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Coffee Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.398, CiteScore: 1)
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Coffee Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.398
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1809-6875 - ISSN (Online) 1984-3909
Published by Editora UFLA Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Study of variations in the roasting time of gayo arabica coffee in the
           drying phase

    • Authors: Rahmat Fadhil, S Safrizal, Khairul Rizal, Bambang Sukarno Putra, Juli Firmansyah
      Pages: e182085 - e182085
      Abstract: Gayo Arabica coffee is a famous specialty coffee in Indonesia and abroad. Proper roasting is needed to produce high-quality coffee, including getting the desired coffee taste. This study contributes to roasting high-quality coffee, especially regarding the appropriate time variation in the drying phase. This study aims to analyze the roasting time of Gayo Arabica coffee in the drying phase based on the cupping score and sensory assessment. Coffee roasting in this study was carried out by modifying the time in the drying phase for 3:00, 4:00, and 5:00 minutes, while in the other phases (maillard and development), it was 4:00 and 3:00 minutes, respectively. The study parameters include roasting charts, roasting profiles, cupping scores by certified panelists (Q graders) and sensory assessments by panelists identified by the TOPSIS method. The TOPSIS is a decision-making method based on various alternatives that are ranked to get the best results with the highest value. The results showed that the best time treatment in the drying phase based on the cupping score was the F2 treatment as rank 1 (score 85.00), treatment F1 as rank 2 (score 83.50), and treatment F3 as rank 3 (score 81.00). Meanwhile, the sensory assessment by the panelists using the TOPSIS method showed the same thing for rank 1, namely the F2 treatment with a value of 0.88. However, it is different for rank 2, namely the F3 treatment with a value of 0.69 and ranks 3 is the F1 treatment with a value of 0.17. It can be concluded that the assessment by certified and identified panelists, who can be considered representative of consumers, show the same conclusion that coffee roasted with the best treatment in the drying phase is 4 minutes (F2). Key words: Cupping score; drying phase; identified panelists; TOPSIS method; Q grader; roasted.
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2085
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Analysis and technical optimization of processing condition for better
           quality of robusta coffee production

    • Authors: Usman Ahmad, Khalimatus Sa’diyah, Sathivel Subramaniam
      Pages: e182080 - e182080
      Abstract: The wet processing of robusta coffee starts with harvesting coffee cherries, followed by sorting the cherries, pulping, fermentation, washing, drying, hard skin hulling, bean sorting, and packaging. Soaking fruit before pulping is an alternative for coffee farmers to delay the pulping process if time does not allow it. The fermentation process aims to remove mucus that is firmly attached to the hard skin. The addition of L. casei microbes can accelerate the process but affect the final taste. The study aimed to optimize the duration of soaking and fermentation processes for obtaining coffee beans with a minimum number of unpeeled beans, minimum partially black bean value, maximum taste quality, and to identify volatile components that play a role in forming the best steeping aroma after the coffee beans are roasted, ground and brewed. Experiments and data analysis were carried out using the Response Surface Method design. The optimization results showed that 24 hours of soaking and 24 hours of fermentation were the optimum treatment based on the criteria for unpeeled beans response, partially black bean value, and total taste score with a desirability value of 0.721. The identified volatile compounds (43) include 9 aldehyde group compounds, 3 alcohols, 4 furans, 5 heterocyclic N, 6 ketones, 1 organic acid, 3 phenols, 10 pyrazines, and 2 thiols. The spicy and chocolaty aroma produced was also the highest among treatments, namely 8.98% and 7.74%. The treatment without soaking and fermentation had the highest percentages of caramelly and nutty areas, namely 23.14% and 21.35%, respectively. Key words: Coffee beans; fermentation; soaking; technical optimization; volatile compound.
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2080
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Coffee plant diseases affected by nutritional balance

    • Authors: Edson Ampélio Pozza, Adélia Aziz Alexandre Pozza
      Pages: e182086 - e182086
      Abstract: In recent years, sustainability has become a priority in agricultural production programs throughout Brazilian territory due to the need to ensure food security and environmental quality. Diseases continue to be a factor limiting sustainable agricultural production, due to the great need for chemical defenses for their control. Thus, it is indispensable to make use of alternative management techniques to reduce the use of such chemical defenses and to increase resistance of plants to diseases. It is known that mineral nutrients affect plant resistance to diseases, and effective physical and biochemical response of plants to pathogens is determined by adequate concentrations of mineral elements in the plant tissues. This review presents the most recent information related to the mode of action of the nutrients in the host-pathogen interaction and individual action in the control of plant diseases with the use of essential nutrients, as well as other elements considered beneficial, such as Si. It also reports on the use of some of these mineral nutrients in control of the main diseases of the coffee plant that occur in Brazil, especially rust, cercosporiosis or brown eye spot, phoma leaf spot, and bacterial blight. In addition, contradictory and satisfactory results are found in the literature on the use of mineral nutrients in control of different diseases, including coffee diseases. Key words: Coffee growing; nutrients; management; pathogens; plant physiology.
      PubDate: 2023-05-02
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2086
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Growth promoting fungi increase the quality of Coffea canephora seedlings
           Pierre ex a. Froehner

    • Authors: Jucélia Rodrigues Alves, Flávio Neves Celestino, Alisson Gomes de Moraes, Ricardo Arizono dos Reis, Eduardo Domingos Grecco
      Pages: e182089 - e182089
      Abstract: Growth promoting fungi have shown an important role in the development of agricultural crops. Among these fungi, the genus Trichoderma stands out, and the entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Beauveria and Metarhizium have been gaining greater importance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the vegetative growth of conilon coffee seedlings inoculated with growth promoting fungi. For the production of seedlings, cuttings of clone A1 of conilon coffee were used, in standard substrate. The growth promoting fungi Trichoderma harzianum, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were used at a concentration of 1 x 107 conidia.mL-1, inoculated via soil and leaf. Vegetative growth evaluations were performed at 180 days after cutting. The treatments corresponded to a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, in a randomized block design, with three replications, totaling 24 plots. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Scott-Knott grouping method (p ≤ 0.05). The treatments did not promote gains in plant height, stem diameter, root length, root fresh mass, leaf area, shoot/root fresh and dry mass of conilon coffee seedlings. Growth promoting fungi T. harzianum and B. bassiana promoted a greater number of leaf pairs, greater fresh mass of aerial part and greater dry mass of aerial part. Additionally, T. harzianum promoted greater root dry mass in conilon coffee seedlings. Only for the parameter number of leaf pairs, the inoculation via soil was greater than via leaf, while for the other parameters there was no difference regarding the inoculation method. Key words: Conilon coffee; Trichoderma harzianum; Beauveria bassiana; Metarhizium anisopliae.
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2089
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Characterization of active-aroma wheel in contemporary coffee processes
           via gas chromatography–olfactometry, and sensory perspective

    • Authors: Wanphen Jitjaroen, Daorung Chaisri, Lachinee Panjai
      Pages: e182059 - e182059
      Abstract: This research is to study the difference in chemical changes during fermentation, between the new fermentation processes. Aroma descriptors and sensorial assessments can be effectively used to tailor made fermentation processes. Coffee cherries (Coffea arabica L. var. Catimor) were treated with three different processes as followed: 1) Dry process (control), 2) Semi-carbonic maceration process (SCM): Carbon dioxide gas was injected to replace oxygen, and 3) Yeast process: coffee cherries were fermented by commercial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae var cerevisiae. SCM and Yeast processes were both incubated at 17±1oC until mucilage of pulped coffee and pectin layer reached to 4.2-4.3 of pH value. Low air temperatures (20-33 oC), low relative humidity (25-60%) to dry coffee samples to the desired 12.5% moisture content was used. The chemical component of the intact mucilage during fermentation
      was analyzed. The active-aroma attributes of roasted coffee were qualified and intensified by gas chromatography–olfactometry, categorized as followed: Enzymatic, Sugar browning, Dry distillation and Aromatic, and translated into an active-aroma wheel. The quality cup scores were evaluated by certified Q arabica graders, according to the standard of the Specialty Coffee Association. Results shows that, when compared to Control, SCM and Yeast process had a greater potential when it comes to increasing active-aroma attributes (twenty, twenty-nine, and twenty-two active-aroma attributes respectively). The fermentation process of SCM and Yeast process changes the post fermentation chemical composition of coffee cherry, a decrease in pH value, and an increase in acidity and ethanol. Both processes resulted in an improvement in aromatic attributes of roasted coffee, in both types and intensities. In line with the cup quality’s final scores of 81.50, and 82.83 (specialty coffee), respectively, both processes scored higher than the Dry process
      (79.42 cup score), with coffee from Yeast process scoring the highest in significant difference.
      Key words: Coffee; active-aroma wheel; semi-carbonic maceration process; yeast process; gas chromatography-olfactometry.
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2059
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Physical and sensorial quality of arabica coffee cultivars submitted to
           two types of post-harvesting processing

    • Authors: Ricardo Dias Alixandre, Fabiano Tristão Alixandre, Paula Aparecida Muniz de Lima, Maurício José Fornazier, Cesar Abel Krohling, José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral, Rogério Carvalho Guarçoni, Rodrigo da Silva Dias, Cassio de Faria Venturini, Higor Alixandre Macette, Cecília Uliana Zandonadi, David Brunelli Viçosi
      Pages: e182081 - e182081
      Abstract: The growing demand for better quality coffees has driven changes in the coffee production chain, mainly through the adoption of new technologies and management. Thus, this work was carried out aiming to evaluate the physical and sensorial quality of Arabica coffee cultivars, submitted to natural and pulped post-harvesting processing. The experiment was carried out following a randomized block design with three replications, in a split-plot scheme, with the plots consisting of five cultivars (Catucaí 2 SL, Catucaí 24/137, Catuaí IAC 44, Arara and Acauã); and the subplots by two processes, pulped and natural cherry. The harvest was carried out manually, harvesting the cherry fruits (ripe) in a sieve. The coffees were processed by the natural and pulped cherry methods. Drying was carried out on a covered suspended terrace, until the grains reached 11% ± 1 moisture (wet basis, bu). The following evaluations were carried out: sensorial analysis of the beverage according to the SCAA methodology, analysis of grain sieves according to the Official Brazilian
      Coffee Classification Protocol. The results show that all evaluated cultivars have a great potential for the production of specialty coffees in that studied environment. Differences were observed between cultivars both in the sensory quality of the beverage and in the grain size. Cultivar Arara presents a general average of final beverage grade higher than the other cultivars. Key-words: Arabica coffee; Coffee sieve size; natural processing; pulped cherries; specialty coffee.
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2081
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Initial growth of coffee plants associated with the use of kaolinite and

    • Authors: Bruna Penha Costa, Cláudio Yuji Tsutsumi, Carlos Augusto Rocha de Moraes Rego
      Pages: e182046 - e182046
      Abstract: Abiotic stresses cause significant damage to coffee plants’ development. Seeking solutions to mitigate them, studies about antiperspirant action have been intensified, for instance, kaolinite, which produces a film of particles with reflexive properties. In this context, this experiment aims to evaluate the effects of applying kaolinite doses in different colors with or without the addition of adjuvant on biometric variables during coffee plants’ initial growth. The randomized block design was used with three repetitions in an incomplete factorial scheme with an additional treatment, resulting in 11 treatments and 33 plots. The first factor comprised three kaolinite doses (20, 40, and 60 g); the second factor had two kaolinite colors (white and cream), and the third factor was the absence or presence of an adjuvant, also including an additional treatment (control). The plot consisted of four seedlings of the cultivar IPR 100. It was observed that the plant height (PH), number of plagiotropic branches (NPB), leaf area index (LAI), leaf dry matter (LDM), shoot dry matter (SHDM), root dry matter (RDM), and total dry matter (TDM) presented significant differences. Regarding PH, the dose of 40 g of cream kaolinite increased 7.07 cm more than the control. For LAI, the dose of 40 g with adjuvant had a 97.65 increase. For LDM and TDM, the dose of 40 g of white kaolinite with adjuvant presented respective increases of 5.2 and 12.78 g. The application of white kaolinite with adjuvant increased SHDM by 4.52 g. For RDM, the dose of 40 g of white kaolinite with adjuvant increased 6.51 g more than the control. The dose of 40 g of white kaolinite with adjuvant had a higher effect on the biometric variables. Key words: Antiperspirant; biomass; Coffea arabica L.; thermal stress; particles’ film.
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2046
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Temporal progress of coffee leaf rust and environmental conditions
           affecting severity in Veracruz State, Mexico

    • Authors: Ivan Pale-Ezquivel, Ricardo Musule Lagunes, Maria del Rosario Pineda-López, Enrique Alarcón-Gutiérrez, Lázaro Rafael Sánchez-Velásquez
      Pages: e182047 - e182047
      Abstract: Coffee is an important crop in Mexico. Unfortunately, coffee production has been affected by coffee leaf rust (CLR). The severity of this infection occurs with variations along the year described before in different coffee-producing regions worldwide. For Veracruz, there are available reports of weekly CLR severity, but this information is only descriptive. We analyzed variations along the year of CLR severity in Veracruz with data from municipal weekly reports provided by Mexico’s federal government phytosanitary epidemiological monitoring coffee program. We selected reports dated in 2018 from nine municipalities and after calculations of mean monthly severity values, we conducted a one-way ANOVA (months as factors) of severity data. We compared this information with other coffee-producing regions. Additionally, we explored the association of temperature, rainfall, and altitude with CLR severity using Principal Component Analysis and multiple linear regressions. Temperature and rainfall data were obtained from Mexican National Meteorological Service. We found that CLR severity in January, October, November, and December (months of harvest period) was significantly higher than values from March-June. During the harvest period, coffee plants allocate resources mainly for fruiting which competes in resources for other tasks such as defense and leaf growth, so this competition of resources can explain the positive relationship found between fruit load and CLR severity. This monthly variation of severity was similar to those reported in Chiapas, Guatemala, Colombia, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Our model (R2 = 0.401) showed a significant and negative effect of altitude and medium temperature on CLR severity, while the effect of rainfall was positive. With our study, we suggest applications of fungicides in March-June when coffee plantations are in leaf phenophase. Key words: Altitude; Coffea arabica; Hemileia vastatrix; phenophase.
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2047
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Regeneration and development of Coffea arabica L. plants through indirect
           somatic embryogenesis

    • Authors: Rina Arimarsetiowati, Budi Setiadi Daryono, Yohana Theresia Maria Astuti, Erwin Prastowo, Endang Semiarti
      Pages: e182078 - e182078
      Abstract: Micropropagation of AS2K clones Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) was attempted through indirect somatic embryogenesis by using ten different parts of the leaf such as shoot, first leaf base, second leaf base, third leaf base, first leaf middle, second leaf middle, third leaf middle, first leaf tip, second leaf tip, and third leaf tip. The influence of the part of leaf explants, combination of plant growth regulator (PGRs) in the induction of embryogenic callus and regeneration of embryo somatic were studied. Furthermore, the various protocols to induce regeneration of somatic embryo into plantlet through different step of subculture and the use of various germination medium were demonstrated. The morphological characteristics and histological analysis of embryogenic callus and embryo development were observed. In this experiment, it was observed that the M5 medium supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-D, 1 mg/L BAP and 4 mg/L 2-ip was closely associated with third leaf tip explants for induction of embryogenic callus. The maximum number of globular, heart-shape, torpedo and cotyledones (18, 4, 12, 4, respectively) were achieved on ERM6 medium containing 2 mg/L BAP without activated charcoal on 90th day for regeneration of embryo somatic. The length of roots is the most influence paramater on plantlet regeneration, and the 17th protocol which used B medium, large embryos and twice phase of subculture from liquid medium to solid medium is the best protocol for plantlet regeneration. The protocol developed could be useful highly for large-scale micropropagation in these commercially important Arabica coffee clones. Key words: Indirect somatic embryogenesis; 24-D; BAP; histology; anatomy.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2078
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
  • Evaluation of a prototype of soil thermal solarizer for control of gall
           nematode in the production of coffee seedlings

    • Authors: Francisco Paiva Uchoa, José Roberto Vieira Junior, Cléberson de Freitas Fernandes, Rodrigo Barros Rocha, Marcelo Curitiba Espíndula, Vaneide Araújo de Sousa Rudnick, Dvany Mamedes da Silva, Tamiris Chaves Freire, Simone Carvalho Sangi, Solange Aparecida Rodrigues Mariobo
      Pages: e182014 - e182014
      Abstract: In coffee crops at Rondônia State of Brazil, there is an increase in phytonematode epidemics.Since most local coffe nurseries at Rondônia use soil as substrate for seedling production, this work aimed to test the minimum exposure time at 60 ºC to control of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita in soil by means of solar heating, using a solarizer, in an adapted version for better heating perfomance. The used solarizer prototype was built of a wooden box covered with metal sheets, thermal blankets, painted black, with aluminum pipes of 0.5 cm in diameter at the bottom of the box that circulates the water heated by the collector box. The soil was inoculated with a suspension of 1000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita per liter and placed in equipment with a capacity of 150 liters. Exposure times at a minimum temperature of 60 °C were evaluated, with 14 treatments: C1 (non-inoculated and not autoclaved), C2 (inoculated), C3 (non-inoculated and autoclaved) T0’, T15’, T30’, T45’, T60’, T180’, T360’, T720’, T1440’, T2880’ and T4320’ . The temperature was measured every 15 minutes using a skewer-type digital thermometer. The soil was removed according to the exposure time, and placed in 8-liter pots, in which clone 125 and BRS 2357 coffee seedlings, susceptible to M. incognita , were transplanted and growing in a greenhouse for 180 days. The experimental design used was DIC, with 6 replications, each seedling as na experimental unit. Reproduction factor (FR), number of eggs per plant (NOGR) and number of galls per gram of root (NGGR) were evaluated. The FR, NOGR and NGGR variables reduced with exposure time. All treatments showed an effect to control the population of M. incognita in infected soils, with 100% efficacy of pathogen eradication from the T45’ treatment, 60 minutes of exposure is recommended for the production of Coffea canephora seedlings. Taken together, thir work showed the high potential of thr solorizer to contribute in the
      root-knot nematode control to seedling production. Key words: Thermal control; Meloidogyne incognita; Coffea canephora.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2014
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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