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European Journal of Ecology
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ISSN (Online) 1339-8474
Published by U of Kansas Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Genetic diversity of European tree frogs (Hyla arborea group): A
           systematic review

    • Authors: Elza Birbele, Alessandro Di Marzio, Dace Grauda, Giovanni Vimercati, Gunita Deksne
      Abstract: Amphibian populations are increasingly threatened by global change and the study of their genetic diversity is a major conservation priority. Western palearctic tree frog species of the Hyla arborea group are commonly distributed across Europe and the Middle East and many have declining populations. We performed a PRISMA systematic review to gain insight into the genetic diversity of H. arborea group. Sixteen published studies were included in the final qualitative analysis. While the genetic diversity of H. arborea group species was widely variable, it could often be explained by phylogeographic history. Populations in Western and Northern Europe had lower genetic diversity, with some populations also affected by habitat fragmentation. However, important regions of high genetic diversity were found in the Balkan peninsula for H. arborea sensu stricto and around the Black Sea for H. orientalis. Genetic diversity of H. molleri, H. savignyi, H. meridionalis, H. felixarabica, H. intermedia, H. sarda has been investigated only across extensive phylogeographical studies, while data regarding their genetic diversity at the local level are missing. Through our review, we identify knowledge gaps about the genetic diversity of the H. arborea group that require further investigation, of and illustrate how filling these gaps might translate into future conservation efforts.
      Keywords: Articles ; Historical Demography and Climate Driven Range Shifts in the Blue-spotted
             Salamander Under the Climate Change Scenarios

      • Authors: UTKU PERKTAS, Can Elverici, Özge Yaylalı
        Abstract: This study integrates phylogeography with distributional analysis to understand the demographic history and range dynamics of a limited dispersal capacity amphibian species, Blue-spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale), under several climate change scenarios. For this we used an ecological niche modeling approach, together with Bayesian based demographic analysis, to develop inferences regarding this species' demographic history and range dynamics. The current model output was mostly congruent with the present distribution of the Blue-spotted Salamander. However, under both the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum bioclimatic conditions, the model predicted a substantially narrower distribution than the present. These predictions showed almost no suitable area in the current distribution range of the species during almost the last 22.000 y before present (ybp). The predictions indicated that the distribution of this species shifted from eastern coast of northern North America to the southern part of the current distribution range of the species. The Bayesian Skyline Plot analysis, which provided good resolution of the effective population size changes over the Blue-spotted Salamander history, was mostly congruent with ecological niche modeling predictions for this species. This study provides the first investigation of the Blue-spotted Salamander’s late-Quaternary history based on ecological niche modeling and Bayesian-based demographic analysis. In terms of the main result of this study, we found that the species' present genetic structure has been substantially affected by past climate changes, and this species has reached current distribution range almost from nothing since the Last Glacial Maximum.
        Keywords: Articles ; Data of bioaccumulation and biomagnification from soil in biota
               nettle-snail (Urtica dioica, L and Helix pomatia,L) of heavy metal (Pb,
               Zn, Ni) pollution of mining activity in Mitrovica

        • Authors: Mentor Bici, Kemajl Bislimi
          Abstract: ABSTRACT In this research project, we measured the impact and distribution of the activity of minning Trepça Complex in Mitrovica on the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni)  in soil, plant (Urtica dioica,L) and shell of snail (Helix pomatia). Introdiction: Large quantities of these metals come from natural and anthropogenic sources including mining activity, agriculture, pesticide use, industrialization, and inadequate disposal of mineral waste and artificial fertilizers. These inorganic pollutants are deposited in the soil, water, and atmosphere in various forms of complexes and are thus transmitted from plants, animals to humans. Climatic factors such as winds, rains, and temperatures are believed to be major contributors to the spread over time and space of heavy metals in the environment. Materials and methods: Soil samples, nettle plant (Urtica dioica, L), and snail (Helix pomatia, L), were collected from the selected pollution source of mine Trepça complex at distances of 1km, 2km, and 5km in the radius circles divided into four geographical areas. Also the control samples are collected in unpolluted site Opoja-Dragash municipalty. The samples were digested in microwave at 2000C for 45 min and have been read in flame absorber Analyticjena Contra AAA. Results: Higher concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ni were recorded in the southern parts of the country compared to that control with significant differences (p<0.01). Bioaccumulation and biomagnification levels of these heavy metals have also been recorded in the roots, stalks, and leaves of the stinging nettle plant (Urtica dioica, L) as well as in snail shells (Helix pomatia, L.). Conclusions: The results show that the stinging nettle plant has translocated larger amounts of these heavy metals especially Pb along with the vegetative organs wherefrom these they are carried in the snail shell, which is fed on the stinging nettle plant. Also, results shown that the nettle plant Urtica dioica can be used in phytoremediation process whereas snail Helix pomatia can be used like bioindicator of heavy metal pollution.    
          PubDate: 2023-11-19
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.21008
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
      • Hiding behaviour of bats in sandstone mines of North-Eastern Ukraine

        • Authors: Anton Vlaschenko
          Abstract: Winter counting of bats in hibernacula is one of the main methods of estimating their population trends in Europe. However, it is not always possible for humans to identify and count all bats in the maze of big karstic caves or abandoned mines. Previously we notice a significant fluctuation in the numbers of bat species and individuals in sandstone mines located in the Kharkiv region (NE Ukraine), and hypothesized that a significant undercount happened due to the hiding of bats in deep crevices of sandstone. Here using a camera trap placed inside a mine (September 17-19, 2017) we tested this hypothesis. Firstly we identified significant levels of bat flight activity where no roosting bats had been observed through conventional visual survey methods. The proportion of identified bats (Myotis group and Plecotus auritus) on footage was similar to that obtained by usual winter counts. Finally, we filmed and documented cases of crawling bats inside the deep crevices in the wall depths. We ventured to make an extrapolation of bat numbers in a mine on the basis of autumn-spring mist-netting data, and our evidence that they do hide in crevices. Our observations clearly demonstrate that hiding bat behaviour in mines might result in an underestimation of the real number of hibernating bats in sand-stone mines.
          PubDate: 2023-11-19
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.19631
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
      • Geospatial Analysis For Determination Of Preferential Soil Conditions For
               The Desert Locust Oviposition

        • Authors: Giribabu Dandabathula, Rohit Hari, Koushik Ghosh, Rakesh Fararoda, Darshana Kumare, Amirthavarshini Sasikumar, Apurba Kumar Bera, Sushil Kumar Srivastav
          Abstract: Understanding the thresholds of influencing parameters that favor the habitability of dangerous pests like desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) can aid in early detection and eradication using control operations. The life cycle of the desert locust and its behavioral changes are associated with the weather patterns and the region’s ecosystem settings. This study attempts to retrieve the preferential soil conditions like texture and moisture at the surface and subsurface levels for egg-laying by desert locusts. Towards this, Locust Hub, a comprehensive database of desert locusts maintained and disseminated by the Food and Agriculture Organisation under the Locust Watch program, was used to identify breeding site locations for 2017-2021. In this research, we extracted sand-silt-clay percentage at these breeding sites using SoilGrids ver. 2.0 from the World Soil Information Service database facilitated by International Soil Reference and Information Centre. Similarly, soil moisture conditions extracted from Level-4 data products of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission for all these breeding sites aided in essaying the optimal soil conditions for the desert locust’s oviposition. This study’s results confirm the sand percentage in a broad range of 55-70% (for 90% of samples), followed by a narrow range of silt and clay with 19-24% and ~14-20%, respectively. Our study reveals that female desert locusts prefer sandy loam-textured soils for oviposition. The preferred range of soil moisture at the surface and subsurface resulted in 5-10% and 10-20%, respectively. These results confirm that dampness is required at the surface soil for initiating the oviposition by female desert locusts. Results from this research can aid in the early identification of breeding grounds during desert locusts’ invasion period.
          PubDate: 2023-11-07
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.19493
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
               THE ANDEAN CHOCÓ

        • Authors: Marco Antonio Rodríguez Segovia, María Mercedes Gavilánez Endara
          Abstract: In the northwest of Pichincha (Ecuador), the last tropical forests of the Chocó located in the Mashpi mountains have been fragmented due to deforestation and cattle ranching. We identified four different types of habitats in the area, based on the conservation status and management strategies: primary forest (PF), secondary forest in natural regeneration (SF1), secondary forest in assisted regeneration (SF2), and pastures for cattle (P). This research analyzed how the disturbances of each habitat influence the seed communities dispersed by understory fruit bats. Additionally, we studied the availability of plant resources that these animals can disperse in each habitat. In our results, anthropogenic disturbances caused significant changes in the natural dynamics of seed dispersal in disturbed habitats (SF1, SF2, and P). These alterations are delaying the processes of secondary succession and species recruitment, making it difficult to predict the successional trajectories that these habitats will follow in the future.
          PubDate: 2023-10-25
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.18708
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
      • Characterization of Anopheles funestus Larval Habitats in Fiyoni, Kwale
               County, Kenya: Insights into Malaria Vector Ecology and Control

        • Authors: Clifton Omondi, Dr. James Nonoh, Dr. Regina Ntabo
          Abstract: The breeding of malaria-spreading vectors such as Anopheles funestus is influenced by various environmental factors that contribute indirectly to the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite. However, there is limited knowledge of larval habitat ecology that hinder prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. This study aimed to characterize larval habitats based on physicochemical and habitat characteristics, considering the abundance of A. funestus.  A cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data on the established transects. Physical parameters (water temperature, pH, conductivity, and total dissolved solids) were measured using a 5-in-1 meter probe. Levels of chemical parameters (sulphate, COD, and BOD) were determined in the laboratory using standard methods. Observations were also made on habitat characteristics (including watercolor, habitat size, and canopy). There was significant effect (P<0.05) of conductivity, pH, sulphate, COD, and BOD on the number of A. funestus larvae. Water samples with a high population of A. funestus larvae were found to have higher conductivity (Me of 470.5), TDS (Me = 235), and pH levels (Me of 6.71). Conversely, water samples with a high population of non-Anopheles funestus larvae were found to have higher COD (Me of 843.20), BOD (Me of 367.2), and SO4 levels (Me of 11.3). A significant correlation (p<0.5) existed between A. funestus larvae and physical water parameters. For instance, Anopheles funestus larvae was high (Me of 36.85) in stagnant water and in semi-permanent water (Me of 47.37). The study demonstrates that both physicochemical and habitat parameters significantly influence the abundance of Anopheles funestus larvae in larval habitats. Parameters such as conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, sulphate, COD, BOD, watercolor, depth, distance from the homestead, and habitat size were found to be important in determining the presence of A. funestus larvae. Therefore, vector control strategies should include larval source management by targeting rivers and other water bodies to prevent the emergence of Anopheles funestus.
          PubDate: 2023-10-25
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.21173
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)

        • Authors: Baigo Hamuna, Ervina Indrayani, Lalu Panji Iman Agamawan
          Abstract: In this study, data on length and weight of fish were used to determine the length-weight relationship and condition factors of eight fish species that are targeted by traditional Papuan fishers and have high economic value (Lutjanus fulvus, Gerres oyena, Parupeneus barberinus, Siganus spinus, Siganus canaliculatus, Pelates quadrilineatus. Mugil cephalus, and Hemiramphus far) in Youtefa Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia. A total of 245 fish specimens were collected from Papuan fishermen during the period January to March 2020. The total length and body-weight of the fish specimens studied ranged from 15.2 to 32.1 cm (average 20.26±3.73 cm) and 42.72 to 371.86 g (average 124.10±52.45 g), respectively. The b value ​​for all fish species studied ranged from 2.6919 to 3.0791, with the coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.9022 to 0.9947. The growth patterns of the eight fish species were allometric (b ≠ 3; t-test < t-tab), where L. fulvus (2.824), P. barberinus (2.9136), S. canaliculatus (2.989), P. quadrilineatus (2.9577), M. cephalus (2.9096), and H. far (2.6919) were negative allometric (b < 3), while G. oyena (3.0596) and S. spinus (3.0791) are positive allometric (b > 3). Meanwhile, the relative condition factor and Fulton condition factor values ​​ranged from 0.874 to 1.201 (average 0.999±0.321) and 0.204 to 2.726 (average 1.612±0.515). M. cephalus had a higher relative condition factor, while L. fulvus had a higher Fulton condition factor than other fish species
          PubDate: 2023-10-16
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.16530
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
      • New record of Rangia cuneata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mactridae) on southern
               coast of Baltic Sea (N Poland)

        • Authors: Przemysław Kurek, Blanka Wiatrowska
          Abstract: In February 2021 a valve of Rangia cuneata – a clam native to North America, was found in a new location on the Polish coast in Ustka Bay. After first records of this clam in Europe in 2005 in Belgium and then in 2010 in the Baltic Sea (Russian part of the Vistula Lagoon), an increasing number of new observations have been reported since. This indicates an effective dispersal of this alien species in the Baltic waters.
          PubDate: 2023-10-16
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.19751
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
      • Welcome to the (urban) jungle: notes on new science, biological evolution
               in cities

        • Authors: Berika Beridze, Mathieu Mahamoud-Issa, Mateusz Zmudzinski, Paula Antonina Bednarz, Zuzanna Karolina Filutowska, Bożena Sikora, Dominika Winiarska, Diego Carmona, Fabio Angeoletto
          Abstract: The city – a modern jungle, where not cellulose and photosynthesis but concrete and combustion reign supreme. The question now being asked by urban planners, governments, and scientists is if it may stay like that and if it can stay like that or if it has to stay like that. Social, economic, cultural, historical, and legal factors are determinants in the ecology of urban ecosystems. Even well-managed cities are usually hostile toward non-human inhabitants. Furthermore, as with any complex system, the equilibrium is fragile, even if it exists. This publication outlines the co-evolution and ecology of humans and other species in the cities, their importance, and perspectives.
          PubDate: 2023-10-16
          DOI: 10.17161/eurojecol.v9i2.19518
          Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
      • Potential Distribution of the Asiatic Black Bear in Khangchendzonga
               National Park, Sikkim Eastern Himalaya using MaxEnt Modeling

        • Authors: Rakesh Basnett, Awadhesh Kumar, Tajum Yomcha
          Abstract: Habitat assessment and mapping are major functional keys in the need species conservation concern. The study aimed to understand the possible distribution of Asiatic Black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in the Khangchendzonga National Park. Sign survey, camera trapping, and trail monitoring were used to collect the presence-only data. In this analysis, we used Maximum Entropy Modeling and ArcGIS to determine the variable's contribution to the species distribution and presence. In total, 63 presence data were obtained, and out of 23 environmental variables we used only 15 different environmental variables due to multicollinearity. The ROC results show that variable consistency was excellent (mean AUC=0.941). The variables like Bio-14(Precipitation of driest month), Bio-2(Mean diurnal range (mean of monthly max temp - min temp)), Bio-13(Precipitation of wettest month), aspect and LULC were the critical factors for the distribution of U.thibetanus. The major distribution of U.thibetanus was found in the broadleaved, coniferous forest and grassland patches in the core area. The temperate zone is most preferred as compared to the sub-alpine and alpine zone by U.thibetanus. The distributional area accounts for 360.32km2, representing 20.19% of the whole core area of Khangchendzonga National Park. Large areas of distribution were predicted outside of the core areas, i.e. buffer and transition areas of Khangchendzonga National Park. This study offers valuable findings and data which can be used in future research and conservation management plans in and around Khangchendzonga National Park to mitigate human-bear interaction.
          Keywords: Articles ; Partial reinforcement increases resistance to extinction of operant task
                 in mice trained with a clicker

          • Authors: Marcin Górecki, Agata Kiełtyka-Kurc, Natalia Solarska
            Abstract: Learning skills are very important in terms of animal chance of survival in nature. Results of training of kept animals and studies on their learning can enlarge our understanding of their skills. The clicker training is a popular form of training of many animal species, consisting of associating a neutral stimulus (a click) with a reward. In our paper we examined if the used reinforcement scheme has an influence on the extinction of learned behaviour. Forty female house mice Mus musculus were divided into 2 groups of 20 subjects towards which two separate rewarding schemes were used. For completing a learned activity, the mice from the A group received a reward after each click (continuous reinforcement), and the mice from the B group only after the second or the third click (partial reinforcement). Afterwards, at the extinction phase the mice were receiving none reinforcement. Our results showed that the mice which were given only partial reinforcement were more resistant to the extinction of learned behaviour, i. e. performed significantly more attempts to obtain a reward.
            Keywords: Articles ; Leaping on urban islands: further summer and winter range expansion of
                   European bat species

            • Authors: Anton Vlaschenko, Vitalii Hukov, Olha Timofieieva, Marharyta Moiseienko, Anastasia Domanska, Oleksandr Zinenko, Alona Prylutska
              Abstract: Cities or urban areas are the new types of landscapes that have rapidly developed in the Anthropocene and generally mimic mountains and rock habitats. Such areas attract different vertebrate species that naturally prefer rocky habitats, for example, bats, which are common animal inhabitants of the cities in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we review records of four bat species (Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus) inhabiting human settlements in Ukraine, encompassing the period from 2011 to 2022. Over the last 20 to 30 years, the winter range of P. nathusii has shifted 200-300 km north, and now covers all Black Sea coast steppe regions of continental Ukraine. The Pl. austiacus range most likely covers the whole territory of Ukraine. We documented the first factual records of H. savii in continental Ukraine and the first winter records of P. pygmaeus for the country. Our observations clearly demonstrate colonization of newly formed urban landscapes by bats species from different ecological groups. Therefore, bats, same as some other mammalian species, can be considered beneficiaries of urbanization and urban heat islands. 
              Keywords: Articles ; The role of climate change and food supply on winter populations of
                     seed-eating birds

              • Authors: Arthur Askeyev, Oleg Askeyev, Igor Askeyev, Tim Sparks
                Abstract: We studied the populations of four seed-eating bird species throughout the winter during a 30-year study in the forests of the Tatarstan Republic, Russia. Numbers of all species fluctuated from year-to-year by several orders of magnitude but with a significant underlying trend for increased numbers associated with rising temperatures and a greater food supply. We question whether the traditional view that such birds move further south only after exhausting the food supply is too simplistic. We believe that the severity of winter, or lack of it, is highly influential on the mortality and movements of these characteristic birds of the boreal forest zone.
                       NATIONAL PARK (TOGO)

                  Abstract: The rodent assemblages were studied in different habitat types in the northern part of the Fazao-Malfakassa National Park located in central-western Togo, West Africa. A suite of different methods was applied, including face-by-face interviews with local hunters, live trapping along standardized transects and opportunistic observations. A total of 20 rodent species were recorded based on the surveys carried out in villages, including 6 families and 17 genera. There was a clear gradient pattern in the univariate diversity indices by habitat type: Dominance index was remarkably higher in Urban/plantation than in the other habitat types whereas Evenness index was remarkably higher in gallery forest than in the other habitat types. According to a Canonical Correspondence Analysis, three “ecological groups” (= guilds) of species were formed: a group from wooded habitats (savannahs and semiforests), a group from grassy savannah and a group from urban/plantation habitats. Null model analyses revealed that species tend to non-randomly congregate in some habitat types and/or localities. The ecological implications of these data were presented.
                  Keywords: Articles ; The Environment factors influencing abundance and growth of wild yam in
                         broadleaved forest, Tsirang District, Bhutan

                  • Authors: Hem Kumar Subba, Yogeeta Dahal, Bala Ram Mafchan, Sheto Kumar Ghalley, Bhakti Sharma Koirala
                    Abstract: Yams (Dioscorea) consist of approximately 600 species in the world. Yams are considered a staple food in Asia, tropical and subtropical regions. Genetic erosion and unsustainable harvesting practices are among the main problems associated with wild yam plants. This study was conducted with the objectives to enumerate wild yam species composition and environmental parameters affecting its growth and abundance. Systematic sampling of the study site was carried out based on different land aspects. Line transects were laid out in selected land aspects within the elevation range of 825 – 1935 m. Five plots in each transect with a 100 m plot interval comprising seven transects were laid out in the study area. Each plot was divided into sub-plot of 20 x 20 m, 5 x 5 m, and 1 x 1 m to enumerate trees, shrubs, and herbs respectively. Seven species of yams were found from the broadleaved forest and spearman correlation showed negative association of yam abundance with tree counts and canopy closure. The areas with higher density of trees had low count of yam abundance. Yam grows well in open canopy in lower altitudes comparing to high altitudes. Yam abundance was positively related with shrubs, herbs, soil moisture, soil organic matter, soil organic carbon, and nitrogen content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference of yam abundance in 7 different transects due to different ecological parameters influencing the abundance in different transects though transect being in a broadleaved forest.
                    Keywords: Articles ; Linking process to pattern in community assembly in dry evergreen
                           Afromontane forest of Hararghe highland, Southeast Ethiopia

                    • Authors: Zebene Asfaw, Mengistu Teshome Wondimu, Muktar Mohammed Yusuf
                      Abstract: Abstract   Many scholars have attempted to identify the role of deterministic and stochastic processes in community assembly, but there is no consensus on which processes dominate and at what spatial scales they occur. To shed light on this issue, we tested two non-exclusive processes, scale-dependent hypotheses: (i) that limiting similarity dominates on small spatial scales; and (ii) that environmental filtering does so on a large scale. To achieve this, we studied the functional patterns of dry evergreen Afromontane forest communities along elevation gradients in southeastern Ethiopia using floristic and functional trait data from fifty-four 0.04 ha plots. We found evidence of functional overdispersion on small spatial scales, and functional clustering on large spatial scales. The observed clustering pattern, consistent with an environmental filtering process, was most evident when environmental differences between a pair of plots were maximized. To strengthen the link between the observed community functioning pattern and the underlying process of environmental filtering, we demonstrated differences in the topographical factors of the most abundant species found at lower and higher elevations and examined whether their abundance varied over time or changed with time along the elevation. We found (i) that the largest functional differences in the community (observed between lower and upper dry evergreen Afromontane forest assemblages) were primarily the result of strong topographical influence; and (ii) that the abundance of such species varied along the elevation gradient. Variation in stand structure and tree species diversity within the DAF plots shows that topography is among the important drivers of local species distribution and hence the maintenance of tree diversity in dry Afromontane forest. Our results support the conclusion that environmental filtering at large spatial scales is the primary mechanism for community merging, since functional grouping pattern was associated with species similarities in topographic variation, ultimately leading to changes in species abundances along the gradient. There was also evidence of competitive exclusion at more homogeneous and smaller spatial scales, where plant species compete effectively for resources.
                      Keywords: Articles ;
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Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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