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Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2241-4487 - ISSN (Online) 1792-8036
Published by ETASR Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A Comparative Study of the Application of Glowworm Swarm Optimization
           Algorithm with other Nature-Inspired Algorithms in the Network Load
           Balancing Problem

    • Authors: T. Akhtar, N. G. Haider, S. M. Khan
      Pages: 8777 - 8784
      Abstract: Vast amounts of data are transferred through communication networks resulting in node congestion, which varies according to peak usage times. The Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO) algorithm is inspired by the rummaging and courtship behavior of glowworms. The glow intensity of glowworms is a measure of fitness that attracts other glowworms in its neighborhood. This work applies the GSO algorithm to the computer network congestion problem in order to lessen the network burden by shifting loads to the fittest neighborhood nodes, thereby enhancing network performance during peak traffic times, when the response of systems on the network would go down. The proposed solution aims to alleviate the burdened nodes, thereby improving the flow of traffic throughout the network, improving the users’ experience and productivity, and efficiency. In this paper, three swarm algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Cuckoo Search (CK), and GSO have been employed to solve the network load balancing problem. The results produced by GSO show improvement of 71.17%, 74.14%, and 84.15% in networks consisting of 50, 100, and 200 nodes in peak hour load, while PSO shows 13.87%, 11.75%, and 23.72%, and CK 10.61%, 3.19%, and 6%. The results prove the superior performance of GSO.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4999
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Functionally Graded Material Production and Characterization using the
           Vertical Separator Molding Technique and the Powder Metallurgy Method

    • Authors: I. Kayabasi, G. Sur, H. Gokkaya, Y. Sun
      Pages: 8785 - 8790
      Abstract: Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are advanced customized engineering materials that gradually and continuously change their composition. The current study investigated the production feasibility and some post-production mechanical/physical properties of B4C particle-reinforced (avg. 40µm) AA7075 matrix (avg. 60µm) FGM composites with the vertical separator molding technique using the high-temperature isostatic pressing powder metallurgy method. FGMs produced consist of three (0 – 30 – 60 wt. % B4C) and four (0 – 20 – 40 – 60 wt. % B4C) layers. The powders were mixed in a power blender mixer for 2h and were placed in the mold sections with a vertical separator. The lid was closed, and a pre-pressure of 10Mpa was applied. The FGM green sheet was transferred from the vertical separator mold to the hot work tool steel with a press. In this mold, FGMs were sintered at 560°C for 30 min under a pressure of 325MPa. Microstructural examinations did not reveal any separation or crack formation in the layer transition regions of the FGMs. In addition, a relatively homogeneous B4C reinforcing distribution was observed in the layers with a low reinforcement ratio (wt. 20% and 30%) compared to the other layers. The highest hardness was 170 HBN in one layer of the four-layer FGM containing 40% by weight B4C reinforcement. The highest transverse rupture strength was measured in the test performed from the region with the most reinforcement of the four-layer FGM at 482MPa.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Monitoring and Analysis of Agricultural Field Parameters in Order to
           Increase Crop Yield through a Colored Object Tracking Robot, Image
           Processing, and IOT

    • Authors: S. M. Usha, H. B. Mahesh
      Pages: 8791 - 8795
      Abstract: Adequately watering plants is a challenging task. Over- and under-watering may harm plants and seeds, as excess or restraint watering reduces crop production and yield. This study presents a method to remotely monitor and efficiently water agricultural fields to increase crop production by utilizing advanced technologies such as internet things, robotics, image processing, and neural networks. Accurate smoothing and image segmentation techniques were employed to study the plants' conditions. Color median, Gaussian, and hybrid median filters were employed to preprocess the data before segmentation and classification. The hybrid median filter and multilevel luminance grading system were employed to increase the quality of the image. The k-means clustering approach was used for image segmentation. The signal-to-noise ratios of the original and recreated images were compared and analyzed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Voltage Regulation in a Radial Microgrid with High RES Penetration

    • Authors: R. Gour, V. Verma
      Pages: 8796 - 8802
      Abstract: Increasing installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in microgrids and distribution system feeders benefits the power system in many ways, such as increasing power availability and reliability, but they also cause various power quality issues, such as overvoltage and undervoltage, due to their intermittent nature. The sensitive loads, such as Constant Power Load (CPL), are affected by these voltage fluctuations. The approach proposed in this paper is to install a Dynamic Voltage Regulators (DVR) adjacent to the RES to suppress the voltage issue caused by it while leaving the sensitive load operation unharmed. The proposed concept is duly endorsed with analysis and simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4965
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • The New Dataset MITWPU-1K for Object Recognition and Image Captioning

    • Authors: M. Bhalekar, M. Bedekar
      Pages: 8803 - 8808
      Abstract: In the domain of image captioning, many pre-trained datasets are available. Using these datasets, models can be trained to automatically generate image descriptions regarding the contents of an image. Researchers usually do not spend much time in creating and training the new dataset before using it for a specific application, instead, they simply use existing pre-trained datasets. MS COCO, ImageNet, Flicker, and Pascal VOC, are well-known datasets that are widely used in the task of generating image captions. In most available image captioning datasets, image textual information, which can play a vital role in generating more precise image descriptions, is missing. This paper presents the process of creating a new dataset that consists of images along with text and captions. Images of the nearby vicinity of the campus of MIT World Peace University-MITWPU, India, were taken for the new dataset named MITWPU-1K. This dataset can be used in object detection and caption generation of images. The objective of this paper is to highlight the steps required for creating a new dataset. This necessitated a review of the existing dataset models prior to creating the new dataset. A sequential convolutional model for detecting objects on a new dataset is also presented. The process of creating a new image captioning dataset and the gained insights are described.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5039
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Castellated Beams with Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Deck Slab as
           a Modified Choice for Composite Steel-Concrete Beams Affected by Harmonic

    • Authors: Z. H. Dakhel, S. D. Mohammed
      Pages: 8809 - 8816
      Abstract: The behavior investigation of castellated beams with fiber-reinforced lightweight concrete deck slab as a modified choice for composite steel-concrete beams affected by harmonic load is presented in this study. The experimental program involved six fixed-supported castellated beams of 2140mm size. Three types of concrete were included: Normal Weight Concrete (NWC), Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC), and Lightweight Fiber-Reinforced Aggregate Concrete (LWACF). The specimens were divided into two groups: the first comprised three specimens tested under harmonic load effect of 30Hz operation frequency for 3 days, then the residual strength was determined through static load application. The second group included three specimens identical to those of group I, tested under static load only. The results show that LWAC was more influential than LWACF under harmonic load. The reduction in the residual strength of LWACF and NWC deck corresponding to the harmonic load was 0.94 and 0.7% respectively. The outcome proved that using LWACF as a deck for the castellated steel beams affected by harmonic load presents a significant choice with weight reduction of 16% compared to NWC. Steel fiber’s tensile strength 1700MPa enhanced the absorbed energy and the ductility factor by 0.4 and 0.5% respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4987
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Multi-Objective MPSO/GA Optimization of an Autonomous PV-Wind Hybrid
           Energy System

    • Authors: N. Rahmani, M. Mostefai
      Pages: 8817 - 8824
      Abstract: This article presents a study of the energy efficiency and the optimal sizing of an autonomous hybrid energy system (PV-wind-battery) as a power source for a typical household in an isolated village in Adrar, Algeria using the multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA). This study presents a new approach to obtain an optimal configuration and sizing of the main components integrated into the autonomous hybrid system (PV/wind) which meets the requirements of the desired system. In the first phase, the reliability criterion (LPSP) is met with the lowest Energy Cost (EC) value (min Total Net Present Cost (TNPC)). The required storage bank must have a low rate of aging in order to extend the battery life, which contributes to the reduction of the overall cost of the system. Due to the inability to meet the needs demanded by random load profiles, we have incorporated a complementary approach to home insulation to significantly improve energy efficiency. In order to improve the thermal comfort of the house and reduce the energy consumed by air conditioning and heating, a thermal and energy study on this house has been evaluated using TRNSYS 18 simulation software for the overall thermal and energy behavior of a habitat and its environment in dynamic regime. The simulation results show that the thermal insulation of the walls reduces energy consumption by 13.39% in the case of heating and by 10% in the case of air conditioning. Assuming a 10% decrease in energy needs for heating and air conditioning, we observe its positive effect on optimizing the battery lifetime.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4877
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • An Evaluation of Cost Optimization Strategies for BRT Projects in Pakistan

    • Authors: F. Khan, A. Ahmed, M. Ahmed, M. A. U. Baig
      Pages: 8825 - 8830
      Abstract: In developing countries like Pakistan, economic instability, improper planning, non-optimal design, delays in construction, and unsustainability during the operations of transportation megaprojects cause an unnecessary burden on the national exchequer. Recently, several Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) projects have been initiated in Pakistan. The detailed evaluation of the cost and capacity of BRT projects in Pakistan revealed that their cost could have been optimized. This research evaluated the first BRT project in Karachi for potential cost optimization through proper alignment of the BRT. One of the major segments of the Green-Line BRT from Surjani to Nagan was evaluated, which is presently designed as an elevated section. Other possible options such as curb-side, two-way side, and median alignments were explored in detail. The study showed that the cost of this section could have been reduced from the existing USD 75 million to USD 61 million by providing a two-way side aligned or curb-side aligned BRT infrastructure without affecting existing capacity. This case study shows that it is necessary to critically evaluate all the possible options while planning and designing transportation megaprojects.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4956
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • An Investigation of Magnetic Field Influence in Underground High Voltage
           Cable Shields

    • Authors: H. B. Duc, T. P. Minh, D. B. Minh, N. P. Hoai, V. D. Quoc
      Pages: 8831 - 8836
      Abstract: Magnetic fields and the shielding efficiency of the shields of underground high voltage cables are studied in this paper regarding several shielding configurations and materials. Shielding efficiency and magnetic fields are computed for shields with the same mesh but from different shielding materials, such as aluminum, ferrite, metal, and steel. In order to get the best shield configuration depending on the source characteristics and the material, a conducting ferromagnetic region with various thickness values is considered as shielding. A finite element model is introduced to investigate the influence of the parameters of magnetic fields and the shielding efficiency of underground high voltage cables. Furthermore, the reduction of the magnetic fields with or without shieldings is also presented. The developed method is performed with the magnetic vector potential formulations and validated on a practical problem.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • GIS-Based Analysis of a Rainwater Harvesting System in the Multipurpose
           Hall of Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science, and Technology

    • Authors: V. Kumar, K. C. Mukwana, A. R. Jatoi, M. Hassan, A. Q. Jakhrani, A. A. Siyal, K. U. Zaman, L. Kumar
      Pages: 8837 - 8842
      Abstract: Drinking water availability has become a major issue. Rainwater Harvesting Systems (RHSs) amass and store rainwater for future use. In Pakistan, drinking water availability has become a major issue. Rainwater can be used as a constant alternative to clean water resources. Google Earth Pro (GEP) is utilized in this paper to select suitable locations for the installation of RHSs. The decision must not be too excessive, must fit in buildings that have small available space, and must cover the needs of bigger buildings. The required capacity for an RHS to cope with an unusually high water shortage in the study area was calculated using GEP and ArcGIS. The total estimated amount of rainwater harvesting potential during the average annual monsoon period from 2012 to 2021 is 1064.056 m3 from the 13452.05 m2 available area from rooftops and plain surfaces. The capacity of storage containers is primarily based on day-to-day spills and breadth.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4995
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Behavior and Strength of Composite Columns under the Impact of Uniaxial
           Compression Loading

    • Authors: A. N. Hassooni, S. R. Al Zaidee
      Pages: 8843 - 8849
      Abstract: The Concrete Filled Steel Tube Column (CFST) is classified as a composite structural element. This type of column was adopted as the main loaded member in many buildings due to its excellent mechanical properties. CFST columns have high strength and ductility behavior, and they can sustain heavy loads with high performance. These led to their adoption in many countries. In the current study, the behavior and strength of CFST columns under the effect of axial compression load with parameters such as the diameter to thickness ratio and the height to diameter ratio were investigated. Strength carrying capacity and axial and lateral deformations with axial and lateral strains were explored. The test results showed that smaller heights within the same material gave higher strength capacity. The stiffness of the CFST is more than concrete and hollow steel section specimens' due to its capability of high strength capacity with low displacement. Also, the composite action of CFST gave more stiffness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4753
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Application of the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm in Solving the Economic
           Emission Dispatch Problem Integrating Renewable Energy

    • Authors: T. Dridi, H. Jouini, A. Mami, A. El Mhamedi, E. M. Dafaoui
      Pages: 8850 - 8855
      Abstract: The Economic Emission Dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective optimization problem that seeks to find the optimal balance between the reduction of the generation costs and the pollutant emissions of power thermal plants while respecting power balance and several operational restrictions. This balance could be carried out by proper scheduling power generation of the committed units to fulfill the power demands considering emissions. This paper presents a novel application of the conventional Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA) optimization approach to solve the EED problem with the integration of renewable energy. Wind and solar energy were chosen to be injected into the system’s power balance constraint. The combined EED objective function with Valve Point Effects (VPE) consideration was modeled using price penalty and weight factors. This study showed the effectiveness of the chosen optimization technique and the influence of injecting renewable energy along with traditional power resources on reducing total cost and pollutant emissions. The proposed method was applied to the IEEE 9-bus test system and tested in Matlab.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Combined Strengthening Effect of CFRP Wrapping and NSM CFRP Laminates
           on the Flexural Behavior of Post-Tensioning Concrete Girders Subjected to
           Partially Strand Damage

    • Authors: A. J. Daraj, A. H. Al-Zuhairi
      Pages: 8856 - 8863
      Abstract: The studies on unbonded post-tensioned concrete members strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) are limited and the effect of strengthening on the strain of unbonded pre-stressed steel is not well characterized. Estimating the flexural capacity of unbound post-tensioned members using the design methodology specified in the design guidelines for FRP strengthening techniques of bonded post-tensioned members does not provide a reliable evaluation. This study investigates the behavior of unbonded post-tensioned concrete members with partial strand damage (14.3% and 28.6% damage) and strengthened with CFRP laminates using a near-surface mounted technique with and without U-wrap anchorages. The experimental results showed that the use of CFRP laminates significantly affects strand strain, especially with the use of anchors. The CFRP reinforcement affected flexural strength, crack width, and midspan deflection. However, the flexural stiffness of strengthened members during the serviceability phases is critical as strand damage ratios increase. In comparison with the nondamaged girder, the NSM-CFRP laminates enhanced the flexural capacity by 11% and 7.7% corresponding to strand damage of 14.3% and 28.6% respectively. Additionally, semiempirical equations were proposed to predict the actual strain of unbonded strands whilst considering the effects of FRP laminates. The suggested equations are simple to apply and provide accurate predictions with little variance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Enhancing Voltage Profile and Power Loss Reduction Considering Distributed
           Generation (DG) Resources

    • Authors: M. Salman, S. Hongsheng, M. A. Aman, Y. Khan
      Pages: 8864 - 8871
      Abstract: In recent years, Distributed Generation (DG) has received attention due to its benefits to the distribution network. In this paper, the influence of DG along with several techniques for mitigating the detrimental impact on voltage profile and power losses was examined. The test system of 132 KV residential test feeder was selected, examined, and modeled in the Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP). Various tests were carried out to determine the influence of DG on the distribution network. Results were compared with, and without DG, taking into account the voltage profile. When injecting DG with unity power factor at different buses in a radial test system, it was discovered that when the DG of the right size and type is injected at the ideal position, the voltage profile improves while the power losses are reduced. When an un-deterministic DG is injected at multiple points on the test feeder, no improvement in voltage profile was observed. When the cross-sectional area of conductors is increased and a DG is injected at optimal locations, a positive impact on voltage profile is observed while the detrimental impact on power losses was also analyzed. The findings of this study may be useful to distribution firms regarding the future expansion of the power systems and the proliferation of DG.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5046
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • A Real-Time Application of Singular Spectrum Analysis to Object Tracking
           with SIFT

    • Authors: A. Ozturk, I. Cayiroglu
      Pages: 8872 - 8877
      Abstract: This study combined SIFT and SSA to propose a novel algorithm for real-time object tracking. The proposed algorithm utilizes an intermediate fixed-size buffer and a modified SSA algorithm. Since the complete reconstruction step of the SSA algorithm was unnecessary, it was considerably simplified. In addition, the execution time of a Matlab implementation of the SSA algorithm was compared with a respective C++ implementation. Moreover, the performance of the two different matching algorithms in the detection, the FlannBasedMatcher and Brute-Force matcher algorithms of the OpenCV library, was compared.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Improving the Accuracy of Surface Roughness Modeling when Milling 3x13

    • Authors: N. V. Cuong, N. L. Khanh
      Pages: 8878 - 8883
      Abstract: In this study, a milling experiment was performed, with 3x13 steel selected as the experimental material along with TiAlN coated inserts. The Box-Behnken method was used to design the experimental matrix with a total of eighteen experiments. Cutting speed, feed amount, and depth of cut were selected as the input parameters. Three regression models of surface roughness have been established, one using the experimentally measured surface texture, one using the Johnson transform to convert the surface texture data, and one using Box-Cox transformation to convert the surface texture data. A comparison of the accuracy of the three models was performed. The results show that the model using the Box-Cox transformation has the highest accuracy, followed by the model using the Johnson transformation. In addition, the influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness is also discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Flexural Strengthening of Prestressed Girders with Partially Damaged
           Strands Using Enhancement of Carbon Fiber Laminates by End Sheet

    • Authors: H. Q. Abbas, A. H. Al‐Zuhairi
      Pages: 8884 - 8890
      Abstract: This paper examines the impact of flexural strengthening on the percentage of damaged strands in internally unbonded tendons in partially prestressed concrete beams (0, 14.28%, and 28.57%) and the recovering conditions using CFRP composite longitudinal laminates at the soffit, and end anchorage U-wrap sheets to restore the original flexural capacity and mitigate the delamination of the soffit of longitudinal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates. The composition of the laminates and anchors affected the stress of the CFRP, the failure mode, and thus the behavior of the beam. The experimental results revealed that the usage of CFRP laminates has a considerable impact on strand strain, particularly when anchors are employed. The EB-CFRP laminates increased the flexural capacity by approximately 13%, which corresponds to strand damage of 14.28%, while flexural capacity increased by 9.3%, strand damage increased by 28.57% for members strengthened with laminates only, and around 21.58% and 16.85% for members reinforced with laminates and end anchorings. Quasi-experimental equations have been proposed to estimate the actual stress of untethered tendons considering the effect of CFRP laminates and final fixation winding.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Design of a Low Power CMOS Inverter with the VBB Stack Approach

    • Authors: S. Khmailia, J. Rouabeh, A. Mami
      Pages: 8891 - 8895
      Abstract: Due to the exponential advancement in nanotechnology devices, low energy consumption has become a significant concern of researchers and VLSI designers. In this paper, the Variable body bias (VBB) and the stack approach are used simultaneously to reduce the leakage power of a CMOS inverter in standby mode. This new technique is called the VBB stack approach. The simulations have been conducted on the LT spice simulator. The power evaluation has been determined and compared between the conventional approach, the stack approach, and the VBB stack approach. The results have demonstrated the performance of the VBB stack approach. The power consumption in the VBB stack approach has decreased by 23% compared to the conventional approach and by 10% compared to the stack approach.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4823
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Regression Modeling and Process Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding on
           Dissimilar Steel Sheets

    • Authors: F. Ternane, M. Benachour, F. Sebaa, N. Benachour
      Pages: 8896 - 8900
      Abstract: The resistance spot welding process is used to weld dissimilar materials. Dissimilar joining is formed by two 2mm thick sheet metals of 304L austenitic stainless steel and galvanized steel. This study investigates the effects of welding parameters such as welding current, welding time, and welding force. The welding time and the welding force were, respectively, in the range of 10-13 cycles and 7-8bar, while the welding current was in the range of 10–16kA. Tensile tests were applied to determine the resistance parameters of dissimilar joining. The experimental results showed that increasing the welding current increased the tensile shear stress of the weld coupon. Regression analysis was carried out to determine the significance of the process parameters by using the coupled of the full factorial experimental design with statistical and graphical analysis of the results. Furthermore, analysis of variance was used to determine the optimal parameters and combinations to achieve the highest strength level.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5059
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Performance Assessment of the BLDC Motor in EV Drives using Nonlinear
           Model Predictive Control

    • Authors: P. Ubare, D. N. Sonawane
      Pages: 8901 - 8909
      Abstract: In this paper, the Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) technique is proposed for the control of BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motors to address the problem of over-excitation, specifically in Electric Vehicle (EV) applications. This over-excitation increases the overall energy consumption of the machine and eventually reduces the vehicle’s driving range. The developed NMPC incorporates a nonlinear model of the BLDC motor with EV load and obtains the optimal current through the optimal voltage applied to the machine to regulate the motor torque. The proposed NMPC is compared with three conventional control techniques, the Field-Oriented Control (FOC), the Direct Torque Control (DTC), and the hybrid (the combination of DTC and FOC) control. It is observed from the simulation results that the proposed NMPC controller is more energy efficient while maintaining performance. This paper also discusses the selection of the motor based on the specified vehicle requirements. This has been done by matching the vehicle speed-torque characteristic curve with the motor’s one.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4976
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Improved Optimization of the Charge Simulation Method for the Calculation
           of the Electric Field Around Overhead Transmission Lines Using Statistical

    • Authors: A. Allal, A. Boubakeur, A. Mujezinović
      Pages: 8910 - 8915
      Abstract: In order to decide the appropriate arrangements of fictitious charges in the charge simulation method, the use of the Monte Carlo method is proposed for the estimation of the probability density function of two variables, the radius ratio, and the angle ratio. Τhe scale and shape parameters of the Weibull's distribution are determined by the maximum likelihood estimator. The obtained results are used to calculate the electric field at arbitrary points in the neighborhood of high voltage transmission lines. The comparisons between the results computed by this method, the results calculated by the genetic algorithm, and those measured, confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Energy Management of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: A. Khadhraoui, T. Selmi, A. Cherif
      Pages: 8916 - 8921
      Abstract: Electric Vehicles (EVs) are becoming more popular and gaining attention due to a combination of factors such as falling prices and increasing environmental awareness. EVs fall into several categories related to energy production and storage. Standard developed, tested, and commercialized EV technologies include Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), All Electric Vehicles (AEVs), also known as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), and Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs). Still, the advantages of FCEVs are relatively small compared to other autonomous and refueling technologies. Considering the above aspects, this work presents a Matlab/Simulink model of an FCEV’s behavior and opportunities.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5058
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Comparison of Accident Databases and Analysis of Past Industrial Accidents
           in the Chemical Process Industry

    • Authors: P. A. Arun, S. M. Tauseef, U. Uniyal
      Pages: 8922 - 8927
      Abstract: Despite India being home to some of the worst chemical industry disasters, there is no proper accident reporting and analysis mechanism. The National Informatics Centre of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) presented an online accident database called CAIRS to assist Past Accident Analysis (PAA). This paper compares CAIRS with major accident databases widely used by safety professionals. The parameters considered for compassion are scope, accessibility, method of data collection, quality, and the frequency of reporting. Past accident analysis showed that the total number of reported events is more or less steady and the number of major accidents is decreasing marginally in European countries, whereas in India only a few states report accidents using the CAIRS platform. The analysis raised serious concerns about the monitoring of reported information in the Indian database. At present, the information available in this database is not reliable and any conclusion based on this information can be misleading. Suggestions are offered to enhance the efficacy of the Indian accident database.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5079
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Taguchi Approach in Studying and Optimizing the Electro-Fenton
           Oxidation to Reduce Organic Contaminants in Refinery Wastewater Using
           Novel Electrodes

    • Authors: R. N. Abbas, A. S. Abbas
      Pages: 8928 - 8935
      Abstract: This study investigated the degradation of organic pollutants using an advanced electrochemical oxidation technique in a batch reactor cell consisting of a graphite anode, modified by electrodeposition of PbO2, and a graphene-modified carbon fiber cathode. The experiment was designed by the Taguchi design approach with an orthogonal array of L18 to study and optimize the degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by the electro-Fenton oxidation process. Four process parameters, Current Density (CD), Temperature, Fe2+ concentration, and time were measured at different levels. The impact of each factor was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, a linear model analysis was applied for the Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio and mean values, obtaining the optimal conditions. The most significant parameter of the COD removal efficiency was time, and the least one was temperature.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5091
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • An Enhanced Z-Source Switched MLI Capacitor for Integrated Micro-Grid with
           Advanced Switching Pattern Scheme

    • Authors: B. M. Manjunatha, S. Nagaraja Rao, A. Suresh Kumar, V. Lakshmi Devi, P. Rama Mohan, K. Bramhanandam
      Pages: 8936 - 8941
      Abstract: In this paper, the Enhanced Z-Source Switched Capacitor Multi-Level Inverter (EZSC-MLI) is presented, which can generate a greater number of levels and magnitude in output. The proposed MLI has greater recognition due to its low harmonic profile, fewer switching components, compact size, low switch stress, isolated DC supply, high efficiency, and low cost. A high voltage boost factor is achieved by using the Z-Source. The Switched Capacitor module is used for charging all the capacitors to equal voltage magnitude based on a self-balanced scheme. The proposed topology for grid integration requires dual control loops, a primary voltage control loop, and a secondary current control loop. The performance of the proposed 7-level topology for grid integrated systems is verified with multi-carrier advanced modulation schemes and by simulations carried out in Matlab/Simulink.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4909
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • An Experimental Study on the Control of Slotless Self-Bearing Motor Using
           Nonlinear Control

    • Authors: V. D. Nhan, N. X. Bien, N. Q. Dich, V. T. Ha
      Pages: 8942 - 8948
      Abstract: This article presents a Slotless Self-Bearing Motor (SSBM) with a six-phase coil stator instead of an iron core. The rotor consists of a permanent magnet and an encased iron yoke. The magnetic forces caused by the interplay between the stator currents and the magnetic field govern the rotational speed and radial position of the rotor. An SSBM mathematical model and its control method are also included in this study. This motor is controlled by field-oriented control. Theoretical analysis of magnetic force and moment characteristics is performed, and a control approach is provided. Sliding-mode control is a control technique that is simple, and effective and is used to assist the control system in approaching the reference value. It is also widely utilized to control the position and speed of the motor. The findings were constructed and validated using experiment-confirmed analytical data to prove the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4997
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Design and Implementation of a Medical TeleMonitoring System based on IoT

    • Authors: M. Hamdani, M. Youcefi, A. Rabehi, B. Nail, A. Douara
      Pages: 8949 - 8953
      Abstract: With the advancement of technology, healthcare and monitoring systems face significant issues. Internet of Things (IoT) in healthcare enables real-time health monitoring at a low cost. This paper aims to provide a medical telemonitoring system based on IoT for healthcare applications for doctors and paramedical staff. The system is made up of many sensors that can capture electrocardiograms (ECGs) in real-time and measure the temperature of the human body. The designed circuit is implemented and the obtained results are analyzed and discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5040
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Polarization Effect Assessment of Sub-6 GHz Frequencies on Adult and Child
           Four-Layered Head Models

    • Authors: S. S. Pudipeddi, P. V. Y. Jayasree, S. G. Chintala
      Pages: 8954 - 8959
      Abstract: Nowadays, with the extensive use of mobile phones, the Electromagnetic (EM) radiation penetration from Radio Frequencies (RFs), particularly into the human head, is an issue that needs resolving. Some serious biological hazards occur inside the human body due to RF radiation accumulation. The RF radiation can be minimized by embodying shielding and coating materials on the front side of the mobile handset. The novelty of the proposed work is the use of mathematical analysis in calculating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) absorbed by planar four-layer adult and child head models when exposed to mobile smartphone RF radiation. The variation of SAR with the Angle of Incident (AoI) of the EM wave considers Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) Polarization. The SAR absorption alteration with the AoI of the EM wave is calculated with the help of the shielding effectiveness parameter of the external Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) shield coated with conductive copper (Cu) mesh, forming a laminated shield using the methodology of the transmission line method. Furthermore, the SAR variation with AoI for both human head models is calculated theoretically at Sub-6 GHz mobile frequencies of 4.5GHz and 3.6GHz. SAR of 7.41e-12 W/kg and 4.41e-11 W/kg is achieved theoretically for adult and child head models respectively, at 89° TE polarization at 4.5GHz.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5096
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Decoupling Control Applied to the Smart Grid Power Dispatching Problem

    • Authors: S. Nebili, I. Benabdallah, A. Cherif
      Pages: 8960 - 8966
      Abstract: This paper presents controller designs of the decoupling issue dedicated to renewable decentralized generators or new generation grids known as smart grids. The control methods were based on a three-phase voltage source grid representation that integrated wind and photovoltaic generators. The utilized decoupling strategies (Boksenbom and Hood, Zilkind and Luyben, and inverted decoupling) allowed the optimization of energy transfers and costs through the routing grid distribution path. Simulations were conducted in Matlab/Simulink. The trustworthiness of the multivariable control system design in addition to the tuning method was established using three test batches, totally decoupled and stable from input dependencies.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5083
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Controller Design for the Pitch Control of an Autonomous Underwater

    • Authors: L. Priyadarshini, S. Kundu, M. K. Maharana, B. P. Ganthia
      Pages: 8967 - 8971
      Abstract: In recent years, the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) has found its application in a large number of areas, especially in the ocean environment. But due to its highly non-linear nature with six degrees of freedom and the presence of hydrodynamic forces, the equations for AUV control become complex and difficult to design. Hence, in order to overcome this complexity and non-linearity, a reduced-order subsystem is derived for controlling the pitch. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and Fractional Order PID (FOPID) techniques have been applied for determining the controller for better performance of pitch control in the presence of disturbance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5050
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • An Intelligent Fault Detection and Classification Scheme for Distribution
           Lines Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: B. K. Ponukumati, P. Sinha, M. K. Maharana, A. V. P. Kumar, A. Karthik
      Pages: 8972 - 8977
      Abstract: The current paper focuses on the development and deployment of Machine Learning (ML) based algorithms for the classification and detection of different faults in the electrical distribution system. The methodology adapted using ML has higher computational accuracy than traditional computational algorithms. The parameters involved in developing ML for fault detection/classification are fundamental frequency, fault voltage, and current components at fault situations. During faults, the current and voltage waveforms consist of high-frequency transient signals. The Wavelet Decomposition (WD) technique is used to break down transient signals to obtain the required information. To investigate the performance of the ML-based algorithms, an IEEE 33 bus system is utilized, and a fault is generated in Matlab/Simulink environment. The methodologies used for fault detection and classification are K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Decision Tree (DT), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The performance of the designed algorithm is assessed by employing a confusion matrix, and the results demonstrated extraordinarily high accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5107
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • A Comparative Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of Annealed PLA

    • Authors: D. G. Zisopol, A. I. Portoaca, I. Nae, I. Ramadan
      Pages: 8978 - 8981
      Abstract: In order to obtain better performance, 3D printed parts can be the subject of post-processing operations like sanding, gap filling, polishing, annealing, epoxy coating, and metal plating. This paper takes into consideration the most commonly used material filament for FFF technology PLA and studies the mechanical characteristics through tensile and 3-point bending tests. The obtained results reveal significantly higher values of the mechanical properties after applying a 3-hour heat treatment at 75°C, for the following combinations of parameters: layer thickness of 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20mm and infill percentage of 50%, 75%, and 100%.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5123
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Overview of Green Roof Technology as a Prospective Energy Preservation
           Technique in Arid Regions

    • Authors: A. S. Mahmoud
      Pages: 8982 - 8989
      Abstract: Concerns about climate change and rising energy demands have grown as a result of fast population rise and global industrialization. The construction industry has a huge impact on the energy and environmental sectors, accounting for about 40% of global energy consumption and a large portion of overall territorial emissions. There is a need for a shift in mindset when it comes to energy usage, as well as enhanced energy efficiency approaches and radical energy efficiency initiatives. As an energy-saving solution, the green roof, also known as the living roof has suitability and environmental benefits on many levels, while also strengthening aesthetic features and provoking structural innovation. Moreover, drought-prone areas, e.g. Saudi Arabia, have significant household energy demands. The Saudi building sector consumes more than 76% of the country's total electric power generation. As a result, the purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of living roof technology and its potential in Saudi Arabia as an energy-saving strategy. An overview of the building envelope, the impact of cladding design considerations on power usage, the benefits of a living roof, cost-benefit analysis, green policies, and examples from other countries are included in the paper. Other environmental benefits, besides the energy-saving potential of living roofs, were shown to boost the quantitative benefits of the living roof idea. A more detailed study is needed, among other things, to evaluate the energy-saving potential of living roofs based on the weather of various locations.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4919
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • CYANanobot: Miniaturized Boat-Assisted Data Acquisition for Automated
           Cyanide Monitoring in Wastewater Using Optical Nano-Sensors

    • Authors: J. S. Loquero, A. T. Demetillo, I. B. Pongcol, J. M. Sakuddin, R. N. Mendoza, G. L. Amper, R. J. U. Candare, Y. P. C. Amarga, R. Y. Capangpangan
      Pages: 8990 - 8995
      Abstract: Cyanide contamination in water and wastewater is ubiquitous, particularly in gold mining industries, where cyanide is commonly used to extract gold. It is constantly being monitored by collecting samples which are analyzed in the laboratory using traditional cyanide analysis, which requires complicated instrumentation, skilled analysts, and expensive equipment. Using the gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-decorated paper-based sensor employing Whatman Filter Paper (WFP) as a substrate, an automated process for cyanide monitoring with the aid of an assembled and improvised remotely controlled miniature boat was developed. The technology is equipped with a filtration system with automated water sample collection and preparation with an automatic paper sensor dispenser. Images of the collected wastewater samples are taken at different time intervals and are analyzed on their respective color spaces based on 8 mathematical models, each predicting the cyanide level of the water sample. The predictions are compared to the actual Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) measurement, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values were calculated. The predictions at 165s using the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color space exhibited the highest R2 of 0.85 and the lowest RMSE of 3.80 parts per million (ppm) with an average error of 3.40ppm. The predictions are sent to a database using Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). The results suggest that the CYANanobot technology facilitates fast analysis time, circumvents the frequent instrument calibration, reduces operating costs, minimizes exposure to toxic cyanide-containing samples, and reduces person-to-person interaction.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5063
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • A Power-Aware Real-Time System for Multi-Video Treatment on FPGA with
           Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration and Voltage Scaling

    • Authors: L. Kechiche, L. Touil, M. Jemai, B. Ouni
      Pages: 8996 - 9004
      Abstract: As the energy consumption is an evaluating factor for System-On-Chip (SOC) design, this paper presents a power-aware architecture for a real-time multi-video system on FPGA. This architecture aims to optimize power consumption for a multi-video system on ARM-based architectures. The proposed architecture uses dynamic reconfiguration and voltage scaling to create a power-aware system for real-time multi-video processing with minimal power dissipation. Dynamic partial reconfiguration was used to optimize the utilization of resources and reduce dynamic power consumption. Voltage scaling was also used to optimize dynamic power consumption, by configuring the blocks to use the minimum necessary voltage for normal operating conditions. The proposed architecture focused on the Zynq platform. The results showed power savings of up to 70% concerning performance and real-time constraints.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5099
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Assessing the Effect of Underground Void on Strip Footing Sitting on a
           Reinforced Sand Slope with Numerical Modeling

    • Authors: B. Mazouz, T. Mansouri, M. Baazouzi, K. Abbeche
      Pages: 9005 - 9011
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of the numerical analysis undertaken to investigate the effect of the underground void on the load-bearing capacity of a strip footing placed on an unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced sand slope with a void inside. The failure mechanism of the soil was also investigated. The numerical model was obtained using 2D plane-strain FEM analysis (in Plaxis software), in which the nonlinear Mohr-Coulomb model was utilized. The effects of various parameters such as the number of geogrid layers (N), the vertical distance ratio between the top of the cavity from the base of footing (H/B), the horizontal distance of void centerline to the footing center (X/B), on the behavior of footing are studied in this research. The results indicate that there is a critical zone under the footing in which the existence of void has no influence on the bearing capacity and stability of the footing. In addition, the use of geogrid reinforcement reduces the settlement and enhances bearing capacity. Finally, the bearing capacity factor and failure mechanism increase with increasing horizontal and vertical void distances ratios (X/B and H/B) and reinforcement layers.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5131
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Human Emotion Detection with Electroencephalography Signals and Accuracy
           Analysis Using Feature Fusion Techniques and a Multimodal Approach for
           Multiclass Classification

    • Authors: N. V. Kimmatkar, B. Vijaya Babu
      Pages: 9012 - 9017
      Abstract: Biological brain signals may be used to identify emotions in a variety of ways, with accuracy depended on the methods used for signal processing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. The major goal of the current work was to use an adaptive channel selection and classification strategy to improve the effectiveness of emotion detection utilizing brain signals. Using different features picked by feature fusion approaches, the accuracy of existing classification models' emotion detection is assessed. Statistical modeling is used to determine time-domain and frequency-domain properties. Multiclass classification accuracy is examined using Neural Networks (NNs), Lasso regression, k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF). After performing hyperparameter tuning, a remarkable increase in accuracy is achieved using Lasso regression, while RF performed well for all the feature sets. 78.02% and 76.77% accuracy were achieved for a small and noisy 24 feature dataset by Lasso regression and RF respectively whereas 76.54% accuracy is achieved by Lasso regression with the backward elimination wrapper method.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5073
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Wear and Indentation Resistance of Polyethylene Nanocomposites at High

    • Authors: A. S. Alghamdi
      Pages: 9018 - 9022
      Abstract: The presence of nanofillers in the polyethylene matrix can play an important role in changing their behavior during mechanical testing. Moreover, high ambient temperature can seriously affect the properties of polyethylene and cause softening, which leads to a decrease in stiffness, strength, hardness, and wear resistance. In the current work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoclays with 0.5wt.% are embedded into polyethylene blend matrix to enhance its mechanical properties, mainly wear and indentation resistance at different ambient temperatures. The results show that the processing method used resulted in homogenous distribution and good dispersion of nanofillers. The addition of 0.5 wt.% CNT or nanoclays increased the indentation and wear resistance at both room and high temperatures. At high temperatures, the presence of nanofillers caused an increase in wear resistance by 32.2% at maximum depth.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4982
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Fisher Component-based Feature Selection Method

    • Authors: A. B. Buriro, S. Kumar
      Pages: 9023 - 9027
      Abstract: A feature selection technique is proposed in this paper, which combines the computational ease of filters and the performance superiority of wrappers. The technique sequentially combines Fisher-score-based ranking and logistic regression-based wrapping. On synthetically generated data, the 5-fold cross-validation performances of the proposed technique were compatible with the performances achieved through Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO). The binary classification performances in terms of F1 score and Geometric Mean (GM) were evaluated over a varying imbalance ratio of 0.1:0.9 – 0.5:0.5, a number of informative features of 1 – 30, and a fixed sample size of 5000.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5137
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Effect of Geometric Parameters on the Strength of Stone Columns

    • Authors: S. Saxena, L. B. Roy
      Pages: 9028 - 9033
      Abstract: Abstract-Many geotechnical sites are unsuitable for construction due to their low bearing capacity. In the present study, stone column technique has been analyzed for the ground improvement of soft clayey soil. The change in bearing capacity of stone columns with variation in static parameters has been estimated using Indian Standard Code 15284 (IS Code) - 2003, Bouassida’s method (1994), and Afshar's and Ghazavi's method (2014). From the analytical solution of the expression by the IS Code method for bearing capacity of the stone column, it is found that with the increase in diameter of the column, the bearing capacity of the stone column increases. Comparison of the results from the three methods has been conducted and it was found that values obtained from IS Code are very close to those obtained by the other two analytical methods. Also, the critical interpretation of the results shows that the IS Code gives safer design values for a wide range of the static parameters. The results of the IS Code were compared with the experimental findings to evaluate the ability of the method to design the actual load carrying capacity of the stone column.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5138
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Drought Analysis Using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration
           Index (SPEI) at Different Time Scales in an Arid Region

    • Authors: A. Raja, T. Gopikrishnan
      Pages: 9034 - 9037
      Abstract: Drought causes insufficient soil moisture and crop water balance damage. One of the most commonly used indicators in drought monitoring is the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). In this study, the performance of the SPEI at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month timescales was compared and analyzed from temporal and spatial variations at 12 meteorological stations in the Barmer arid region from 1979 to 2013. To determine the significance of drought characteristic trends, the modified Mann-Kendall (M-K) test is used. The results revealed that as the timescale increased, the temporal variations in the SPEI became more consistent. The M-K test revealed that the SPEI showed decreasing trends at 1 and 3 months, but increasing trends at 6, 9, and 12 months. The findings of this study are instructive and practical for drought assessment, risk management, and decision-making.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5141
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • A New Miniature Micro-Strip Two-Layer Band-Pass Filter Using
           Aperture-Coupled Hairpin Resonators

    • Authors: N. Chami, D. Saigaa, A. Djaiz
      Pages: 9038 - 9041
      Abstract: The goal of this project was to provide novel band-pass filter design techniques for mobile communications, which allow a significant reduction in the size of the filters produced. The novelty comes from the transformation of the single layer technique into a double layer technique by inserting coupling slots in a common mass plane. Because of their tiny size, these filters are suitable candidates for integration into mobile communication systems. Indeed, when compared to the dimensions of a single-layer planar filter, the multilayer construction allowed us to reduce the size of the filter by more than 40%. Five U-shaped hairpin resonators were placed on two micro-strip layers in the planned filter. Two apertures etched on a common ground plane positioned between the two layers allow varied couplings between the upper and bottom layer resonators. A five-pole hairpin band-pass filter was created as a result.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5037
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Transmitting Side Power Control for Dynamic Wireless Charging System of
           Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: N. T. Diep, N. K. Trung
      Pages: 9042 - 9047
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new power control method in dynamic wireless charging systems for electric vehicles. A dual-loop controller is proposed to control charging power while the electric vehicle is moving without communication between the transmitting and receiving sides. The output power is estimated through the coupling coefficient estimation. However, the coupling coefficient varies with the position of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper also presents an easy-to-do practical estimation method from the transmitting side, in which the coupling coefficient value is continuously updated according to the vehicle's position. As a result, the output power is controlled according to the required level with an error of less than 5%.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.4988
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • A Low-Profile Wearable Textile Antenna Using AMC for WBAN Applications at

    • Authors: W. Bouamra, I. Sfar, A. Mersani, L. Osman, J. M. Ribero
      Pages: 9048 - 9055
      Abstract: This paper presents a low-profile, wearable textile antenna, designed for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications operating in the 5.8GHz band for Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) applications. An Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) structure was used to improve antenna performance and protect the human body from back-radiation. The antenna with the integrated AMC achieved a measured gain of 8.92dBi, an efficiency of 80%, a wide impedance bandwidth of 1.4GHz (24.1%), and SAR values of 0.00103 and 0.00034W/Kg for 10g and 1g tissues respectively. The proposed antenna was studied in a worn-on-body scenario using a multilayer numerical model of the human body. The influence of the thickness of each tissue layer of the human body was investigated. The results showed that the antenna maintained its performance, a stable gain was obtained, and the SAR values were also below the IEEE guidelines that guarantee the safety of the wearer.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • The Performance of Spectral Clustering Algorithms on Water Distribution
           Networks: Further Evidence

    • Authors: F. Belloum, L. Houichi, M. Kherouf
      Pages: 9056 - 9062
      Abstract: The aim of the current paper is to revisit the performance of spectral clustering algorithms for water distribution networks. In the literature, there have been attempts to introduce improved algorithms based on graph theory. We focus on a class of these algorithms that applies the concepts of the spectral clustering approach. We assess the performance of spectral clustering algorithms on a wider range of water network types (i.e. large, medium, and small sized networks) using a wider range of clustering methods (both partitioning and hierarchical) and performance indicators. Our findings suggest that partitioning methods, such as k-means are not consistently efficient in all types of networks. Nonetheless, the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) algorithm shows a relatively good performance according to modularity, while the internal indices of k-means and hierarchical clustering algorithms are more efficient. Stability indices show that PAM and CLARA algorithms are more efficient.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5116
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Pressure Drop in Horizontal Two-Phase Flow

    • Authors: S. S. Ibrahim, L. A. Abdulkareem
      Pages: 9063 - 9070
      Abstract: In an artificial environment, the most important key in the process equipment design is determining gas-liquid two-phase flow frictional pressure drop of pipes. To achieve this, an experimental investigation was carried out in this study to analyze the pressure drops of air-water two-phase flow in a 30mm internal diameter horizontal pipe with a length of 6m at different flow conditions. The study was carried out at 20Co using tap water and air. To cover the slug flow pattern, the volumetric flow rate of water varied from 30 to 80 LPM, and the volumetric flow rate of air from 40 to 200 LPM. Pressure transmitters were used to measure pressure at four different points along the test section, each 2m apart. The results of the experiments were compared to 8 models using 3 distinct methods: Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Relative Performance Factor (RPF), and the percentage of data included in the range of the 30% error band. All methods produced similar results, with the Sun-Mishima model being the most accurate.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5153
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Direct ADC Controlled Asymmetric Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

    • Authors: M. J. Shah, K. S. Pandya, P. Chauhan
      Pages: 9071 - 9077
      Abstract: This paper presents an asymmetric multi-level inverter with a novel direct ADC control scheme. This scheme does not use a carrier wave or a reference sinusoidal wave to generate gate pulses for power switches, but an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) to create gate pulses. For n sources, n bit ADC will generate 2n+1-1 levels at the output voltage of the inverter. This scheme uses the ADC output for the gate pulses for power switching devices. In this topology, the inverter comprises a series of connected half-bridges to generate a more significant level. The presented topology uses binary level supply voltages. Different topologies with different parameters are compared with the proposed inverter, and the operation of the proposed control scheme is verified with a simulation in Matlab. The prototype of a 31-level inverter is developed in hardware, and the hardware results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.48084/etasr.5164
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
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