Improving the in vitro penetration of niacinamide using span 60-based
           niosomal system in gel formulation

    • Authors: Rise Desnita, Sri Luliana, zainab kasim
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Niacinamide is one of the components of cosmeceutical products that reported to have skin benefits for the treatment of skin pigmentation, acne and wrinkles. However, the dermal penetration of niacinamide is poor. The carrier system which can be selected to carry the compound through the stratum corneum layer is the niosome system using span 60. This study was aimed to determine the concentration of span 60 that can trap niacinamide optimally and the ability of niosome system span 60 to increase in vitro penetration of niacinamide in gel formulation. The different formulations of nicotinamide niosome were formulated with variance concentrations of Span 60, that is, formula A 100 μmol, formula B 150 μmol, and formula C 200 μmol. The entrapment efficiency testing was conducted using dialysis membrane. The gel formulation was prepared in two formulas, niacinamide niosome gel and niacinamide gel (without niosomes) and tested diffusion using Franz diffusion cell flow-through type. The result show that Formula A provides the most optimum entrapment efficiency of 99.03±0.026%. The results of the in vitro skin penetration studies for 8 hours indicate that the niosomal formulation using Span 60 could increase skin penetration with the percent cumulative amount of niacinamide niosomes was 82.87±1.6932% compared to niacinamide in gel without noisome system about 70.27±5,3212%.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Effect of Concentration Variation of Ethanolic Extract from Potato
           Peels (Solanum tuberosum L.) on the Physical Properties and Antibacterial
           Activity of Gels against Propionibacterium acnes

    • Authors: Dewi Rashati, Mikhania Cristiningtyas Eryani
      First page: 302
      Abstract: This research was aimed to know the effect of ptotato skins ethanolic extract variation concentration to physical properties of gel and antibacterial effect to Propionibacterium acnes. Gel were formulated in 3 formulas with potato skins concentration 50%, 60% and 705 respectivelly. The phisical properties of gel which obeserved include organoleptic, homogenity, pH, and spreadability. The results show that variation concentration of potato skins ethanolic extract has an effect to gel colour and viscosity but has not effect to form, smell, pH, and spreadability of gel. All formulas show strong inhibition power to Propionibacterium acnes. 

      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Formulation and evaluation of erythropoietin-alginate microspheres at
           different amount of drug

    • Authors: Dewi Hariyadi, Esti Hendradi, Khoirotul Lailiyah
      First page: 312
      Abstract: This research formulate erythropoietin-alginate microspheres and to evaluate characteristics of erythropoietin-alginate microspheres at different amount of drug using aerosolization. Amount of erythropoietin are 10.000 IU (F1); 20.000 IU (F2); 60.000 IU (F3). The mixture of erythropoietin-alginate was sprayed into CaCl2 and was stirred at 1000 rpm for 30 minutes. Formulas resulted spherical shape of microspheres. The size of microspheres was 2.77 µm for F1; 3.89 µm for F2; and 4.42 µm for F3. The results of swelling index showed that swelling index of microspheres increased by increasing the concentration of erythropoietin. The results were in accordance with the size of the microspheres that increased with increasing concentration of drug. The yields of microspheres obtained were respectively 91.92%; 87.53%; 86.50% for F1, F2 and F3. It can be concluded that the particle size of microspheres, swelling index increased by increasing concentration of erythropoietin. In contrast, yield of microspheres decreased by increasing drug concentration. In conclusion, formula of microspheres were potential in terms of characteristics and may recommend for further in vivo study. 
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Antibacterial activity of dialkyl-aginate biosurfactant cream againts
           Staphylococcus aureus an Pseudomonas aerugynosa

    • Authors: Kintoko Kintoko, Nining Sugihartini, Benazir Evita Rukaya
      First page: 320
      Abstract: Dialkyl-alginate biosurfactant is an amphifilik rhamnolipid biosurfactant that has the potential to be developed into an antibacterial agent. The purpose of this study was to prove that the biosurfactant of dialkyl alginate both before and after creams has antibacterial activity especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Test of antibacterial activity of biosurfactant dialkyl alginate at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20% to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Hammond, et al (2011) modified quantitative method. Enbatic® 1% is used as a positive control and sterile aquadest as a negative control. Determination of antibacterial activity of dialkyl alginate biosurfactant followed by analysis of leakage of protein and nucleic acids using UV-vis Spectrophotometry and leakage of Ca2 + and K + metal ions using Atomic Absorption Spetrophotometry (AAS). The most active concentration was formulated into cream and then performed physical evaluation (organoleptic, pH, adhesion, spreading and viscosity) and tested antibacterial activity using the well method. The test results showed that the biosurfactants of dialkyl-alginate before and after the cream was treated as antibacterial activity. The concentration of 10% was the most active concentration having activity which did not differ significantly to positive control with p value of 0,05
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Determination of Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Properties of Cream
           Formulation of Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L) and Temu Kunci (Boesenbergia
           pandurata (Roxb.) Schlecht) Rhizomes Extract

    • Authors: Shintia Lintang Charisma, Wiranti Sri Rahayu, Retno Wahyuingrum
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Kencur (Kaempferia galanga, L.) rhizome contain ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMS) which has sunscreen properties. Temu kunci (Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb) Schlecht) rhizome contains  flavonoid and essential oils with oxidant radical scavenging properties. The aims  of this study were  to obtain the optimum physical properties of sunscreen and antioxidant cream and to compare the sun protection factor (SPF) values and antioxidant activity of kencur and temu kunci rhizomes extract before and after formulated.This research used Simplex Latice Design (SLD) model with 2 components of kencur extract and temu kunci extract. Based on the SLD model obtained optimum formula design, then the SPF values and antioxidant activity were studied by UV spectrophotometric method and DPPH method respectively.Based on SLD model obtained optimum formula that containing kencur : temu kunci extract 80%:20% (formula A) and 70%:30% (formula B). The SPF values of  kencur extract, formula A and formula B were  4.505, 5.024 and 4.511 respectively. Antioxidant activity showed that the IC50 of formula A, formula B, temu kunci extract, BHT and Vitamin E were 109.15 µg/ml, 95.23 µg/ml, 10.20 µg/ml, 22.33 µg/ml and 8.78 µg/ml respectively.Cream formula A and formula B have optimum physical properties. The SPF value of the optimum formulations were higher than SPF value of kencur extract. Antioxidant activity of that combinations were  lower than temu kunci extract, BHT and Vitamin E.
      PubDate: 2018-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Isolation, identification, phytochemical screening, and antibacterial
           activity of Aspergillus sp. MFD-01, an endophytic fungus derived from
           Mesua ferrea

    • Authors: Dwi Hartanti, Risda Yunita Andestia Sinaga, Asmiyenti Djaliasrin Djalil, Retno Wahyuningrum
      First page: 338
      Abstract: We have successfully isolated and identified endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Mesua ferrea L. grown at Banyumas were for the first time. One of those fungi was MFD-01. In this study, we report the isolation, identification, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical screening of Aspergillus sp. MFD-01. The endophytic fungus was isolated from the leaves of M. ferrea by subsequent inoculation on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The identification was based on its morphology and ITS-DNA sequence. The antibacterial activity was determined by dilution method. The identification of compounds in ethyl acetate extract of it was conducted according to the standart phytochemical screening method. MFD-01 was identified as Aspergillus sp. MFD-01. The ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus sp. MFD-01 inhibited the growth of both Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. At concentration of 1000 ppm, its diameter of inhibitory zone against those bacteria was 10.53 and 11.84, respectively. The extract contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and tannins, which might responsible for its antibacterial activity against both tested bacteria.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
  • Antifertility activities of srikaya leaves (Annona squamosa L.) ethanol
           extract against reproduction system : spermatogenesis and quality sperm

    • Authors: Nur Laili Dwi Hidayati, Tita Nopianti, Yuliana Dewi, Yani Suryani
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Has done research about antifertility activities of Srikaya leaves (Annona squamosa L.) ethanol extracts against reproduction system. There are classified into 4 groups: negative control (suspension PGA 1%), I dose (0.00448 g/200 g BW rat), II dose (0.00967 mg/200 g BW rat), and III dose (0.01934 mg/200 g BW rat). Administration of the test preparation is done orally for 48 days. Parameters observed were spermatogenesis and quality of sperm. Spermatogenesis parameters measured were testis index (%), seminiferous tubule diameter (µm), the number of spermatogonia and spermatocytes cells. Spermatozoa quality parameters measured were sperm motility, concentration, and morphology. Study parameters were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that ethanol extract of Srikaya leaves can lower the index of the testis and seminiferous tubule diameter, decrease the number of spermatogonia and spermatocytes cells significantly. The ethanol extract of Srikaya leaves can reduce sperm motility, concentration, and increasing abnormality significantly.
      PubDate: 2018-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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