Publisher: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul   (Total: 35 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Austral : Brazilian J. of Strategy & Intl. Relations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Brasil/Brazil     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Informática     Open Access  
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos do IL     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito - PPGDir./UFRGS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cena     Open Access  
Ciencias Sociales y Religión/Ciências Sociais e Religião     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : J. of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Debate Terminológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Analytical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Em Questão     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estatística e Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fineduca : Revista de Financiamento da Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ícone: Revista Brasileira de História da Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Para Onde!?     Open Access  
Pesquisas em Geociências     Open Access  
Philia&Filia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Políticas Educativas : PolEd     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Res Severa Verum Gaudium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Estudos Africanos / Brazilian J. of African Studies     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Estudos da Presença     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Política e Administração da Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Conexão Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Contraponto     Open Access  
Revista da Faculdade de Direito da UFRGS     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Rio Grande do Sul     Open Access  
Revista do Lhiste : Laboratório de Ensino de História e Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Eletrônica de Direito Penal e Política Criminal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Eletrônica de Iniciação Científica em Computação : REIC     Open Access  
Revista História da Educação - History of Education J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.151, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Perspectiva : Reflexões Sobre a Temática Internacional     Open Access  
Revista Polis e Psique     Open Access  
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Acta Scientiae Veterinariae
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.144
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1678-0345 - ISSN (Online) 1679-9216
Published by Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Homepage  [35 journals]
  • Antimicrobial Photodinamic Therapy Combined with Laser Photobiomodulation
           in the Treatment of Skin Wounds in a Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

    • Authors: Fernando Alzamora Filho, Manoel Luiz Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius Alves da Silva, Anna Claudia Mombrini Silva Barbosa, Bruna Guedes Carvalho, Marcel Vasconcellos, José Marcus Raso Eulálio, José Eduardo Ferreira Manso
      Abstract: Background: Laser photobiomodulation has been used in the treatment of various injuries and diseases. This promotes modulation of the inflammatory process, edema reduction and devitalized tissue regeneration. The advantages of Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy are its easy application and the absence of side effects. Other advantages are the cost of the therapy, minimal damage to animal tissue, the broad spectrum of action, and efficiency against strains resistant to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to report the clinical and their resolution in a female dog with a traumatic, infected wound treated with laser phototherapy as an alternative therapy method.Case: A 3-year-old bitch Border Collie, weighing 18 kg, from the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, waspresented for examination with a history of traumatic laceration of the left thoracic member. On the anamnesis, it was reported that the patient presented with laceration of the left thoracic member. The wound was cleaned and an antibiotic [30 mg/kg of 12/12 h] and anti-inflammatory [0.1 mg/kg every 24 h were prescribed, both for 5 days]. Twenty-four h after the surgical procedure, there was dehiscence of the sutures, with daily topical therapy based on zinc oxide for secondary intention healing. Upon physical examination, the wound was found to be contaminated with swollen and erythematous edges, an ulcerated area with devitalized tissue, serous exudate, and 8.8 cm2 of wounded area. Given the macroscopic characteristics of the lesion, phototherapy was associated with conventional therapy until complete healing of the wound, with three weekly applications at 48 h intervals. Initially, the wound was cleaned with saline solution at 0.9% and a single treatment with aPDT was scheduled due to the high degree of contamination. The dosimetry parameters of irradiation were calculated according to the wounded area with a diode laser of 0.1W of power, continuous emission, spot area of 0.028 cm2, and energy of 9 J per application point. A gauze imbibed with 1 mL of methylene blue aqueous solution (300 μM), which was the photosensitizer was applied to the lesion, with a pre-irradiation time of 5 min, after which it was irradiated with red laser (RL) (λ = 660nm) for 90 s per point, using the sweeping technique. The edge of the lesion was irradiated with infrared laser (IRL) (λ = 808 nm), total energy of 5 J, using the technique of specific points and 1 J of energy/point. After aPDT, low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) sessions were set up with RL and IRL, with energies of 0.5 J/point and 1 J/point, respectively. The wound was cleaned daily, protected with a bandage, and clinically evaluated until complete regression.Discussion: In the present case, methylene blue was used as a photosensitizer, but it is noteworthy that, apparently, each microorganism responds differently to photosensitizers. Thus, the therapy becomes specific for each application, for example: the type of photosensitizer, its concentration, pre-irradiation time, type of light used in photosensitization, wavelength, energy, power, mode delivery of light. Thus, for the best result, the specific protocol in each application should be used  Low-intensity laser therapy is an easily executed technique with effective results. The use of PDT associated with photobiomodulation therapy enabled rapid healing of the cutaneous wound, in addition to an improvement in clinical signs and pain caused by the lesion. The technique proved to be an efficient alternative in the treatment of wounds, whether used in isolation or associated with conventional therapy. Keywords: methylene blue, healing, wound, photobiomodulation, low-level laser.Título: Terapia fotodinâmica antimicrobiana combinada com a fotobiomodulação a laser no tratamento de ferida cutânea em cão (Canis lupus familiaris).

      PubDate: 2021-11-20
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.116169
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Cenurosis in a Sheep with Neurological Signs - Diagnosis with Computed

    • Authors: Sergio Farias Vargas Júnior, Reci Fernandes Dorneles, Adriana Lucke Stigger, Eduardo Garcia Fontoura, João Pedro Scussel Feranti
      Abstract: Background: Cenurosis is a parasitic disease caused by Coenurus cerebralis, an intermediate form of Taenia multiceps multiceps, causing a fatal disease in production animals. Its adult form (Taenia) lodges in the small intestine of canids and can infect several intermediate hosts.Sheep are the main species affected by the disease, having nervous symptoms as one of its manifestations.This study aimed to describe the changes observed in computed tomography, as well as the clinical findings of a case of Cenurosis in a sheep on the western border of Rio Grande do Sul.Case: A ram was referred to the Centro Universitário da Região da Campanha (URCAMP) with neurological signs.Clinical, hematological, radiographic, tomographic and necroscopic evaluation of the animal was performed.There were no significant hematological and radiographic changes.During the neurological examination, corneal opacity was found in the right eyeball, associated with a visual deficit in the same eye.Also, when stimulated to move, it was possible to observe ataxia with ambulation to the left side, with right lateral displacement of the head.The tomography showed a hypodense area of approximately 3 cm at the base of the brain, in the region of the thalamus and third ventricle.Macroscopically, a translucent spherical cyst with approximately 4 cm in diameter was observed, containing the protoescolex/scolices of Taenia multiceps in the same region.Discussion: Computed tomography identified the presence of an apparently circular volume of approximately 4 cm in diameter, causing ventricular dilatation.This evidence of ventricular dilation corroborates aspects described in the literature, which found bilateral dilation of the ventricles by compression promoted by a cyst in the 4th ventricle.As the location of the cyst was located at the base of the brain, in the region of the third ventricle, it would be difficult to perform the surgery in the treatment of this case.Signs of ataxia, walking movements, decreased reflexes, nystagmus, unilateral blindness and lateral decubitus are commonly observed.Reports described that the main neurological alterations observed in 20 sheep with cenurosis were postural deficit, locomotion alteration, visual deficit and behavioral alterations, with more than 50% of the animals showing at least one of these signs.The main neurological signs observed in the case described were changes in gait, with walking, blindness, lateral head deviation and ataxia. These signs guide the clinical diagnosis of cenurosis.At necropsy, a spherical translucent cyst with approximately 4 cm in diameter was observed, containing the protoescolex/scolices of Taenia multiceps, which extended dorsally from the third ventricle to the base of the thalamus, laterally displaced to the right side.Rostrocaudal the lesion extended rostrally across the entire length of the thalamus to the beginning of the caudate nucleus and caudally to the base of the caudal colliculus, causing compression of the adjacent parenchyma, enabling the diagnosis of cenurosis.Similar findings are described as Coenurus cerebralis. This lesion pattern macroscopically characterizes the parasite lesions.Thus, it is concluded that the visualization of a hypodense area in CNS regions of sheep with neurological signs allows the diagnosis of cenurosis and precise location of the lesion.The description of this case adds information so that other professionals in the field can be successful in diagnosing the disease.Keywords: parasitologia, Taenia multiceps multiceps, Coenurus cerebralis, ovelhas, torneio verdadeiro.Descritores: parasitology, Taenia multiceps multiceps, Coenurus cerebralis, sheep, true tournament.Título: Cenurose em ovino com sinais neurológicos - diagnóstico com tomografia computadorizada. 
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.115972
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Abortion Due to Neospora caninum in Dairy Cattle in Southern Santa
           Catarina State, Brazil

    • Authors: Leonardo Silva da Costa, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena, Jessica Aline Withoeft, Thierry Grima de Cristo, Isadora Cristina Melo, Solange Oliveira, Anderson Barbosa Moura, Renata Assis Casagrande
      Abstract: Background: Neosporosis is a cosmopolitan disease known as the main infectious cause of abortion in cattle, reported in several states in Brazil. The transplacental transmission in cattle is responsible for perpetuating the disease in the herd. In the state of Santa Catarina, previous studies on this protozoan in cattle are mostly serological surveys. To increase information about this reproductive disorder, this work describes the diagnosis of abortions due to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from state of Santa Catarina and the follow-up for 4 years in a farm affected by neosporosis.Case: From 2015 to 2019, necropsy was performed on 10 aborted bovine fetuses, between fifth and eighth month of pregnancy, with 1 fetus aborted in 2015, 3 in 2016, 2 in 2017 and, 4 in 2019, all originating from the same dairy property in the southern region of state of Santa Catarina. No macroscopic lesions were found. Histopathology revealed mild to moderate multifocal mononuclear necrotizing encephalitis in 5 fetuses, and multifocal mild mononuclear myositis and myocarditis in 4 and 3 fetuses, respectively. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using primers based on the Nc-5 gene was positive for N. caninum in five fetuses. Three visits were performed in the farm for epidemiological evaluation and blood samples collection for IgG antibodies anti-N. caninum (IFAT). The total herd was 170 Jersey, Holstein and crossbred cattle, raised in a semi-confined system with mechanical milking system. Since 2014, there has been a significant increase in abortions cases, approximately 20 cows had abortions; in the year 2015, approximately 10; in 2016, less than 5; in 2017, 4 cows aborted; in 2018, 11 abortions and, in 2019, there were 4 abortions. An increase in the rate of return to estrus was also reported, and both primiparous and multiparous cows had reproductive disorders. Abortions were recorded throughout the year and occurred predominantly between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. In 2016, an Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IFAT) was performed on sera from 26 cows (13 with a history of reproductive disorders and another 13 without disorders). Of these, 50.0% (13/26) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 100 to 1600 (cutoff ≥100). The Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA) of the entire herd was carried out in 2017, with 26.54% (43/162) of seropositivity, 8.02% (13/162) suspect, and 30.4% (17/56) had reproductive disorders. It was observed that only animals born on the property were used for replacement, there was less possibility of direct contact between dogs on the property with milking facilities, placental and fetal remains, properly disposing of these, incinerating or burying. Thirty animals were discarded from the property, 25 of which had reproductive disorders. All young female daughters of seropositive cows remained on the property for replacement. During the evaluation period, all dogs were eliminated.Discussion: In this study, the diagnosis of neosporosis was made through epidemiology, histopathological lesions characterized by mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and myositis, and detection of the agent by PCR, associated with serological techniques. The lesions observed are indicative of N. caninum infection and are compatible with lesions observed in other studies. Serological screening is important to complement the diagnosis of abortion by N. caninum and to help control the agent in herds. From this report it is concluded that N. caninum is an important agent of reproductive disorders in cattle in the southern region of Santa Catarina, the different serological analyzes showed a good screening index for the inclusion of control strategies. In addition, the monitoring of reproductive rates of affected properties becomes necessary over the years, allowing better observation of control strategies.Keywords: reproductive disorder, fetal death, protozoan, parasitology.Descritores: distúrbio reprodutivo, morte fetal, protozoário, parasitologia. 
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.116816
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Anesthesia for Osteosynthesis of Femur in a Cane Toad (Rhinella marina)

    • Authors: Rochelle Gorczak, Marilia Avila Valandro, Érika Fernanda Villamayor Garcia, Ana Carolina Coelho, Bruna Zafalon da Silva, André Vasconcelos Soares
      Abstract: Background: The taxonomic order Anura is composed of frogs and toads, with approximately 6000 species worldwide, of which 900 species are found in Brazil. Rhinella marina, popularly known as “sapo-cururu,” is the most commonly found frog in Brazil. Although most of these animals are found in research laboratories and zoos, they are increasingly being reared as pets. Therefore, sedation or anesthesia is often necessary for these animals to facilitate medical care, complementary examinations, or surgical procedures. However, there are only a few reports of anesthesia in frogs. Therefore, the present report aimed to describe the anesthetic protocol for femoral osteosynthetic surgery in an adult cane toad.Case: An adult cane toad presented with a history of difficulty in moving the left hindlimb and loss of limb movements. Radiography showed a simple, complete, transverse, and closed average shaft of the left femur and bone shaft fracture deviation. The animal was referred for an osteosynthetic surgery to stabilize the fracture. Animal restraint was performed using humidified gloves on the operating table. As premedication, ketamine, meloxicam, and morphine were administered, and general anesthesia was induced with isoflurane through a face mask. The anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane through a drip on the animal's back for cutaneous absorption. Lidocaine (2%) anesthetic gel was applied on the incision line to complement the somatic analgesia. The fracture was fixed using an intramedullary Kirschner pin. The heart rate was measured based on the beep of the arterial pulse using a Doppler ultrasonic device, respiratory rate was recorded by visual observation of the animal’s respiratory motion, and body temperature was assessed using an esophageal digital thermometer—all of these remained stable during the procedure. Morphine, enrofloxacin, and meloxicam were administered postoperatively. The animal was discharged from the hospital seven days after the surgery, and 14 days later, the animal was deemed clinically stable with favorable wound healing.Discussion: Toads use their skin to breathe and maintain osmotic balance. Therefore, their skin is extremely sensitive to dehydration, requiring constant wetting. General anesthesia in amphibians is recommended for prolonged and painful procedures, as in the present case. Different anesthetics, analgesics, and associated drugs may be used. Ketamine is often used for chemical restraint in amphibians, and the induction and recovery times may vary due to sensitivity and drug resistance. Inhalational anesthesia with isoflurane may also be effective; in the present case, the anesthetic was administered using a mask placed on the frog’s skin, without any irritation. Analgesia is essential for any animal, and amphibians have opioid receptors that may be used as targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. As indicated for all species, the animal was monitored throughout the procedure. Assessment of heartbeat is the simplest way to monitor anesthesia using Doppler (on the heart or throat); in the present case, was placed on the axillary artery for clear auscultation. In addition, other parameters, such as temperature and primary respiratory movements, were monitored. Anesthetic recovery can take hours or even days, whereas excretion depends on the metabolic rate of each animal. In the present case, recovery was observed 4 h after completion of the procedure, using fresh water on the animal’s body to accelerate recovery, as indicated in the literature. This case demonstrated that anesthesia and medications used for anesthesia induction, maintenance, and recovery are safe in toads. For cane toads, during femoral osteosynthesis, this anesthetic procedure has never been described previously in the literature. Finally, such information can aid veterinarians in performing safe and adequate analgesic and anesthetic procedures for the wellbeing of animals.Keywords: amphibians, analgesia, surgery, skin absorption.
      PubDate: 2021-11-12
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.114175
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Liver Cysts in a Kitten with Platynosomum sp.

    • Authors: Isabela das Neves Piana, Alexandre Coltro Gazzone, Luciana Lopes Simplício, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo, Verônica Jorge Babo-Terra
      Abstract: Background: Hepatic cysts are rarely described in association with infections by Platynosomum sp. Infected animals are most often asymptomatic, and the severity of symptoms is associated with the number of biliary tract parasites, which may lead to cholangitis and cholangiohepatitis. Although platinosomiasis is often associated with cholangitis and cholangiohepatitis, it rarely is with polycystic disease. For the parasite’s life cycle to occur, the infected cat must eliminate the eggs in the feces and three intermediate hosts are needed: snails, terrestrial isopods and vertebrates like the frog or the gecko. The eggs are ingested by the snails, then the miracids are released and matured into the mother sporocyst form, which originates child sporocysts containing the cercariae, that leave the mollusks for the soil and are ingested by the terrestrial isopod in which the cercariae matures until metacercariae. Vertebrates ingest terrestrial isopods and are ingested by felines. The present study aimed to report an unusual case of platinosomiasis with the development of multiple hepatic cysts.Case: A mixed breed male kitten was admitted with a history of apathy, hyporexia, increased abdominal volume and jaundice. In the ultrasound examination, we could see hepatomegaly and several hypoecogenic rounded structures, similar to cysts. There was an increase of serum concentration of the hepatic enzymes alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyl transferase enzyme. The parasite’s eggs were investigated in the patient’s feces using the simple sedimentation method, with a negative result. The animal was submitted to celiotomy and it was possible to observe several cystic structures in the liver. The cysts content was sent to cytology and culture. Cytology result was compatible with liver cyst and there was no bacterial growth in the culture. Bile fluid was collected and sent for Platynosomum sp. research using the centrifugal sedimentation test in formalin-ether solution, which allowed the parasite’s eggs to be observed. The cat was treated with praziquantel,silymarin, S-Adenosyl methionine, and ursodeoxycholic acid. The patient gradually improved from jaundice and there was a reduction in abdominal volume. Discussion: This report describes a case of platinossomiasis associated with polycystic liver disease in a domestic cat, which seems to be an uncommon presentation. Most infected cats are asymptomatic, but some animals may exhibit anorexia, apathy, increased abdominal volume due to hepatomegaly and/or ascitis and jaundice. Although infestation in domestic cats is relatively common, its association with liver cysts is rare or poorly reported in the literature, representing a diagnostic challenge, which makes mandatory the inclusion of this differential diagnosis in polycystic liver diseases in cats. The diagnosis of this parasitosis can be made based on the association among clinical signs, laboratory tests and ultrasound examination, but the definitive diagnosis is usually made by visualizing the parasite’s eggs. In the case described, it was not possible to observe parasite’s eggs in the patient’s feces, but in the bile. Platynosomum sp. infection should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of polycystic liver disease in cats, especially in countries with tropical or subtropical climate. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment were fundamental for the improvement of the patient’s clinical condition.Keywords: feline, liver, platinosomiasis, polycystic disease, jaundice, cystic lesions.
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113095
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Epidermal Renewal after Treatment of Primary Canine Hypothyroidism using

    • Authors: Caroline Castagnara Alves, Stefanie Bressan Waller, Glícia Meneses Costa, Eduardo Gonçalves da Silva, Matheus de Azevedo Soares, Thaíssa Gomes Pellegrin, Amanda Leal de Vascocellos, Paula Priscila Correia Costa
      Abstract: Background: Primary canine hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder that causes imbalances in the hypothalamus-pituitarythyroid axis, is a common cause of endocrine dermatoses, which frequently presents with opaque dry brittle hair. Tissue changes are also visible, such as myxedema, hyperkeratosis, epidermal atrophy, alopecia, and others. This paper describes the skin changes caused by primary hypothyroidism in a female dog before and after treatment with levothyroxine.
      Case: This case study involved a 7-year-old Dalmatian bitch with a history of weight gain and changes such as rough dry brittle hair. For about a year, the dog also had also presented symmetrical erythematous and alopecia skin lesions in the regions of the hind limbs, lower back and tail, progressive lethargy and fatigue after exercise. A hemogram showed mild normocytic and normochromic regenerative anemia, as well as mild leukopenia and neutropenia. Biochemical tests revealed increased levels of creatinine, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Skin biopsy revealed the presence of comedones in the epidermis and acanthosis and trichilemmal keratinization. Hormonal tests revealed high TSH and low free T4 and total T4 levels. A cervical ultrasound scan showed changes in the thyroid glands, with hypoechoic parenchyma, in addition to increased size of the right lobe, suggesting thyroiditis. Based on these exams, the patient was diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism, and treatment with levothyroxine was instituted.
      Discussion: Around 90% of dogs with hypothyroidism show a decrease in total T4 and about 65-75% of them show an increase in TSH levels. In endocrinopathy, there is a decrease in the expression of T3 receptors in the keratinocytes and genes responsible for epidermal renewal. Also, molecules that affect epidermal differentiation bind to intracellular receptors belonging to the steroid/thyroid hormone superfamily. In this study, however, the application of the minimum levothyroxine dose restored the normal epidermal pattern for the species and the remaining parameters returned to normal. The hormone T3 acts in the differentiation of keratinocytes, a fact that, although not yet proven, is believed to be indirect and mediated by the epidermal growth factor or by the expression of the genes responsible for the renewal of the epidermis. Besides, some effects on the epidermis caused by deficiency of thyroid hormones may be due to secondary vitamin A deficiency, which is necessary for epithelial differentiation and binding epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the cell. Still, there is a theory that sex hormones also affect the differentiation of the epidermis, as studies show that deficiency causes effects similar to those caused by hypothyroidism. Some studies indicate the investigation of the relationship between secondary vitamin D deficiency and the increased cellularity of the epidermis of the spayed hypothyroid female rats. Additionally, the mechanism of the formation of hyperkeratosis in hypothyroidism is not yet elucidated. T3 is known to regulate keratin
      gene expression and perhaps also epidermal maturation, epithelial cycle, and normal keratin synthesis. The single treatment with levothyroxine in the female dog was effective in promoting the restoration of gene expression to T3 in keratinocytes.
      Keywords: dermatopathies, endocrinopathies, hypothyroidism, levothyroxine, synthetic hormone.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112836
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Dermatitis Associated with the Intake of Defatted Rice Bran by Cattle in
           the Southern Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    • Authors: Ederson dos Santos, Antônio Amaral Barbosa, Rodrigo Fonseca da Fonseca, Viviane Rohrig Rabassa, Eduardo Schmitt, Marcio Nunes Correa
      Abstract: Background: Dermatitis associated with defatted rice bran (DRB) seems to be an underdiagnosed disease in Brazilian confined herds, characterized by localized skin lesions that develop mainly on hind limbs, and can affect any animal category. In this context, the goal of the present study was to describe an outbreak of dermatitis associated with the consumption of defatted rice bran on a property in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, demonstrating the clinical, hematological and epidemiological characteristics of the animals, as well as alternatives for the definitive diagnosis.Cases: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained by anamnesis with the technician responsible for the property. Aberdeen Angus and crossbred males, with 24 to 36 months of age, with an average of 413 kg, from a property in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. From a batch of 45 cattle, from 24 to 36 months of age, 20 presented lesions on hind limbs 8-17 days after supplementation of a commercial feed containing defatted rice bran. To assist in the diagnosis, blood samples were drawn into vacuum tubes with 10% EDTA, for a complete blood count with the investigation of hemoparasites, and without anticoagulant, for liver function tests. In addition, lesion tissue samples were also collected for bacteriological, mycological and histopathological examination and the ration offered to the animals, for intradermal tests. There were no significant hematological and biochemical changes in animals that developed DRB dermatitis, except when they have an associated secondary infection. The fungal research was negative. The bacterial culture revealed a growth of Staphylococcus aureus, possibly due to secondary infection resulting from the lesions. In histopathological examination, lesions were characterized by areas of alopecia, thickening of the epidermis, forming dry, thick crusts, and some ulcerative and serosanguineous lesions. Histologically, lesions were characterized by marked hyperkeratosis, ulceration, and in the superficial dermis, intense inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils and lymphocytes.Histologic changes, although not pathognomonic, are typically described in this disease. The intradermal test was performed to contribute to the diagnosis of the disease, where a significant increase in volume was found between measurements on animals that developed the disease. It is believed that the disease is produced due to a food hypersensitivity as a consequence of the high protein level in DRB. The results of the intradermal test indicate that the animals developed hypersensitivity and reaction to proteins, and further research is required to determine the protein fraction leading to hypersensitivity reactions.Discussion: In the present study, acute lesions in hind limbs in a significant number of animals of the same batch in a short period of time after supplementation with a diet containing defatted rice bran, enabled a clinical diagnosis suggestive of dermatitis associated with DRB consumption. Through epidemiological data, reactive intradermal test, associated with the findings of the histopathological exam, which showed characteristic lesions of the disease (alopecia, erythema, epidermis thickening, with the formation of thick crusts, usually on hind limbs in the region of the hoof coronary band, progressing to pastern and fetlock), it was possible to establish the clinical-pathological diagnosis of dermatitis associated with the consumption of defatted rice bran. Keywords: dermatitis, cattle, supplementation, defatted rice bran.Descritores: dermatite, bovinos, suplementação, farelo de arroz desengordurado.Título: Dermatite associada ao consumo de farelo de arroz desengorduradoem bovinos na região sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. 
      PubDate: 2021-11-07
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113856
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Thalamic Melanosis in Goats

    • Authors: Yanca Góes dos Santos Soares, Draenne Micarla dos Santos Silva, Maria Jussara Rodrigues do Nascimento, Millena de Oliveira Firmino, Rodrigo Cruz Alves, Robério Gomes de Olinda, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas, Glauco José Nogueira de Galiza
      Abstract: Background: Melanosis is a blackened pigmentation resulting from the accumulation of melanocytes in tissues that are not normally pigmented. This change in the color of the organs occurs due to the agglomeration of melanocytes originating from abnormal migration during embryogenesis and does not cause dysfunction to the affected organ. Although melanosis frequently occurs in several species and affects several organs such as the brain and spinal cord leptomeninges, involvement in the thalamus region is unusual. The objective of this work was to report two cases of thalamic melanosis in goats, determining the pathological and histochemical aspects that assist in the diagnosis of this condition.Cases: Two cases of thalamic melanosis in goats were diagnosed. In both cases, the animals had no nervous history disease and clinical signs. The cause of death in cases 1 and 2 was established based on anatomopathological findings and clinical signs being diagnosed with mycoplasmosis and asphyxia, respectively. After fixing and making cross-sections of the brain, a focal lengthy blackened area was observed on the thalamus surface in both cases. Microscopically, lesions in the brain were similar in both cases and exclusively affected the thalamus. These cells had abundant cytoplasm, well delimited with brownish granular pigment. The nuclei were difficult to visualize and in some cells, it was rounded, well-defined, morphologically compatible with melanocytes. Melanocytes were mainly distributed around neurons and often distended the perivascular space of multiple blood vessels. In Fontana Masson staining, the granules in the cytoplasm of these cells stained strongly black. The Prussian Blue, Periodic Acid- Schiff's, Von Kossa, and Giemsa stains were negative, and the pigment remained brown. In the unstained slides, assembled after the deparaffinization and clarification process, it was observed the permanence of cells with blackish-brown pigment in the cytoplasm. In immunohistochemistry, strong immunostaining of pigmented cells with the Anti-MelanA antibodies was observed in both cases.Discussion: The diagnosis of thalamic melanosis in goats was carried out based on the characteristic pathological findings, in which melanin pigments were demonstrated and identified through HE, Fontana-Masson staining, and unstained slides and confirmed by the IHC. The use of complementary histochemical techniques was fundamental for the classification of the pigment as melanin, demonstrating to be an accessible and reliable tool for the diagnosis of pathological processes that lead to the accumulation of pigments and or material in the tissues. The occurrence of melanin in the thalamus may be associated with a failure in the migration of melanoblasts, which would go to the optical pathways or to the thalamus. This erratic migration of melanoblasts can be explained by the fact that the forebrain is the embryogenic origin of the optic and diencephalon pathways. Macroscopically, thalamic melanosis must be differentiated mainly from neoplastic processes such as melanoma and hemangiosarcoma, pigmented fungus infections, Phalaris angusta poisoning, listeriosis, neurocutaneous melanosis, and neuromelanin. It was concluded that thalamic melanosis is an uncommon alteration in goats and although it has been diagnosed as an incidental necropsy finding, should be included in the differential diagnosis of diseases that affect the central nervous system, especially those that have a color change associated with the deposition of pigments in the tissues. Keywords: melanin, necropsy findings, pigment, thalamus.Descritores: melanina, achados de necropsia, pigmento, tálamo.Título: Melanose talâmica em caprinos. 
      PubDate: 2021-11-05
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112905
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Metastatic Leiomyosarcoma in African Goose (Anser cygnoides)

    • Authors: Raquel Annes Fagundes Silva, Robério Gomes Olinda, Glauco Jose Nogueira de Galiza, Antonio Flávio Medeiros Dantas
      Abstract:  Background: In birds, neoplasms are more frequently observed in Psittaciformes and Galliformes and rarely seen in Columbiformes and Anseriformes, with few reports of the occurrence of mesenchymal neoplasms such as leiomyosarcoma affecting birds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe a case of metastatic leiomyosarcoma in an African goose (Anser cygnoides), analyzing the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects. Case: A 10-month-old male African goose, was referred to the Veterinary Hospital, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraiba, Brazil, whit ataxia, tremors of intention in the head, and nystagmus about one month ago, progressing to lateral decubitus. Due to the unfavorable prognosis, animal was euthanized. Samples of the organs of the coelomic cavity and central nervous system were collected for histologic examination. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. After fixation, the organs were embedded in paraffin, cut into 4-5 μm sections, and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Paraffin blocks with liver, kidney and encephalon fragments were selected and sent for immunohistochemical analysis. The primary antibodies used were: alpha-smooth muscle actin (monoclonal 1A4), anti-vimentin (monoclonal, V9), CD57 (monoclonal, NK1) and cytokeratin (monoclonal, AE1/AE3) and incubated for 18 h at 4Cº. As an amplification and detection system polymer and labeled by addition of the liquid diaminobenzidine+substratechromogen system and counterstained with Harris hematoxylin. Macroscopically were observed in the liver nodular multifocal areas yellowish, sometimes coalescing, firm, and elevated to the surface that at the cut deepened to the parenchyma. In the left kidney there was a similar tumor mass. In the left frontal lobe, there was nodular focal area, well circumscribed, yellowish and protruding. To cutting surface it compressed the parietal and temporal lobe and showed surface yellowish and smooth. Microscopically, the liver was diffusely infiltrated by mesenchymal neoplasia, expansive, infiltrative, poorly circumscribed and not encapsulated, constituted by spindle cells arranged in interlaced bundles. The cells were elongated with sparse cytoplasm, slightly eosinophilic and indistinct borders with rounded to elongated nuclei, with coarse chromatin and evident nucleoli. In fragments of kidney and brain, neoplastic infiltration similar to that described in the liver was observed. In immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were positive with antibodies anti-vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin.Discussion: The diagnosis of metastatic leiomyosarcoma in an African goose was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Reports of neoplasms in birds are relatively rare, however the occurrence of metastatic leiomyosarcoma affecting goose in the most varied locations has been described, from skin to organs of the coelomic cavity like kidney, ovary and intestinal wall. In this case, there is the unusual occurrence of dissemination in the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex, progressing to a neurological clinic condition. There are rare cases of metastatic leiomyosarcoma in geese African goose (Anser cygnoides). The main differential diagnoses include fibrosarcomas, neurofibrosarcomas and histiocytic sarcomas, which are similar macroscopically and histologically.Keywords: ornithopathology, mesenchymal neoplasms, anseriformes.Descritores: ornitopatologia, neoplasias mesenquimais, anseriformes.Título: Leiomiossarcoma metastáticoem ganso africano (Anser cygnoides)
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112998
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Partial Penectomy in a Horse with Paraphimosis

    • Authors: Letícia Ramos Rocha, Leila Cardozo Ott, Marina Galindo Chenard, Liana Villela de Gouvêa, André Rolim Monteiro, Júlia de Souza Mendonça, Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa, Michel Abdalla Helayel
      Abstract: Background: In horses, an increase in the volume of penis and foreskin can be caused by trauma. The resultant edema interferes with the retraction of the penis and cause paraphimosis. Surgical intervention through penectomy is indicated in cases wherein an alternative treatment is not feasible. Partial penectomy can prolong the life and reproductive function of many stallions. The present study aims to report on the methodological, functional, and economic feasibility of a successful case of the use of Williams technique for partial penectomy performed in the field in a horse with paraphimosis, preserving urinary, productive, and reproductive functions.Case: A 10-year-old horse weighing 500 kg had clinical signs of paraphimosis due to the formation of granulomatous tissue following trauma to the glans region. A surgical intervention, namely a partial penectomy was decided to be performed to prevent injury from priapism. Due to the limited resources provided by the owner and the impossibility of moving the animal to a surgical center in a veterinary hospital, the procedure was performed in the field, with prior sanitization and preparation of the environment used to perform surgery. The horse was tranquilized with intravenous xylazine hydrochloride and acepromazine, with subsequent induction of anesthesia with ready-to-use (RTU) guaifenesin bolus and maintenance of anesthesia with an intravenous association of RTU guaifenesin, xylazine hydrochloride, and ketamine. The distal third of the penis was amputated using the recommended Williams technique. Although the complications like dehiscence and emergence of granulation tissue occurred after surgery, these were controlled in the daily follow-up of the animal and post-surgical treatment.Discussion:Paraphimosis predisposed the horse to abrasions and edema of the exposed portion of the penis. However, there was no urine retention, which suggested that the urethral ostium and the urethra had no lesions. Because the granulomatous lesions were located in the distal third of the penis and the extent of penile exposure was small, the partial penectomy technique proved effective in solving the permanent exposure of the penis. The anesthetic protocol used was inexpensive, easy to execute, and effective, and no anesthetic complications occurred, proving this protocol to be efficient for the anesthetic induction of animals in the field.In addition to being reliable and widespread, the Williams technique was recommended to prevent possible urethral stenosis and the development of contact dermatitis by urine. This technique makes a rapid recovery of the animal possible, with improvement of its physiological parameters, and due to ease of being able to be done in the field, it is also inexpensive. The edema and the granulation tissue that occurred after surgery were controlled with medication. In general, post-penectomy animals are not used for reproduction. This makes the present report an important contribution, because in cases in which the lesions present a distal disposition and the penile exposure is small, stallions have a chance of maintaining reproductive function after surgery, even with a long period of evolution before surgical treatment. This was demonstrated in the present case, as the animal in this case later impregnated a mare, with the pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound examination. Partial penectomy is a resolution technique for cases of traumatic paraphimosis, in which exuberant granulation tissue is formed in the distal third of the penis, with a long period of evolution. The surgery can be done in the field, with a low surgical cost to the owner, and a good productive and reproductive prognosis for the animal.Keywords: partial penectomy, paraphimosis, Williams technique, horse.Descritores: penectomia parcial, parafimose, técnica de William, equino.Título: Penectomia em equino com parafimose 
      PubDate: 2021-10-31
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113978
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Lasalocid Poisoning in Buffalo Calves in the State of Pará, Brazil

    • Authors: José Diomedes Barbosa Neto, Carlos Magno Chaves Oliveira, Tarcísio Oliveira Domiciano, Mariana Correia Oliveira, Ana Paula de Castro Pires, Marilene de Farias Brito, Pedro Malafaia
      Abstract: Background: Ionophore antibiotics are food additives with coccidiostatic or antimicrobial action; they are also used as growth promoters, ruminal pH regulators, volatile fatty acid molar modifiers, and methanogenesis reducers. However, these compounds have the potential to cause microbial resistance, in addition to the risk of intoxication. Ionophore poisoning may be caused by excessive intake, sensitivity of certain animal species, and concomitant use with other drugs. In Brazil, cases of ionophore poisoning in buffalos are rare. This study aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological findings of lasalocid poisoning in buffalo calves.Case: A visit was made to a farm in the municipality of Mojú, Pará state to care for Murrah buffalo calves. After weaning, the buffalos were grazed in paddocks with Panicum spp., and received a supplement of mineral, protein, and vitamin. This supplement contained, per kg, 250 g PB, 50 g Ca, 20 g P, 8 g S, 39 g Na, 20 mg Co, 557 mg Cu, 200 mg Fe, 12.4 mg Se, 2040 mg Zn, 0.19 mg biotin, 26750 IU of vitamin A, 4175 IU of vitamin D, 155 IU of vitamin E and 300 mg/kg of lasalocid. The product was made available to all calves, at 1-2 g/kg body weight (BW), according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Older calves were raised together with those less than 30 days old; as a result, the older calves tended to eat more, which could lead to a supplementation consumption of more than 1 kg body weight per animal per day. It was reported that between 40 and 60 days after the introduction of this supplement, 16 calves fell ill and died due to apathy, motor instability, tremors, and distended neck. The herd had a mortality rate of 33.3%. Two calves underwent a necroscopic examination at the Pathology Section of the Veterinary Institute of the Federal University of Pará. Macroscopic examination revealed extensive pale areas in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, and tongue. Fragments of these muscles and various organs were collected, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed according to the routine histological technique, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stain. Microscopic examination of the histologic samples revealed foci of muscle atrophy and necrosis characterized by an increase in cytoplasmic eosinophilia associated with the loss of stretch marks, and hyperchromatic nuclei that were displaced to the periphery. The necrosis of the muscle fibers was highlighted by Masson's trichrome staining.Discussion: The diagnosis of lasalocid poisoning in buffalo calves was based on epidemiological data, clinical findings, results of macroscopic and histopathological examination, and based on the estimated ionophore intake, obtained directly from the supplement label and by the calf's handler. Based on the absence of stratification of the calves by similarity of age and because the buffalo calves older than 30 days could eat more than 1 kg of the supplement (containing 300 mg/kg of lasalocid), it was possible to estimate the intake of lasalocid per kg CP (body weight). Therefore, the intake of lasalocid by a 70-kg buffalo calf in approximately 90 days and daily supplement consumption between 1 and 1.5 kg would be between 4.2 and 6.4 mg/kg of body weight. This report reinforces that notion that buffalo calves should never ingest ionophores; however, if necessary, strict protocols must be followed to avoid poisoning in these animals. This study highlighted the fact that stratification of buffaloes by different age groups during feeding became a risk factor that allowed greater consumption by older animals; this led to the estimated consumption of 4.2-6.4 mg/kg of lasalocid.Keywords: ionophores, ruminants, buffalo calves, muscle necrosis.Descritores: ionóforos, ruminantes, bezerros búfalos, necrose muscular.
      Título:  Intoxicação por lasalocida em bezerros búfalos no Estado do Pará, Brasil  
      PubDate: 2021-10-30
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111615
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • The Use of Low Intensity Laser in Wound Healing in Dog

    • Authors: Denise de Fátima Rodrigues, Isabela de Mello Iori, Karina Squincalha Rodrigues, Kaike Gomes dos Santos, Isabella Stange Ribeiro da Silva
      Abstract: Background: Low-intensity laser is effective in cellular metabolism, analgesia, and tissue repair. The bioelectric, bioenergetic, and biochemical effects of laser therapy stimulate local circulation, collagen formation, and epithelization. The objective of this study was to report the use of gallium-aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) laser (830 nm) in healing two wounds caused by necrosis in a dog.Case: An 8-year-old bitch, a rescued victim of animal abuse, had tibiotarsal dislocation in the left posterior limb. Orthopedic surgery was performed with the placement of an external fixation device with six pins in the distal third of the left posterior limb. A radiographic examination performed 42 days after the surgery revealed the loss of the tibiotarsal ratio, decreased radiopacity of the carpal bones, edema, inflammation, muscle atrophy, and the rotation of the anatomical axis of the metatarsals and phalanges. It was then decided to perform a second orthopedic surgery, in which a bone graft and arthrodesis with an 8-screw titanium plate were performed. Four of the plate screws were placed proximally to the tibia and four distally to the tarsus in addition to a screw and a pin transfixed through the distal metaphyseal region of the tibia and calcaneus. Traction was felt during suturing in the dermis and epidermis of the limb, suggesting the possibility of dehiscence of the stitches. After 3 h of surgery, the limb was cold and edematous. After 5 days, the tissue of the medial region of the tarsus developed necrosis, exposing a wound 6 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, and 2 mm deep (wound 1). Another necrotic lesion was observed in the dorsal region of the tarsos - 6.5 cm long, 2 cm wide, 3 mm deep, and exposing 5 cm of the titanium plate (wound 2). Therapy with GaAlAs laser was then performed over the entire length of the wounds. In each therapeutic session, the laser was first used in punctual mode at 10 J/cm², 830 nm, 20 s at each point of the length of the lesion and then in scan mode at 10 J/cm², 830 nm, 1000 Hz, and 40 s continuously. Laser therapy sessions were conducted at 2-4 day intervals, with a 12-day interval between the eighth and ninth sessions. During the entire treatment, cleansing and debridement of the wounds were performed every 48 h with saline and chlorhexidine digluconate, using a compression bandage, as described earlier. Wound 1 healed completely after two laser therapy sessions. In wound 2, tissue repair stagnated after the ninth and last laser session, leaving 4 cm of the titanium plate still exposed. The limb could not support the body weight of the patient, and radiographic examination revealed that the anatomical axis of the metatarsals and the phalanges was rotated and bone conformation was poor. Given the anatomical conditions associated with the patient's clinical picture, it was decided to amputate the limb between the femur and tibia.Discussion: Therapeutic lasers act on mitochondrial respiration, increasing respiratory metabolism and stimulating DNA synthesis and tissue proliferation. In the present case, there was a decrease in inflammatory cells, edema, and the size of the wounds. The pathological conditions of the affected site, influence of trauma, and degree of tissue damage affected the results of the laser therapy. Despite the size difference between wounds 1 and 2, the exposed titanium plate was a determining factor for the partial healing of wound 2. Keywords: laser, laser therapy, scar, necrosis, orthopedics, physical therapy, tissue repair. Título: A utilização do laser de baixa intensidade na cicatrização de ferida em cão.Descritores: laser, laserterapia, cicatriz, necrose, ortopedia, fisioterapia, reparo tecidual.

      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113965
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Correction of Valgus Dislocation of the Radio-Carpal Joint in a Dog
           through Ligament Reconstruction with Synthetic Wire: an Alternative to

    • Authors: Daniel Cardoso Garcia, Larissa Eckmann Mingrone, José Wagner Amador da Silva, Marcelo Jorge Cavalcanti de Sá
      Abstract: Background: Radio-carpal dislocations are normally related to situations of trauma and may be treated with open or closed reduction, reconstruction of injured structures or arthrodesis. The treatment aims to eliminate pain, abnormal joint movement and restore member functions, avoiding or minimizing the development of arthrosis. Notwithstanding the literature on the treatment options, few of them explain the restorative technical applications and their evolution in a later postoperative period. The aim of the present report is to discuss extra-articular joint reconstruction with nylon wire in a canine patient with radio-carpal joint dislocation and ligament rupture.
      Case: A 10-year-old mixed-breed bitch, weighing 10 kg, after an 8-meter fall, received care at Animal Care Barueri Clínica Veterinária. The animal presented left thoracic member functional impotence and radio-carpal joint valgus dislocation, pain and joint swelling. The patient was sedated and medium-lateral and dorso-palmar X-rays of the distal area of the thoracic member were performed, showing radio-carpal dislocation and a slight radiotransparent line in caudal cortical of the middle third of the left radium, possibly related to an incomplete fracture due to compaction. At this point, the choice was for a closed reduction performed by means of traction followed by internal rotation of the distal extremity of the member. An immobilization device was placed using a vinyl splint for 4 days, until the date of the surgery. For the surgical procedure, a dorso-medial access was opened in the left radio-carpal joint, restoring the short radium collateral joint with nylon 0 suture, anchored on 3 pathways opened in the bones (2 pathways in the radium and 1 in the carpo-radial bone), forming one knot. The subcutaneous tissue was closed and sutured using absorbable wire of 2-0 polyglycolic acid. The skin was sutured using nonabsorbable wire of 3-0 nylon. The immediate postoperative X-rays showed the pathways created, conservation of the bone structures and restoration of the anatomic axis of the radio-carpal joint. The member was again immobilized for 70 days and, 30 days after removal of the splint, the animal could already bear load over the member, without lameness. At 10 months after the surgery, the patient performed X-rays of the medium-lateral and dorso-palmar projections, showing absence of the signs of arthrosis or any joint impairment. There was also absence of lameness and pain, however with reduction in joint movement amplitude, with total extension but more limited flexion.
      Discussion: Through comparison with the literature it was possible to find similarities with the joint injury approach reported, mainly regarding the form of the suture and the clinical alterations observed, such as short radium collateral ligament rupture related to joint valgus deviation. The treatment strategy in the case combined temporary closed reduction of the joint, immobilization, later joint access and restoration with synthetic wire and long-term immobilization. The postoperative results obtained showed favorable evolution, without signs of joint degeneration, pain or lameness. Possible unwanted consequences related to arthrodesis make the options for reconstruction techniques seem more interesting; however, further information of their application and the combination of its variations in a more directed fashion are still required. Understanding the types of injuries, together with the development of research that assess their diagnosis and evolution, may help treatments to show even better perspectives.
      Keywords: dislocation, joint, radio-carpal, reconstruction, ligament.Título: Correção de luxação valga da articulação rádio-cárpica em um cão através da reconstrução ligamentar com fio sintético: uma alternativa à artrodeseDescritores: luxação, articulação, rádio-cárpica, reconstrução, ligamento.
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109599
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Eosinophilic Folliculitis in a Dog

    • Authors: Gabriel Utida Eguchi, Alda Izabel de Souza, Veronica Jorge Babo-Terra, Luiz Henrique de Araújo Machado, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo
      Abstract: Background: Canine eosinophilic folliculitis is a dermatological disease of acute onset with development of erosive to ulcerative papular lesions, especially on the nasal bridge, that may cause severe skin abnormalities leading to discomfort and pain to the patient. The aim of this report was to characterize a case of a canine eosinophilic folliculitis with papular, ulcerative and crusting dermatitis on the nasal bridge, papules on eyelid and pinna, with confirmed diagnosis based on aspiration cytology, history and response to immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoid.Case: A 1-year-old intact Daschund was attended showing an acute onset (over 4 h) of generalized urticarial reaction and nonpruriginous lesion at the muzzle with mild serosanguineous exudate, which persisted for 96 h when the dog was evaluated. It was observed a papular and ulcerative dermatitis with serosanguineous exudate and hematic crusts at nasal bridge, papules measuring 2 mm in diameter in the medial and lateral canthus of the left eyelid, ulcerative papule with hematic crust in the border of left ear pinna, multifocal papules on the skin, dyskeratosis and generalized hair loss. The patient was anesthetized for blood sampling (CBC and serum biochemistry), lesions fine-needle aspiration, scraping and imprint for cytological examination, bacterial culture and nasal turbinates radiography. Fragments for histopathological evaluation were also collected. Erythrogram and platelet evaluation were unremarkable. Leukogram revealed leukocytosis (neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia). Serum biochemistry revealed hyperalbuminemia and discrete hyperproteinemia; values of alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and globulins were within normal range. In cytological examination, intense cellularity was observed with predominance of eosinophils (60%), neutrophils (35%), macrophages performing cytophagocytosis (5%) and degenerated cells. There was no bacterial growth within 48 h after incubation of nasal bridge lesion swab. There were no abnormalities identified at radiographic evaluation of nasal turbinates. As the patient was already with antibiotic therapy and steroidal anti-inflammatory, it was opted to maintain it, since interruption between the day of examination and laboratory results could cause more prejudice than benefit, corticosteroid dose, however, was readjusted (prednisone 2 mg/kg/per os/every 24h). After 1 week of treatment the owner reported significant improvement of clinical signs without any further complaint.Discussion: Typically, type I hypersensitivity reactions such as insect bites do not exceed clinical signs of erythema, local edema and pruritus, with spontaneous remission of clinical signs within few hours after exposure to the antigen. Eosinophilic folliculitis, however, may cause more severe clinical alterations, such as pain, apathy and hyporexia. Nasal bridge is the predominant site described to be affected in cases of eosinophilic folliculitis, being auricular pinna, thorax and limbs considered atypical presentations which can delay proper diagnosis, since in endemic regions for diseases such as visceral leishmaniasis, infectious etiology may be listed first. Differential diagnosis also includes superficial pyoderma, juvenile cellulitis, pemphigus foliaceus and pharmacodermia. The case described in this report emphasize the importance of an accurate diagnosis as well as an early and adequate treatment in order to promote satisfactory response. Also, highlights inadequate use of antimicrobials as a direct consequence of lack of laboratorial investigation.Keywords: skin, eosinophilia, furunculosis, dermatitis, insects.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112975
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Abortion in Captive Gray Brocket Deer (Mazama gouazoubira) Associated with
           Colloid Goiter, Hemonchosis and Necrotizing Rumenitis

    • Authors: Leonardo Lima Gorza, Ellen Cristina de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Bastos Lopes, Eduardo Lazaro de Faria da Silva, Emy Hiura, Mayra Cunha Flecher, Tayse Domingues de Souza, Fábio Ribeiro Braga
      Abstract: Background: The gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) is a specie that shows great adaptability in different habitats and it is the most abundant deer specie in South America. The present work describes for the first time a case of abortion followed by death associated with colloid goiter, massive hemonchosis and necrotizing rumenitis in a captive female gray brocket deer. Case: A 4-year-old female gray brocket deer (M. gouazoubira) raised in captivity had a history of abortion during the last third of gestation. The animal was kept in an enclosure together with 3 other gray brockets deers, being 1 male of the same age and 2 juvenile brocket deer of approximately 1 and 2 years old. The animals were fed with concentrated used as cattle feed and dewormed annually with 1% Ivermectin. The animals' enclosure had vegetation cover formed by grasses and soil. The animals appeared healthy with no behavioral changes. The day after the stillbirth, the mother was found dead in the enclosure and sent to the animal pathology sector of the University of Vila Velha (UVV), Brazil. Necropsy revealed that thyroid lobules were highly increased in volume and histopathological findings were compatible with colloid goiter. A large number of nematodes were found in the abomasal content,totalizing 11,626 helminths, which were morphologically characterized as Haemonchus contortus. Grossly, the serous and ruminal mucosa exhibited an extensively reddish focal area with irregular contour, surface ulceration and a firm consistency. Microscopically, a severe necrotizing rumenitis was diagnosed. The liver showed pale multifocal areas on the subcapsular surface,friable to the touch which deepened when cut. Histopathological analysis revealed an accentuated multifocal panlobular coagulative necrosis, characterizing an acute liver necrosis.Discussion: Iodine is a mineral of great importance for thyroid hormones synthesis and your requirements are higher during pregnancy and lactation. Diets deficient in iodine causes a reduction in the basal activity of the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and over-stimulation of the thyroid by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), resulting in goiter. In the present case, it is possible that the shortage of iodine in diet caused a goiter and, as a consequence, triggered the abortion. Haemonchus contortus is a pathogenic nematode of small ruminants, leading to decreased productivity and death in some cases as a result of anemia and hypoxia. The contact between domestic and wild animals, resulting in the emergence of infectious diseases and the spread of pathogens among species. In the present case, manual counting accounted for 11,626 H. contortus larvae, characterizing a massive infection and justifying the condition of severe anemia. The high parasitic load shown in this case points out this parasite's importance related to this species in captivity. In general, inflammatory lesions in the rumen are results of excessive intake of fermentable carbohydrates, which leads to a considerable decrease in ruminal pH and leads to a high proliferation of lactic acid bacteria. This lesion has been previously reported in cervids. This case of comorbidities demonstrates that failures in nutritional and health handling, may cause simultaneous multiple diseases leading to death. Preventive measures for helminth parasite control and a proper feeding management with an adequate diet must be provided in order to preserve the species in captivity. Keywords: colloid goiter, abortion, cervids, Haemonchus contortus.
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.114003
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Salmonellosis in Calves by Serovar Dublin in Paraná State, Brazil -
           Clinicopathological Aspects

    • Authors: Ariel de Aguiar, Giovana Wingeter Di Santis, Melissa Cristina Müller, Ana Angelita Sampaio Baptista, Beatriz Queiroz dos Santos, Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisboa, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense
      Abstract: Background: Calf diarrhea remains one of the main diseases affecting the cattle industry. Persistence of this significant problem is associated with the complexity of factors that may be involved (infectious, environmental). An accurate diagnosis is essential for confirming the cause and helping clinicians and cattle producers to apply appropriate strategies in a timely manner. This report describes the histological changes according to the degree of salmonellosis severity, which is a contagious infectious disease caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, a Gram-negative bacterium, in two beef calves in northern Paraná State, southern Brazil. Cases: Two 90-day-old crossbred Angus and Nellore calves from a beef farm in northern Paraná State were referred to a Veterinary Hospital. Animal 1- developed acute clinical signs (enteritis, ataxia, and muscle rigidity) and died the day after the signs began. Gross findings included heavy and non-collapsed lungs, pulmonary oedema, hepatomegaly, enteritis, and severe diffuse typhlitis. Microscopic analysis revealed severe diffuse necrotic enteritis, typhlitis, severe diffuse interstitial pneumonia, moderate centrilobular hepatic necrosis, mild multifocal nephritis, and severe spleen and lymph node necrosis. Paratyphoid nodules were evidenced on the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Animal 2- presented apathy, green fibrinous diarrhea, and died three days after the onset of clinical signs. The macroscopic examination showed moderate diffuse enteritis and hepatosplenomegaly. At the microscopic examination, many paratyphoid nodules were observed on the liver, spleen, kidneys, and Peyer's patches, which were associated with intralesional and intravascular bacilli. Additional findings included severe diffuse fibrinous necrotic enteritis with intralesional bacilli, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, multifocal splenic necrosis, lymphoid depletion, and moderate multifocal to coalescent lymphocytic nephritis. Histological Gram staining was performed on selected samples, revealing intralesional Gram-negative bacilli in the liver and intestine. Thus, liver and intestine fragments were used for the microbiological examination. Microbiological culture, isolation and biochemical tests identified the genus Salmonella spp. Then, the colonies were subjected to serological tests for serovar identification, according to ISO/TR 6579-3, which determined the serovar Dublin. After identifying the disease etiological agent, the outbreak was controlled by appropriate antibiotic therapy combined with the correction of sanitary measures.Discussion: Enteritis is a frequent disease in calves, posing a diagnostic challenge in identifying the etiological agent. In the present case, the histological, microbiological, and serological results confirmed a disseminated Salmonella spp. infection. The microscopic findings, such as interstitial pneumonia, fibrinous necrotic enteritis markedly in ileum and paratyphoid nodules in various organs, are the most common aspects of the disease. However, fibrinous cholecystitis, which is considered pathognomonic for salmonellosis, was not observed in this study. Therefore, the absence of such a lesion should not exclude the disease in sick animals. A microscopic injury score was used to determine lesion severity by assigning values from 1 to 4, wherein: 1 = no apparent lesions, 2 = mild lesions, 3 = moderate lesions, and 4 = severe lesions. Both calves were scored as 4. Multiple predisposing factors for the condition were identified in this farm such as different age animals in the same paddock and no specific paddock for sick animals, given that the infectious agent remains in feces, saliva, and nasal discharge. The serovar Dublin induces several clinical signs such as septicemic, respiratory, and enteric manifestations, making a clinical diagnosis a challenge. Keywords: dysbiosis, calf diarrhea, infection, paratyphoid nodules, septicemia.Descritores: disbiose, diarreia neonatal, infecção, nódulos paratifoides, septicemia.Título:  Salmonelose em bezerros pelo sorovar Dublin no estado do Paraná, Brasil - aspectos clínico-patológicos 
      PubDate: 2021-10-23
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113852
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Tumoral Resection followed by Blepharoplasty in Squamous Cell Carcinoma
           Treatment in the Lower Eyelid of a Horse

    • Authors: Yasmin Najm Bortoletto, Júlia de Assis Arantes, Alessandra Mayer Coelho, Lais Maria Gomes, Manuela Cristine Camargo Lambert, Ricardo de Francisco Strefezzi, Renata Gebara Sampaio Dória
      Abstract: Background: Equines are routinely subjected to enucleation due to palpebral tumors. Blepharoplasties in horses, especially in the lower eyelid, are rarely performed due to the difficulty of sliding once the tissue around the eyes presents low mobility. Defects involving more than 50% of the lower eyelid is considered challenging after tumor removal. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most reported neoplasm in horses, being very common in regions of the lower eyelid, third eyelid, sclera and or cornea. The aim of this study is to present the Destro VY skin advancement flap as a blepharoplasty technique performed after surgical excision of a SCC, with total commitment of the lower eyelid, completely covering the right eye of a mare.Case: A 8-year-oldmarePaint Horse, weighing420 kg,was referred for evaluation of tumor tissue of 6.0 x 4.0 x 2.0 cm, with nodular and ulcerated appearance, involving the right lower eyelid, in its total extension and completely covering the eye, without adhering to it. Considering the initial suspicion of SCC, the treatment strategy performed was surgical eyelid excision and maintenance of the eye, followed by blepharoplasty as an attempt to reconstruct the eyelid. Under general inhalation anesthesia, the animal was placed in left lateral recumbency, when the surgical region was prepared and local anesthetic block was performed. After antisepsis, a skin incision was made circumscribing the tumor, respecting a margin of 10 mm apart and excision of all visible tumor tissue was performed followed by intralesional ozone therapy. Blepharoplasty was performed to cover the portions of the exposed lacrimal and zygomatic bones, as well as correction of the eyelid aesthetics. For this, Destro VY skin advancement flap was performed for reconstruction of the lower eyelid. An incision of approximately 7 cm in V-shaped skin was performed, and the subcutaneous tissue under the V was dissected, maintaining a central pedicle, responsible for the vascularization of the flap, which was slid, approximately 20 mm, towards the eye. After obtaining the desired skin approximation, Y-suture was performed, covering the exposed bone and reconstructing the lower eyelid. In the postoperative period, local instillation of mitomycin eye drops and systemic meloxicam administration were instituted. The mare had her vision restored, presenting satisfactory morpho functional and aesthetic results and no tumor recurrence during 1-year of follow-up. Discussion: The repair of lower eyelid imperfections is challenging, especially when they have large defects, and there are no reports of performing the Destro VY skin advancement flap technique in horses for lower eyelid reconstruction. In this case, the importance of the blepharoplasty technique is emphasized, avoiding enucleation, preserving horse’s vision and aesthetics. In addition, aiming to avoid tumor recurrence, especially if surgical safety margins can not be achieved, other complementary treatments should be associated, including intralesional ozone therapy, mitomycin, an antineoplastic chemotherapy drug, and meloxicam, a COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, as performed in this study. It is concluded that the use of the Destro VY skin advancement flap technique for reconstruction of the external lamella in cases of SCC in the lower eyelid of horses is a feasible technique, which preserves the animal's vision, as well as aesthetics. The safety margin in the surgical excision of the SCC and the association of complementary therapies in the resolution of the condition are important points also to be considered.Keywords: epidermoid carcinoma, equine, ophthalmology, plastic surgery, skin tumor. Título: Exérese tumoral seguida de blefaroplastia no tratamento de carcinoma de células escamosas em pálpebra inferior de equino 
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113334
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Cutaneous Asthenia in a Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus)

    • Authors: Ana Cláudia de Souza Andrade, Laisa Marina Rosa Rey, Isabela Carvalho dos Santos, Sarah Gabriella Delallo Charnovski, Diogo Czornobai, Lariane Souza Silva, Jéssica Crespi Sabadin, Daniela Dib Gonçalves
      Abstract: Background: Cutaneous asthenia or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an inherited and rare disease. This infirmity is from an autosomal mutation that influences the collagen synthesis of the carrier. Thus, its skeleton, formed of fibers, is structurally defective. The disease is characterized by hyperelasticity and skin fragility, leading to lesions throughout the skin. The lesions may manifest in specific places or in a generalized way, being more frequent in the limbs, neck, and back. This disease does not have a specific treatment, only management care to avoid new traumas.Case: A 3-year-old male castrated, no defined race cat, was attended at one veterinary clinic with a history of intense itching. The rapid tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were negative. On physical examination, infestation by fleas, lesions all over the body, and skin hyperelasticity were observed. Topical treatment for ectoparasites as well as for body wounds was established. After the treatment, he returned without itching, but with the complaints of new lesions that did not heal. The patient underwent a total shearing to facilitate the treatment of the skin, and then he underwent blood tests, biochemistry, hormonal tests, and ultrasound, which showed no suggestive changes for hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus. His clinical signs, besides not matching with these diseases, also did not indicate skin fragility due to his history of age and balanced diet. The confirmation of the cutaneous asthenia syndrome was acquired through biopsy of skin fragment, in which it was observed disarray of collagen fibers, hypertrophy, and fibroblast hyperplasia, together with the rate of extensibility of the skin where the value reached the mark of 27.5%. Throughout the hospitalization, it was noted the progression of the disease with the appearance of new lesions, where there was no bleeding and they appeared even with the patient wearing padded clothes. Its progression lasted one year until the patient's euthanasia.Discussion: For the disposal of diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism as causes of the appearance of lesions by the body in the patient, he was submitted to the suppression tests with dexamethasone, in which he presented normality, in the biochemical examination it was dosed with fructosamine and glucose. The fructosamine was in the reference value, but the glucose was slightly altered, this increase may have been a result of stress at the time of blood collection. In addition to the patient not showing specific clinical signs such as polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss, these are characteristic clinical signs of the disease. For the diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, histological examination, and calculation of the skin extensibility index were used, where the results obtained confirmed the suspicion. This genetic anomaly has no treatment, being progressive, so only environmental management is done to mitigate the appearance of the lesions and provide animal welfare. This case report contributes to aggregating the scientific literature in the area of veterinary medicine since skin asthenia is a rare disease and when its extent is total it becomes even more atypical. The availability of this article will provide a vision of palliative treatment for other cases, demonstrating the progressive nature of the lesions and the methods of diagnosis. Keywords: cat, collagen deficiency, ehlers-danlos syndrome, hyperelastic, skin. 
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110142
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Pulmonar Granular Cell Tumor in a Horse

    • Authors: Diego Pereira de Araújo, Mariana Fagundes Bento, Eduardo de Paula Nascente, Helder Esteves Thomé, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani de Moura
      Abstract: Background: The occurrence of neoplasms in horses is relatively low. Granular cell tumor is a seldom diagnosed neoplasm, usually benign, of mesenchymal origin. Controversies exist regarding its origin, which is possibly from Schwann cells or cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. Despite being one of the main primary neoplasms in the lungs of horses, the number of cases is low in comparison to that of secondary lung tumors. Thus, this study proposes to report the anatomopathological aspects in a horse with granular cell tumor of primary pulmonary origin. Case: An 11-year-old female Quarter Horse breed underwent exploratory right lateral thoracotomy after presenting with chronic respiratory changes. During the operation, tumor masses were found in the right and left caudal pulmonary lobes. Due to the severity of clinical respiratory signs and the extent of the lesions, the animal was subjected to euthanasia and anatomopathological examination. Upon necroscopic examination, a tumor mass was found in the middle third of the left caudal lobe, rounded to flattened, measuring 10.0 × 8.0 cm in height and length, white in color, of firm consistency, smooth and regular surface and rising to the lung surface. When sectioned, the mass showed to be composed of multiple firm and dense circular lobes, separated by a thin layer of connective tissue. The tumor invaded the lumen of nearby segmental and subsegmental bronchi, which were partially or totally obstructed by the mass. In the right lung, multiple similar nodules were observed, accompanied by peritumoral hemorrhage. Histopathological analysis of the new formation revealed a dense cluster of cells that expanded over the lung parenchyma. The neoplastic cells were pleomorphic, moderately cohesive, without defined borders, with abundant cytoplasm, densely eosinophilic and finely granular. Intracytoplasmic granules were well evidenced by periodic acid Schiff staining (PAS). The cell nucleus was rounded to oval, excentric, markedly basophilic and with dense chromatin. There was moderate anisocytosis and mild anisokaryosis, with rare mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for anti-vimentin and anti-S100 antibodies, confirming the diagnosis of granular cell tumor.Discussion: Granular cell tumors have no predisposition as to breed, sex or age. However, most of the described cases are reported in female horses aged around 13 years. The advanced age of the diagnosed animals may be related to late definitive diagnosis, since the clinical signs are nonspecific and treated palliatively like other respiratory diseases. Macroscopically, this tumor is more common in the multinodular form and, as observed in this case, it has a greater capacity for infiltration. Histologically, the visualization of large, polygonal cells, with a wide cytoplasm containing eosinophilic granules leads to the diagnosis of granular cell tumor. However, PAS staining and immunohistochemical tests were essential for the diagnostic conclusion in this report, confirming the presence of cytoplasmic granules and the mesenchymal and neuroectodermal origin of this neoplasm, respectively. Thus, considering the low occurrence of pulmonary granular cell tumor, the description of this case contributes to the basis of the knowledge of medical-veterinary professionals about this tumor in its clinical and diagnostic aspects.Keywords: Schwann cells, immunohistochemistry, neoplasia, lung.Descritores: células de Schwann, imuno-histoquímica, neoplasia, pulmão.Título: Tumor de células granulares pulmonar em um equino 
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113931
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Nocardiosis in Cats - Clinical, Anatomopathological and Morphotintorial

    • Authors: Millena de Oliveira Firmino, Maria Talita Soares Frade, Maria Jussara Rodrigues do Nascimento, Raquel Annes Fagundes Silva, Cíntia de Lorenzo, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Glauco José Nogueira de Galiza, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas
      Abstract: Background: Nocardiosis is an infectious bacterial disease that can cause cutaneous/ subcutaneous, pulmonary and systemic lesions in different species of domestic animals. The type of transmission occurs through mechanical lesions on the skin or contamination of wounds, in cases of skin involvement, inhalation of aerosols and ingestion of contaminated materials are involved in the pathogenesis of the respiratory and digestive form of the disease. This paper described 4 cases of nocardiosis in cats, addressing the clinical, anatomopathological and morphotintorial characteristics of Nocardia sp.Cases: Four cases of nocardiosis in cats were reviewed, in which data related to breed, sex, age, origin, clinical signs, macroscopic and histological lesions described in necropsy protocols were evaluated. The histological tissue sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) were evaluated in order to characterize the inflammatory response in each case. In addition, paraffin blocks of fragments from affected organ were selected to perform special histochemical staining techniques of Grocott Methenamine Silver (GMS), modified Ziehl-Neelsen, Gram Brown-Brenn and Giemsa stain which are the most characterized techniques used for histopathological diagnoses and it was also used an immunohistochemical test with polyclonal antibody anti-Nocardia sp. (non-commercial). The animals were adults of both sexes, mixed breed, not castrated and semi-domesticated. Neither immunosuppressive factors nor concomitant diseases were identified in the cases studied. The main clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, dehydration, phlegmon and draining tracts. Macroscopically, skin / subcutaneous tissue (3/4), skeletal muscle (2/4), lymph nodes (2/4), liver (2/4), omentum (1/4), spleen (1/4) were affected. In addition, it could be noted that mandibular bone (1/4), pleural tissue (1/4), left testicle (1/4) and Central Nervous System (CNS) (1/4) were also affected by this disease. Microscopically, regarding all cases, there was a pyogranulomatous inflammation in the affected organs. With respect to cases 1, 3 and 4, filamentous, branched, slightly basophilic structures in loose or individual aggregates in the interior of the pseudo-rosettes and in the necrotic areas were observed in the HE-stained tissue sections. In all cases submitted to special histochemical techniques, filamentous, branched, individual or loose aggregate structures were observed, the samples were impregnated with silver, and bacteria appear as blue using the Brown-Brenn Gram technique, and stained red in the modified Ziehl-Neelsen, and stained faintly pink in Giemsa stain. The bacteria were observed mainly in the border of the pyogranulomas, in the center of the pseudo-rosettes and in the necrotic areas, being compatible with the infection by Nocardia sp. All cases were positive for immunohistochemistry (IHC).Discussion: Nocardiosis was diagnosed in all cats in this study based on the anatomopathological findings associated with the visualization of the agent and its morphotintorial characteristics by using special histochemical stains and being confirmed by IHC. It occurs mainly in the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous tissues, with systemic involvement and death of the affected animals, in addition to affecting bone tissue considered an uncommon site for the disease. The diagnosis can be established based on the anatomopathological findings associated with the morphotintorial characteristics by using special histochemical stains, which are important for evidencing and morphologically characterizing the agent, as well as being confirmed by IHC.Keywords: disease in cat, pyogranulomatous inflammation, Nocardia sp.Título: Nocardiose em gatos - achados clínicos, anatomopatológicos e morfotintoriais Descritores: doença de gato, inflamação piogranulomatosa, Nocardia sp.

      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113700
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Cardiac Tamponade Secondary to Hemangiosarcoma in a Dog

    • Authors: Ana Paula Smiderle, Vanessa Tiemi Endo, Larissa Donat Almagro, Karim Cristhine Pase Montagni, Bruna Maíra Panini, Carla Gomes Paula, Aline de Marco Viott, Flavio Shigueru Jojima
      Abstract: Background: Nonspecific clinical manifestations such as apathy, anorexia and diarrhea are common in the clinical routine, and therefore may mask the severity of its triggering factor. When patients presenting this symptomatology are referred to the care center, it is essential that a thorough investigation is performed to clarify the primary causes of these manifestations, and for this, complementary imaging exams may be necessary. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical and imaging aspects of a canine with cardiac hemangiosarcoma and to correlate with the pathophysiology of the alterations observed, in order to optimize the clinical care of patients with nonspecific clinical signs and affected by this alteration.Case: A 10-year-old Pitbull dog was treated with a history of vomiting, loss of appetite and diarrhea. Upon clinical examination, the animal presented dehydration level and distended abdomen. On ultrasound examination, hepatomegaly was observed, associated with signs of double layer in the gallbladder wall and the presence of moderate peritoneal effusion. On chest radiography, the cardiac silhouette showed an important increase in size with loss of shape and contours. Dorsal displacement of the trachea, greater contact of the heart with the sternum and displacement of the caudal vena cava were observed. In addition, an amorphous and poorly defined structure with radiopacity of soft tissues was observed in the region of the atrium and right ventricle, causing the obliteration of pulmonary fields. On echocardiographic examination, a significant amount of free anechogenic fluid was observed in the pericardial sac, confirming the suspicion of pericardial effusion, with consequent collapse of the wall of the right heart chambers during systole. Furthermore, an amorphous, poorly defined and heterogeneous structure was observed in the right atrium wall. Due to the location of the neoformation, the patient's general clinical condition, euthanasia was chosen. During the necropsy, the ocular, oral and preputial mucosae were moderately pale. In the abdomen, the presence of hydroperitoneum and hepatomegaly was observed. In the thoracic cavity, hemothorax, enlarged heart were identified and, in the right atrium, a reddish mass was identified. In addition, the lungs were whitish and hypercrepitating at the edges of the cranial lobes; the rest of the organ was moderately hyperemic, hypocrepitating. In histopathological examination of the liver, the centrilobular region showed chronic passive congestion associated with necrosis and multifocal degeneration of hepatocytes. Neoplastic proliferation of mesenchymal cells, moderately cellular, non-encapsulated, of infiltrative growth was observed in the heart. Neoplastic cells formed bundles, with a tendency to organize themselves into small blood vessels filled with red blood cells. The cytoplasm was moderate, elongated, indistinct, eosinophilic and homogeneous. The nucleus was large, unique, elongated, with finely dotted chromatin and sometimes with one or two nucleoli evident. Anisocytosis, anisocariosis and cell pleomorphism were moderate. Interwoven with neoplastic cells, a moderate presence of multifocal lymphohistioplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate was observed. The definitive diagnosis of cardiac changes was hemangiosarcoma.Discussion: Hemangiosarcoma is a vascular endothelial cell neoplasm with high metastatic power and unfavorable prognosis. When located in the heart, it is commonly found in the auricle and right atrium and the cardiovascular changes caused by this neoplasm as well as the severity of these changes vary according to size and location. Clinical manifestations can be quite nonspecific and are usually associated with hemodynamic impairment, causing signs of right or left congestive heart failure.Keywords: heart, neoplasm, pathophysiology.Descritores: coração, neoplasia, patofisiologia.Título: Tamponamento cardíaco secundário ao hemangiossarcoma em cães 
      PubDate: 2021-10-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112393
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Successful Treatment and Management of Canine
           Ehrlichiosis-Leishmaniosis-Heartworm Comorbidity

    • Authors: Adam Leal-Lima, Tiago Cunha Ferreira, Társsila Mara Vieira Ferreira, Pedro Covas Coelho, Diana Célia Sousa Nunes-Pinheiro
      Abstract:  Background: Canine vector borne diseases (CVBD) are common in tropical countries where the climate favors arthropods abundance. Comorbidity with one or more CVBD are reported as clinical complication and worsen prognostic. Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CanL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Brazil caused by Leishmania infantum, with several restrictions to canine treatment and suggestion of reservoirs euthanasia for disease control. Heart worm (HW) is a helminthic disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs. It is a chronic heart disease, which can lead to death by congestive heart failure. Canine ehrlichiosis (CE) is caused by Ehrlichia canis bacterial infection with a zoonotic potential and fatal to dogs in acute and chronic presentations. Exposed the above, this study aims to describe a successful treatment and management of a dog with CanL, CE, and HW comorbidity. Case: A 3-year-old male uncastrated black Labrador dog, weighing 35 kg, was admitted to the veterinary clinic due to immunochromatographic CanL positive test performed by municipal zoonosis control center active surveillance in August 2014. Clinical exam showed a mild shedding, intermittent eye white/yellow discharge and popliteal lymph nodes enlargement. After positive for CanL, veterinary requested more laboratorial exams. IFAT and ELISA were positive for CanL, blood smear showed presence of microfilaria, and bone marrow cytology showed Ehrlichia spp. morulae and microfilaria. Initial treatment prescribed was oral doxycycline, omeprazole, ranitidine, and domperidone for 30 days, and allopurinol and ivermectin until further recommendation. Additionally, repellent collar, repellent spray and vitamin supplement was indicated. After first month, marbofloxacin for 30 days and three doses of immune stimulant protocol were administrated. After three months of treatment, dog still positive for heartworm, ehrlichiosis, and CanL. Doxycycline protocol was repeated. Dog became consistently negative for all pathogens one year later with persistent thrombocytopenia but without clinical signs, ergo allopurinol and ivermectin were discontinued. After four years of follow up, the animal had an acute pancreatitis and died, with unremarkable total blood count and negative for all pathogens. Discussion: CVBD coinfections are commonly reported as worsen prognostic in endemic regions. The pathogens reported here share a host immunomodulation competence. L. infantum and Ehrlichia spp.downregulates Th1 response, whereas D. immitis increase as Th2 profile. The therapeutic protocol was iniciated by staging CanL. Since the patient had clinical signs, allopurinol was prescribed as a well-established drug for CanL. Marbofloxacin was added due to its high safety drug in clinical improvement of infected dogs with and without renal disease and in vitro effectiveness against L. infantum. Domperidone was used to promote Th1 cytokine profile as INF-γ, IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α. We used an immunostimulant protocol to favor polarization to the Th1 profile comprised by 30 days of domperidone protocol followed by a vaccine and an immunomodulator. Doxycycline was used successfully for Ehrlichia spp. and HE clearance after two treatment courses and one year of ivermectin every 15 days. The animal presented intermittent coughing episodes on the first treatment course, but no medical intervention was needed besides exercise restriction. Our report shows the successful management of one dog with CanL, CE and HE comorbidity. This success was possible due to early detection and good therapeutic choice.Keywords: canine visceral leishmaniosis, coinfection, Dirofilaria immitis, Erhlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-10-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113295
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • T-cell Lymphoma in the Nasal Cavity in Goat

    • Authors: Millena Oliveira Firmino, Ismael Lira Borges, Gian Libânio da Silveira, Mikael Leandro Duarte de Lima Tolentino, Erika de Lourdes Gomes Queiroz, Eldinê Gomes Miranda Neto, Glauco José Nogueira Galiza, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas
      Abstract: Background: Lymphomas are considered uncommon in goats, being the multicentric form with the highest number of cases for the species. Primary intranasal lymphomas are often diagnosed in dogs, cats, and humans. In the literature, there is only a description of a multicentric case involving the frontal sinuses and mucosa of the nasal cavity in a goat; therefore, it is important to describe unusual cases of this disease for the inclusion of new clinical and pathological characteristics in the ruminant clinic medicine. The objective of this work is to describe a case of T-cell lymphoma in the nasal cavity of a young goat.Case: The animal had dyspnea and respiratory noise for 15 days. Clinical examination showed nodulation in the right nasal cavity associated with serosanguinous secretion. Tracheostomy was performed; however, after 30 days the animal was euthanized. A sagittal plane of the head showed a pinkish-gray mass in the right and left nasal cavity, with a smooth, multilobulated surface, smooth adhering to the rostral portion of the dorsal concha and occluding the dorsal nasal meatus. Submandibular lymph nodes were slightly enlarged. Histopathological examination of the nasal cavity revealed a non-encapsulated, poorly delimited and ulcerated tumor composed of round cells arranged in a mantle supported by a discrete fibrovascular stroma extending the mucosa and lamina propria. Cells were round with sparse, eosinophilic and poorly delimited cytoplasm. Nuclei varied from round to elongated with condensed chromatin and evident nucleoli. Occasionally, aberrant nuclei, reniform shape and multinucleated cells were seen. Pleomorphism was moderate characterized by anisocytosis and anisocariosis. Typical and atypical mitosis were frequent (0-4 per field of highest magnification [400x]). Amidst the neoplasm, there were multifocal areas of necrosis and hemorrhage associated with a mild lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Immunohistochemistry showed positive immunostaining for Vimentin antibodies and CD3, and negative for pan CK and CD20.Discussion: The lymphomas immunophenotyping is little used when it comes to farm animals, and there are few studies that use this technique for the definitive diagnosis of these neoplasms for small ruminants. The use of this technique must be considered in each case, in order to determine the pathogenesis, the accurate diagnosis and the origin of the neoplastic lymphocytes. In goats, T-cell lymphomas are the most diagnosed, although cases of multicentric B-cell lymphomas with ocular involvement have been diagnosed. In view of the clinical picture of the case described, infectious rhinitis already described in goats, such as aspergillosis and protothecosis, should be included as differential diagnoses. However, the anatomopathological findings facilitate the direction of the diagnosis, since infectious rhinitis presents as nodules / ulcerated masses or focal areas of necrosis associated with purulent secretion and in the histopathological examination it is possible to observe the intralesional etiological agents. In addition, the enzootic ethmoidal tumor must be included, as it has similar clinical signs and affects young animals, but they are adenomas/adenocarcinomas that affect the ethmoidal nasal shells induced by a retrovirus. Lymphomas in the caprine species are rare in the Northeastern semi-arid, but that in the present diagnostic routine occasionally occurs, being important the first description of its nasal shape for its inclusion in the differential diagnoses of diseases that present with clinical obstruction and dyspnea for the species. Keywords: hematopoietic neoplasia, immunophenotyping, lymphocytes, dyspnea.Descritores: neoplasia hematopoietica, imunofenotipagem, linfócitos, dispneia.Título: Linfoma de células T na cavidade nasal de caprino. 
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113702
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Encephalitozoonosis in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    • Authors: Maira dos Santos Carneiro Lacerda, Jair Alves Ferreira Júnior, Nathália Dela-Sávia da Fonseca, André Leonardo Rodrigues-Matos Santos, Karla Alvarenga Nascimento, Pedro Miguel Ocampos Pedroso, Juliana Targino Silva Almeida Macêdo
      Abstract: Background: Encephalitozoonosis is caused by the protozoan Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in rabbits, and can affect humans. The disease can be fatal and difficult to diagnose. It can be asymptomatic or cause vestibular neurological disease, paralysis, uveitis in addition to chronic kidney disease in rabbits. The transmission of the microorganism's spores occurs by ingestion, inhalation, or by the transplacental route. The aim of this work is to report a case of encephalitozoonosis in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).Case: An Oryctolagus cuniculus with a history of paraparesis of the thoracic and pelvic limbs was referred for necropsy, the evolution of the clinical picture happened in one day. After death, a necropsy was performed. Organ fragments were collected, fixed, and processed routinely for histology. Macroscopically, there was evidence of hepatic lobes, without injury to the other organs. Microscopically it was observed in the white and gray substance of the telencephalon multiple circumscribed granulomas composed of a necrotic center surrounded by macrophages, giant multinucleated cells in addition to lymphocytes and plasmocytes in the periphery, delimited by fibrous connective tissue. Around the vessels, perivascular cuffs with two to four layers of lymphocytic infiltrate were observed. Besides, special staining of Schiff's Periodic Acid (PAS) and Ziehl-Neelsen was performed, in which numerous cylindrical, eosinophilic structures of approximately 2.5 x 1.0 µm were observed, compatible with E. cuniculi spores. Besides, histiocytic lymphoblasts pericoronitis was noted in the liver. There were no relevant changes in the kidney.Discussion: The diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits was based on clinical and anatomopathological findings. Tetraparesis was the predominant sign in the present case and was justified by telencephalic lesions. This clinical sign is included in the literature but is less common than the syndrome such as head tilt and paralysis. The diagnosis of the disease is usually made by post-mortem examination when it is possible to identify the spores in the lesions. Multifocal granulomatous encephalitis was the most significant finding in this case, which is also consistent with other studies. The pathogenesis of granulomatous lesions is still controversial. It is known that spores allow phagocytosis by macrophages, which induce the production of interleukins and other cytokines by TCD4 + lymphocytes, thereby activating the action of TCD8 + (cytotoxic) lymphocytes. Natural killer cells, granulocytes, other macrophages, and B lymphocytes are also recruited. Although there is such an inflammatory response, the antibodies produced are not efficient to eliminate the agent from the host organism, however, they contribute to the process of opsonization and consequent phagocytosis, facilitating the destruction of the microsporidium by macrophages. The neurological form was predominant in this case, with no chronic or ocular renal forms, possibly due to the rapid clinical evolution. Special stains were useful for visualizing intralesional spores. Although PAS staining is considered to be of little use, it was relevant in this case. The visualization of the agent made it possible to distinguish differential diagnoses, among them vestibular syndrome secondary to otitis due to pasteurellosis, toxoplasmosis, neoplasms, traumas, or diseases of the spine. Thus, a diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis was made in a rabbit through clinical and anatomopathological correlation using Ziehl-Neelsen and PAS stains.Keywords: granuloma, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, central nervous system.Descritores: granuloma, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, sistema nervoso central.Título: Encefalitozoonose em coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113465
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Clinical and Complementary Diagnosis of Sinus Neoplasia in Horses

    • Authors: Tatiana Yumi Mizucina Akutagawa, Ricardo de Francisco Strefezzi, Carla Bargi Belli, Raquel Yvonne Arantes Baccarin, Luis Cláudio Lopes Correia da Silva, André Luis do Valle de Zoppa, Julio David Spagnolo, Rodrigo Romero Corrêa
      Abstract: Background: Sinus neoplasms are reported as low frequency in horses. Its clinical characteristics are often nonspecific, depend on complementary methods for diagnosis, and when diagnosed, generally they are already advanced, limiting therapeutic possibilities. The objective of this case series was to detail clinical aspects and complementary exams for sinus neoplasms for early diagnosis, comparing them with the literature.Cases: Four horses were treated at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo, with different clinical signs and previous diagnoses, which when evaluated by respiratory endoscopy, radiography, oral cavity evaluation and histopathological exams, revealed the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, ossifying fibroma and lymphoma. Previous diagnosis, based mainly on clinical signs, were sinusitis secondary to apical infection, ethmoidal hematoma, sinus cyst and sinusitis secondary to periapical disease. The cases of anaplastic carcinoma (case 1) and lymphoma (case 4) presented with an advanced degree of the disease with involvement and destruction of paranasal structures and adjacent tissues, in addition to a poor general condition, which made surgical treatment impossible and led to euthanasia. In these cases, previous treatment was made to apical infection and periodontal disease with secondary sinusitis, but negative evolution led to suspicion of neoplasia, confirmed by histopathological exam of incisional biopsy of the mass in oral cavity. Benign ossifying fibroma (case 3) presented with progressive respiratory difficulty due to occlusion of the lumen of some nasal meatus and radiographic signs of invasion and deformation of the adjacent bones, it was submitted for surgical excision and there was no recurrence until hospital discharge. The poorly differentiated carcinoma (case 2) was a multilobulate neoformation in the ethmoidal region, similar to ethmoid hematoma in endoscopic and radiographic evaluation, it was submitted for excision and two sessions of electrochemotherapy with bleomycin, associated with administration of piroxicam, which obtained a good result until the period of 1 year after discharge.Discussion: It was found that many characteristics are common with these types of neoplasms, and the clinical signs, such as nasal secretions, airway obstruction, increased facial volume, severe alterations in oral cavity, although unspecific, suggest the differential diagnosis for neoplasms. It is important to differentiate from other diseases noting the evolution and growth of these tumors, like in cases 1 and 4, especially the growth to internal tissues, using complementary methods described here, like endoscopic and radiographic examination. Late identification or even manipulation of neoplasms, without proper diagnosis, leads to a few prognoses regarding life. When it is possible to perform surgical excision, complementary methods are important to guide the procedure, and definitive diagnosis is made through histopathologic exam and some need immunohistochemistry analysis. Cases 2 and 3 had surgical access, were submitted to excision and treatment with good results, both with close monitoring in first months and prolonged quality of life. These results highlight the importance of complementary methods for early diagnosis, correct intervention and monitoring of evolution.Keywords: sinus neoplasia, paranasal sinus, tumor, head, horses.
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112304
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome after Primary Hypoadrenocorticism Crisis

    • Authors: Álan Gomes Pöppl, Érico Haas Pires, Claudia Ruga Barbieri, Lucas Marques Colomé
      Abstract: Background: Primary hypoadrenocorticism is a rare condition resulting from immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortices. It can also occur due to necrosis, neoplasms, infarctions and granulomas. The clinical and laboratory changes are due to deficient secretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, which leads to electrolyte disorders associated with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. These disorders can cause hypotension, hypovolemia and shock, putting a patient's life at risk if inadequate hydroelectrolytic supplementation and hormone replacement is provided. Nevertheless, rapid sodium chloride supplementation is contraindicated due to the risk of central pontine myelinolysis induction. The present study aims to describe a thalamic osmotic demyelination syndrome after management of a primary hypoadrenocorticism crisis in a 2-year-old, female West White Highland Terrier. Case: The patient had a presumptive diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism already receiving oral prednisolone and gastrointestinal protectants in the last 2 days. After prednisolone dose reduction the dog presented a severe primary hypoadrenocorticism crisis treated with intravenous sodium chloride 0.9% solution along with supportive therapy. Four days after being discharged from the hospital, the patient showed severe neurological impairment and went back to the clinic where a neurological examination revealed mental depression, drowsiness, ambulatory tetraparesis and proprioceptive deficit of the 4 limbs, postural deficits, and cranial nerves with decreased response. Due to these clinical signs, a magnetic resonance imaging was performed. It showed 2 intra-axial circular lesions, symmetrically distributed in both thalamus sides, with approximately 0.8 cm in diameter each without any other anatomical changes on magnetic resonance imaging. The images were compatible with metabolic lesions, suggesting demyelination. Furthermore, liquor analysis did not show relevant abnormalities, except for a slight increase in density and pH at the upper limit of the reference range. After treatment, the patient had a good neurological evolution secondary to standard primary hypoadrenocorticism treatment, without sequelae. Discussion: In the present case report, primary hypoadrenocorticism gastrointestinal signs seemed to be triggered by a food indiscretion episode, not responsive to the symptomatic therapies employed. The patient´s breed and age (young West White Highland Terrier bitch) is in accordance with the demographic profile of patients affected by the disease, where young females are frequently more affected. Regarding the probable thalamic osmotic demyelination syndrome documented in this case, is important to notice that myelinolysis or demyelination is an exceedingly rare noninflammatory neurological disorder, initially called central pontine myelinolysis, which can occur after rapid correction of hyponatremia. It has already been observed in dogs after correction of hyponatremia of different origins, including hypoadrenocorticism and parasitic gastrointestinal disorders. Currently, the terms "osmotic myelinolysis" or “osmotic demyelination syndrome" are considered more suitable when compared to the term "central pontine myelinolysis" since it has been demonstrated in dogs and humans the occurrence of demyelination secondary to the rapid correction of hyponatremia in distinct regions of the central nervous system including pons, basal nuclei, striatum, thalamus, cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The present case report emphasizes the difficulties for hormonal confirmation of primary hypoadrenocorticism in a patient already on corticosteroid treatment, as well as proposes that the current term osmotic demyelination syndrome replace the term “central pontine myelinolysis” in veterinary literature related to the management of hypoadrenocorticism crisis.Keywords: Addison Syndrome, hyponatremia, osmotic myelinolysis, magnetic resonance imaging.
      PubDate: 2021-09-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112935
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Atresia Ani (Imperforated Anus) in Calves: Clinical, Surgical and
           Pathological Aspects

    • Authors: Maria Eduarda dos Santos Lopes Fernandes, Saulo Andrade Caldas, Letícia Ramos Rocha, Marina Galindo Chenard, Kelly Regina Freitas Freire, Nathália da Silva Carvalho, Vivian de Assunção Nogueira, Michel Abdalla Helayel
      Abstract: Background: Anal atresia is a congenital malformation, which often affects calves, and is related to the imperforation of the membrane that separates the endoderm of the posterior intestine from the ectodermal anal membrane. It is commonly associated with other congenital malformations and skeletal anomalies. The clinical signs generally appear in the first days of the animal's life, due to a retention of feces. The diagnosis is clinical and is based on observation, anamnesis and a physical examination of the animal. The only viable treatment is surgical. This paper aims to report 6 cases of anal atresia in bovine calves, 4 males and 2 females that were successfully treated surgically. Cases: This work reports 6 cases of anal atresia in 4 male calves and 2 female calves. Three presented total atresia (type II), one partial (type I) and in both female calves, anal atresia and rectovaginal fistula (type IV) were observed. The animals were all of undefined race. Five of the cases were from northern Tocantins, 4 males and 1 female (anal atresia with rectovaginal fistula), and 1 female (anal atresia with rectovaginal fistula) was from Valença, RJ. All animals were born active, by eutocic/natural birth, and assumed a quadrupedal position followed by the first feeding as normal. They were aged between 2 days and 6 months, and had a clinical history of abdominal distention and difficulty or inability defecating, and the females both also had a rectovaginal fistula, all cases compatible with anal atresia. Based on the patient's history and clinical examination, surgical treatment for anal reconstruction was decided upon. Postoperative treatment consisted of enrofloxacin [2.5 mg/kg - intramuscularly (IM), once daily (SID), for 5 days] and fluxinin meglumine [1.1 mg/kg - IM, SID, for 3 days] ; as well as a healing ointment which was applied to the area of the surgical wound, every 12 h, for 7 days. There were no trans-surgical complications. The animals showed progressive recovery after anal reconstruction and the stitches were removed in all cases on the 10th postoperative day, with no postoperative complications and no recurrence of any clinical signs from that moment on.Discussion: The study of congenital and hereditary changes enables the identification of their origins, can help prevent new cases and, some of them, are open to economically viable treatment and/or correction that can improve the well-being of the animal and prevent economic losses due to death or animal sacrifice, as reported in the present study. Anal atresia is the most common congenital defect of the lower gastrointestinal tract in calves, being an isolated abnormality, or associated with other malformations, especially of the distal spinal column such as the absence of a tail (perosumus acaudato), as one of the animals in this study. The clinical signs and physical examination are sufficient to establish the diagnosis, as demonstrated in this report, which is usually made in newborn animals, due to the lack or difficulty in defecation associated with no anal orifice and/or swelling in the perineal region. The treatment of choice for anal atresia is surgical, in order to construct an anal neo-orifice and thus avoid endotoxemic shock as well as providing relief and well-being for the animals. As observed in this study, when anal atresia is diagnosed early, and surgical treatment is properly instituted, the prognosis is favorable. The surgery is considered of low complexity, quick and it can be carried out in the field. Thus, from a commercial point of view, considering the costs of the procedures and the value of the calf at the end of weaning, such treatments are beneficial to the owners. In addition, the surgical treatment is essential for animal health and welfare in cases of anal atresia.Keywords: cattle, congenital defects, hereditary pathology, perosomus acaudato, surgery.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112980
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma in Dogs: Surgical Treatment with Real-Time

    • Authors: Sarah Tavares de Melo, Eduardo Gonçalves da Silva, Caroline Castagnara Alves, Paula Priscila Correia Costa, Stefanie Bressan Waller, Paula Gebe Abreu Cabral, Igor Ciríaco Barroso, André Lacerda de Abreu Oliveira
      Abstract: Introdução :  Uma neoplasia pulmonar é uma proliferação anormal de células no tecido pulmonar, podendo ser classificada como primária, secundária ou metastática e multissistêmica. No entanto, uma neoplasia primária é rara em canídeos. Além disso, as neoplasias podem ser classificadas de acordo com seu comportamento biológico como malignas ou benignas. Os tumores malignos são mais prevalentes. O diagnóstico pode ser difí...
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111441
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Simultaneous Occurrence of Ovarian Teratoma and Endometrial Cystic
           Hyperplasia with Pyometra in a Labrador Retriever Bitch

    • Authors: Daniel Cardoso Garcia, José Wagner Amador da Silva, Letícia Gutierrez de Gutierrez, Larissa Eckmann Mingrone Garcia, Marcelo Jorge Cavalcanti de Sá
      Abstract: Background: Ovarian teratoma is a rare tumor that occurs in dogs. Its origin comes from embryonic cells of the notochord and it is a unipotent tumor. Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent content in the uterine lumen. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia is one of the factors predisposing a dog to the development of pyometra. The safest and most efficient treatment for pyometra is ovariohysterectomy. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of ovarian teratoma and cystic endometrial hyperplasia with concomitant pyometra in a Labrador Retriever Bitch.Case: A 10-year-old bitch Labrador Retriever, weighing 42 kg, was evaluated at Animal Care Barueri Veterinary Clinic, in Barueri, São Paulo. The patient was referred from another veterinary service to our clinic for an ovariohysterectomy and removal of an intestinal foreign body as previous ultrasonography (US) had indicated the presence of pyometra and a foreign body in the descending colon (she had ingested cloth according to the owner’s report). Laboratory tests, complete blood count, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, and creatinine levels did not show any significant changes. Upon examination, the clinical signs were mucopurulent vaginal discharge, 5% dehydration, rectal temperature 39.1°C, mild abdominal pain on palpation, normophagy, normodipsia, and normal defecation and urinatination. Laboratory tests a new US were requested on which the uterus was observed with the presence of luminal anechoic content and increased uterine diameter (uterine horns 3.97 cm), an acoustic intestinal shadow supposedly from a foreign body,and on the leukogram, leukocytosis (23,600/mm3) due to neutrophilia with a right shift (20,532/mm3) was observed. Therapeutic ovariohysterectomy and exploratory celiotomy were chosen as therapeutic options. Celiotomy with caudoumbilical mid ventral access was performed. When the left uterine horn was identified, an attempt was made to pull it in order to expose the left ovary, but this maneuver was not successful. For this reason, the abdominal incision was enlarged cranially. At that point, a huge mass was observed in the ovary (which was supposedly the acoustic shadow of the foreign body in the descending colon/left ovary). The intestines appeared normal. Macroscopically, the mass had an irregular surface, round shape, firm consistency, and was 15 cm long x 10 cm wide. Once removed, the mass was incised in the transversal direction, purulent content, hair, and mineralized areas inside it were observed. Histopathological examination showed neoplastic proliferation, consisting of cells with elongated epithelioid shape that were arranged in long irregular bundles among well-differentiated adipose tissue. An exuberant eosinophilic matrix with extensive cystic areas filled with lamellar keratin and hairy stems covered by squamous epithelium was also observed. Extensive areas exhibiting nervous tissue. The morphological picture was compatible with teratoma.Discussion: The present report describes the concomitant presence of ovarian teratoma and pyometra in a dog. The diagnosis of pyometra requires complementary tests (laboratory and imaging). The intestinal acoustic shadow observed on the two US images obtained by two different professionals was suggestive of intestinal foreign body but was also a wrong diagnosis, which was confirmed after an exploratory celiotomy when the mass in the left ovary was identified. On the histopathological examination of this presente case, epithelial, nervous, and cartilaginous tissues were observed. This differentiation of tissues corroborated the teratoma diagnosis. Thus, the importance of an accurate diagnosis contributes to the resolution of a surgical conditions that may have had a poor prognosis when the procedure took a longer time to perform. Keywords: ovarian neoplasia, ultrasonography, OSH, pyometra.Descritores: neoplasia ovariana, ultrassonografia, OSH, piometra.Título:  Ocorrência simultânea de teratoma ovariano e hiperplasia endometrial cística com piometra em cadela Labrador Retriever 
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112127
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Strongyloidiasis in a Puppy in Northeastern Brazil

    • Authors: Rodrigo Cruz Alves, Yanca Góes dos Santos Soares, Jôvanna Karine Pinheiro, João Ricardo Cruz Brito Junior, Raquel Annes Fagundes Silva, Millena de Oliveira Firmino, Glauco José Nogueira de Galiza, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas
      Abstract: Background: Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that causes intestinal infection in vertebrate hosts, especially in humans and dogs. The species S. stercoralis is responsible for chronic and asymptomatic infections in adult dogs or serious infections in puppies and immunosuppressed animals. In Brazil, natural infection in dogs was demonstrated by coproparasitological and serological methods, however, there are no reports that address the clinicopathological characteristics of the infection in the canine species. Thus, this paper aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of S. stercoralis infection in a puppy in Northeastern Brazil.Case: A puppy female Chihuahua was referred to the Animal Pathology Laboratory of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande for necropsy with a historic of severe respiratory symptoms and gastrointestinal changes that included sanguineous diarrhea and vomiting that evolved to death in 5 days. Grossly, there was a moderate amount of slightly reddish fluid in the thoracic cavity. The lungs remained expanded with a smooth, shiny, and diffusely reddish pleural surface interspersed with multifocal and blackened coalescent areas. Upon cutting, a moderate amount of slightly yellow foamy liquid flowed from the airways and trachea. In the duodenum, the mucosa was diffusely reddened. Histologically, there were multifocal to coalescent areas of moderate interalveolar accumulation of fibrin, edema and hemorrhage in the lung surrounded by an inflammatory infiltrate composed of foamy macrophages associated with numerous parasitic structures in longitudinal and transverse sections in the alveolar lumen and pleural surface. In the duodenum, we observed flattening with diffuse and moderate fusion of the villi and multifocal areas of mucosal erosion. The crypts were moderately dilated, covered by attenuated epithelium, with numerous longitudinal and transversal sections of adult nematode parasites, larvae and eggs associated with inflammatory lymphplasmocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria. The morphological characteristics were compatible with the nematode S. stercoralis.Discussion: The diagnosis of strongyloidiasis was performed by means of microscopic lesions associated with parasitic structures morphologically compatible with the nematode S. stercoralis. This species is responsible for parasitism especially in humans, dogs, and cats. Parasites are the only ones that have a life cycle that involve free living form and parasitic. In this case, it was not possible to determine the primary portal of entry for the infection, but most infections commonly occur through the penetration of the larvae into the skin or mucous membranes, where they migrate via the haematogenous to the lung, then they are swallowed up to the intestine. Occasionally, there is autoinfection by larvae that enter the intestinal mucosa or perianal region and the contamination of neonates and puppies through the ingestion of milk. The clinical signs evidenced in this case, revealed the committed respiratory and gastrointestinal, possibly may be related to the migration of the larvae in the lungs and the destruction of the intestinal epithelium caused by the high number of parasites, respectively. It is concluded that strongyloidiasis is an uncommon infectious disease in puppies in Brazil, capable of causing severe respiratory and gastrointestinal changes that result in the death of animals with a high parasitic load and should be included in the differential diagnosis of diseases that affect the respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract of dogs.Keywords: dog disease, parasitic infection, nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis.
      PubDate: 2021-09-12
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.113326
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Complete Avulsion of the Hoof Capsule and Subsequent Testicular
           Degeneration in a Criollo Stallion

    • Authors: Mariana Andrade Mousquer, Bruna da Rosa Curcio, Vitória Müller, Eliza Piemolini, Camila Gervini Wendt, Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira
      Abstract: Background: Complete avulsion of the hoof in horses, also known as exungulation, is not a commonly reported injury and usually leads to euthanasia due to the great amount of tissue loss, intense pain, secondary complications, expensive and lengthy treatment. It can involve deep structures and cause different complications leading to chronic lameness. In stallions affected by such injury, the reproductive tract and performance may also be affected. The aim of this study was to report a case of complete avulsion of the right front hoof in a Criollo stallion and subsequent bilateral testicular degeneration.Case: A 10-year-old Criollo stallion was referred to the Veterinary Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pelotas (HCV- UFPel) with a complete avulsion of the left front hoof. At admission, the stallion had clinical parameters compatible with intense pain and blood loss. Evaluation of the wound demonstrated that the distal end of the third phalanx (P3) was exposed but no fracture was detected on radiological evaluation. No other structure was apparently affected. Initially, anti-inflammatory (phenylbutazone) and opioid (morphine) was given for pain control and supportive fluid therapy was started to restore hydration. Antibiotic (Sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim) were administered for 10 days. Continued therapy with phenylbutazone, pentoxifylline, omeprazole and supplementation with methionine, biotin and zinc was also given. Local treatment was carried out by cleaning the wound, applying an antimicrobial ointment and dressing it with a bandage. Wound management was adapted according to the evolution and healing process. The stallion was kept in stall rest during its hospitalization time. In the second month after the injury, accumulation of liquid in the scrotum was observed. Clinical and ultrasound evaluation lead to a presumptive diagnosis of testicular degeneration. The stallion was discharged after three months when the wound was almost healed and the hoof had started to grow. Six month later, a follow up by the referring vet showed that the hoof was almost completely grown and the x-ray assessment demonstrated a cranial rotation and resorption of the distal end of the third phalanx.Discussion: The stallion of this report had a complete avulsion of the hoof capsule caused by trauma. Conservative treatment was established including wound cleaning and dressing to avoid contamination, control of pain and inflammation, antimicrobial care and supplementation to support hoof growth. Time period for wound healing and hoof growth was in agreement with other cases described previously. Bone sequestrum of the distal end of the third phalanx, and detachment of a fragment were observed in this case, followed by bone resorption. The stallion was closely monitored to prevent laminitis in the contralateral limb and no alterations were detected during the treatment period. Testicular degeneration was observed, probably caused as a consequence of hoof avulsion and due to a long period of stall rest. Degenerative alterations in testicles interfere with thermoregulation and spermatogenesis, affecting semen quality and reproductive performance. Rotation of the third phalanx was also observed six months later caused by the hoof loss. In conclusion, the patient of this report had a complete regrowth of the hoof capsule although a long intensive treatment was necessary to achieve this result. As a consequence, testicles degeneration may happen impairing its function as a stallion.Keywords: exungulation,hoof trauma, degenerative changes.
      PubDate: 2021-09-04
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112847
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in the Upper Eyelid in a Dog

    • Authors: Nathalie Moro Bassil Dower, Alexandre Pinto ribeiro, Camila Gonçalves de Campos, Tássia Moara Amorim, David Driemeier, Fernando Henrique Furlan
      Abstract: Background: Schwannomas are benign neurogenic tumours of peripheral nerves. They originate from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath.Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are most commonly found on the head and neck regions of both dogs and people. Schwannomas are rarely observed in ophthalmic areas. When they occur, ocular Schwannomas are usually located in the orbit, uveal tract and conjunctiva. The occurrence of uveal schwannoma, a subset of PNST has been well documented in the veterinary literature. This is the first report of a palpebral PNST in the dog. The lip-to-lid flap is a feasible technique to reconstruct the upper eyelid following wide surgical removal of a tumor in the dog.Case: A 9-year-old, spayed female mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation of a large mass involving the right upper eyelid for a duration of approximately one month. The inspection revealed sero-sanguinolent discharge and an oval-shaped mass occupying more than 70% of the right upper eyelid. The dog was alert and the ophthalmic and general physical examination did not revealed abnormalities. Ocular ultrasonography did not show significant findings. A fine-needle aspirate of the palpebral tumor was not elucidative, even so, a presumptive diagnosis of eyelid neoplasia was considered most likely. Excision of the entire mass with a 2 cm margin was performed. The third eyelid and dorso-medial bulbar conjunctiva were also removed. Upper eyelid reconstruction was performed based on a similar technique previously described in cats (lip-to-lid flap). As a result, neoplastic spindle cells exhibited immunoreactivity for S100 and intense cytoplasmic staining for vimentin, supporting the diagnosis of schwannoma. Fifteen days later, the margins of the subdermal pattern flap were healed and skin sutures were removed. On the last follow-up, 9 months post-surgery, the dog was visual, and the flap was well incorporated and covered the ocular surface. Ten months later, another large mass arising from the right inferior palpebral conjunctiva was observed. Once ultrasound revealed orbital invasion exenteration combined with orbitectomy were performed, and the defect was covered with an auricular axial pattern flap. Although the second tumor had the same histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the first mass additional staining for Ki67 was used to investigate the biological behavior of both masses.Discussion: Reported eyelid neoplasms in dogs include adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the meibomian glands, melanomas, fibroma, fibrosarcoma, histiocytoma, mastocytoma, lipomas, papillomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. To the author´s knowledge, however, this is the first case description of a PNST affecting the eyelid in a dog. The histologic distinction between PNSTs and other spindle cell tumors, including myxosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, and melanoma can be challenging and requires immunohistochemical stainin. S100 is an acidic protein that identifies various nervous tissue cells, including Schwann cells, and the majority of canine PNSTs diffusely express this molecule. As in the case presented here, neoplastic cells of different ocular and adnexal structures were also positive for S100 and vimentin in all PNSTs previously reported in the veterinary literature. This is the first report of PNST affecting the eyelid in a dog. The lip-to-lid flap is a feasible technique to reconstruct the upper eyelid following wide surgical removal of a tumor in dogs. However, the authors suggest radical surgery combining orbitectomy, exenteration and a miocutaneous flap if PNST is diagnosed in the eyelids of dogs. They also caution once recurrence is possible and can be more aggressive.Keywords: lip-to-lid transposition, S100, vimentin, desmin, Ki67, dog.
      PubDate: 2021-08-29
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112701
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Giant Fibrolipoma in the Distal Limb of a Cow

    • Authors: Paulo José Bastos Queiroz, Paulo César Machado Mattos Caixeta, Eduardo de Paula Nascente, Danilo Conrado Silva, Rogério Elias Rabelo, Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva
      Abstract: Background: Lipomas are adipocytic tumors of slow and expansive growth. They can be classified into several subtypes depending on the tissue present next to the neoplastic adipocytes. One of such subtypes is the fibrolipoma, which is formed by well-differentiated adipocytes and fibrous connective tissue. This neoplasm has been little described in cattle, and rare reports present the treatment and resolution of the case. Thus, the dissemination of cases of fibrolipomas in cattle is essential to help veterinarians diagnose this neoplasm. The present report describes a case of fibrolipoma in the distal pelvic limb of a cow successfully treated by surgical excision. Case: A 4-year-old 3/4 Girolando cow from the municipality of Vazante-MG, Brazil, was treated on the farm. According to the owner, the animal had been showing tumoral growth in the left pelvic limb over the period of 1 year and 3 months. The tumor involved the entire left metatarsus and was 40 x 37 cm, without ulcerations and painless on palpation. A neoplasm was suspected and surgical excision was the chosen approach. The cow was sedated, positioned and restrained in right lateral recumbency for surgery. The operative field was prepared and a subcutaneous locoregional ring block was performed dorsally to the tumor. The tumor mass was excised with a safety margin of 1 cm. After removal, the mass was found to weigh 10.4 kg and to be yellowish-white upon sectioning. Due to the distance between the edges of the surgical wound, skin suture could not be performed. Thus, second-intention healing and wound protection with bandages were the choice of management. In the postoperative period, the adopted treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy with benzathine penicillin, analgesia with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, daily dressings and wound protection with bandages. The animal did not show postoperative complications and, over 8 months of monitoring after surgery, there was no recurrence of the neoplasm and the cow was in productive activity. Tumor fragments were fixed in 10%buffered formalinand sent for histopathological examination, which revealed a neoplasm of mesenchymal cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue supported by dense fibrovascular stroma with solid arrangement. A large amount of dense connective tissue was found among the neoplastic cells. In view of these findings, the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was established.Discussion: Fibrolipoma is a benign neoplasm little described in the veterinary literature, especially in cattle, with only 3 cases reported. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of this neoplasm in the distal limb of cattle. Fibrolipomas are a rare type of lipoma formed by well-differentiated lipocytes and fibrous tissue. The fibrolipoma described in this report was 40 cm in diameter and weighed 10.4 kg, so it can be classified as a type of giant lipoma, as it was more than 10 cm in diameter and more than 1 kg in weight. In the present report and in others in the medical literature, surgical removal of the fibrolipoma resulted in complete recovery of the patient without postoperative complications. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice in these cases and usually promotes healing. However, surgery must be performed early and the neoplasm must be completely removed. The histological characteristics of the fibrolipoma in this case are similar to those found in other cases in cattle and corroborate the choice for surgical treatment and maintenance of the animal in the herd. Although rare, fibrolipomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors of slow and expansive growth in cattle.Keywords: bovine, adipose tissue, lipoma, neoplasia, surgery.Descritores: bovino, cirurgia, tecido adiposo, lipoma, neoplasia.Título: Fibrolipoma gigante no membro distal de uma vaca 
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112607
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Obstructive Urethrolithiasis in a Mule

    • Authors: Rita de Cássia Campebell, Fernanda Barbosa da Silva, Jorge Filipe Brito Silva, Letiana da Silva Rehbein, Verônica Lourença de Souza Argenta, Elissa Ribeiro, Gustavo Peixoto Braga, Laís Velloso Garcia, Antonio Carlos Lopes Câmara
      Abstract: Background: Obstructive urolithiasis is a rare but potentially serious condition in equids. In the reviewed literature, there are several case reports of urolithiasis in horses and donkeys, but the only mention of this condition in mules occurred as incidental findings at a slaughterhouse. Therefore, this work aims to describe the first report and successful treatment of obstructive urethrolithiasis in a mule (Equus asinus x Equus caballus). Case: A 10-year-old castrated male mule weighing 380 kg was referred for hospital care. Tachycardia (64 beats per min), mild dehydration (7%), increased capillary filling time (3 s), slightly congested mucous membranes, and dysuria were observed. During its attempts to urinate, the mule was able to expose the penis, resulting in only dribbling of urine with reddish coloration. Urethral catheterization failed to reach the urinary bladder and revealed an obstruction at the ischial arch (7 x 4 cm), as confirmed by palpation and ultrasonography. Additionally, rectal ultrasound examination showed urine sedimentation and a single 2.36 mm vesical calculus. After sedation, local anesthesia, and surgical preparation, urethrotomy in the standing position was performed over the urethral obstruction at the ischial arch, reaching the urethrolith that fragmented during removal. Urethral catheterization from the urethrotomy site to flush the urinary bladder and urethra were performed, but the remaining vesical calculus was not retrieved. Considering the presence of a vesical calculus, severe urethral damage caused by the spiculated calculus and catheterization attempts, permanent perineal urethrostomy was performed. Laboratory tests revealed unremarkable hematological parameters, while serum biochemistry showed increased creatinine level. Urinalysis revealed cloudiness, amber appearance, countless red blood cells and bacteria, and calcium carbonate crystals. The urethrolith composition included ammonia, carbonate, and oxalate. Twelve months after surgery, the mule was healthy, the urethrostomy was viable, and no complications were recorded during this period.Discussion: Although uncommon, there are reports describing calculi of different sizes and weighing up to 803 g, causing mild to severe clinical signs according to the degree of obstruction in horses and donkeys. In the mule described here, the urethrolith did not completely obstruct the urethra, but the spiculated calculus caused dysuria and hematuria. In fact, most animals are usually referred for acute abdominal signs or hematuria and pollakiuria, but other unusual signs, such as rectal prolapse, may also be present. In the present report, the diagnosis of obstructive urethrolithiasis was established based on clinical signs and transcutaneous ultrasound of the subischial area, allowing visualization of the urethrolith. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of obstructive urethrolithiasis affecting a mule in Brazil. We reiterate that this condition must be included in the differential diagnosis of mules and hinnies with hematuria and dysuria, especially when associated with abdominal pain. Additionally, urethrostomy associated with urethrotomy performed on this mule in the standing position was a low-cost procedure with good results. Due to the lack of specificity regarding the food management of the mule on the previous farm, an assessment cannot be made regarding the effects of its food on urolith composition.
      PubDate: 2021-08-22
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111984
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Craniomandibular Osteopathy in Mixed Breed Dogs

    • Authors: Taina dos Santos Alberti, Carolina Buss Brunner, Fabiano da Rosa Venâncio, Thaís Cozza dos Santos, Leonardo Schuler Faccini, Jéssica Line Farias, Josiane Bonel
      Abstract: Background: Craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO) is a degenerative, osteopetrotic, and self-limiting bone disease that is rare in the canine species. The most affected bones and joints are the branches of the mandible, tympanic bulla, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with generalized thickening of the bone trabeculae, increased lines of bone cementation, and bone proliferation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 2 cases of CMO in mixed-breed dogs belonging to the same litter sent to the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD / FV / UFPel).Cases: Three canines (mixed-breed, 2 female and 1 male) belonging to the same litter presented at eight months of age with increases in volume and pain in the face, difficulties in moving the jaw, anorexia, and sialorrhea. The 2 female dogs were euthanized and sent to LRD / FV / UFPel for necropsy. The animals underwent radiography of the left and right lateral and dorsoventral lateral projections in the imaging sector of the Hospital de Clínicas Veterinária (HCV) at UFPel. During the necropsy, fragments of organs from the abdominal and thoracic cavities, as well as the central nervous system and head bones, were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The tissue samples were cleaved, processed routinely, embedded in paraffin, cut into sections of 3 µm thickness, and stained using hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The bone fragments were decalcified in a 50/50 solution of 8% hydrochloric acid and 8% formic acid and subsequently cleaved and stained with HE. The head and jaw of one of the animals was dissected and subjected to maceration in water at room temperature. Radiographic examination of the two remaining animals showed irregular and exuberant bone proliferation in the mandible and temporomandibular region. In the tympanic bullae, occipital bone, and zygomatic process, thickening of the structures was observed with increased opacity. On necropsy, the animals were cachectic with marked muscle atrophy and increased volume of the mandibular branches and head bones, in addition to marked edema in the adjacent subcutaneous tissue. The regional lymph nodes were enlarged, and in one of the animals, bilateral lesions in the femurs were also observed. In the head subjected to biological maceration, areas of bone proliferation and rarefaction were observed, with increased volume and destruction of the TMJ. On histopathological evaluation of the ventral portion of the mandibular bodies, a network of bony trabeculae was observed, composed of a chondroid matrix with different degrees of mineralization. The cortical portion of the bones exhibited loss of lamellar compactness, with greater spread of the bone trabeculae. The bone trabeculae were perpendicular to the long axis of the cortical of the mandible and were distributed in the medullary spaces, presenting some dense foci of inflammatory infiltrates composed predominantly of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.Discussion: The breeds most predisposed to developing CMO are the West Highland White Terrier and Scottish Terrier; however, the disease has also been described in other non-Terriers. Nevertheless, there are no descriptions in the literature of mixed-breed animals (SRD), with this report being the first of CMO in SRD dogs. The bones most frequently affected in CMO are those of the head. In Terrier dogs, the TMJ is also affected. In the cases of this study, severe CMO occurred, affecting both the head bones and TMJ, and in 1 of the animals, it also affected the femurs. Although CMO has not previously been reported in SRD dogs, the condition can seriously affect these animals, and differential diagnosis should always be made.Keywords: degenerative bone disease, bone proliferation, lion jaw, TMJ.Título: Osteopatia craniomandibular em cães sem raça definidaDescritores: doença óssea degenerativa, proliferação óssea, mandíbula de leão, ATM.
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110999
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • The Use of a Locking Plate for the Treatment of Femoral Diaphyseal
           Fracture in Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

    • Authors: Michelly Amanda Barssalho, Guilherme Henrique Fernandes Barranco, Karina Padula, Diego Alaska Almeida, Gracila Heitor de Oliveira, Maria Stella Fernandes Vilella, Stephanie Fernandez, Tatiana Morosini de Andrade Cruvinel, Victor José Vieira Rossetto
      Abstract: Background: The giant anteater is considered a species vulnerable to trauma due to being slow and, therefore, vulnerable to long bone fractures, such as femoral fracture. Locking plates have the potential to restore and maintain fractured bone stability, as well as reduce damage to the vascular supply. This study aims at reporting cases of two giant anteaters subjected to femoral osteosynthesis using locking plates. Cases:Two giant anteaters presenting non-weight bearing lameness on the right pelvic limbs were evaluated, diagnosed with femoral fracture of unknown etiology and submitted to osteosynthesis. A clinical evaluation was performed under chemical restraint for the adult animal and physical restraint for the young one. Crepitation and swelling in the right femur topography led to a radiographic examination, which showed a complete and transverse diaphyseal fracture of the right femur in both cases. The first one was an adult male and was subjected to osteosynthesis of the right femur using a locking plate. Once anesthetized, the animal was placed in left lateral recumbency, and the right pelvic limb was clipped and sterilized. A craniolateral incision was made to expose the femoral diaphysis. A large amount of fibrous-looking tissue was found and removed. Subsequently, the fracture was reduced and the locking plate system was positioned on the craniolateral side of the femur. An osteotomy of the femoral trochanteric crest was required to position the implant. The overlying fascia lata was closed using monofilament suture in a simple continuous pattern. The closure of the subcutaneous tissue and skin was performed using a Cushing pattern and simple interrupted pattern, respectively. Immediate postoperative radiographic examinations showed fracture reduction and bone axis alignment, with a properly positioned implant. The surgical wound was cleaned daily with 0.5% aqueous chlorhexidine solution. Seven days after surgery, the animal had a partial dehiscence at the suture site, with bone and plate exposure. Wound healing by second intention was initiated. At 127 days after surgery, a radiographic examination showed periosteal bone proliferation in the middle third of the right femur and that the bone implants were well-positioned. The second case was of a young 3.68 kg female anteater. The surgery was performed as described for the adult one, but there was no fibrosis at the fracture site and the osteotomy of the femoral trochanteric crest was not required. Closure of the fascia lata, subcutaneous tissue, and skin was performed as in Case 1. An immediate postoperative radiographic examination showed fracture reduction, bone axis alignment, and a properly positioned implant. The surgical wound was cleaned daily with 0.5% aqueous chlorhexidine solution. On the day of the surgery, the animal could already bear weight on its right pelvic limb, presenting discrete lameness with gradual improvement. Twenty-three days after surgery, a radiographic examination showed moderate periosteal bone proliferation in the middle third of the right femur. The bone implant was still well-positioned and bone healing was achieved around the 40th post-operative day.Discussion:The cases are very similar, but the younger anteater's femoral trochanteric crest didn't prevent positioning the plate. The fibrosis observed on the adult specimen is indicative of a chronic fracture, which may explain, in conjunction with the post-surgical complications, the longer time required for bone healing in the adult animal. Even so, both animals recovered fully and it's safe to deduce that the locking plate is an adequate option for internal fixation in transverse diaphyseal femoral fractures in both adult and young giant anteaters.
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111080
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Splenic Nodules: Canine Visceral leishmaniasis'

    • Authors: Gilsan Aparecida de Oliveira, Vitória Aline Santos Sarmento, Isabelle Vanderlei Martins Bastos, Alberon Ribeiro de Araújo, Lígia Buzzá Roo de Mendonça, Ana Paula Sampaio Feitosa, Fábio André Brayner, Luiz Carlos Alves
      Abstract: Background: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a parasitic disease of high lethality caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum in Brazil and is often related to splenomegaly. However, splenic nodules in dogs, although frequent, have not previously been reported as associated with CVL, but with neoplastic diseases. Considering that most dogs infected are oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic and that splenic nodules are common to other diseases, it is prudent to differentially diagnose CVL in view of its high zoonotic potential and lethality. The objective of the study was to describe a case of splenomegaly with splenic nodules associated with CVL in an asymptomatic dog treated with 2% miltefosina.                                             Case: A 5-year-old male Rottweiler with 41 kg, with a history of inappetence, apathy and weight loss was referred to the Veterinary Medicine School Clinic of the Cesmac University Center, Maceió, AL, Brazil. However, during palpation a slight increase in the spleen was noted. Hematological, hemoparasite, biochemical and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations were requested to clarify the clinical suspicion of hemoparasitosis. The hematological and biochemical results respectively showed the following: normocytic normochromic anemia, hyperproteinemia and thrombocytopenia, in addition to hypoalbuminemia, with elevated total protein levels. The test for hemoparasites was negative. Ultrasonography showed mixed echogenicity suggestive of nodules. The rapid test for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma and L. infantum was performed. It was positive only for L. infantum. ELISA, IFAT and qPCR tests were performed to confirm the result. The test showed a cut-off result of 0.371 for ELISA, positive for RIFI at a cut-off of 1:40 and qPCR with less than 1 fg and with amplification above 36 cycles. In view of these results, treatment with 2% miltefosine at a dose of 1 mL/ 10 kg was started once a day, after feeding, for 28 days. The animal was monitored throughout treatment and re-evaluated every 10 days for 30 days, showing signs of clinical development, presenting satisfactory results.Discussion: Canine splenomegaly can be associated with a variety of disease possibilities. In asymptomatic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL), the slight increase in spleen and the presence of splenic nodules may lead to a false diagnosis. Splenic nodules may be associated with dogs of advanced age and may be due to lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, which causes nodules with echogenicity, hyperechoic regions with well demarcated irregularity, with centralized hypoechoic areas and an absence of hematological and biochemical alterations. The cause of splenomegaly associated with nodules may be difficult to diagnose and require much time and effort. Therefore, diseases such as visceral leishmaniasis of high lethality must be the priority in differential diagnosis in endemic areas in order to minimize the risk of transmission. In addition to allowing an early intervention aiming at good animal health results and preventive measures, such as the use of repellent collars that reduce the risk of phlebotomo infection. The differential diagnosis of CVL is necessary in endemic areas, even in asymptomatic dogs that may present splenic alterations suggestive of other diseases. Treatment with 2% miltefosine was shown to be, in this case, effective at reducing the splenic nodules and a good alternative for the quality of life of the animal.
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108488
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Central Nervous System Infiltration in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in a

    • Authors: Giovana Scuissiatto de Souza, Gabriela Oliveira da Paz Augusto Pinto, Weslley Junior de Oliveira, Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich
      Abstract: Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant neoplasia in which there is proliferation of lymphoid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, blood, and extramedullary sites. This disorder has a fast and progressive development; in dogs, cases of infiltration of ALL cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are uncommon and rare. Diagnosis can be achieved with the help of the clinical history and physical, radiographic, hematological, myelographic, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests in patients with or without neurological clinical signs. The present report aims to describe a case of ALL and the presence of lymphoblasts in the CSF of a dog with neurological clinical signs.Case: An 8-year-old Lhasa Apso dog was examined at the Veterinary Hospital of Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba campus. At the physical examination, the animal exhibited apathy and paralysis of pelvic limbs, which progressed to tetraplegia. Abdominal palpation revealed presence of hepatosplenomegaly and absence of lymphadenomegaly. No alterations were observed in radiographs of the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine. A complete blood count revealed presence of non-regenerative anemia (hematocrit = 22%), extreme lymphocytosis (185,229 cells/µL), lymphoblasts at a level of 72% (133,364 cells/µL), and thrombocytopenia (66,000 platelets/µL). The biochemical tests revealed increased alkaline phosphatase (859 IU/L). The levels of alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, and globulin were normal. The diagnosis of ALL was achieved with the help of a myelogram. The myelogram findings included 39% of mature lymphocytes and 59% of lymphoblasts exhibiting large size, spherical shape, poorly delimited borders, with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, marked cytoplasmic basophilia, and 2 to 3 evident nucleoli; metarubricytes (1%) and promyelocytes (0.6%) were also observed. The CSF contained an increased number of nucleated cells (27 cells/µL) comprising lymphocytes (43%), macrophages (33%), and segmented neutrophils (24%). Of the 11.6 lymphocytes per µL of CSF, 8.1 were lymphoblasts, which indicates infiltration of ALL cells in the CNS. The animal died one day after collection of bone barrow and CSF. Discussion: Relevant alterations observed in this case included the neurological signs caused by the infiltration of neoplastic cells in the CNS, severe leukocytosis and lymphocytosis, with large amounts of lymphoblasts in the blood and predominance of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, which are alterations typically found in ALL. The animal also exhibited non-regenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia, which were secondary to infiltration of leukemic cells in the bone marrow. The CSF exhibited pleocytosis (27 cells/ µL), and 30% of the cells observed were lymphoblasts. Lymphoblast infiltration in the CNS of leukemic dogs is rare, and other studies have reported absence of neurological signs or neurological signs different from those observed in the present study. CSF analysis in indicated in cases of leukemia to assess leukemic cell infiltration in the CNS. In the case reported here, the plasma level of alkaline phosphatase was increased (859 IU/L) as a consequence of hepatomegaly and hepatic cholestasis. ALL is a very aggressive, proliferative neoplasia, and the resulting lymphoblasts infiltrated the CNS of the animal. In cases of ALL, performing complete blood count, myelogram, and CSF analysis is indicated whether the patients exhibit neurological signs or not.
      PubDate: 2021-08-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112658
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Frontal Cystic Meningioma Removed by a Partial Transfrontal Craniotomy in
           a Cat

    • Authors: Kihoon Kim
      Abstract: Background: Meningiomas are the most frequently reported intracranial tumors in cats. It is known to arise at the point of arachnoid cells project into the dural venous sinuses. Cats with intracranial meningiomas are treated by surgical management as the tumors are commonly delineated from normal brain tissue and are not likely to adhere to the cerebral parenchyma. Although meningioma is the most common intracranial tumor in cats, the incidence of cystic meningioma is low. The objective of the current study is to report a case of frontal cystic meningioma with peritumoral cystic structure removed by a partial transfrontal craniotomy. Case: A 10-year-old castrated British shorthair cat was referred to the Baeksan Feline Medical Center with a recent onset of seizures. On the physical examination, the patient was bright and alert. Neurological examinations were unremarkable at the time of presentation. Hematologic examinations were within normal limits. Thoracic and abdominal radiography, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed unremarkable findings. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extra-axial mass cranial to the frontal lobe. On the sagittal plane, a cystic structurewas identified in the frontal areaon post-contrast T1W images. No contrast enhancement of the cystic wall was identified after intravenous injection of contrast medium on T1W. On the transverse plane of T2W images, midline shift to the left due to peritumoral edema was observed. The mass was removed via partial transfrontal craniotomy. Postoperative radiography was performed to ensure appropriate placement of the mesh. The patient recovered uneventfully after anesthesia. After the surgery, the patient was closely monitored in an intensive care unit between 24 and 48 h. Based on the histologic findings, the final diagnosis was a fibroblastic meningioma. Nineteen months after the surgery, there was no seizure activity identified by the owner.Discussion: Depending on the location of the cyst, meningiomas can be classified into 4 types according to the human literature. In types 1 and 2, the whole cyst is located within the tumor, resulting in contrast enhancement of the cystic wall. In types 3 and 4, the cysts are located outside the tumor, and no contrast enhancement of the cystic wall is observed. In type 3, the cyst lies adjacent to the brain parenchyma rather than adjacent to the tumor and the meningioma is related to a cerebrospinal fluid cyst bordered by the arachnoid. It is important to classify the type of cystic meningioma prior to surgery in order to decide whether to remove the cystic wall. In type 2, the cystic wall is infiltrated by tumor cells, while the cystic wall of type 3 meningioma is composed of gliotic tissue without any tumor cells. Therefore, in type 2, the meningiomas with cystic walls should be removed for the prevention of recurrence, while in type 3 meningioma, the tumor can be managed by cyst decompression and excision of the solid component. Based on the Nauta classification, the cystic meningioma reported here was considered to be type 3. Therefore, the surgical procedure aimed to remove the solid component of the mass, leaving the cystic wall attached to the normal brain. As the solid part of the meningioma was located beneath the internal plate of the left frontal bone, the partial transfrontal craniotomy was sufficient to expose and remove the entire mass. To the author’s knowledge, this is first case report describing a patient with frontal meningioma with a peritumoral cyst removed by a partial transfrontal craniotomy based on the Nauta classification.
      PubDate: 2021-08-07
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112133
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Outbreak of Endoparasitosis in Free-Range Chickens (Gallus gallus
           domesticus) in Bahia, Brazil

    • Authors: Marcos Wilker da Conceição Santos, Maurício dos Santos Conceição, Flavia dos Santos, Jonatas Campos de Almeida, Erick Platiní Ferreira de Souto, Isabel Luana de Macêdo, Glauco Jose Nogueira de Galiza, Maria Talita Soares Frade
      Abstract: Background: Free-range chickens are quite common in Brazil. In this alternative rearing system, the animals are rustic and raised in an extensive system. Free access to “bare soil” results in the increased occurrence of intestinal parasites since larvae and / or eggs of helminths and protozoa oocysts find favorable conditions for their survival and dissemination in the soil. Although the occurrence and importance of parasitic infections in free-range chickens is well known, the objective of this study is to report an outbreak of endoparasites in free-range chickens in the municipality of Barra - BA, in view of bird susceptibility associated with scarcity of studies in western Bahia.Cases: The chickens were kept free, in a bare soil yard in a household at the urban perimeter of the municipality of Barra - BA. Feeding consisted of whole corn grains, thrown directly in the soil. The drinking fountains were dirty and the animals had no history of vaccination or deworming. Symptoms Anorexia, difficulty in eating and in locomotion, presence of seromucous secretion in the oral cavity, emaciation and diarrhea were all observed symptoms. One of the birds presented excessive vocalization, drowsiness and flaccid paralysis of the neck. Necropsy was performed on 3 chickens: 2 females (cases 1 and 2) and 1 male (case 3). Macroscopic analysis revealed the presence of seromucous secretion in the upper respiratory tract of all animals. Specimens of Ascaridia galli were observed in cases 1 and 2, Heterakis gallinarum in cases 2 and 3, Raillietina sp. in cases 2 and 3 and Davainea proglottina in case 1. Microscopically, the animals had an inflammatory infiltrate in the liver and intestines. Some animals presented necrosis of the tracheal epithelial cells, as well as of the epithelial cells present at the apex of the villi. No significant results were found in the coproparasitological exam.Discussion: The diagnosis of endoparasitosis in this outbreak was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in free-range chickens is linked to factors such as age, high animal density, absence of sanitary hygienic measures, as well as environmental temperature and humidity. The appearance of injuries in the intestinal mucosa is influenced by characteristics such as parasitic load, concomitant infections, age and the host's immune status. During necropsy of the birds were found 2 helminths of the Nematoda class (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) and 2 of the Cestoda class (Davainea proglottina and Raillietina sp.). A. galli, seen in 2 cases, is considered low pathogenicity for adult chickens, however young birds are susceptible and can die due to intestinal obstruction and hemorrhages. H. gallinarum is responsible for causing typhlitis, with diarrhea and weight loss, this helminth was found in 2 animals in the present study, however only 1 had changes in the digestive tract. Davainea proglotina and Raillietina spp. might cause, respectively, severe hemorrhagic enteritis and nodule formation in the small intestine mucosa. In Brazil, even though it is notable that intestinal parasitism is one of the key problems in alternative poultry farming, there are few studies that evaluate the presence of endoparasites in chickens raised in alternative production systems, with animals being more frequently exposed to nematodes and cestodes. The multiparasitism observed in this study probably stems from flaws in the rearing system, mainly related to sanitary hygiene management. Therefore, the reduction in the occurrence of these helminths is closely related to the performance of basic prophylactic measures, such as offering good quality food and water in clean containers, separating lots by age, performing sanitary emptiness and deworming.Keywords: livelihood creation, nematode, cestode, multiparasitism, avian pathology.Surto de endoparasitose em galinhas caipiras (Gallus gallus domesticus) na Bahia, BrasilDescritores: criação de subsistência, nematoide, cestoide, multiparasitismo, patologia aviária.
      PubDate: 2021-07-31
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112033
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Mucinous Metaplasia in Dogs

    • Authors: Alex dos Santos, Marcella Barrella Ambrosio, Mariana Martins Flores, Glaucia Denise Kommers
      Abstract: Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common malignant skin tumors in domestic animals. Histologically, they are characterized by a proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes with varied keratin production. Some SCCs have peculiar histological characteristics that permit them to be classified into uncommon to rare histological subtypes, reported in animals and humans. However, according to the authors' knowledge, the mucin-producing subtype described in humans has not yet been reported in animals. In this study, we report the occurrence of two mucin-producing SCCs in dogs, a histological presentation similar to that seen in cutaneous SCCs with mucinous metaplasia in humans.Cases: Two dogs, a 5-year-old Yorkshire female and a 17-year-old Dachshund male, had a skin nodule near the tail and on the right eyelid. The nodules varied from 1 to 5 cm in diameter, were firm and covered with skin and hair. The cut surface was firm and white. Histological findings were compatible with squamous cell carcinoma, characterized by a neoplastic proliferation of keratinocytes originating in the epidermis and infiltrating the dermis. The keratinocytes were arranged in islands and occasional anastomosed cords, supported by a fibrous stroma. The formation of pearls varied from moderate to sparse. The nuclear and cellular pleomorphism was accentuated in case two and moderate in case one. Mitosis figures ranged from two to five in a high magnification field. Within the neoplasm, there were large vacuolated neoplastic cells with slightly fibrillar intracytoplasmic basophilic content. This content has been rarely observed in an extracellular medium. The presence of mucin was confirmed by positive Alcian Blue (AA) staining. In immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumor cells showed strong immunostaining for pancitokeratin, and in areas with marked mucin deposition, immunostaining was predominantly moderate to weak. No tumor cells were immunostained for CD34 and Blc-2 antibodies. Compared to AA and Harris' hematoxylin, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of mucin in the cytoplasm of neoplastic keratinocytes using IHC. No vascular or lymphatic invasion by neoplastic cells was observed. The average cell proliferation index assessed by counting the nucleolar argyrophilic organizing regions (AgNOR) was 3.4 in case 1 and 4.5 in case 2.Discussion: Although the SCC routinely does not present a diagnostic challenge in veterinary practice, the histological presentation of the reported cases does not fit the current classification available in veterinary medicine. The histological presentation observed in these two dogs is similar to that described for cutaneous SCCs with mucinous metaplasia in humans, and so far not described in animals. The observation of intracytoplasmic mucin in humans is an essential finding for the diagnosis of SCC with mucin metaplasia. In the present cases, we observed a slightly basophilic amorphous substance in the cytoplasm of proliferated neoplastic keratinocytes, which stained strongly in blue when applied the Alcian Blue (AA) histochemical technique. This observation became more evident when using IHC counterstained with AA and Harris hematoxylin. In the histological analysis, the absence of an adenoid growth pattern or glandular formation amid neoplastic proliferation ruled out the possibility of a mucinous adenocarcinoma or a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In addition, we could rule out a follicular neoplasia, including keratinizing infundibular acanthoma due to the absence of a central pore and the absence of immunostaining for CD34 and Bcl-2. These immunohistochemical findings, together with histological findings, reinforce the diagnosis of SCC with mucinous metaplasia in our dogs.
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112037
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Associated with Neurological Manifestations
           in a Border Collie Bitch

    • Authors: Isabel Rodrigues Rosado, Julia Perinotto Picelli, Juliana Gonzaga da Silva, Marina Cazarini Madeira, Taís Teixeira Zambarda, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves
      Abstract: Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an immune-mediated and multisystemic disorder which etiology is believed to be multifactorial. Its clinical signs vary accordingly to affected organs, cutaneous lesions being the most frequently observed. There are few reports of SLE in dogs with neurological manifestations. Therefore, the aim of this report is to describe a case of SLE in a dog with indicative signs of nervous system involvement.Case: A 6-year-old Border Collie bitch was referred to the Veterinary Hospital (HVU) of the University of Uberaba (UNIUBE) with a history of  with cluster seizures, inappetence and urinary incontinence. Erythema and flaking of nasal plan were noted on physical examination, and splenomegaly on abdominal palpation. Thrombocytopenia and slightly increased ALT were found on blood tests. Ehrlichiosis was suspected and doxycycline was prescribed together with phenobarbital for the control of seizures. In the follow-up visit, the dog was still presenting urinary incontinence, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Also, an ulcer on the nasal mucocutaneous junction was observed. The patient went through a neurological examination which indicated thalamocortical lesion. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained for cytology, culture and canine distemper test, and serology tests for leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were done. No alterations were found in these exams. The histopathology of the nasal lesion was proceeded and showed results consistent with lupus erythematosus. It was prescribed a 15-day course of prednisolone at immunosuppressive dose. The patient showed clinical improvement with this treatment. Azathioprine was started along with gradual removal of prednisolone. After twenty days of discontinuation of this drug, the dog presented epileptic seizures, urinary incontinence, thrombocytopenia, increased ALT and worsened nasal lesion. Prednisolone at immunosuppressive dose was reintroduced and the dose of azathioprine, increased. One week past this, the patient showed inappetence and an extensive hematoma in the thoracic region. Lab exams confirmed drug-induced acute pancreatitis. All medications were interrupted, the patient was hospitalized, and treatment for pancreatitis was initiated, but the dog passed away.Discussion: For involving multiple body systems and for presenting varied clinical signs, diagnosing SLE can be challenging in clinical routine. The dog from this report was a Border Collie; this breed is considered to be predisposed to this disease. The animal had a history of being exposed to solar radiation for a large part of the day, had dyspigmentation of nasal plan and had no application of sunscreen, predisposing the occurrence of SLE. Neurological signs are uncommon in SLE, but the seizures and the urinary incontinence were the main reasons for the dog’s guardian to look for medical assistance. The suspicion for SLE was raised due to cutaneous manifestations and persistent thrombocytopenia along with splenomegaly. Histopathological findings are essential for diagnosing SLE, as well as antinuclear antibody tests. Nonetheless, due to financial limitations, this last test was not performed. Azathioprine is an immunomodulating drug largely used along with glucocorticoids when treating SLE; however, this medication is prone to induce side effects as the ones presented by the dog from this report. Therefore, it is concluded that SLE should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients showing cutaneous, hematological, systemic and neurological manifestations, considering the variety of signs caused by this disorder.Keywords: seizures, dog, immune-mediated encephalopathy. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico associado a manifestações neurológicas em cadela da raça Border Collie
      Descritores: crises epilépticas, cão, encefalopatia imunomediada.
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108696
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Modified Eye Evisceration in a Tropical Screech Owl (Megascops choliba)

    • Authors: João Antonio Tadeu Pigatto, Eduarda Valim Borges de Vargas, Marcela Torikachvili, Alessandra Fernandez da Silva, Renata Lima Baptista, Maiara Poersch, Daniela Nicknich
      Abstract: Background: An adult owl was presented with an injury to the right eye that rendered it blind in that eye. The left eye was normal. Removal of the right eye was recommended and a modified eye evisceration was performed. No complications were observed during or after surgery. The objective of this paper is to describe the modified eye evisceration technique that was successfully used in a tropical screech owl (Megascops choliba). Case: An adult owl was presented with an injury to the right eye that rendered it blind in that eye. Two previous surgical treatments have been carried out but have not been successful. Using a portable slit-lamp (Kowa SL-15®), both eyes were examined. The left eye was normal. Upon ophthalmic examination of the right eye, the owl demonstrated blepharospasm and large central corneal ulcer. Removal of the right eye was recommended. The bird received midazolam hydrochloride [Dormire® - 1 mg/kg, IM] and ketamine hydrochloride [Ketamina® - 5 mg/kg IM] as pre-anesthetic medications. Subsequently, the bird was anesthetized with isoflurane (Isoforine®) by facemask for induction, and then maintained with isoflurane vaporized in 100% oxygen through an endotracheal tube. With the aid of a surgical microscope and microsurgery materials, a modified eye evisceration was performed. Post-operatively, the owl received meloxicam [Maxicam® - 0.5 mg/kg, IM] and tramadol hydrochloride [Cronidor® - 15 mg/kg, orally for 4 days]. The day after surgery, the owl was comfortable and its usual appetite was regained. The patient remained hospitalized for 3 weeks and was evaluated daily. The skin sutures were removed 10 days after the surgical procedure and the surgical wound had healed normally. The patient was reintroduced into the wild after 2 months. During the 6 months post-release, the bird was evaluated once a month, and no complications were observed.Discussion: Severe eye trauma and complicated corneal ulcers are common causes of eyeball removal in birds. In birds, there is a high risk of complications during enucleation. The fragility of the orbital bones makes them susceptible to trauma during the surgery. Evisceration involves the removal of the inner contents of the eye while leaving the cornea and the sclera intact. In the current case, evisceration was chosen because the eye was blind, and maintaining a blind eye would be a source of pain and infection. In the modified evisceration technique, the risk of complications is minimal compared to enucleation, mainly because surgical manipulation is minimal. In our case, the total surgery time was 20 min. Another complication reported after enucleation in birds is the possibility of disfiguring the bird because the removal of the globe disturbs the natural head balance. To avoid these complications, the use of an intraocular prosthesis after evisceration in birds has been performed. However, owls have a tubular-shaped globe with scleral ossicles. These factors could hinder or even prevent the accommodation of a cylindrical silicone prosthesis. In the present case, an intraocular prosthesis implant was never considered due to the unavailability of the prosthesis and to avoid the risk of postoperative complications that have been reported from the literature in dogs. In this case, the owl recovered well from anesthesia without complications, and no postoperative hemorrhage was observed. No signs of pain were observed during the postoperative period and the owl had already shown an appetite and fed on the first postoperative day. The previously published reports using the modified evisceration technique also demonstrated an absence of pain signs during the postoperative period.
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112422
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Pyometra Treatment by Histeropexy with Toggles Aplication in Mini Horse

    • Authors: Jéssica Rodrigues Silva, Ana Paula Fadel Souto, Lucimara Strugava, Eduarda Maciel Busato, Romildo Romulado Weiss, Juan Carlos Duque Moreno, Peterson Triches Dornbusch
      Abstract: Background: Brazil is an important horse breeder that creates about three million jobs and movements about R$16,15billions per year. Although, it is important to the horse breeding industry success that the animals reproductive performance be kept. The mare pregnancy loss causes abundant forfeitures to horse breeders, furthermore, the chronic pyometra is one of that causes. The chronic pyometra is an uncommon mare condition, clinical treatments are often ineffective, under those circumstances the hysterectomy, ovariohysterectomy and uteropexy are recommended. This report proposes to describe the chronic pyometra surgical treatments with the uteropexy technique in mini horses that do not respond to the clinical treatment. Case: A 14-year-old mini breed horse mare weighing 117 kg was sent to Veterinarian Hospital (HV) of the Paraná Federal University (UFPR), presenting dystocia background and intrauterine purulent secretion. The clinical treatment had been conducted, but not well succeeded. An hysteroscopy was conducted with a cervix rupture monitoring, uterine mucosa edematiated and crispy, presenting liquid and a high amount of purulent secretion in the uterus horn and body. The biopsy identified uteropexy. The post-surgical complications were minimums and 30 days after the procedure the laparoscopy was repeated with uterine healing monitoring, without adherences and the uterus were at horizontal position. The hysteroscopy was conducted where a small amount of purulent secretion was perceived. Ten days after the second laparoscopy the patient was discharged. Two years after the procedure, the animal responsible informed that there was not a relapse. Discussion: the mare pyometra occurrence is uncommon and emerges by nature protection false mechanisms. Any change or flaw in one of these protection mechanics barriers, may result in a reproductive change due to uterine infection, resulting in reduction of mare reproductive capacity. Probably this reports patients developed pyometra due to the cervix lesion it's presented made easier the uterus external microorganisms entrance, that predisposes an chronic uterine infection. As many authors report, the chronic pyometra clinical treatment is not always successful, also observed in the case reported, indicating then surgical treatment. There are many pyometra surgical treatments indications as: Wedge resection technique in case of cervix adherence, uteropexy technique, ovary-hysterectomy technique or hysterectomy. The ovary-hysterectomy and the hysterectomy was not conducted for being considered highly invasive. This case choice procedure was the uteropexy, which corresponds to fixing the broad ligament of the uterus to the abdominal wall, repositioning it horizontally, to obtain a better drainage and motility, since this is your anatomic position. In the report, the surgical technique was conducted satisfactorily, certifying the uterine elevation by laparoscopy in the postoperative and also by the responsible report, that the animal does not relapse in two years. The postoperative complications were not alarming, considering that it ceased 24h after the procedure. The conclusions present in this treatment show that the hysteropexy conducted by videosurgery with toggles application developed the necessary uterine elevation to the liquid drainage, that allows the mare to execute the uterine cleaning by the physiological form.Keywords: uterus, endometritis, uteropexy, uterine elevation.
      Histeropexia com aplicação de “toggles” para tratamento
      de piometra em mini horseDescritores: útero, edometrite, uteropexia, elevação uterina.

      PubDate: 2021-07-04
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.112268
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Return of Thoroughbred Racing Horses to the Races after Treating Slab
           Fractures of the Third Carpal Bone with PRP and Stem Cells

    • Authors: Janaina Godinho Louzada, Paulo de Tarso Landgraf Botteon, Luciana Rodrigues de Almeida Figueiredo, Hélio Cunha de Menezes Neto, Adiléa Cavalcanti Marques, Aline Lucas Pimentel, Rosalie Joslin Kowal, Juliana Braga Vieira
      Abstract:  Background: Despite the fact that slab fracture of the third carpal bone is an event of great worldwide relevance in racehorses, the third carpal fracture doesn’t have data on treatments and return to racing in Brazil. The search for efficient treatments and which provide recovery providing horses return to racing is an objective of sports equine medicine. Regenerative therapies like Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Stem Cells (MSc) have demonstrated a great potential in the treatment of several injuries. For the treatment of three Thoroughbred racing horses at Brazilian Jockey Club, with sagittal plane slab fractures of the third carpal bone, we used the association of PRP and Stem Cells for reduction of the rest and good return to conditions athletics of these horses.Cases: Three Thoroughbred racing horses, males, 4 and 5 years old, showed slab fracture third carpal bone in different moments of their activity at Brazilian Jockey Club. Usually, the treatment for this type of fracture is the arthroscopic repair and the conservative management. We performed after initial radiographic evaluation dorsoproximal-dorsodistal oblique (DPr-DDiO) “skyline”, intra-articular applications of PRP and MSCs. The treatments were performed according to the radiographic follow-up of the lesion evolution. No other treatment was performed concomitantly with cell therapy in the 3 treated patients. Three treatments were performed in the first patient and 2 in the second and third patients. Before each treatment for all patients, we performed radiography dorsoproximal-dorsodistal oblique (DPr-DDiO) ‘skyline’ of the carpus. After this step, the animal was sedated with 10% xylazine hydrochloride at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenously. Antisepsis of the carpus was performed and applied with radiographic monitoring of the needle positioning, first the PRP in the volume of 2 mL and in sequence, 20 million cells MSCs suspended in autologous plasma from the cell bank of the Cellen veterinary stem cell laboratory, totalizing 4 mL. The 3 horses returned to their training routines and continued to be monitored by clinical examinations and radiography, there were no post-treatment complications and all ran again in the median time of 253 days after the first application of PRP and stem cells. Everyone won the first race after treatment.Discussion: The 3 patients suffered the fractures after running at the Brazilian Jockey Club. All fractures were simple- no comminuted slab fractures of the third carpal. In our study, we chose to carry out the treatments with PRP and MSCs by intra-articular application. The regenerative medicine occupies a prominent place in recovery from injuries and the association of PRP and MSCs have played an important role in the treatment of athlete horses in tendons, bones and joint injuries and our work, the treatment was effective, without complications, helped to reduce local inflammation, perceptually reducing the pain observed before the application and the animals started running again with a quality equivalent to that observed before the occurrence of injuries. This way, our results demonstrated that the association PRP and MSCs was effective in recovering the 3 patients, all of them ran after injury. The median time for racing was 253 days and the horses won their first races after fractures occurred. These results encourage the use of the association of PRP and MSCs also for no comminuted sagittal plane slab fractures of the third carpal in Thoroughbred Racing horses.
      PubDate: 2021-07-02
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109547
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Combination of Autohemotherapy and Vincristine Sulfate in Treatment of
           Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor in Bitches in Mozambique

    • Authors: Fernando Chissico Júnior, Otilia Rafael Bambo, José Manuel da Mota Cardoso, Cláudio João Mourão Laisse, Marina Frazatti Gallina, Vivian Ferreira Zadra, Sheila Canevese Rahal, Ivan Felismino Charas dos Santos
      Abstract: Background: Canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a tumor of round cells. Vincristine sulfate is the most effective for TVT. Alternatively, hemotherapy is an alternative therapy that consists of the administration of autologous blood and the positive effects are associated with an immunomodulatory effect. Since chemotherapy has some collateral effects, it is necessary to study another treatment with minimal side effects. In this context, this report case aimed to describe the use of autohemotherapy associated with vincristine sulfate for treating a transmissible venereal tumor in the vulvar mucosa of 7 adult bitches, being the first case report in Mozambique, Africa.Case: Seven adult bitches, median size, were referred to the School Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique, Africa, with a diagnosis of TVT in the vulvar mucosa. All bitches were treated weekly with autohemotherapy and vincristine sulfate for 21 days. The parameters assessed included clinical and TVT macroscopic examination, complete blood count, serum biochemical examination and urinalysis, and were evaluated 60-min before each treatment. No clinical side effects were identified during the treatments. Color, appearance and tumor size were changed during the treatment period, and all bitches showed complete remission of the tumor 21 days after the beginning of treatment or after the third therapeutic session. The values of the complete blood count, serum biochemical and urinalysis did not demonstrate significant variations throughout the evaluated time-points. The TVT cytopathological classification was lymphocytic (42.9 %), plasmacytic (28.6 %) and lymphoplasmacytic (28.6 %). Discussion: The aims of this report were to describe the combination of autohemotherapy and vincristine sulfate for treating the transmissible venereal tumor located in the vulvar mucosa of adult bitches, through clinical and laboratory evaluation, and was not identified side and significant hematological changes. The novelty of this case report was associated with the use of adult bitches with TVT in the vulvar mucosa. Other authors conducted a similar study however with male dog with TVT identified at the base of the penis. The complete remission of the tumor after 3 applications and the absence of side effects showed the effectiveness of this treatment compared with use of chemotherapy without autohemotherapy. In contrast, dogs diagnosed with TVT and treated with vincristine sulfate showed complete remission after 4 treatment sessions However, the use of autohemotherapy alone for treating extragenital TVT in bitches did not induce complete remission after 6 weekly treatments. Doses and administration of autologous blood and vincristine sulfate were in accordance with the recommendations of the literature, and were determined according to body mass. Other routes of administration through the cephalic vein were also used and showed complete remission after 4 treatments. The decrease in size tumor associated with the changes in appearance and color was associated with regression of the TVT. The connective tissue isolating groups of cells identified in the literature were not confirmed in this report, probably due to the phase of the progression of the tumor. The highest percentage of animals with lymphocytoid TVT was different from the literature, which referred to the predominance of the plasmacytoid pattern. The combination of autohemotherapy and vincristine sulfate every 7 days encouraged complete remission of TVT in the vulvar mucosa of adult median size bitches after 3 sessions.
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111725
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Third Eyelid of a Dog

    • Authors: Beatriz Crepaldi Aléssio, Juliana Paniago Lordello de Paula, Gustavo Gomes de Oliveira, Silvana Marques Caramalac, Alda Izabel de Souza, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo, Veronica Jorge Babo-Terra
      Abstract: Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm that originates from the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and predominantly affect light-skinned animals. In dogs, breeds such as American Staffordshire Terriers, white or speckled Bull Terriers, and Beagles have a higher predisposition. Squamous cell carcinoma presents in the skin, at slightly pigmented or hairy sites, especially in digits, but also may occur in the nasal planum, oral mucosa, and rarely, in the eye. Considering that few reports have been published on eye neoplasms, the aim of this paper is to describe a dog with a lesion in the third eyelid of his right eye which was diagnosticated with squamous cell carcinoma. Case: A 10-year-old male American Staffordshire dog was admitted to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics College, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, Brazil with injury to the right eye. During the physical examination, there was also a non-adhered lump near the foreskin, measuring 1.5 cm in diameter. In addition, there was another lump in the third eyelid of the right eye, approximately 3 mm in diameter. Cytology of the dermal nodule was performed by fine-needle aspiration cytology; however, the sample was insufficient for cytological evaluation. Therefore, the animal was placed under general anesthesia for skin lump excision and for fine-needle aspiration cytology of the third eyelid nodule. The histopathological exam revealed high cellularity of epithelial cells, intense anisocytosis and pleomorphism, cytoplasmic basophilia and vacuolation, multiple evident nucleoli, and anisocariosis and coarse chromatin. These finds were compatible with squamous cell carcinoma, which was the same result suggested by fine-needle aspiration cytology of the third eyelid sample. Based on these results, the dog underwent a surgical procedure for enucleation and subsequent histopathological evaluation of the nodule in the third eyelid, which confirmed the squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis.Discussion: Squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely aggressive tumor with low metastatic potential, characterized by invasion of the dermis by proliferation of malignant epithelial cells from the prickly layer. It is most common in elderly animals, and American Staffordshires are among the breeds that are predisposed to develop this tumor. The clinical presentation is highly variable, depending on the tissue involved. In this case, the dermal nodule was an elevated area on the skin and the third eyelid nodule resembled an ulcerative mass. Cytological examination from the lesion located on the third eyelid, showed malignancies cytoplasmic changes frequently found in carcinomas such as anisocytosis, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cell pleomorphism. In addition, nuclear changes had also occurred, such as crass chromatin, multiple evident nucleoli, and multinucleated cells. A presumptive diagnosis was made based on cytology and was confirmed after biopsy and histopathological examination. Because it is uncommon in dogs, squamous cell carcinoma of the third eyelid may be misdiagnosed, delaying correct treatment, and accelerating the development of the tumor. Currently, various therapeutic approaches are available, such as surgical excision, electrosurgery, cryosurgery, radiation, and hyperthermia. The choice of treatment depends on the location and stage of the lesions. Surgical treatment should be aimed at removing sufficient tissue to leave surgical margins free of neoplastic cells.
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111729
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Corrective Surgery for Palpebral Coloboma in a Feline Using the Technique
           of Transposition of the Lip Commissure

    • Authors: Giulia Brambila Girondi, Carlos Otávio Eggres Krebs, Fernanda Iensen Farencena, Luís Felipe Dutra Corrêa
      Abstract: Background: Eyelid coloboma is considered a disease caused by failure in eye development during the first semester of pregnancy. In felines, its prevalence occurs in the upper eyelids, temporal region, and bilaterally. Coloboma, whether to a large or small extent, can lead to keratoconjunctivitis sicca and trichiasis, situations that can give rise to secondary ulcerative keratitis. The only corrective method is blepharoplasty. The current work aims to report the case of corrective surgery for eyelid coloboma in a feline with a successful postoperative period, in order to corroborate the effectiveness of the technique. We also report a finding of persistent pupillary membrane.
      Case: A 7-month-old male feline, no defined breed, was analyzed with a purulent mucus secretion and signs of discomfort in the right eye. After the ophthalmic screening, the presence of a coloboma was identified, which occupied approximately 50% of the size of the upper eyelid, in the temporal-dorsal region of the right eye. The cat had already undergone an enucleation of the left eye due to a perforation arising from ulcerative keratitis. Together with coloboma, the presence of blepharospasm, trichiasis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and secondary ulcerative keratitis were diagnosed. The presence of persistent pupillary membrane was also observed, a rare condition in the feline species. To confirm the ulcer, the fluorescein test was applied and treatment with antibiotic eye drops and lacrimomimetics (tear film replacements) drops was administered until the day of surgery, one week later. Concomitant with the institution of treatment prior to surgery, blood was collected for complementary pre-surgical tests such as blood count and biochemistry, which demonstrated satisfactory results. Corrective surgery was then instituted by the technique of transposing the labial commissure, described in 2010, which consists of replacing the colobomatous tissue with a flap from the oral region. To ensure quality in the postoperative period, the use of the Elizabethan collar, oral antibiotics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and cleaning with 0.9% saline solution around the sutures were prescribed. The first return appointment occurred on the day after the operation and further appointments were made weekly for one month. As the animal did not present any complications in the healing process, the spacing between the follow-up appointments was increased. After 2 months, the animal demonstrated a palpebral reflex and a pleasant appearance.
      Discussion: The results were similar to those described by the author of the technique, as there was no recurrence of hair in contact with the cornea, the flap mucosa became efficient in terms of the quality in lubricating the fibrous tunic, and an appearance acceptable to the owner was achieved. It is also reported that, different from previous studies, the technique was able to correct palpebral coloboma without any complications during the post-surgical process. In all previously published works, some type of setback was reported, such as dehiscence of the suture of the oral region, dehiscence of the transposed suture, superficial necrosis of the flap, deformation of facial folds, excessive graft retraction, and return of trichiasis in the pre-existing medial region. It is inferred, then, that the use of this technique for correction of eyelid coloboma longer than 1/3 should be indicated.
      PubDate: 2021-06-24
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110681
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Hemorrhagic Septic Thrombophlebitis in Horses

    • Authors: Daniel Medeiros Assis, Rodrigo Barbosa Palmeira, Rodolfo Monteiro Bastos, Áthila Henrique Cipriano da Costa, Lucas Alencar Fernandes Beserra, Edla Iris de Sousa Costa, Eldinê Gomes Miranda Neto
      Abstract:  Background: Thrombophlebitis represents the main disease of the cardiovascular system of horses, its occurrence is strongly associated with the use of inappropriate materials and techniques. Its clinical presentation varies according to the degree of vessel obstruction and the appearance of complications, in the diagnosis it is essential to assess the extent of damage and the severity of the case. Establishing appropriate treatments, it should be noted that these are mostly clinical, reserving surgical interventions for severe cases, so the aim of the study is report a case of hemorrhagic septic thrombophlebitis treated by partial phlebectomy of the left jugular vein.Case: A 9-year-old male castrated equine, with no defined racial pattern, weighing 345 kg, used in the practice of vaquejada was attended at the Veterinary Hospital (HV) of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Campus Patos (PB). During the anamnesis, it was reported that the animal presented colic a month ago, it was treated, recovered and since then, it started presenting an area with increase in volume in the neck region that ruptured the day before the HV attendance, where blood and pus came from. On physical exam, slight edema was noted in the left masseteric region, a volume rise involving the middle and cranial third of the neck with firm consistency in the left jugular sulcus, sensitivity to palpation and little drainage of purulent bloody secretion was observed. Additionally, tachycardia, tachypnea and intestinal hypomotility were found. In turn, in the ultrasound exam, a hypoechoic structure was seen, causing partial obstruction of the vessel, proximal to the fistulated region and total obstruction distal to it. With this information, antibiotic therapy was prescribed, a warm compress followed by the use of anti-inflammatory gel every 8 hours. By choice of the owner, the animal returned to the farm, in the next day returned to the Veterinary Hospital, due to extensive bleeding observed on the estate, immediately tried to stanch the bleeding by compressive banding, without success, we opted for the surgical intervention aiming to perform ligation and partial resection of the jugular vein. Pre-anesthetic medication was performed and under general anesthesia a rectilinear incision was made over the left jugular vein of the neck caudal region to bifurcation of lingual and facial veins, blunt dissection aiming to loosen the vessel and hemostasis of the installed neovascularization, transfixing proximal ligation with 1-0 nylon thread, diaeresis, removal of the vessel, reduction of the subcutaneous space, application of drain, dermorrhaphy in simple continuous pattern and use of compressive curative. For the postoperative period, maintenance of the initial antibiotic therapy was prescribed, adding flunixin meglumine 1.1 mg/kg, i.m, SID, 4 applications, tetanus serum 5000 UI/IM, antiphlogistic massage in the masseter region and wound treatment by washing with hypersaturated solution, use of sugar, healing pomade and repellent. One month after surgery, the animal received medical release with satisfactory healing, recovery from anemic and infectious condition, without circulatory complications.Discussion: The present report shows the feasibility of unilateral partial phlebectomy of the jugular vein as a therapeutic option in complicated cases of thrombophlebitis. In which thrombectomy techniques are contraindicated and ineffective clinical treatments, another alternative is vascular transplantation, which encounters many logistical difficulties in the routine. Despite the interruption of blood flow being pointed out as an aggravating factor, it should be noted that often thrombophlebitis itself leads to this condition, and the development of collateral circulation secondary to venous flow obstruction has been observed.
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.102504
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Intestinal Intussusception Associated with Cloacal Protusion in Trachemys
           scripta elegans

    • Authors: Bruna Zafalon da Silva, Bruna Dinah Formenton, Victória Regina de Queiroz Schmidt, Eduardo Almeida Ruivo do Santos, Marcelo Meller Alievi
      Abstract: Background: Gastrointestinal dysfunction in reptiles is a common condition seen in animal medicine, and is often caused by inappropriate husbandry. The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a surgical procedure for enterectomy of the small intestines, performed as treatment for an intussusception with cloacal protrusion that occurred in a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) kept as a pet.
      Case: A 20-year-old red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) was taken into medical care after the owner’s observation of a cloacal protrusion that had started 72 h previously. During physical examination the protrusion was noted as an intestinal segment of approximately 5 cm, which was not reducible. Complementary examinations, including radiography and hematological profiling, were performed and revealed no significant findings; therefore, it was decided that an exploratory celiotomy would be conducted. The patient was referred to the surgical unit for the procedure and underwent surgical anesthesia. After appropriate antisepsis of the surgical area, a plastron osteotomy was performed using a previously sterilized oscillatory saw at a 45º angulation. The celomatic membrane was subsequently incised to enable both cavity and intestinal inspection allowing observation of the intussusception in the small intestine of the animal with the intussuscept segment protruding through the cloaca. The intussusception was undone, and an enterectomy was performed to remove the unviable intestine, using intestinal resection and subsequent anastomosis with simple interrupted sutures using 4-0 nylon, followed by intestinal reposition in the cavity. The celomatic membrane was closed using continuous suture with 4-0 nylon. The plastron fragment was then repositioned with the aid of eight cerclage fixations using 2-0 stainless steel wire. It was subsequently covered in self-polymerizing resin acrylic in order to promote impermeability and to protect the surgical wound. During the recovery period, supportive treatment and analgesia and antibiotic therapy were performed. The patient’s first defecation was observed five days after the procedure, and gastrointestinal tract functions returned to normal after four weeks. In six weeks, the patient was discharged.
      Discussion: In this case, exploratory celiotomy was performed due to the extension of the necrotic areas of the protruded mucosa. Plastron osteotomy is generally indicated because of the possibility of wide organ exposure. During the long healing period of reptiles, a surgical wound can be a gateway for pathogens that lead to postoperative surgical complications. As such, the use of acrylic resin in the present case was to create a protective barrier that would offer more resistance and impermeability. End-to-end enterectomy, in this instance, proved to be an efficient treatment for the small intestines cloacal protrusion, just as it was for the intussusception that preceded it. The probable cause of this case of intussusception was not well defined, and reptiles kept as pets have several diseases that can affect the gastrointestinal tract. The environment temperature also strongly influences gastrointestinal tract functions, which can lead to motility decline and imbalance of the intestinal flora, followed by the production of gases and toxins by microorganisms responsible for dysfunctions. Inadequate temperature management was the suspected main cause of intussusception in this case, as the patient was kept without access to sunlight or a heating source. In conclusion, the enterectomy with subsequent anastomosis that we performed was successful in the treatment of cloacal protruded intussusception of the small intestines in this red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).
      PubDate: 2021-06-19
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111153
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Primary Splenic Pleomorphic Liposarcoma in a Bitch

    • Authors: Eduardo de Paula Nascente, Brunna Rocha Adorno, Adriana da Silva Santos, Moema Pacheco Chediak Matos, Regiani Nascimento Cagno Porto, Ana Paula Iglesias Santin, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani de Moura
      Abstract: Background: Liposarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of lipoblasts with low incidence in dogs, representing 1.7% of neoplasms diagnosed in the spleen. In veterinary medicine, this neoplasm is classified morphologically into the myxoid, well-differentiated, undifferentiated and pleomorphic subtypes, the latter being one of the most aggressive forms, mainly in cavity organs. This study reports a case of primary splenic pleomorphic liposarcoma in a female dog, addressing anatomopathological and immunohistochemical aspects.Case: A 14-year-old, 35 kg female mongrel canine with a history of absence of defecation, progressive weight loss, difficulty walking, sensitivity to abdominal palpation, prostration, pale mucous membranes, tachypnea and abdominal distention. The condition evolved to death and, on necroscopy, there was an increase in splenic volume with neoformation of whitish and reddish color, measuring 32 × 27 cm in its largest axes and weighing 8.9 kg. The neoformation exhibited areas of firm and soft consistency, and sectioning revealed the existence of focal areas of extensive necrosis and cavity collections of different diameters that allowed the flow of liquid serous contents with a brownish red color. Microscopy showed cells of neoplastic morphology infiltrating the splenic parenchyma, mostly with slightly acidophilic cytoplasm and few intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles, which varied in size and distribution. The nuclei of the cells were large, eccentric and irregular, with round to oval morphology, grossly lacy chromatin and single or multiple evident nucleoli. These cells exhibited marked anisocytosis, anisokaryosis and pleomorphism, with more than one mitotic figure per high magnification field visible. Moderately inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly lymphocytic, permeated the neoplastic cells, and marked depletion of lymphoid follicles and atrophy of the red pulp were found in the remaining splenic parenchyma. Immunohistochemical tests revealed marked and discrete immunostaining for anti-vimentin and anti-S100 antibodies, respectively. No staining was observed for anti-pan cytokeratin, anti-desmin, anti-alpha smooth muscle actin or anti-CD20 antibodies. Based on anatomopathological and immunohistochemical aspects, it was concluded to be a splenic pleomorphic liposarcoma of primary origin.Discussion: the spleen is not a common anatomical site for the development of liposarcoma, a neoplasm whose origin remains unclear. Similar to what occurs in humans, liposarcoma is believed to develop from the adipose tissue of the splenic hilum. Thus, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of invasive abdominal tumors. For the identification and classification of liposarcoma as a pleomorphic subtype, we considered mainly histological findings such as marked cell atypia and intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles, which may or may not be present in neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemical examination favored the diagnosis of liposarcoma, regardless of the subtype, due to the marked immunostaining for the anti-vimentin antibody, unlike immunostaining for the anti-S100 antibody, for which it was variable. This fact is related to adipocyte differentiation, where lower amounts of intracytoplasmic lipids translate into lower immunostaining intensity for anti-S100. Histological and immunostaining aspects should be regarded with caution in the diagnosis of pleomorphic liposarcoma, as it is a distinct neoplastic entity, with a complex karyotype and without correlation with the other subtypes.
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109921
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Seroepidemiology Survey of Bovine Alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in
           Unvaccinated Beef Bubalines (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Brazil

    • Authors: Rodrigo Azambuja Machado de Oliveira, Juliana Torres Tomazi Fritzen, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa, Rudiger Daniel Ollhoff, Ivan Roque de Barros Filho
      Abstract: Background: The bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) belonging to the order Herpesvirales, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and genus Varicellovirus.Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infections have a great importance due to the high rates of dissemination in cattles worldwide. Although, the BoHV-1 was largely related in cattle, buffaloes were also classified as host for the virus. However, studies that determine seroepidemiological data in this species are scarce and necessary. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against BoHV-1 in healthy beef buffaloes using the virus neutralization (VN) technique.Cases: This work portrays an epidemiological survey, based on a sectional study characterized by blood samples collected from 54 Murrah buffalo, aged 6 to 24 months, from the municipalities of Guaraqueçaba, Ponta Grossa, Antonina and Doutor Ulysses, located in Paraná state, being 20, 14, 10 and 10 samples from each location, respectively. Thirty-seven percent (20/54) of the samples were collected at slaughterhouse with registration at the Federal Inspection Service (SIF) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), and 63% (34/54) at the buffalo's farms. The serum samples were collected in sterile tubes without anticoagulant in stored isothermal boxes, with serum separation and stored at -20ºC. The samples were sent to the Animal Virology Laboratory of Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL for serological analysis. Serological diagnosis using the virus neutralization (VN) technique was performed according the OIE manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, using the BoHV-1 Los Angeles strain. Forth-five of the 54 samples (83.3%) evaluated generated titers of antibodies against BoHV-1 present in all evaluated herds, and the samples collected in herd from Antonina city were 100% positive, following by 80% in Guaraqueçaba and Doutor Ulysses city, and 78.6% in Ponta Grossa city. In relationship to the titration of anti-bovine herpesvirus 1 antibodies (BoHV-1), it was found that 23/45 (51.12%) of the samples had titers ≤ 16, 13/45 (28.88 %) with indexes between 32-64, and 9/45 (20%) with levels above 128.Discussion: The confirmation of the presence of antibodies against BoHV-1 in the buffalo samples tested in the present study proves the circulation of the agent in the studied species, with a homogeneous distribution of bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 in all the evaluated herds. There was high variability in antibody titers against BoHV-1 from all herds, and the occurrence of a high number of buffaloes reactive to BoHV-1 and with high antibody titers suggests a course of active or reactive infections in these animals. In only one of the herds, the age of the animals studied varied between 6 to 8 months. The fact that these animals are lactating raises the possibility of anti-BoHV-1 antibodies being acquired by breastfeeding. The results obtained allow to conclude, considering the fact that the animals are not vaccinated against BoHV-1, the presence of circulating antibodies is from a natural infection, and the positivity in all farms tested denotes the endemicity of the BoHV-1 infection in herds. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study on the detection and measurement of antibodies against BoHV-1 in healthy and unvaccinated buffaloes in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, showing a high frequency of seroreagent animals.  
      PubDate: 2021-06-17
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107267
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Exogenous Tracheal Bone Structure in a Cat

    • Authors: Simone Marques Caramalac, Silvana Marques Caramalac, Paulo Henrique Affonseca Jardim, Fabrício de Oliveira Frazilio, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo
      Abstract: Background: Acute dyspnea is a clinical emergency with a presentation similar to several etiologies. Cats are usually referred with complaints of anorexia, abdominal breathing, cyanosis, and open mouth breathing, and veterinarians should stabilize the animals as soon as possible. The incidence of aspiration of foreign bodies is low, particularly in this species. The diagnosis consists of observing the foreign structure in the lumen of the trachea, commonly performed using radiography or bronchoscopy. This report describes a case of a feline with a tracheal foreign body, with a detailed description of the clinical findings and successful treatment.Case: A 10-year-old female feline exhibited severe dyspnea and cyanosis. During the anamnesis, the owner stated that the clinical signs suddenly presented one day prior, after the animal ingested a piece of fish. Physical examination revealed changes in pulmonary auscultation, which was bilaterally muffled, and intense respiratory distress, as observed by the evident signs of exhaustion (sternal decubitus, reduced muscle tone), in addition to cyanotic mucous membranes. The animal was intubated and maintained under anesthesia with propofol infusion and respiratory support (ambu) for 1 h, during which complementary examinations were performed. Chest radiography showed the presence of a radiopaque structure (approximately 0.5 cm) in the tracheal region. Thus, we decided to remove the structure using bronchoscopy. The foreign body was located above the main bronchial bifurcation and was removed. There was an improvement in oxygenation after 20 min of maintenance of ventilatory support, followed by weaning of the animal's successful respiratory support. Antibiotic therapy and analgesia were prescribed at home, and the animal exhibited full recovery after 10 days.Discussion: Dyspnea is a clinical sign that should be treated as an emergency, as it is associated with high mortality. In these cases, positive pressure ventilation is indicated in three situations: persistent hypoventilation, severe hypoxemia unresponsive to oxygen therapy, and excessive respiratory effort or fatigue. Dyspnea may be due to impairment of the upper or lower airway or restrictive conditions. Clinically, felines with tracheal foreign bodies have a sudden onset of dyspnea, tachypnea, cough, and lethargy. In these patients, the reduction in lung sounds is a common finding, as observed in the present case. The occurrence of tracheal foreign bodies in cats is rare and, depending on the type of foreign body and its location in the airway, complete obstruction of the respiratory tract may occur. In the present case, it was possible to observe the foreign body in the trachea on radiographic images. Felines with tracheal foreign bodies generally present a structure located close to the carina, as observed in the present case. Bronchoscopy using a flexible or rigid tube is considered the gold-standard technique for removing foreign bodies from the respiratory tract, and the greatest difficulty during the removal procedure is ensuring that the airways are not obstructed by the instruments used. The use of these materials is not free of complications, as they may be responsible for the development of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, dyspnea, and respiratory failure. In the present case, there were no complications during or after the procedure, and the patient recovered completely.
      PubDate: 2021-06-11
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111742
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Braquial Plexus Block and Lumbosacral Epidural in a South American Coati
           (Nasua nasua)

    • Authors: Lettycia Demczuk Thomas, Ronaldo José Piccoli, Paula Eduarda Quintana Bernardi, Jéssica Fernanda Sinotti, Viviane Andrade Silva, Carolina Fucks de Souza, Fabíola Bono Fukushima
      Abstract: Background: The South American coatis (Nasua nasua) are capable of adapting to different habitats, which allowed them to exchange between domestic and wild areas, increasing the occurrence of traumas. Procedures performed in this species demand anesthetic protocols that take comorbidities into account and cause minimal cardiorespiratory depression as well as rapid recovery. It is in such context that locoregional anesthesia has become an essential tool. Thus, we aim to report the use of two techniques of locoreginal block: brachial plexus block and lumbosacral epidural block, in a Nasua nasua submitted to osteosynthesis of the radius and caudectomy due to trauma.Case: A adult male coati weighing 2.3 kg was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) - Setor Palotina with a history of trauma. Physical examination showed crackling in the radius and ulnar region, and also abnormal angulation in the distal portion of the tail. After taking x-rays, fractures were confirmed in the distal radius and in the distal portion of the tail. The patient was referred for surgery. After 8 h of water and food withdrawal, the animal was premedicated with a combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg), midazolam (0.3 mg/kg) and methadone (0.2 mg/kg), intramuscularly (IM). Induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol titrated to effect (total dose 4 mg/kg) and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in spontaneous ventilation using a non-rebreathing circuit (Baraka). It was evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RF), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), expired isoflurane fraction (FE´Iso), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), electrocardiography (ECG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and core temperature (CT) using a multiparametric monitor. After the stabilization period, the animal was positioned in lateral recumbence. A subscapular brachial plexus block was performed with bupivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) using a peripheral nerve stimulator to ensure the correct perineural deposition of the local anesthetic. During anesthesia, rescue analgesia was administered when there was a 20% increase in HR, RR or SBP compared to baseline values. Thus, in this case, two rescues with fentanyl (2 µg/kg) were necessary. The animal remained stable and, at the end of the first procedure, he was placed in ventral recumbence, with the hindlimbs pulled cranially in order to locate the lumbosacral space. Epidural injection was performed with lidocaine (0.18 mL/kg). Rescue analgesia was not necessary during the caudectomy procedure. The procedure had a total duration of 3 h and extubation occurred 3 min after inhalation anesthesia withdrawal. At the end of the surgery, the animal was medicated with meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg) and methadone (0.2 mg/kg). Two h after the end of the surgery, the animal was able to feed again.Discussion: The literature is scarce regarding anesthetic techniques in the Nasua nasua species, especially in the context of locoregional anesthesia. In this report, the protocol used as pre-anesthetic medication was considered satisfactory. Brachial plexus block is a safe technique for desensitizing the forelimb for surgical procedures distal to the scapulohumeral joint. Despite some morphological differences in the spinal anatomy of coatis, there was no difficulty in identifying the epidural space or inserting the needle. The absence of complications, and the hemodynamic stability during the anesthesia period, combined with the satisfactory recovery of the patient points to the success of the techniques used in the present report.
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107664
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Dexmedetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam Followed by Inhalant Anesthesia in
           Spectacled Bears (Tremarctos ornatus)

    • Authors: Natache Arouca Garofalo, André Augusto Justo, Stephanie Cristine Miyamoto Araújo, Mayara Travalini de Lima, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Francisco José Teixeira Neto
      Abstract: Background: The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only bear species inhabiting South America and is classified as vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Among the few publications on the use of general anesthesia and advanced monitoring of ursids in veterinary hospital settings, little is described regarding chemical restraint, general anesthesia and monitoring of spectacled bears. This case series describes the use of a dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam chemical restraint combination and its effects on cardiorespiratory variables and arterial blood gases observed in two spectacled bears submitted to isoflurane anesthesia for imaging and/or surgical procedures.Cases: Two female, one adult and one senile, all-term captive spectacled bears were referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the Universidade Estadual Paulista - Unesp, Botucatu campus, both with a presumable history of recent trauma. After immobilization with an intramuscular (IM) administration of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.8 - 4.3 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (6.4 - 7.6 µg/kg), anesthesia induction was achieved by means of intravenous (IV) propofol (1 - 2 mg/kg). The patients then underwent isoflurane inhalant anesthesia and were submitted to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation through the remainder of the procedures. Initial settings of inspiratory flow rate were adjusted to obtain Ppeak of 10 cmH2O and tidal volumes (Vt) of 10 mL/kg, as well as respiratory rates (ƒR)and inspiration-to-expiration (I:E) ratio of 10 breaths/min and 1:2, respectively, and were then adjusted throughout anesthesia to maintain normocapnia (end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations between35 and 45 mmHg). One of the individuals was chemically restrained (6.4 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam and 7.7 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine) on a second anesthetic event for imaging procedures. Arterial blood gas analysis were performed with the subjects breathing room air and oxygen-enriched air. Both animals exhibited severe hypoxemia (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] < 60 mmHg) while breathing room air (inspired oxygen fraction [FiO2] ≅ 0.21). An impaired blood oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 < 400) was still observed despite mechanical ventilation and the provision of 1.0 FiO2. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers (3 sequential mechanical sights with peak airway pressure at 20 - 30 cmH2O during 15 - 30 s each) were then performed, which resulted in improved PaO2/FiO2 ratios. All other blood gas, electrolytes and acid-base variables did not appear to be importantly altered by chemical restraint and general anesthesia.Discussion: Dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam resulted in reliable chemical restraints and is a feasible option for immobilizing spectacled bears, though severe hypoxemia may proceed. Hypoxemia is the most commonly described complication in bear anesthesia, and was also evidenced in the current report. However, low PaO2/FiO2 ratios tend to be accompanied by hypercapnia and therefore counteracted by oxygen supplementation in bears, which was not observed in the present report. In fact, blood oxygenation only reached regular values after alveolar recruitment maneuvers, which is compatible to an atelectasis-related hypoxemia. Therefore, either inhalant anesthesia or field chemical restraint should be accompanied by advanced monitoring (cardiorespiratory variables and blood gas analysis) in until further studies address the management of hypoxemia in spectacled bear. since Advanced monitoring was of major importance for a safe outcome and an uneventful recovery in this species.Keywords: balanced anesthesia, dexmedetomidine, general anesthesia, spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus, wildlife.
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109254
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Erythema Multiforme and its Clinicopathological Features in a Horse in

    • Authors: Pollyana Rennó Campos Braga, Lissandro Gonçalves Conceição, Fabricia Hallack Loures, Roberta Martins Basso, José Paes de Oliveira Filho, Alexandre Secorun Borges
      Abstract: Background: Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated skin disease which may manifest as cutaneous or mucocutaneous lesions. It is uncommon in horses. EM lesions have a symmetrical bilateral distribution; they are usually urticarial, necrotizing, and, less commonly, ulcerative. In equines, the trigger is usually unknown, and cases are often classified as idiopathic. Diagnosis is based on a thorough history and physical and histopathological examination of lesions. According to the clinical presentation and histopathological characteristics of the cutaneous lesions, this case is the first report to describe diagnosis and treatment of a horse with EM in Brazil. Case: A Quarter Horse filly was followed clinically for 12 months after sudden onset of skin lesions at 18 months of age. The initial lesions were non-alopecic papules with a symmetrical bilateral distribution. Six months after onset, the skin lesions maintained the original distribution pattern; however, they had progressed to papules and plaques with varying annular, arciform, serpiginous, targetoid, or alopecic appearance. At 8 months, the same distribution pattern and appearance remained, but the lesions had become more severe and extensive, with involvement of the labial commissures and perineal region, without any erosions/ulcerations, scaling/crusting, pain, or pruritus. At 12 months, new nodular lesions were found on the medial and lateral surfaces of the hind limbs, neck, bilateral trunk, and root of the tail. The lesions were firm, non-pruritic, and non-tender on palpation. Swabs were obtained from the papular lesions. Skin specimens were also obtained with a 6-mm punch and via incisional biopsy and histological sections were made. Bacterial and fungal cultures were negative. Appropriate stains did not identify fungal structures, were negative for acid-fast bacilli, and did not reveal any metachromatic granules in the sampled cell population. The histopathological findings were characteristic of immune-mediated disease, with a vacuolar interface dermatitis affecting the hair follicles more than the epidermis, necrotic keratinocytes, lymphocyte satellitosis, leukocytoclastic mixed vasculitis of the mid-dermis and deep dermis, and variable granulation tissue, consistent with erythema multiforme and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and oral supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and vitamin E were prescribed. After institution of therapy, no new lesions developed, the existing lesions remained stable (though permanent), and hair regrew in the previously alopecic areas. All physiological parameters remained normal throughout the follow-up period. Discussion: Erythema multiforme is rarely reported in horses. According to our literature review, this is the first description of EM in horses in Brazil. EM should be included in the differential diagnosis of horses that present with plaques in a diverse, geographic distribution and a negative initial dermatological screening examination. Further clinical investigation is warranted, with special attention to potential antigenic triggers. A thorough drug and dietary history and close attention to comorbidities are essential, as the suppression of potential culprit factors has important prognostic value and contributes to the elucidation of EM triggers.
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111736
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Mandibulectomy in feline with bacterial fibrosing osteomyelitis

    • Authors: Keytyanne de Oliveira Sampaio, Jéssica Mara da Costa Silva, Alexandre Tavares Camelo Oliveira, Ellen Cordeiro Bento da Silva, Diana Célia Sousa Nunes-Pinheiro, Reginaldo Pereira Sousa-Filho
      Abstract: Background: Fibrosing osteomyelitis is a chronic inflammatory process caused by infectious agents that lead to the destruction and replacement of bone tissue by fibroblasts. The diagnosis is based especially on histopathological and bacterial culture. In cases where extensive and irreversible injuries are observed, surgical treatment may be indicated. The objective of this work is to report the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and microbiological aspects of a cat presenting fibrosing osteomyelitis.Case: A 10-year-old male feline, no defined breed, weighing 3.9 kg was referred to one Private Veterinary Clinic of Fortaleza, CE, Brazil with a history of left mandibular enlargement, presenting dysphagia, sialorrhea, an increase in firm consistency along of the left mandibular body, temporomandibular arthralgia and decreased joint motion range. On cranium radiograph, signs of proliferative osteopathy of irregular contours were observed in the branch and body of the left mandible and extending to the rostral region of the right mandible, suggesting a neoplastic process. After anesthesia, for better assessment of the oral cavity, a sample was collected by incisional biopsy, however, the histopathological result was nonspecific. In view of the inconclusive condition, it was decided to perform left hemimandibulectomy combined with right partial mandibulectomy. Tissue samples were obtained and sent for microbiological and histopathological analyses. The last test revealed an inflammatory reaction consisting of neutrophils and plasma cells, associated with a large amount of fibrous connective tissue, multifocal bacterial aggregates, necrosis and bone resorption. Based on the findings, the diagnosis of chronic bacterial osteomyelitis was concluded. The microbiological culture demonstrated the growth of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with sensitivity to cefovecin, which was administered to the treatment in doses of 8 mg/kg/SC, every 15 days, for 60 days. After 10 days of the surgery, the patient was able to start the process of swallowing and seizing pasty food.Discussion: Although radiography is a diagnostic method of choice to assess the extent of bone involvement, it hardly allows the distinction between neoplastic processes and osteomyelitis. Thus, in addition to the cranium radiographic examination, that revealed signs of proliferative osteopathy with irregular contours in branch and body topography of the left mandible were required biopsy and bacterial culture. After mandibulectomy, difficulty in retracting the tongue and anorexia were observed in the first days. Despite that, from the 12th day on, there was an improvement in food seizure, with the return to voluntary feeding. Mandibulectomy is indicated in cases where extensive and irreversible lesions are observed, although excision of the caudal mandible to the third or fourth premolar tooth is not recommended, because it compromises the sublingual musculature, with fall of the tongue and loss of function apprehension. In the present case, the caudal portion of the right mandibular branch was maintained, which facilitated the return of spontaneous feeding. The tissue removed was necessary to perform a microbiological culture with antibiogram, essential to determine the possible etiologic agent and choosing antimicrobial drugs. For the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection, cefovecin was prescribed due to the dosage and route of administration that collaborate with the mandibular surgery, once that the oral treatment is more difficult. Post-surgical complications related to mandibular resection, such as anorexia and difficulty in grasping food, are common. However, in the present case, the patient had an adequate reestablish after 15 days. Therefore, hemimandibulectomy is effective in treating fibrosing osteomyelitis, with maintenance of the patient's ingestive function. 
      PubDate: 2021-06-05
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108769
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Reactive Seizures Due to Hyperlipidemia in a Maltese Dog

    • Authors: Nathali Adrielli Agassi de Sales, Julia Perinotto Picelli, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves, Luana Castela de Tacia dos Anjos, Eustáquio Resende Bittar, Isabel Rodrigues Rosado
      Abstract: Background: Primary hyperlipidemia is a condition that affects some specific breeds. It has been previously described in Miniature Shnauzer, Beagles, Shetland Shepdog and West Highland White Terrier. There are no reports of primary hyperlipidemia in Maltese dogs. It is a hereditary disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. The etiology is unknown and may be related to a genetic problem in lipoprotein lipase or to the absence of apaprotein CII. Clinical signs include spontaneous arterosclerosis, retinal lipemia, cutaneous xanthomas, abdominal pain, lethargy, vomiting and / or diarrhea. Neurological manifestations such as seizures and behavioral changes may also occur. The aim of this report is to describe a case of reactive seizures due to hyperlipidemia in a dog.
      Case: A 5-year-old male Maltese dog was admitted with a history of seizures. Hypertension and abdominal distension with large amounts of intestinal gases were found in general physical examination. Neurological examination revealed impaired nasal septum sensory perception, which was slightly bilaterally reduced, and pain on cervical palpation and in the brachial plexus region. Based on history and clinical examination, it was possible to locate the lesion in the thalamocortical region and to suspect idiopathic epilepsy, reactive seizures, and symptomatic epilepsy due to meningoencephalitis of unknown origin. The diagnosis of primary hyperlipidemia was made by exclusion with the aid of laboratory tests and ultrasound. After the establishment of a fat restriction diet, bezafibrate, phenobarbital, and omega-3 supplementation, the animal improved significantly with the reduction of epileptic seizures.
      Discussion: The initial clinical suspicion was hyperadrenocorticism as the primary cause of hyperlipidemia. This suspicion was based on the presence of polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and abdominal distension, together with laboratory results of thrombocytosis, increased ALT and AF, and hyposenuria; but ultrasound images and ACTH stimulation test ruled out this differential diagnosis. Hypothyroidism was also ruled out since LDL values were normal and the animal was extremely active. Regarding nephrotic syndrome, it was also excluded for some alterations would be present, such as severe proteinuria, cholesterol reduction and hypoalbuminemia. As for diabetes mellitus, it was discarded because of the dog’s young age and due to the absence of suggestive clinical signs. The suspicion of primary hyperlipidemia was based on increased levels of triglycerides, and the presumptive diagnosis was of reactive seizures due to hyperlipidemia. It is essential, when treating hyperlipidemia, to readjust to a low-calorie diet with fat concentration below 8% and protein level above 18%. Generally, these restricted diets are for life. Omega-3 supplementation can be performed to help maintain low levels of triglycerides. Drug therapy is usually carried out with bezafibrate, which is used in human medicine as treatment for hypertriglyceridemia, and has showed good results in the control of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in dogs with primary and secondary hyperlipidemia. Six months after the beginning of the treatment, the animal no longer presented abdominal distension and pain, cholesterol values and its fractions were controlled, as well as triglycerides. Seizures were also under control. Therefore, hyperlipidemia is an important differential diagnosis in cases of patients presenting seizures, especially when dealing with young animals showing signs of metabolic diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-06-03
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110100
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Third Eyelid in a Cat

    • Authors: Amanda de Deus Ferreira Alves, Fábio Luiz da Cunha Brito, Márcia de Figueiredo Pereira, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior
      Abstract: Background: Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a neoplasm originating from plasmacytes with benign behavior, although it can present malignant characteristics such as local invasion and metastases in some cases. Primary extramedullary plasmacytoma in the third eyelid is rare in humans and animals and has not yet been described in cats. Thus, the goal of the present study is to describe the cytological and histopathological findings of an extramedullary plasmacytoma in a cat's third eyelid.
      Case: A 5-year-old female feline patient with a history of ocular alteration for approximately 30 days was referred to the ophthalmology service. Upon ophthalmic examination of the left eye, an increase in volume with tissue proliferation was identified in the third eyelid's conjunctiva. A collection of material for cytopathological examination was performed. Numerous plasmocytes and atypical lymphocytes with anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were observed, with a possible neoplastic injury being suggested and referred to the patient for surgical removal of the third eyelid. In the histopathological analysis, it was possible to observe several plasma cells and vascular neoformation along the entire conjunctive margin below the epithelium. The glands, serous and mucous, present in the fragment, revealed areas of intervening plasmacytic infiltrate and a large area close to the hyaline cartilage containing intense plasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate with rare neutrophils and macrophages. There was also a structural breakdown of glandular components and lymphocyte cells with mitosis figures and discrete cellular pleomorphism.
      Discussion: Plasmacytoma is a rare neoplasm in both dogs and cats. The anatomical regions most frequently affected are the digits, lips, and pinna. Concerning the 3rd eyelid tumor involvement, numerous types of neoplasms have been reported in dogs in the veterinary literature, including transmissible venereal tumor, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanocytoma melanoma, lymphoma, plasmacytoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, mastocytoma, and myoepithelioma. In cats, the third eyelid is the third site most affected by primary tumors. Adult and elderly animals are the most affected; however, an extramedullary plasmacytoma (PEM) has been reported in an eight-month-old male cat's skeletal muscle. Plasmacytoma aspirates, like other round cells, tend to be highly cellular, the cell morphology has a plasmacytoid aspect, resembling mature cells, the cytoplasm is intensely basophilic, and the round nucleus with an eccentric disposition has thin chromatin and indistinct nucleolus. Binucleate and multinucleate cells are common, and the absence of lymphoglandular corpuscles helps differentiate extramedullary plasmacytoma from lymphomas. Histologically, PEM is similar in dogs, humans, and felines, and variations in mature and immature plasma cells can be seen. The diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma is fundamentally histological, and immunohistochemical analysis can also be performed. Surgical excision with safety margins is the primary type of treatment for neoplasms in the 3rd eyelid, being considered an effective method, as seen in this report, during the patient's follow-up for 13 months, no recurrence or metastasis of the neoplasm was seen. When signs of malignant neoplasms are found, it is recommended to evaluate the indication for chemotherapy before surgery and monitor the case after treatment due to recurrence risk.
      PubDate: 2021-05-30
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110056
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Bilateral Anophthalmia in Feline

    • Authors: Ana Claúdia de Souza Andrade, Laisa Marina Rosa Rey, Isabela Carvalho dos Santos, Lucas Lima da Silva, Sarah Gabriella Delallo Charnovski, Natalie Bertelis Merlini, Daniela Dib Gonçalves
      Abstract: Background: Anophthalmia is a rare, congenital condition, defined as the complete absence of the eye bulb due to inadequate growth of the vesicle or optic dome. The malformation can be primary (in the absence of complete), secondary (in the presence of only residual tissue), or degenerative (in which the eye begins to form, but for some reason, it begins to degenerate). This condition is rare in dogs, cats, cattle, and sheep. Microscopic evaluation of orbital tissue for identification is always recommended. The aim of this study was to report a case of bilateral anophthalmia in a domestic cat.Case: A feline male, healthy, Maine Coon breed with 60 days of life was attended at the one veterinary private clinic. The cat, negative for FIV and FeLV, was born in a commercial cattery, belonging to his mother's third litter, healthy litter with the exception of this feline. He arrived with a complaint of not opening his eyelids, like the rest of the litter. In the clinical examination, it was found the normality of vital signs, absence of other visible anatomical abnormalities, only the ocular region was observed with closed eyelids. The initial suspicions were anophthalmia and microphthalmia. The patient was referred for an ocular ultrasound, which showed the complete absence of the right and left eye bulbs. The right and left orbital cavities had only a volume of soft, amorphous, and predominantly homogeneous tissue. After the ultrasound report, the patient underwent a surgical procedure to remove a fragment of tissue from the eye socket, which was sent for histopathological examination to confirm anophthalmia and discard the differential diagnosis of microphthalmia. Microscopy revealed immature, epithelial, and glandular tissue in the middle of discrete and moderate connective tissue, loosely arranged. In some fragments, cartilaginous tissue was also revealed. Thus, the histological findings are compatible with immature, pseudoformed tissues and without neoplastic characteristics. The diagnosis of secondary anophthalmia was reached with use of ultrasound and histological reports.Discussion: Congenital malformations in domestic cats are less frequent than in dogs, some of which are rare, and little reported. Secondary anophthalmia in the reported patient was confirmed by histological and ultrasound examination. Bilateral secondary anophthalmia is characterized by the absence of the eyeball, but with the presence of adjacent tissue. The animal was submitted to an ocular ultrasound examination and the complete absence of ocular bulbs was found. The differential diagnosis of microphthalmia was ruled out because there was no evidence of the eyeball. Microphthalmia is a common congenital ophthalmic disorder in veterinary medicine. Representative fragments were submitted to histopathological examination, where immature, epithelial tissue was found. In some fragments sent for analysis, cartilaginous tissue was observed. The histological findings are compatible with immature, pseudoformed tissues, thus verifying bilateral congenital anophthalmia in the reported animal. The clinical examination in these cases serves to ensure that the animal does not have any other congenital changes, allowing a favorable prognosis in puppies. Based on the information presented, the animal in this study has bilateral secondary congenital anophthalmia, with a favorable prognosis for the patient to live with certain normality, with quality and well-being.
      PubDate: 2021-05-29
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110141
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Angiolipoma in a Dog

    • Authors: Mariana Correia Oliveira, Marcelo Jorge Chipitelli de Carvalho, Jade Manhãs de Souza Basto, Isabella Jennifer Viana Soares, Gabriela de Carvalho Cid, Juliana Gomes Oliveira, Ana Paula de Castro Pires, Marilene de Farias Brito
      Abstract: Background: Angiolipoma is a benign tumor composed of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes. Tumors reported in domestic species include two variants; infiltrative or non-infiltrative. Bitches and intact males seem predisposed. This mesenchyme tumor is commonly mistaken with lipoma due to its soft texture and subcutaneous site and often requires histopathology to confirm its diagnosis. Microscopic examination also enables the evaluation of surgical margins and rule out possible infiltrative sites. Complete surgical excision is usually curative. This study reports a case of non-infiltrating angiolipoma in a dog.Case: A 14-year-old mixed-breed dog was presented to a veterinary clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. On palpation, a painless mass was noted, with high mobility and covered by intact hirsute skin in the right subcutaneous ventrolateral region. Computed tomography of the chest showed an expansive mass of uptake only from the edges of the soft tissues of the right subcutaneous ventrolateral region. The mass was homogeneous and well delimited, suggesting a neoplastic process. Subsequently, the mass was surgically removed, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and sent for histopathological analysis. On macroscopic examination, the mass was well delimited, without skin coverage, and measured 2.3 × 1.9 × 0.6 cm. The consistency was smooth and unctuous in appearance with a compact cream-colored surface with blackish multifocal spots. Under microscopy, the histological sections showed neoplasm of mature adipocytes and of endothelial cells of blood vessels benign were filled with a marked amount of red blood cells. Multifocal fibrin thrombi and a mild inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and rare mast cells were evident. There was no infiltration in the regional skeletal musculature. Thus, a diagnosis of non-infiltrative angiolipoma was established.Discussion: The diagnosis of non-infiltrating angiolipoma in this case was established through the results of histopathological examination. The occurrence of this neoplasm in dogs is uncommon, and the data reported in the veterinary medicine literature are scarce. However, in this study, it was found that the neoplasm on screening presented a behavior like that of lipomas, with noninvasive growth and the absence of local recurrence. The canine species does not commonly convey pain on palpation during a clinical examination, as observed in the present case. In humans, multiple angiolipoma nodules are common; this clinical presentation differs from that in animals, in which solitary nodules are generally observed. In dogs, as in the present case, they seem to have a predilection for the trunk. In animals, the pathogenesis of angiolipomas is not established, but in humans, it is based on theories that include the reaction to harmful stimuli and congenital malformation of adipose tissue. In humans, the presence of fibrin thrombi on the periphery of the region of cell proliferation are microscopic findings that can assist in the diagnosis of angiolipomas, an approach that was implemented in the present case. The occurrence of this neoplasm in dogs is uncommon, and the data reported in the veterinary medicine literature are scarce. The importance of an adequate description of angiolipomas is based on the need to provide information about its epidemiology, biological behavior, and prognosis.
      PubDate: 2021-05-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106584
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Hypersensitivity in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) due to the
           Association of Lidocaine and Bupivacaine in Neural-Guided Femoral and
           Sciatic Nerve Block

    • Authors: Helen Roberta Amaral da Silva, Newton Nunes, Ana Paula Gering, Pâmilla Gabrielle Alexandre Souza, Karina Perehouskei Albuquerque Salgado, Obede Rodrigues Ferreira, Amanda Jury Nakamura, Anne Kaline da Silva Guimarães
      Abstract: Background: Osteosyntheses, orthopedic surgeries that cause highly painful stimulation, are increasingly common in veterinary medicine. Epidural anesthesia is used to provide intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in mammals undergoing pelvic limb surgery. In birds, the synsacrum, the bone originating from the fusion of the lumbar and sacral vertebrae, makes this route inapplicable, thus peripheral nerve block is an easier option in this species. This report describes a case of local hypersensitivity following the association of lidocaine and bupivacaine in anesthetic blocks of the femoral and sciatic nerves in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).Case: A study was conducted in chickens evaluating the effectiveness of anesthetic sciatic and femoral nerve blocks, guided by a neural stimulator. Thirty-two 42-day-old male chickens of the species Gallus gallus domesticus, double breasted, weighing 1.86 ± 0.5 kg, were randomly divided into four groups: control (CG), lidocaine (LG), bupivacaine (BC) and the association of lidocaine and bupivacaine (LBG). The doses used were 4 mg/kg of 2% lidocaine and 2 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine, without vasoconstrictor. For CG, 0.9% NaCl solution was used, respecting the total volume of 1 mL/kg. Only one bird from the LBG showed side effects, presenting sensory and motor loss for 24 h after the administration of these drugs, before euthanasia was performed using anesthetic induction with isoflurane through a face mask, followed by the intravenous administration of propofol and then potassium chloride. The chicken was submitted to a necropsy and macroscopically, soft, irregular, brownish lesions with a grayish focus were observed, indicating areas of necrosis in the muscles adjacent to the femoral and sciatic nerves. Histopathological examination showed mild, active inflammatory migration with perivascular organization, highlighting the presence of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, segmented heterophiles, and areas of hemorrhagic foci. The pairs of nerves evaluated showed edematous areas, but no inflammatory infiltrate, a histopathological finding that is considered to be nonspecific.Discussion: In the case of the chicken with side effects, histopathological examination showed vasculitis and hemorrhagic areas, which were correlated with ischemia and focal tissue necrosis, together with edematous lesions in the nerves evaluated, and extremities that showed an inflammatory response. These changes are related to acute hypersensitivity lesions, the drug response and drug hypersensitivity. Local anesthetics have been widely used in birds, but there are reports of reactions, including neurotoxicity and local myotoxicity, and bupivacaine is the drug that shows the highest cytotoxicity. However, long-term, repeated applications of bupivacaine on the sciatic nerve do not induce degenerative neural lesions in rats, rabbits, and dogs. The reactions described here are proportional to the concentration of the anesthetic injected, and in the case reported, the recommended dose for birds of 4 mg/kg of 2% lidocaine and 2 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine, without vasoconstrictor, was adhered to. These findings suggest a reaction specific to the bird described; however, further studies regarding the local adverse effects of these anesthetics in birds should be conducted to make the practice of peripheral nerve block safer by testing different concentrations, associations and doses of the variety of drugs available.Keywords: birds, local block, drug hypersensitivity.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109636
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Eventration in Green Iguana (Iguana iguana)

    • Authors: Lara Bernardes Bizinoto, César Henrique Branco, Isabel Rodrigues Rosado, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves, Ian Martin
      Abstract: Background: The reptile class could be considered one of the biggest vertebrate groups and are divided in orders and suborders according to their characteristics. These animals’ maintenance in captivity, either at home, captive bred or at zoos, can generate risk to their health, if the required cares are not given for each respective species. The lack of individual cares could lead to bone and muscular diseases and to traumatic lesions in soft tissues, mainly in the coelomic cavity. The report that is being presented aims to describe the case of a green iguana (Iguana iguana) that presented an increase of volume in the coelomic cavity. The animal belongs to the squad of the Zoo “Dr. Fábio de Sá Barreto”.Case: A green iguana arrived at the Zoo in February 2019 coming from another Zoo, with already an increase of volume in the coelomic cavity. The animal was put in quarantine and later on, it was put in display at a terrarium in the Zoo considered adequate to reptiles, with another seven green iguanas along with an argentine tegu (Salvator rufescens). Their feed was offered in the morning and was composed of fruits, vegetables and flowers like hibiscus. In the end of July 2019, it was reported by the attendant that the animal was presented with anorexia and prostration, and these symptoms progressed to neurologic signs, as it walked in circles. So, the animal was evaluated by the Zoo veterinarians and on exam they noticed lethargy, dehydration, absence of reflexes (pupillary, eyelid and painful), locomotion difficulty and when the iguana moves, it walks in circles. The increase in volume had the same size as reported in February and a soft consistency. After that, the animal was interned and treated according to the symptoms and the clinical evolution. Ten days after the hospitalization, the animal was still not eating, and locomotion stopped completely. It was performed in an ultrasonographic exam evaluating all the coelomic cavity, in which a great anechoic area was visualized, and a true hernia was diagnosed. However, the content of the hernia was not identified. In the next day, the animal died, and, in the necropsy, it was possible to verify that the increase in volume was actually a bladder eventration. The eventration occurred due to a laceration in the coelomic cavity musculature that allows the passage of the bladder to the subcutaneous space and its incarceration. So, the elimination of the urine and of nitrogen compounds was difficult and a large accumulation of uric acid from the bladder to the urodeo.Discussion: Iguana iguana is a uricotelic animal, which means that the main nitrogenous waste product is uric acid. Nevertheless, ammonia is also eliminated in less quantity, because of the excess of protein in the diet. These animals eliminate around 98 to 99% of the nitrogen compounds as uric acid and less than 1% as ammonia, which prove that it is possible for the accumulation of ammonia in reptiles, if any obstacle in its elimination exists. The excess of ammonia is extremely toxic to the organism, leading to emesis, irritability, lethargy, anorexia, ataxia, motor difficulties, behavioral and neurological changes, and could progress to coma or even death. The bladder incarceration reported in this case, made it impossible for the excretion of urine, uric acid and ammonia, and these compounds remained accumulated. So, the clinical signs, along with the necropsy findings, were suggestive of intoxication by ammonia accumulation which could be responsible for the signs presented by the animal and the evolution to neurologic symptoms, coma and death.
      PubDate: 2021-05-23
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109092
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Eversion of the Third Eyelid Cartilage in a Cat

    • Authors: Eric Orlando Barbosa Momesso, Carinne Liessi Brunato, Adriana Lima Teixeira
      Abstract: Background: Eversion of the cartilage of the third eyelid is a rare congenital disease in cats. It is caused by the anterior eversion of the cartilage edge of the third eyelid. Clinical signs may be associated with secondary keratoconjunctivitis, third eyelid gland protrusion, and ocular surface irritation. The diagnosis is made by ophthalmic examination, and treatment consists of surgical resection of the everted cartilage portion. The goal of the present study was to report a case of eversion of third eyelid cartilage in a cat, given that it is an unusual abnormality in this animal species, and an important differential diagnosis to be considered in the disorders of the third eyelid.Case: A 6-year-old neutered female Persian cat was presented with a presumptive diagnosis of protrusion of the third eyelid gland, history of ocular irritation, and epiphora in the left eye. The disorder had been intermittently present since the animal was 1-year-old, with spontaneous disappearance after approximately 15 days. The owner related the reappearance of the disorder to stressful situations, with no previous history of trauma or other ocular alteration. During the ophthalmic examination, suspended solute was observed through biomiscroscopic examination in both eyes, as well as an increase in volume of the third eyelid in the left eye, without other changes. A thorough examination, under general anesthesia, indicated the protruding volume of the cartilage of the everted third eyelid. The third eyelid was pleated in its upper portion, demonstrating that the cartilage of the third eyelid was folded instead of following the curvature of the ocular surface. Under general anesthesia, the cartilage was partially removed through two parallel incisions on the bulbar conjunctival surface, divulsioning 5 mm in length in the vertical portion of the cartilage in a ‘T’ shape, and separating the conjunctiva from the underlying cartilage. The everted portion of cartilage, once removed, was in fact considered curved in its most dorsal portion, in a manner similar to what was reported in dogs. The third eyelid returned to its anatomically correct position after removing the deformed portion of the cartilage. The patient was treated postoperatively with topical drops of tobramycin and dexamethasone 3 mg/mL + 1 mg/mL (Tobradex®), and lubricant based on sodium hyaluronate 2 mg/mL (Hylo®-Gel). No complications were observed in the postoperative consultations during a 8 month follow-up.Discussion: It is suspected that the eversion of the third eyelid cartilage occurs due to a differential growth rate between the posterior and anterior portions of the cartilage; even though other theories have been proposed. The cartilage of the third eyelid can commonly be everted in large dog breeds, being classified as a disease of hereditary character. However, it has rarely been reported in cats, which can be explained by the more elastic histological constitution when compared to that of dogs. The surgical procedure performed in the present case of eversion of the third eyelid cartilage in a cat was in accordance with that described in the literature. Complete recovery of the third eyelid function was achieved, and the patient's ocular health was preserved. The reported case showed a favorable prognosis after diagnosis, associated with correct treatment and postoperative management. Although there was an effective recovery of the third eyelid, the issues related to the pathophysiology of cartilage eversion are unknown. This way, further studies are necessary to elucidate its etiology.
      PubDate: 2021-05-22
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108850
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Chemodectoma in a Dog

    • Authors: Roseane Oliveira Feitosa, Saulo Romero Felix Gonçalves, Janilene De Oliveira Nascimento, Diana Guiomar Ferreira De Sena, Edna Michelly De Sá Santos, Marcia de Figueiredo Pereira, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior
      Abstract: Background: The chemodectoma is a rare neoplasm that originates from chemoreceptors located mainly in the aortic body, and carotid body and sinus, and responsible for detecting variations in blood pH, oxygen pressure and carbon dioxide. Dogs of brachiocephalic breeds and aged between 7 and 15 years have greater propensity. A neoplasm involves infiltrative growth in the vessels at the heart base, which leads to Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). The definitive diagnosis is performed by histopathological and/or immunohistochemical examination. The aim was to report a case of chemiodectoma in a dog, showed the disease clinical characteristics.Case: A 13-year-old male undefined breed dog was examinated in the medical clinic of small animal of Veterinary Hospital, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE) with respiratory effort, hyporexia, and edema in face, cervical, ventral thorax and thoracic limbs, with thirty days evoluted. About physical examination, we observed cachexia, orthopneic position, cyanosis and edema with a positive Godet sign, as well as 8% dehydration degree. Thoracic auscultation presented mixed dyspnea and muffled heart sounds. Chest radiography detected an radiopacity increase in pulmonary section and metastatic neoplastic process associated with pleural and pericardial effusion. Fluid therapy with lactated ringer and posterior thoracentesis in the right hemithorax region was performed for greater respiratory comfort for the patient. Hematological count and biochemical profiles stated normochromic normocytic anemia, relative and absolute lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, as well as increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The patient died after 12 hours when was submitted to necroscopic examination and histopathological evaluation. An infiltrative tumor of cardiac base was observed invading the light of the right atrium, obstructing the venous return, as well as a large thrombus located in the left ventricle and diffuse nodules in the lungs. Hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum were observed with serous fluid, with hepatic, renal and brain congestion, and duodenum hemorrhage. Histologically, the tumor was characterized as a chemodectoma with pulmonary metastasis.Discussion: Cardiac tumors are uncommon for canine population. A study sampled 729,265 dogs with observed incidence reaching 0.19%. The most common type is hemangiosarcoma with 69%, followed by chemiodectoma and lymphoma.
      Authors describe predisposed brachycephalic breeds such as Boxer, Boston Terrier and French Bulldog. In our case, the patient had elongated snout and undefined breed. Deregulation of chemoreceptors, which detect changes in pH and partial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures, can result in hyperpnea and dyspnoea. Edema represents a deficit in venous return from the cranial and cervical regions, with consequent increase in hydrostatic pressure and liquid leakage into the thoracic cavity and subcutaneous tissue, thus inferring the Caudal Vena Cava Syndrome (CVCS). Tumors from the cardiac base, integrated with the large arteries insertion and adjacent to the atria, can cause pericardial effusion observed in this case. Chemodectomas are described as essentially benign tumors with low metastatic potential. In this case, pulmonary metastasis was detected. Surgical treatment is recommended when feasible. In this case, the patient had late veterinary care, in addition to the contraindication for surgery by the lung metastasis presence.
      PubDate: 2021-05-19
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107402
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Outcome of a Ceratohyiodectomy in a Criollo Mare with Temporohyoid

    • Authors: Mariana Andrade Mousquer, Leandro Americo Rafael, Nathalia de Oliveira Ferreira, Margarida Aires da Silva, Taís Scheffer del Pino, Cassiano Portela de Assis, Bruna da Rosa Curcio, Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira
      Abstract:  Background: Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) is a progressive disease that causes acute onset of peripheral vestibular signs with or without facial paralysis. Ankylosis of temporhyoid joint occurs which predispose to fractures of the involved bones and consequently causes the commonly neurological signs observed. Clinical signs vary depending on the stage of the disease and the nerves affected. Surgical treatment is advised to improve survival rates in which the ceratohyoidectomy is currently known as the most advantageous. The aim of the present study is to report a case and outcome of a ceratohyoidectomy procedure in a Criollo mare presenting THO of the right temporohyoid joint.Case: A 17-year-old Criollo mare was referred to the Equine clinical hospital of the Federal University of Pelotas with a 5-day history of facial paralysis on the right side, head tilt and difficulty to chew and swallow. Auricular, palpebral and labial ptosis along with deviation of the lip and nostril to the left were observed. A corneal ulcer was also identified in the right eye. Complementary imaging exams (endoscopy of the guttural pouches and radiography of the head) were performed and showed thickening of the right stylohyoid bone confirming a diagnosis of THO. Anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy were administered and the corneal ulcer was treated with topical antibiotics and autologous serum. Due to rapid deterioration of clinical signs, the mare was referred to surgery. A ceratohyoidectomty procedure was performed under general anesthesia. In this procedure, the ceratohyoid bone was disarticulated from the ceratohyoid-basihyoid joint and removed. During the procedure, a branch of the linguofacial vein was accidentally incised causing hemorrhage, the branch was identified and successfully ligated. Recovery was uneventful. Supportive treatment with anti-inflammatory and antibiotics was continued after surgery and two sessions of electro-acupuncture was also performed to improve the nerve paralysis. The electro-acupuncture was discontinued due to mare’s negative behavior on needle insertion in the face. The treatment of the ulcer was changed since no improvement was observed in the first days. Twenty-eight days after hospitalization, the mare was discharged with the ulcer healed and significant improvement of neurological signs. A complete recovery occurred within three months.Discussion: The Criollo mare was referred to the hospital presenting mild neurological signs consistent with vestibular alteration and facial nerve paralysis. The THO diagnosis was confirmed using complementary imaging exams in which the endoscopy of the guttural pouch is considered the most common when computed tomography, a more sensitive one, is not available. Unilateral ceratohyoidectomy was performed as a surgical choice of treatment since it has a higher survival rate and lower recurrence rate in comparison to medical treatment and to stylohyoidectomy. As the main intraoperative complication, a vessel was accidentally incised, however this is described to occur in some cases. Despite that, the procedure was successfully performed and the mare had a complete recovery of the neurological signs and corneal ulcer. In conclusion, this report showed that it is important to have a complete diagnosis of these diseases and a consistent treatment plan to improve patient’s survival and quality of life.Keywords: neurologic disease, peripheral vestibular signs, facial paralysis, ceratohyoid bone, ceratohyoidectomy.
      PubDate: 2021-05-17
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108767
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Laser Photobiomodulation and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the
           Treatment of Ovine Otitis

    • Authors: Marcus Vinícius Alves da Silva, Manoel Luiz Ferreira, Ana Flávia Ribeiro Machado Michel, Thiago Santos Ribeiro, Vinícius de Oliveira Costa Souza, Jacson Vale Leite, Guilherme Oliveira da Silva, Fernando Alzamora Filho
      Abstract: Background: Otitis is a severe inflammation of the skin of the auditory canal which can impact animals of all ages. In sheep, this disease can occur in isolated cases or in the entire flock. Laser photobiomodulation can be used in combination with medication or as single therapy and the effects are analgesia, modulation of the inflammatory process, edema reduction, tissue restoration and stimulation of local microcirculation. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy stands out as a promising alternative to antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of localized infections. This study aimed to report the use of laser phototherapies on a sheep with bacterial otitis.Case: A case of bacterial otitis in a 4-year-old sheep, Dorper, was treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the State University of Santa Cruz. In the anamnesis, the owner reported that the patient presented crusts in the auricular pavilions, and had been medicated with oxytetracycline 20%, administered intramuscularly, for two days and the crusts cleaned with iodine 10%, but the animal did not present clinical improvement. On physical examination, the animal presented constant head swaying, edema of the ears, otalgia, enlarged parotid lymph nodes and ear wounds. No ear discharge was observed, and the initial diagnosis was aural hematoma. The treatment prescribed was laser photobiomodulation for three consecutive days. The lesions were irradiated with a diode laser with a power of 0.1 W, irradiance of 3.5 W/cm2, continuous emission, spot area of 0.028 cm2, wavelength of 808 nm, energy of 4J/point, and fluency/point of 142.8J/cm2, with seven points on the external surface and four points on the internal surface of both ears. Two points were also targeted on the parotid lymph nodes with infrared laser (λ = 808 nm), with energy of 2J/point. On the fourth day of hospitalization, there was a reduction in lesions, decreased edema and absence of pain and on the sixth day of hospitalization, the patient presented mucopurulent otorrhea. The material from the auricular pavilions was collected for cytological examination, confirming the clinical diagnosis of bacterial otitis. Two sessions of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) were performed with an interval of 48 hours, with application of 0.01 % methylene blue, pre-irradiation time of five minutes and irradiation with diode laser with a power of 0.1 W, 660 nm wavelength and 9J/point energy. On the 10 th day after the start of the treatment, there was no pain, healing of ear wounds, and no otorrhea. An additional photobiomodulation session was performed on the unhealed wounds in the auditory canal with red laser (λ = 660nm), on 5 points with an energy of 1J/point. On the 15th day, the left ear was healed and the right ear presented otorrhea, and a further session of aPDT was performed. On the 17th day after starting treatment there was no secretion and all lesions were healed. The patient was subsequently monitored for one month, showing no change or relapse.Discussion: Laser photobiomodulation treatment and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy were efficient in treating bacterial otitis without the use of antibiotics, promoting clinical improvement and patient well-being, making it an alternative to conventional treatment. After searches on the Pubmed, Scielo and Escopus databases using photobiomodulation and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in sheep otitis as descriptors, this is believed to be the first report on the use of laser phototherapy in sheep otitis. Further studies are needed to establish the dosimetry and frequency of the sessions, as, besides considering animal well-being, this species is an excellent model for human experimentation.
      PubDate: 2021-05-15
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106149
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Transmissible Venereal Tumor Associated with Cutaneous Metastasis and
           Leishmaniasis in a Bitch

    • Authors: Leidiane Uchôa Soares Diamantino, Angélica Prado de Oliveira, Kaenna dos Santos Andrade, Marcos Wilker da Conceição Santos, Zayan Silva Pereira, Filipe Lucas de Melo Mendonça, Layze Cilmara Alves da Silva Vieira
      Abstract: Background: The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a round cell neoplasia, of contagious nature, common in the canine species, which mainly affects external genitalia. Despite metastasis being uncommon, the extragenital involvement can occur via the lymphatic or hematogenous route to regional lymph nodes, skin, subcutaneous tissue, nasal and oral mucosa, as well as the central nervous system. When the location of the tumor is genital the clinical diagnosis can be conclusive, however if it presents extragenital forms, cytological or histopathological studies are necessary for the confirmation. This work describes a case of TVT with cutaneous metastasis in a female dog with leishmaniasis.Case: A 3-year old crossbred female dog was attended at the Small Animal Medical Clinic (CMPA) of the University Veterinary Hospital (HVU) of the Federal University of  West Bahia  (UFOB), Barra Multidisciplinary Center.  This neutered bitch dewormed, never vaccinated, rescued from the streets at the age of two and a half, had a prior history of ehrlichiosis and  pyometra. The owner reported apathy, anorexia, cachexia, depression and sternal decubitus of the animal, as well as episodes of vomiting and recurrent fever. During the physical examination were observed respiratory and heart rates within normality ranges, with predominance of slightly pale mucous membranes, reactive left prescapular lymph node and subcutaneous nodular mass, not adhered to the musculature, located in the medial portion of the thirteenth left rib. Were also evidenced onychogryphosis, opaque, shineless and brittle fur, with pruritic and lichenified exfoliative dermatitis in the left scapular region, ear tips and snout, presence of a discreet quantity of brownish-colored vulvar discharge with a putrid odor. In the cytological examination, was verified the presence of cells with characteristics of TVT located in the genital mucosa, developing atypical metastasis in the cutaneous tissue in the region of the thirteenth rib, and by means of the cytomorphometric analysis of the extracellular matrix of the left popliteal lymph node, confirmed positivity for leishmaniasis. The symptomatic treatment was started aiming to restore the patient for subsequent treatment of the TVT and leishmaniasis, however, due to the non-responsiveness and worsening of the clinical picture, the owner opted for the euthanasia of the animal.Discussion: It is possible to conclude that the TVT can affect extragenital locations, although it is considered to be rare. Emphasizing that the canine species is regarded as an important reservoir of  Leishmania sp., with a prominent role in the maintenance and interaction between the cycle of the disease, attention is drawn in this case for the risk to One Health, as the contact of this dog with phlebotomines, may have enabled, whilst alive, the perpetuation and transmission of the disease to other susceptible animals and human beings. As they are distinct diseases, but with pronounced rates of immunosuppression, when TVT and leishmaniasis occur in association, they generate a concerning state of debility which hinders the adoption of efficient therapeutic measures for both illnesses. Cytology is a diagnostic technique, which should whenever possible be routinely associated to the clinical examination in the veterinary practice, as it is of easy performance, low cost and great value in the determination of the diagnosis of neoplasia, identification of parasites and several other affections.
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108475
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Mammary Fibroepithelial Hyperplasia in a Male Cat

    • Authors: Giovanna Lapkoski Bonatto, Victoria Gariba e Silva, Lucas Jocemir Favero, Natália Noreika Kano, Renato Silva de Sousa, Vinicius Gonzalez Peres Albernaz
      Abstract: Background: Feline mammary hyperplasia (FMH) is a benign disease that commonly affects young females, once it is caused by the exaggerated stimulation of endogenous or exogenous progestogen. FMH leads to acute edema and inflammation of the mammary glands and frequently evolve to ulcerations, secondary infections, and systemic clinical signs. Even though it is rare in male cats, progesterone therapy or an unknown endogenous source of hormone can cause the disease. This report aims to describe a case of FMH in a male feline with no history of hormonal treatment and treated with radical surgical resection. Case: A 7-month-old intact male domestic shorthair cat was presented due to acute onset of generalized mammary tumors which had progressed for 18 days. Tumors size had 5 cm large in diameter, symmetric, bilateral, and affected all mammary glands. The tissue was firm, hyperemic, and ulcerated. FMH was initially suspected but with a differential diagnosis for mammary adenocarcinoma. Except for pain on tumor palpation, there was no other clinical abnormality. Survey thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound did not find signs of metastasis or hermaphroditism. Fine-needle aspirate biopsy and further cytological examination were inconclusive. Surgical resection through a single-stage bilateral total mastectomy and reconstruction using a left flank fold flap was elected. There were no intraoperative complications and the cat recovered well, with good healing and no clinical signs 21 days after the surgery. Histological examination of the mammary glands confirmed the diagnosis of FMH due to the non-neoplastic characteristics and tissue’s benign biological behavior. Eleven months after diagnosis, the cat was asymptomatic.Discussion: The FMH frequently affects young females and is associated with gestational periods, the end of the estrous cycle, and, most commonly, hormonal therapy with synthetic progesterone. Male cats are rarely affected with or without a history of progesterone administration, which is commonly used for treatment of dermatopathies, urinary incontinence, control of behavioral changes, or mistakenly as a contraceptive. Clinical signs are the acute onset of mammary tumors with firm consistency, inflammation, ulcerated areas, absence of mammary secretion, and mobility difficulty due to local swelling. Systemic clinical signs including apathy, anorexia, fever, and dehydration can occur. The main differential diagnosis is mammary neoplasia and diagnosis is suspected by the patient’s history, disease progression, and histological examination. Conservative treatment using a progesterone inhibitor, such as aglepristone, can be performed but usually take a few weeks to promote total remission, may require additional administration, and does not prevent a possible recurrence. Radical mastectomy is an alternative to late-stage disease. It was chosen toperform a single-stage bilateral mastectomy for surgical removal of the FMH in this case mainly considering that it was a male cat with no detectable progesterone source, marked swelling, and a clinical condition that could deteriorate quickly. The FMH prognosis is good when there are no secondary infections or systemic signs, making it possible to maintain quality of life after treatment. The FMH must be considered a differential diagnosis for feline mammary tumors, regardless of gender and history of progesterone administration.
      PubDate: 2021-05-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111672
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Pancytopenia in a Dog Induced by Concomitant Use of Myelotoxic Drugs

    • Authors: Gabriela Oliveira da Paz Augusto Pinto, Thais Ribeiro Pena Paiva, Giovana Scuissiatto de Souza, Weslley Junior de Oliveira, Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich
      Abstract: Background: The indiscriminate use of drugs is an issue in Veterinary Medicine, as it has serious consequences for the animals. Many drugs are myelotoxic and cause a decrease in the production of blood cells, which may be irreversible in some cases. The present work reports a case of pancytopenia induced by the concomitant use of myelotoxic drugs (estrogen, metamizole and phenobarbital) in a dog and describes findings on myelotoxicity, hematological alterations and treatment success.
      Case: A 7-year-old Lhasa Apso bitch was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba campus, with hematuria and a history of treatment with phenobarbital [2 mg/kg twice a day (bis in die, BID)], metamizole [25 mg/kg three times a day (ter in die, TID)], and use of estrogen hormone (estradiol cypionate). At physical examination, the animal was normohydrated and exhibited normal palpable lymph nodes, pale mucous membranes, galactorrhea, and a body temperature of 36°C. A complete blood count including reticulocyte count and a total plasma protein (TPP) exam were requested. The results revealed pancytopenia (18% hematocrit, 1,400 total leucocytes/µL, and 22,000 reticulocytes/µL). An abdominal ultrasound exam did not detect any relevant alterations. In view of the results obtained, medullary aplasia was suspected. A bone marrow aspiration was performed. A myelogram revealed a decrease in cellularity (erythrocytic and granulocytic hypoplasia), with presence of rare erythroid and granulocytic precursors. The diagnosis was medullary aplasia. The animal was treated, and the evolution of the hematological alterations was monitored. The treatment consisted of administration of erythropoietin (100UI/kg subcutaneously every 48 h), prednisone (2 mg/kg BID), Leucogen (3 mg/kg BID), interferon (0.2 IU/kg BID) and Eritrós Dog Tabs [1 tablet once a day (semel in die, SID)]. After five days of treatment, the patient’s clinical picture improved (30% hematocrit, 5,300 total leukocytes/µL, 84,000 platelets/µL, and 195,000 reticulocytes/µL), and the hematological alterations were resolved after 25 days of treatment (43% hematocrit, 5,100 total leukocytes/µL, and 333,000 platelets/µL). The bitch was discharged after 89 days of treatment.
      Discussion: The hematological alterations found in the patient were consistent with pancytopenia, and the myelogram allowed the establishment of a diagnosis of medullary aplasia. There are various causes of pancytopenia in dogs; in this case, it was caused by medications, as the drugs administered to the patient (estrogens, metamizole, and phenobarbital) are myelotoxic. Canine bone marrow is susceptible to suppression by estrogens, which can induce medullary aplasia even with a single dose. No reports on hematological alterations caused by dipyrone (metamizole) in dogs were found; however, in humans, development of aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, nephrotoxicity, and allergic reactions have been attributed to the use of this drug. Phenobarbital can cause adverse reactions that lead to anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Evaluating the bone marrow of animals with pancytopenia is important because this procedure allows the establishment of a diagnosis that may prompt treatment while hematopoietic precursors are still present in the bone marrow. In this case, a treatment using hematopoietic stimulants was employed owing to the presence of erythrocytic and myelocytic precursors in the patient’s bone marrow. The treatment instituted was efficacious, as only five days of therapy already improved the hematological condition of the patient, who was discharged after 89 days of treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-05-09
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.111295
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I in a Dog

    • Authors: Andreza da Silva Amaral, Nathali Adrielli Agassi de Sales, Isabel Rodrigues Rosado, Roberto Giugliani, Maira Graeff Burin, Guilherme Baldo, Ian Martin, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves
      Abstract: Background: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare illnesses caused by deficient activity of enzymes required for degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Each type of MPS is caused by mutations in one of the genes that encode the 11 acid hydrolases involved in this degradation process, which are present in the lysosomes. Progressive accumulation of GAGs in the lysosomes result in cellular dysfunction and multisystemic clinical signs, with consequent decrease in quality of life and lifespan of the affected patients. The objective of the present work is to report a case of MPS type I in a dog.
      Case: A mixed-breed male dog of approximately 2-month-old weighing 2.5 kg was referred to Hospital Veterinário de Uberaba with a distended abdomen. At the clinical examination, the patient exhibited a regular nutritional status, pale mucous membranes, 7% dehydration, an arterial pulse rate of 120 beats per minute, a respiratory rate of 40 breaths per minute, and a heart rate of 120 beats per minute. There were increased abdominal volume and tension, and hepatosplenomegaly. The abdominal percussion exam produced a dull tone. Additional findings included muscular atrophy, increased volume in the metaphyseal areas of the thoracic and pelvic limbs, valgus limb deformity in the thoracic limbs, and instability of the hip joint. Radiographic examination revealed a series of bone alterations such as reduced vertebral bodies, a generalized decrease in radiopacity, thin cortical areas in long bones, narrowing of the pelvic canal, and marked deformation and irregularities in acetabular and epiphyseal (both proximal and distal) areas of the femurs and tibias. Ankylosis of the tibiotarsal and tarsometatarsal joints was also observed. There was also loss of trabecular structure and irregularities on the surfaces of all epiphyses of the bones, epiphyseal lines markedly open, and bones that were shorter and thicker than normal. The suspected diagnoses were pseudoachondroplasia and mucopolysaccharidosis. In view of the clinical and radiographic findings, tests were performed to investigate the clinical suspicion of MPS. Consequently, qualitative and quantitative tests of GAGs in the urine, as well as a blood enzymatic essay, were requested; results confirmed the diagnosis of MPS type I. Intensive treatment allowed the patient to reach adulthood. Whenever new clinical signs emerged, they were treated palliatively. As the disease became more severe, the patient died at the age of 3 years.
      Discussion: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is a rare disease that exhibits variable clinical signs and for which there is no specific treatment in dogs; these characteristics hinder diagnosis and treatment of patients as the one described in this report. The major clinical signs observed in this case are in agreement with those reported in the literature, according to which the disease can cause severe alterations such as bone defects, increased volume and deformities in the joints of the limbs, corneal opacity, and enlargement of abdominal organs such as the liver and spleen. In considering diagnostic methods for MPS, the main screening test is quantification of GAGs in the urine. The confirmatory test for MPS consists of analysis of the activity of specific lysosomal enzymes in a blood sample; this test allowed the establishment of a diagnosis in this case. Enzyme replacement therapy, in which a recombinant enzyme is used, have yielded good results in humans and dogs. However, this treatment does not cure the disease – it only attenuates the clinical signs and enables the patient to reach adulthood. Access to enzyme replacement therapy was not possible in the present case. As a conclusion, MPS should be included in the differential diagnosis of developmental diseases in puppies. This highlights the importance of further studies and reports on this disease.
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.110624
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Peritonitis and Necrotizing Hepatitis in Ara ararauna Caused by a Foreign

    • Authors: Larissa Justino, Maisa Fabiana Menck-Costa, Ana Aparecida Correa Xavier, Marielen de Souza, Beatriz Queiroz dos Santos, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense, Ana Angelita Sampaio Baptista
      Abstract: Background: The ingestion of foreign bodies in parrots has already been described and associated with the curious behavior of the birds or with stressful conditions. Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are usually diagnosed through clinical signs, laboratory tests, and radiographic findings in the historical data. Foreign bodies are usually metallic and can lodge in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract, commonly found in the proventricle and gizzard. This study investigated a case of necrotizing hepatitis due to a foreign body in Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758).Case: An approximately 9-month-old specimen of caninde macaw, had sudden death and was referred for autopsy. The macroscopic examination revealed a fibrous, thick, reddish membrane involving the left hepatic lobe and partially the gizzard in continuity with the peritoneum. Inside the capsule, the liver had a friable and necrotic appearance and the gizzard had a focal perforation area containing a foreign body (gavage probe). We performed the histopathological examination of the liver and gizzard and observed that the membrane surrounding the liver and partially the gizzard had a chronic inflammatory process with a marked proliferation of fibrous tissue and fibrin deposition. The hepatic parenchyma of the left lobe showed diffuse and marked necrosis, with signs of ischemic necrosis. In the region of transmural perforation of the gizzard, the mucosa showed a focal area of extensive necrosis accompanied by the presence of intralesional bacteria. The lesions observed are attributed to the perforation of the organs by the foreign body. It is not known whether the bird ingested the object accidently during food handling as a young or due to the curious behavior of the bird or even the stress it may have been exposed to. The post-mortem examination revealed localized peritonitis and encapsulating necrotizing hepatitis, focally extensive and accentuated, associated with foreign body perforation.Discussion: The curious habit of parrots, can provide the ingestion of foreign bodies, in which they lodge in the gastrointestinal tract. Generally, the clinical signs are nonspecific, however, proventricular impaction, stasis and even perforations in the mucosa of organs can be observed. In the present study, we suspect that the Caninde macaw accidentally ingested a gavage probe during feeding management as a young. This object lodged in the bird's ventricle, perforating the organ and reaching the liver, due to intimate contact with the gizzard, providing a picture of ventriculitis and necrotizing hepatitis. Necrotizing hepatitis due to foreign body has been reported in the literature due to ingestion of perforating foreign body with lesion in the left ventricle and lobe, however we have no knowledge of reports with the presence of a capsule involving the left hepatic lobe, similar to a capsule like this, we understand that our report is the first description of encapsulating necrotizing hepatitis in birds. We believe that this capsule of connective tissue was formed, due to the inflammatory process in the peritoneal cavity, in birds the deposition of fibrin can form a structure similar to a capsule, in order to trap cells and the agent responsible for inflammation, preventing septicemia. Transmural perforation in the gizzard, observed in this case, allowed bacterial translocation that may have contributed to the worsening of the chronic condition and death due to the accumulation of toxins or bacterial translocation of the gastric tract, leading to liver infection and sepsis. We concluded that the presence of the perforating foreign body was responsible for the peritonitis and encapsulating necrotizing hepatitis in Ara ararauna.
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109806
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Intestinal Caseous Lymphadenitis in Sheep

    • Authors: Alexandre Machado Martins, Alexandre Santos Carneiro, Lara Giovana Diniz, Priscila Chediek Dall'Acqua, Juliana Evangelista Bezzerril, Fabricio Eumar de Souza, Eric Mateus Nascimento de Paula, Andresa de Cássia Martini
      Abstract: Background: Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is considered the main agent responsible for abscess lesions. In the visceral form it can affect the internal organs of sheep and goats, which could negatively affect animal health and cause large economic losses for producers.Case: This study aims to report a case of intestinal CL in sheep, with suspected diagnosis during physical examination and identification during the performance of the oophorectomy procedure, adopted as a management approach. It is a mixed breed sheep, aged over 5 years; weight 28 kg; emaciated on physical examination; with pale pink and moist eyelid mucosa; heart and respiratory rate: 81 beats/min and 22 movements/min, respectively; body temperature 39.2°C; ruminal movements at 1 movement/min; without identification of lymphadenomegaly on palpation, however, it was observed that the right submandibular lymph node presented tissue retraction compatible with the healing process. For the surgical procedure, an 18-h fast was used and pre-anesthetic medication with 2% xylazine (0.1 mg/kg), 10% ketamine (5 mg/kg) and 50 mg/mL tramadol (2 mg/kg) administrated intramuscularly. The animal was placed in the left lateral decubitus position, then was performed trichotomy and epidural administration of 2% lidocaine (4 mg/kg) and maintenance with propofol 10 mg/mL intravenous dose-effect and oxygen mask 3 liters/min, antibiotic prophylaxis was performed with 10% enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg). Flank oophorectomy was performed according to the classic technique and during abdominal inspection, abscess lesions were found in the mesentery and intestinal loops. Incisional biopsy was performed to collect samples in the jejunal segment. At the end of the procedure, 50 mg/mL (2.2 mg/kg) of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously. A 0.6 cm x 0.2 cm sample, was submitted to histological analysis, which showed the presence of central necrosis areas formed by concentric lamellae, with the presence of large bacterial colonies and foci of mineralization, surrounded by a strip of inflammatory infiltrate with epithelial macrophages and few neutrophils. In the adjacent layer, lymphocytes and plasmocytes were found and the entire lesion was delimited by fibrous conjunctive tissue, compatible with lesions caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the causative agent of CL. During the whole postoperative period the animal was kept isolated from the herd. Due to the unfavorable prognosis and histological confirmation of visceral CL, euthanasia was indicated. The animal was sent for necropsy and no lesions compatible with CL were found in other organs or tissues besides the anatomical structures where the lesions were previously described (intestine and mesentery).Discussion: As it is an infectious disease, isolation and euthanasia should be indicated in cases of CL, in order to not compromise the health of the herd. Thus, justifying the orientation of euthanasia after histological confirmation. The case did not have other possibilities of diagnostic aid, however, histological lesions of CL are characteristic but not pathognomonic, as it could be confused with lesions caused by other pyogenic pathogens. In this way, clinical considerations and complementary exams are relevant to support the diagnostic. To conclude, the observation and physical examination of the herd were fundamental tools for raising the diagnostic hypothesis ante mortem. Complementary tests allowed the confirmation of the disease and prevented the spread in the herd, which could lead to large economic losses for producers and negatively affect animal health.
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105839
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease in Rough Toothed Dolphins (Steno bredanensis)
           founded in the Paraná coast, Southern Brazil

    • Authors: Bárbara Giglio Pires, Daniela Farias da Nóbrega, Camila Domit, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense
      Abstract: Background: Renal cystic diseases (RCD) are characterized by cystic structures on renal parenchyma associated with obstructive lesions, membranous disruptions, and/or growth disturbances. The polycystic kidney disease (PKD) shows specific pathological characteristics, related to mutations on PKD1 and/or PKD2 chromosome locus on humans. In Persian cats and bull terriers the condition is like the human “adult-onset” PKD, while in Perendale sheep the “childhood”-like is described. In cetaceans, RCD are reported, however the characterization of PKD is scarcely described.  This report aims to describe two cases of PKD and one of RCD in stranded Steno bredanensis, and to discuss the disease associated factors.Cases: Four rough-toothed-dolphins were found stranded in the Paraná coast, southern Brazil between 2016 to 2018, through the Santos Basin Beach Monitoring Project (PMP-BS), one of the systematic monitoring programs required by Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) for the environmental licensing process of oil production and transport by Petrobras in the presalt province. In three animals histological sampling was performed. One of them (animal 3) was founded alive, presenting altered buoyancy with lateralization to the right and signs of pneumonia. The blood analysis showed anemia and leukocytosis. The animal showed poor clinical prognosis, and even with supportive treatment, come to death four days after the rescue. Routine autopsies were performed on all animals. Animals 1 and 2 presented macroscopically enlarged kidneys containing disseminated cystic structures in the parenchyma. On microscopic examination, the cortical region showed diffuse cystic structures delimited by variable thickness of fibrous tissue, usually compressing adjacent glomeruli, without concomitant inflammatory process. In these cases, the death was associated with the end stage renal disease. Animal 3 showed grossly few cystic structures, well delimited and replacing some reniculi. Tracheitis, granulomatous pneumonia, esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis and papilloma on penis and palate were observed. Microscopically, the cysts were lined by a single layer of columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by extensive fibrotic tissue. Multifocal tubular necrosis was also noticed. Multifocal moderate nonsuppurative encephalitis with parasitic eggs and bacterial granulomatous hemorrhagic pneumonia were observed. In this case, the death was associated with the lesions in the nervous system. Discussion: Data concerning polycystic kidney disease on cetaceans and wild animals is limited, and no primary genetic pathway was associated. In the present study, the gross and histological aspects observed on two animals (1 and 2) are similar to the characteristics found in the human adult form of PKD, while the characteristics observed on animal 3 are consistent with usual cystic disease. In addition, the animals are aged like humans where the end stage renal disease occurs in patients around 70 years old. The kidney histological aspects observed in all animals are similar, however, animal 3 showed no renomegaly, a characteristic of PKD.  Considering the genetic pathway involved in humans and some animal’s breeds, investigation on gene mutations in S. bredanensis could help to define if this is also a genetic disorder and increase the knowledge about PKD. Keywords: kidney, delphinidae, PKD, diagnostic pathology, cystic disease, rough toothed dolphin.

      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108543
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Intrapelvic Intestinal Leiomyoma in a Dog - Diagnostic and Therapeutic

    • Authors: Endreo Alan Pail dos Santos, Maria Lígia de Arruda Mestieri, Mauren Picada Emanuelli, Laís Fernanda Wojahn, Fabiana Wurster Strey, Bruno Leite dos Anjos
      Abstract: Background: Rectal tumors are uncommon in dogs and cats. The clinical signs result from intra- and extraluminal compression. Diagnosis and treatment of rectal tumors are challenging due to their intraplevic location.  Owing to considerable bone superposition, computed tomography is the best exam to evaluate the tumor and plan surgery; however, poor availability and high costs may hinder its use. The objective of this case report is to describe the successful use of a combination of diagnostic techniques, namely transrectal ultrasound, transrectal fine-needle aspiration, and colonoscopy, for diagnosis and surgery planning in a case of intrapelvic intestinal leiomyoma in a dog.Case: A 13-year-old female mongrel dog with tenesmus, low stool production, and hematochezia for two months was presented for examination. During this two-month period, a symptomatic treatment was administered, but there was no clinical improvement. In the clinical evaluation revealed a painless mass on the left dorsolateral region, at a depth of around 4 cm, with considerable luminal reduction. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass close to the descending colon; however, bone superposition precluded identification of its origin or delimitation of its boundaries. The patient was subjected to transrectal ultrasound imaging, colonoscopy, and cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration biopsy material collected under general anesthesia. The mass was located at the final portion of the descending colon; it was extraluminal, and measured around 7 x 7 cm. The integrity of the intestinal wall was preserved.  Next, radiographic examination of the thorax using three projections (ventrodorsal, left lateral, and right lateral) was performed to check for metastases, and no alteration was detected. Cytology suggested presence of leiomyoma. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with pubic osteotomy for intrapelvic access. The extraluminal mass was found adhered to the dorsal colorectal surface, whose serosa was compromised. The mass, which occupied around 80 to 90% of the pelvic canal, was completely removed and submitted to histopathological examination, which confirmed presence of proliferative neoplastic mesenchymal cells (intestinal leiomyoma). The patient's clinical picture evolved without intercurrences, and the patient was discharged 40 days after the pubic bone consolidation procedure.Discussion: The occurrence of leiomyomas in the colorectal segment of the intestine is rare in dogs. Neoplasms that develop in such a region of the intestine are usually more frequently found in elderly animals, such as the patient of this report. Leiomyomas are benign (non-invasive) neoplasms with slow growth. Consequently, clinical signs emerge when the mass exhibits a large size, which causes intra- or extraluminal compression, tenesmus, diminished production or absence of defecation, and hematochezia, as observed in the present case. Even though the clinical signs are similar in these cases, they are unspecific; consequently, for reaching a diagnosis, biopsy and histological investigation are required. In spite of the usefulness of these procedures for diagnosis, computed tomography is the exam of choice to investigate neoplasms in intrapelvic intestinal segments because it allows three-dimensional reconstruction of the affected structures and facilitates surgical planning. Unfortunately, computed tomography was not available for this case. Consequently, colonoscopy, transrectal ultrasound, and transrectal fine-needle aspiration biopsy were performed. When combined, these procedures allowed determination of the location, size and type of neoplasm, which were crucial pieces of information for the correct diagnosis and surgical planning, thus contributing for the successful management of the patient.
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105393
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Digital Measurement of the Diameter of the Collagen Fibers by Transmission
           Electron Microscopy for Diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Like in Small

    • Authors: Victor José Vieira Rossetto, Camila Crepaldi Ferranti, Bruna Fernanda Firmo, Daniela Adachi Miazaki, Daniela Carvalho dos Santos, Júlio Lopes Sequeira, Cláudia Valéria Seullner Brandão
      Abstract: Background: Ehlers-Danlos-Like Syndrome (EDS) is a rare disease in small animals, whose diagnosis is based on the clinical findings and histopathological examination. The definitive diagnosis may require transmission electron microscopy. Despite this, the ultrastructural changes are poorly described in the literature. The aim of the present study is to describe the ultrastructural findings of collagen fibers and fibroblasts present in the dermis of two animals with EDS, and to evaluate the digital measurement of the diameter of the collagen fibers by transmission electron microscopic images.Cases: Two animals were evaluated with EDS by transmission electron microscopy. The first animal was an 1-year-old mixed breed female cat, due to spontaneous skin laceration, increased skin elasticity and an extensibility index corresponding to 25%. The second animal evaluated was a 5-month-old Golden Retriever female dog due to articular hypermobility, increased skin elasticity and an extensibility index corresponding to 16.6%. After a skin biopsy of the interscapular and lumbar regions, the samples were fixed in formalin 10% and glutaraldehyde for, respectively, histopathological examination by HE staining, and transmission electron microscopy. The histopathology of the affected cat revealed collagen fibers shortened and sometimes fragmented. The histopathology of the affected dog revealed disarranged and more eosinophilic staining collagen fibers. The collagen fibers were also of unequal sizes, shortened and slightly undulate. At the transmission electron microscopy of the affected cat was evidenced a greater spacing of the collagen fibers of variable diameters. Further this, the fibroblasts showed elongated nuclei with heterochromatic regions, which was surrounded externally by scant cytoplasm. The cytoplasm showed elongated and discrete organelles. At the transmission electron microscopy of the affected dog was evidenced a greater spacing of the collagen fibers of variable diameters. Further this, fibroblasts exhibited intense cytoplasmic vacuolization with similar appearance to that found in the dying process by autophagy. In addition, the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy were submitted to digital analysis to measure the diameter of the collagen fibers using the software Image J. For this purpose, it was obtained the average of the diameter of 10 collagen fibers in cross-section into four quadrants of 1μm each. The digital analysis of collagen fibers revealed significant alterations in the ultrastructure of collagen. In addition, it was verified cellular changes, such as the large amount of intracytoplasmic vesicles and the small amount of collagen fibers dispersed around the cells.Discussion: Microscopic abnormalities visualized by HE staining in this present study were compatible with the literature Transmission electron microscopy is fundamental to confirm the suspicion, since it revealed dermal alterations in the ultrastructure of collagen and fibroblasts. These findings indicate possible failure mechanisms of secretion and release of cellular products, as well as collagen. The digital measurement of the diameter of the collagen fibers contributed to the confirmation of the disease, since it was made randomly and reduced the subjectivity inherent of the evaluator. However, there are no studies using this method to allocate a range of significance for the diameter of collagen fibers that may be considered suggestive for the syndrome in small animals.
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.100939
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Lumbar Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in a Young Dog

    • Authors: Ana Caroline da Silva Néto Souza, Carlos Humberto da Costa Vieira Filho, Elainne Maria Beanes da Silva, Caterina Muramoto, Icaro Farias Correia, Lorena Souza Ribeiro, Kátia Guimarães Requião, Eduardo Luiz Trindade Moreira
      Abstract: Background: The most common location of malignant tumors of the peripheral nerve sheath in the spinal cord is the intradural-extramedullary region, and is rare in the spinal nerve roots in the lumbar region. They mainly affect large female dogs over six years of age. Imaging tests assist in the presumptive diagnosis, but confirmation requires histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The prognosis is guarded. Diagnostic imaging, anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings of a malignant tumor of the intradural-extramedullary peripheral nerve sheath with medullary infiltration in the lumbar region in a young dog are reported.Case: A body of a 6-year-old Poodle dog was donated for necropsy and diagnostic clarification. In the history, there was a suspicion of lumbar intramedullary neoplasia, detected by computed tomography (CT), with a 4 years progressive chronic evolution. Additionally, the dog had hidden spina bifida (L7 to S3), as detected by radiography and CT. On post mortem radiographic examination (X-ray), there was an enlargement of the vertebral canal (T10 to S2), intense osteolysis (L1 to S2), spinous processes (L5 to L7), and ankylosis (L3 to L7). Necropsy revealed ankylosis (L3 to L7) and intradural-extramedullary mass (9.5 × 2.6 × 2.3 cm) (L2 to L6). No metastases were identified. On microscopy, there was neoplastic proliferation of cells with intense pleomorphism, arranged in bundles interlaced in palisades and sometimes solid mantles. The mitotic index was high, ranging from 10 to 12 mitoses per field. There was also necrosis, hemorrhage, edema, and focal axonal demyelination of the adjacent white matter in the spinal cord. Masson Trichrome staining highlighted an intense diffuse conjunctive stroma. There was a suspicion of a malignant tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath and an immunohistochemical panel was performed for confirmation. There was strong and diffuse positivity for vimentin and S-100 and partial positivity for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), negative for anti-factor VIII, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), α-actin for smooth muscle, cytokeratin, neurofilament, and desmin. Thus, the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of the peripheral nerve sheath was confirmed.Discussion: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are classified as benign or malignant. In dogs, they are frequent in elderly, females, and large breeds. In this case report, the animal was young, female, and small breed. The location of the spinal nerve roots is uncommon, and is more commonly found in the brachial plexus. In the animal reported, the tumor was observed as lumbar swelling. Clinical signs vary with the affected region, however, neurogenic claudication and muscle atrophy are more frequent, as observed in this report. Imaging examinations such as X-rays and CT assist in the presumptive diagnosis. In this case report, spina bifida was identified on radiography, and CT suggested the presence of intramedullary neoplasia and allowed to monitor tumor growth. Post mortem X-ray imaging revealed intense osteolysis and ankylosis, which were confirmed at necropsy, which also elucidated its intradural-extramedullary location with infiltration into the spinal cord. The confirmation of the neoplasm was made by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination; the latter should be made a panel, not restricted to the use of antibodies S-100 and vimentin only. The prognosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) of the spinal cord is poor, and although there are palliative methods, there is no curative treatment, as complications can interfere with the quality of life of the animal. MPNST should be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal disorders, even in young dogs and small breeds. CT helps in early diagnosis to make decisions aimed at the animal's well-being.
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109929
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Clinic-Pathological Aspects of Spleen Hemophagocytic Histiocytic Sarcoma
           in a Dog

    • Authors: Thaynan Cunha Vieira, Luiz Flávio Telles, Karen Yumi Ribeiro Nakagaki, Geovanni Dantas Cassali
      Abstract: Background: Histiocytes are cells that differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cell lines from bone marrow CD34+ stem cells. The hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma (HHS) is the only malignant neoplasm originating from macrophage lineages, being a variation of histiocytic sarcoma (HS), originated from dendritic cells. In general, the HHS shows aggressive biological behavior, due to the erythrophagocytosis characteristic of this disease and overall average survival around seven weeks, affecting mainly Bernese Mountain Dog, Rottweiler and Golden Retriever breeds. Therefore, the objective of this work is to report the case of a dog with HHS, emphasizing the clinical aspects and its diagnostic method.Case: An 8-year-old bitch Rottweiler, was attended with history of inappetence and prostration. The complete blood count showed normochromic normocytic anemia, monocytosis and thrombocytopenia, with serum urea levels below the reference value for the specie in the biochemical examination. The abdominal ultrasound highlighted splenomegaly, with heterogeneous parenchyma and presence of a vascularized mass and an enlarged splenic vein.  Thoracic radiographic examination showed multifocal and rounded radiopaque structures in the pulmonary parenchyma, suggesting metastatic formation. Rapid serological tests for detection of the main hemoparasitosis antibodies were negative, as well as negative Coombs test. The animal was submitted to exploratory laparotomy with medial line access and posterior splenectomy. The spleen microscopic evaluation revealed neoplastic proliferation cells in mantle arrangement and solid nests areas, supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. The cells had broad and eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei and some pleomorphism, rude chromatin and evident nucleoli. It was also observed the presence of marked anisocytosis and anisocariosis, hemophagocytic activity, and 27 mitoses in 10 fields (40 x). There were atypical mitoses and necrosis and extensive hemorrhaged areas. These histopathological findings suggested a histiocytic malignant neoplasia and immunohistochemical analysis   was performed to define a better histiocytic neoplasm origin. The neoplastic cells showed positive imunostaining for CD11d and Iba1 and negative imunostaining for CD3 and CD20, as well as a proliferative index of 80%, supporting the diagnosis of HHS in the animal's spleen. The following hematological analyzes demonstrated persistence of anemia, worsening of thrombocytopenia, prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, hypoproteinemia with hypoalbuminemia, serum increase of creatinine, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Myelogram showed erythrocyte and granulocytic lineage hypoplasia, thrombocytic aplasia and more than 50% of macrophages in bone marrow cell population. The animal’s clinical condition worsened rapidly, after successive transfusions and administration of chemotherapy with lomustine, leading to death 14 days after the surgery.Discussion: HHS is the most serious clinical presentation among histiocytic disorders, conferring an extremely unfavorable prognosis. In addition, the scientific literature that specifically addresses the HHS is rare, with therapeutic extrapolations being performed for the treatment of HS from dendritic cells. The racial predisposition and clinical findings, associated with hematological changes, histopathological analysis and confirmation by immunohistochemistry allowed the diagnosis of HHS, a rare and underreported neoplasm, with aggressive biological behavior and with still inefficient treatment in veterinary medicine.
      PubDate: 2021-04-18
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106173
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Incisional Hernia in a Dog

    • Authors: Antônio Jackson Sousa Lima, Wagner Costa Lima, Dayanne Anunciação Silva Dantas Lima, Pollyana Linhares Sala, Talita Bianchin Borges, Ana Maria Quessada
      Abstract: Background: The rupture of the suture in the abdominal wall, but with integrity of the cutaneous suture, results in a condition known as incisional hernia. It is characterized by the protrusion of the abdominal viscera through orifices or areas of the abdominal wall. In most of the cases these defects in the abdominal wall are iatrogenic. The incisional hernia occurs in an intact wall that is weakened by surgical incisions. The available literature on the incidence of incisional hernias in animals is scarce. With the aim to contribute to the information about incisional hernia in animals, it was decided to describe the case of incisional hernia in a female dog after performing ovariohysterectomy (OH).Case: An adult mongrel shelter bitch, of unknown age, weighing 9.5 kg was admitted for OH in a practical class of the veterinary surgical technical discipline. Once the anesthetic condition was established, a retro-umbilical cutaneous incision was made. After opening the abdominal cavity, the bitch was castrated routinely. The abdominal wall was sutured including peritoneum, muscle fascia, and rectus abdominis muscle with nylon thread and U-stitches. The subcutaneous tissue was then sutured with the same thread using Cushing suture. Ten days after the surgery, when the stitches were removed, the bitch revealed an increase in volume at the region of the surgical scar. Incisional hernia was diagnosed after careful palpation. For correction of the hernia, the bitch was submitted to surgical procedure. After the skin opening, an intense inflammatory reaction was observed in the subcutaneous tissue. The inflamed skin and subcutaneous tissue were removed. The abdominal cavity was closed with nylon thread by means of U-stitches. The subcutaneous and skin sutures were the same as the first surgery. Ten days after the second surgery, stitches were removed, and the bitch had fully recovered. Discussion: One of the factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of the hernia was carrying out the surgical procedure in a practical class. The difficulties shown by students are related to the long learning curve, the complexity of the invasive technique, and the lack of ability. The apprentice surgeon can cause injuries in the tissues due to excessive manipulation. Post-incision hernias are acquired and formed when a cavity wall closed by surgery is ruptured. Another factor that may have contributed to the occurrence of the hernia described here is unsatisfactory postoperative care, which may be considered as one of the factors for acute cases of incisional hernias. Information on postoperative care after the patient was returned to the shelter is not available. Therefore, it cannot be ruled out that the patient, in contact with other animals by means of games or even fights, could have ruptured the points, thus causing dehiscence of the suture in the abdominal wall. However, it was concluded that the most probable factors involved in the etiology of the hernia in question were nutritional deficiencies along with the inexperience of the surgeon. The treatment adopted in the patient (herniorrhaphy) was adequate for the correction of the hernia. The technique and the material to be used in the procedure are of great importance, since it must be resistant enough to avoid recurrences. In the patient in question, nylon thread was used in separate U-shaped stitches. In the literature, there are reports that unabsorbable yarns used at separate points present the lowest rate of dehiscence and relapse in the abdominal wall sutures. The incisional hernia can be prevented by preparing the patient for surgery, improving the nutritional requirements, and by a more intense training of the students performing the surgical procedure in the neutering program of dogs and cats during practical classes.
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108017
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • LOPH and D-MHC in the Treatment of FeLV Associated Acute Leukemia in a Cat

    • Authors: Rodrigo dos Santos Horta, Ana Luisa Fajardo Ferreira, Mariana de Pádua Costa, Ligia Soares Frossard, Júlia Campero Nimrichter, Mylena Duarte de Carli, Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira Paes
      Abstract: Background: Bone marrow primary malignancies are denominated leukemias, classified as myeloid or lymphoid, according to the cell lineage, and acute or chronic, according to the cell´s state of maturation. In cats, acute lymphoid leukemia is the most common form, especially in regions endemic for feline leukemia virus and / or feline immunodeficiency virus. A new treatment protocol for lymphomas, called LOPH, has been described for animals with FeLV persistent viremia. This study aimed to report a case of a cat presenting with FeLV associated acute leukemia and treated with the LOPH protocol, and, in the rescue phase, a modification of the D-MAC protocol, denominated D-MHC.Case: A 4-year-old mixed breed intact queen was attended due to lethargy and inappetence. The patient did not present any relevant abnormalities in the clinical exam and complementary exams were performed including complete blood count, biochemical profile, SNAP Feline Triple Test, chest radiographs and abdominal ultrasound. Imaging tests and biochemical values were unremarkable, but the patient presented a reagent result for FeLV and severe leukocytosis due to lymphocytosis. The morphological evaluation of the blood smear revealed the presence of blasts, in a concentration greater than 20% of the nucleated cells, which allowed the characterization of a leukemic state, probably lymphoid. First-line treatment was based on the LOPH protocol, including Lomustine, Vincristine, Prednisoloneand Doxorubicin, in four-week cycles. Nevertheless, during the third cycle, 66 days after the institution of this protocol, the patient presented a febrile condition along with marked leukocytosis due to lymphocytosis, confirming leukemia recurrence. A rescue attempt was performed with a modification of the D-MAC protocol, originally consisting of the combination of dexamethasone, melphalan, actinomycin-D and cytarabine, but with replacement of actinomycin-D by doxorubicin, and therefore nominated D-MHC. After the three cycles there was a return of the febrile condition associated with severe pancytopenia and euthanasia was elected due to poor clinical condition, resulting in a survival time of 124 days. The hematological toxicity of the induction protocol included anemia and neutropenia, with mainly grade I events, but with the occurrence of a grade IV event. The adverse effects of the rescue protocol were similar, but with a greater number of grade IV events.Discussion: FeLV is considered the most lethal retrovirus of the domestic cat, with a major impact on health and life expectancy. Persistent FeLV antigenemia increases the risk of hematopoietic neoplasms in 62.1 times due to a direct insertional mutagenesis. In endemic regions, approximately 70% of cats with acute leukemia have persistent FeLV antigenemia, as the patient in this report. The diagnosis was made through association of retroviral status and the identification of more than 20% of blasts, possibly lymphoblasts, in the blood stream, sparing the need for a myelogram. Considering the poor prognosis for acute lymphoid leukemias and the patient's retroviral status, treatment was initiated with the LOPH protocol, including lomustine, as a potent agent to induce remission, and doxorubicin, which can result in longer remission intervals. After 66 days free of the disease, the patient presented recurrence of the leukemic condition, starting the rescue protocol D-MHC. Remission was again obtained with duration similar to the first protocol, however, on the occasion of a new leukemia recurrence, euthanasia was elected. The treatment adopted for the patient in this report resulted in a longer survival time than reported in other studies. Despite the aggressiveness of the protocols, especially the D-MHC, it was possible to perform it using the monocyte and granulocyte stimulation factor to reverse neutropenia.
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106950
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Pelvic Limb Amputation in a Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)
           Traumatized by an Agricultural Harvester

    • Authors: Guilherme Costa dos Santos Zupirolli, Ciro Alexandre Cruvinel, Karina Padula, Milena Martins Carvalho Rosa, Luana Alexandre Pimentel Zupirolli, Eduardo Kfouri Pala, Tatiana Morosini de Andrade Cruvinel, Jaqueline França dos Santos
      Abstract: Background: The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) returned to the category of vulnerable by the 2014 IUCN / SSC, due to the population reduction, less than 30%. The main reasons are: environmental degradation and fragmentation, being run over, burning, attacks by hunting dogs, illegal trade and diseases. It is very common to find these fractured patients and the treatment is mostly surgical. Amputation is indicated when there are extensive lacerations and when reconstructive surgery is not possible. The objective is to report a viable treatment option in fractured wild patients, contributing to the preservation of the species.Case: It was received at the Veterinary Hospital Dr. Halim Atique - UNIRP an young female giant anteater (M. tridactyla) weighing 5.75 kg, brought by the Environmental Forestry Police of the municipality of São José do Rio Preto - SP, found in the region of Olímpia at a gas station. The animal was traumatized by an agricultural harvester, with partial traumatic amputation in the left pelvic limb and tail. In the preoperative period, the patient was admitted to hospital under assisted care, analgesia and all the necessary support for stabilization. High amputation was performed, with hip disarticulation and treatment of the tail wound, which was initially opted for healing in the first intention, where sutures were used to approach the edges of the wound, but presented dehiscence and was treated as a second intention. There were almost 2 months of care with specific food, cleaning of the enclosures, medications and dressings. After 57 days of hospitalization, the patient was transferred to the Municipal Zoo of São José do Rio Preto - SP, where it was moved to a larger and ideal enclosure for the species, with other giant anteaters also rescued. Discussion: The rate of complex fractures in accidents with wild animals is high. Amputations are indicated for patients with extensive lacerations without possible reconstructions, the patient in the present study had partial amputation of the limb, and reconstruction was impossible. The amputation technique of choice was disarticulation of the hip, as it is important that the patient does not try to support the limb, to avoid further trauma. The adaptation of animals to amputation is satisfactory, however, it should be noted that these individuals must remain under observation in the postoperative period, must remain confined to small rooms to avoid complications such as hemorrhage, seroma, dehiscence and infection of the surgical wound. The multidisciplinary team specialized in the required areas must be trained for this type of service. Adaptation to the new hospital environment, adaptation without an amputated limb, different food from that found in nature, daily handling for dressings and the movement of people in the sector are precautions that we must have for the success of the treatment. The great challenge for the recovery of traumatized wild patients is capture stress, transport to the operating room, lack of adaptation to the hospital environment and use of protocols that are unsuitable for the species, factors that can compromise the success of the treatment. Amputation can be a viable treatment alternative for fractured giant anteaters, when bone reconstruction is not possible. The amputation was performed successfully, providing another opportunity for this patient and contributing to the preservation of the species.Keywords: fracture, amputation, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant anteater.
      PubDate: 2021-04-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108946
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Mediastinal Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma in a Canine with Pulmonary and
           Cerebral Metastasis

    • Authors: Taina dos Santos Alberti, Rosimeri Zamboni, Fabiano da Rosa Venancio, Carolina Buss Brunner, Margarida Buss Raffi, Ana Lucia Schild, Eliza Simone Viégas Sallis
      Abstract: Background: Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS), a rare variant of osteosarcoma (OS), is a malignant neoplasm that develops in soft tissues without primary bone involvement. This study aims to describe a case of EOS with a mediastinal location in a canine.Case: A 10-year-old male, Uruguayan, Cimarron dog was presented to the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/FV/UFPel) for necropsy. The dog had a history of submandibular swelling, progressive hind limb paralysis, muscle atrophy, and breathing difficulties. During necropsy, in the thoracic cavity, approximately 900 mL of serosanguinous exudate and a reddish-brown, bossed mediastinal mass measuring 15.0 cm in the longest axis were also noted. The lung exhibited multifocal to coalescent, white, firm nodules extending from the pleura to the parenchyma and measuring up to 4.5 cm in diameter. In the parietal and occipital region of the brain, a matte wine mass measuring 2.3 cm in the longest axis was observed. Fragments of the neoplastic mass, organs of the abdominal and thoracic cavities, and the brain were harvested and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. After 48 h, the samples were routinely processed, incorporated in paraffin, cut into 3 µm-thick sections, and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Selected sections of the neoplasm, the lung, and the brain were subjected to Von Kossa staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. For IHC, primary anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibodies (clone AE1 / AE3, BioCare Medical) at a 1:100 dilution, vimentin (clone V9, BioCare Medical) at a 1:100 dilution, S100 Protein (clone 15E2E2, BioCare Medical) at a 1:100 dilution, and Ki67 (SP6 clone, BioCare Medical) at a 1:50 dilution were used. Immunostaining was visualized using 3-3' diaminabenzidine (DAB). Histological evaluation of the mediastinal mass, the pulmonary nodules, and the central nervous system among polygonal mesenchymal cells was conducted. Marked pleomorphism with euchromatic, rounded to oval nuclei, evident nucleoli, and poorly delimited eosinophilic cytoplasm. Neoplastic cells were arranged in nests and bundles with an invasive growth pattern. Osteoid and bone matrix formation as well as multinucleated giant cells of the osteoclast type were observed. The bone matrix was better evidenced in Von Kossa staining. IHC in all analyzed sections of the neoplastic cells showed positive immunostaining for Vimentin and Ki67. In the sections incubated with anti-cytokeratin and S100 protein antibodies showed no presence of neoplastic cells.Discussion: The diagnosis of EOS was based on the absence of primary bone lesions during microscopic necroscopy and on the exclusion of other histogenetic origins using IHC. The absence of primary bone lesions was the main attribute that differentiates EOS from other variants osteosarcomas, such as central/medullary and surface OS (periosteal and paraosteal) most frequently in canine species. The origin of EOS is uncertain. However, its occurrence has been originated with in pluripotent cells or previous injuries, such as retention of surgical sponges and vaccination sites. In this case, since the animal had no clinical history of injuries or surgical procedures that could induce the formation of a mediastinal neoplasm, the probable origin of the neoplasm was pluripotent cells. In dogs, EOS occurs mainly in the mammary glands, digestive system, liver, spleen, and subcutaneous tissue. Furthermore, the mediastinal location observed in this study was described only in goats. The clinical signs are nonspecific and varies with the location of the tumor, as observed in the present report. EOS may also present mediastinal location in the canine species. Necropsy, histopathological examination, and IHC were essential to establish the diagnosis of this OS variant.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109709
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Gastroesophageal Intussusception in Canine

    • Authors: Mateus de Melo Lima Waterloo, Saulo Romero Felix Gonçalves, Ebla Lorena Sales de Araújo, Ana Paula dos Santos Ferreira, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de Albuquerque, Andrea Alice da Fonseca Oliveira, Márcia de Figueiredo Pereira
      Abstract: Background: Gastroesophageal intussusception is characterized by the invagination of the stomach into the esophagus, with or without the involvementof adjacent organs such as the spleen, pancreas, and omentum. In dogs, this condition has no breed or sex predisposition. As it is an infrequent disease in routine veterinary medical practice, this study reports a case of gastroesophageal intussusception in a dog necropsied at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (HOVET - UFRPE), Recife, Brazil.Case: The body of a 12-year-old black mixed breed male dog was sent to the Pathology Department (Necropsy Sector of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE) for a necropsy. The animal had a previous 4-year history of recurrent emesis and limb weakness, primarily in the anterior limbs, that worsened in the previous months and progressed to death. No previous treatments were reported by the owner. On external examination, the animal had a low body score (cachectic), forelimb joints with great flexibility, congested oral and ocular mucous membranes, enophthalmos, and increased volume in the perianal region. At the opening of the thoracic cavity, the final third of the esophagus was dilated and gastroesophageal intussusception, edema, and pulmonary congestion were noted. In the abdominal cavity, there was hepatic and renal congestion and large intestine and rectal ampoule dilation, with a large amount of solid and retained feces (fecaloma), perianal hernia, and testicular neoformation. These findings were consistent with those observed in death caused by cardiorespiratory failure secondary to gastroesophageal intussusception.Discussion: The pathophysiology of gastroesophageal intussusception is still not elucidated and is probably multifactorial. This condition causes reverse gastric peristalsis associated with a sudden and sustained increase in abdominal pressure. Some probable predisposing factors for this pathological condition are esophageal motility disorders, lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction, and hiatal enlargement. In dogs, gastroesophageal intussusception is associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure owing to emesis or blunt trauma, negative intrathoracic pressure caused by respiratory, and previous esophageal diseases, especially megaesophagus. Partial or total obstruction caused by intussusception leads to circulatory disorders in the organs, especially decreased venous return. Persistence of this condition can lead to gastric necrosis and rupture followed by endotoxic (or septic) shock and release of inflammatory mediators that can cause cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction and rapid death. Impaired circulation is macroscopically evident in several organs, characterized by mucosal, lung, liver, and kidney congestion, in addition to cardiac dilation and mitral valve endocardiosis. The occurrence of stomach invagination into the esophagus dilated in the final portion is characteristic of gastroesophageal intussusception. Moreover, death owing to cardiorespiratory failure is related to cardiac (dilatation and endocardiosis) and pulmonary (edema and congestion) involvement secondary to gastroesophageal intussusception. Since thispotentially fatal condition has a low incidence in small animals and often goes unnoticed by professionals, early and correct diagnosis along with surgical treatment are essential for a good prognosis and favorable progression.
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.109797
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Hernioplasty with Laparoscopy Mesh Application in Equine with Incisional

    • Authors: Anny Raissa Carolini Gomes, Bruna Machado Amaral Rosa, Andressa Duarte Lorga, Jéssica do Rocio Janiszewski, Lucimara Strugava, Jackson Schade, Juan Carlos Duque Moreno, Peterson Triches Dornbusch
      Abstract: Background: Incisional hernia in the midline can be a consequence of abdominal surgeries, which incidence is around 5.7-18%. Surgical indication occurs in cases of large hernias, and the most common techniques used involve the closing of the musculature in a primary way, with sutures, and the implantation of a mesh on the abdominal wall. Laparoscopic hernioplasty emerged as a less invasive option, showing superiority when compared with open surgical techniques in human medicine, however there are few reports describing this technique in equines. So, the aim of this paper is to report a case of hernioplasty, using laparoscopic mesh, in a horse with midline incisional hernia.Case: A 13-year-old castrated male Brasileiro de Hipismo horse, weighing 415 kg, practitioner of classic equestrian, presented an incisional hernia after 14 days from an exploratory laparotomy surgery realized to treat colic syndrome. After 6 months, the patient was referred to a Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital for the correction of the defect in the abdominal wall. During palpation, the animal did not present local pain or other sign of inflammation, and the hernia measured approximately 20 cm in diameter. The animal was submitted to general anesthesia and placed in dorsal decubitus for the hernioplasty surgical procedure. An incision was made in cranial region of the midline, close to the xiphoid to introduce a single port; the abdomen was inflated with CO2 gas (12 mmHg) and the operating table was tilted in order to displace the organs cranially, facilitating the laparoscopic procedure. The abdomen was inspected and the presence of a single adherence could be observed, which was disrupted with endoscopic forceps. The mesh was introduced through the single port incision and anchored to the musculature, using polypropylene 2 following the marking points previously performed on the implant, covering the defect in the abdominal musculature. In the postoperative period, analgesia was instituted with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotic therapy with intravenous benzylpenicillin potassium+gentamicin sulfate, and daily dressings. The animal showed pain responsive to the instituted analgesia in the first 24-72 h after surgery. The discharge was established after 18 days of hospitalization with the recommendation of daily dressings and use of compressive bandage until the complete healing of the wound. Postoperative complications resulting from the laparoscopic hernioplasty technique was not observed in this case.The hernia reduction was satisfactory, with a good aesthetic result after five months, when the animal resumed its athletic activities.Discussion: Laparoscopy hernioplasty is poorly described in equine medicine, and there are no reports of this procedure performed in Brazil, however, it is widely used in human medicine with results superior to open hernioplasty techniques. In the present case and in others reported in the literature, the laparoscopic technique proved to be effective in reducing incisional hernias in horses. The animals had good regression of the hernia sac and the aesthetic result was satisfactory, with few post-surgical complications. In studies in which the open hernioplasty technique was used, there was a higher occurrence of complications, in addition to more intense pain resulting from the procedure and later return to athletic activity, demonstrating that the minimally invasive technique by video surgery can be advantageous.
      PubDate: 2021-04-04
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.104372
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Use of Cost-effective Vacuum-assisted Closure Technique for Shell Fracture
           Repair and Coelomic Cavity Rupture Healing in a Chelonia carbonaria

    • Authors: Louysse Helene Monteiro, Sandy Kelly Souza Marques da Silva, Marina Sette Camara Benarrós, Cinthia Távora de Albuquerque Lopes, Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues
      Abstract: Background: The vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy system has been used as a noninvasive wound management technique for shell damage in Chelonians. These animals are excellent candidates for VAC therapy because of their unique shell anatomyconsists of dermal bones, which make bandage placement easier. Beyond that, they are suited for this technique behaviorally, because they are not inclined to remove the vacuum system intentionally. Considering the possibility of Testudines shell repair with the use of less invasive techniques that result in additional dermal bone lesions, the objective of the present study is to describe the adaptation of a vacuum dressing protocol using low-cost and easily accessible materials for post-traumatic shell healing of a specimen of Chelonoidis carbonaria.Case: A specimen of tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria), a male, weighing 630 g, approximately 3-year-old, was received at the Veterinary Hospital - Wild Animals Sector in the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) because of being run over by a vehicle. On physical examination, fractures of the dermal plaques and underlying bone structures were found, with rupture of the coelomic cavity. In addition, there was exposure and incarceration of an intestinal loop, with the presence of bleeding. According to the findings of the physical screening examination, the patient's prognosis was defined as good, as described in the literature that specifically focused on chelonian shell injuries. The animal was sent to the diagnostic imaging sector. Then, drug therapy was provided for pain control, vitamins were administered for nutritional support, and antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs were instituted. For the closure of the shell and coelomic cavity, a bandage was used with the VAC therapy system adapted as described for Chelonians in previous reports. After a complete osteosynthesis and closure of the coelomic cavity, repair of the integumentary component of the shell was possible. For this procedure, the animal did not need to be anesthetized. The patient was physically restrained by being placed in suspension on a support with a diameter smaller than the plastron. Complete asepsis of the shell was necessary. On top of the lesion, a polypropylene mesh and color less dental resin were applied. The animal continued to be evaluated after the repair to check for potential complications. This procedure ensured that the repaired plates remained stable. Furthermore, the animal did not seem to have any discomfort with the resin when moving, so the animal was discharged after 25 days of hospitalization.Discussion: Radiography was important to determine the condition of the animal and clinical prognosis, and thus, to perform the proper treatment. The VAC therapy system was successful in assisting the patient's recovery. It enabled the reduction of the healing time since shell injuries usually require four to eighteen months to heal. In this report, the healing process only required 17 days, demonstrating that the VAC therapy system is a beneficial treatment to treat traumatic injuries in Testudines. The restoration protocol of the integumentary component using dental resin is less invasive, and this type of material has been used previously by other authors. Drug treatment with aminoglycosides and sulphonamides administered prophylactically has proven to be effective and has been used successfully in reptiles. These drugs may be combined with maintenance fluid therapy to prevent adverse reactions from aminoglycosides, such as nephrotoxicity. It was concluded that the use of the VAC therapy system reduced the time of post-traumatic healing of the carapace and proved to be an innovative approach to treat traumatic injuries in Testudines in a less invasive way.
      PubDate: 2021-03-29
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.104476
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • A Fatal Pneumonia due to Coinfection of Pseudomonas putida and
           Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a Laboratory Beagle Dog

    • Authors: Min Hong, Liping Wei, Yan Chen, Yongchang Qin, Xin Wang, Yaqun Zhang, Yan Chang, Hua Li
      Abstract: Background: Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) is widely distributed in the environment, and sometimes caused nosocomial infections in human beings, but no case of infection has been reported in beagle dogs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) is a natural cutaneous bacterium in dogs and occasionally causes purulent infections of the skin and rarely causes pneumonia. Both bacteria are opportunistic pathogens. Dogs, even well-controlled laboratory beagle dogs, maybe infected by the bacterium in certain conditions like this report. In order to provide information and give suggestion to veterinarians involved in dogs study, a complete profile of the coinfection was drawn in this report.Case: It is presented a case of an 8-month-old beagle dog, weighing 6 kg that suffered from coinfection of P. putida and S. pseudintermedius during a treatment of chemotherapy. The animal was confirmed as normal by appearance, physical examination, and laboratory tests before arrival according to the applicable guidelines. After 14-day acclimation period, the animal was administrated with a tyrosinase inhibitor once daily via oral gavage. From Day 8, coughing, decreased activity, hyporeflexia, squinting, shortness of breath (abdominal breathing), and discharge around the nose as well as crackles in the lung and rapid heart rate were noted. Since the poor conditions progressed rapidly and have not been improved by treatment of ceftriaxone and dexamethasone. On Day 9, the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons due to rapid progress and poor condition. To define the pathogen, hilar lymph node and thoracic swab were collected for bacteria isolation and purification in special mediums, and at last characterized by Gram staining and 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis and positive PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In clinical pathological examination, an increase in WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, globulin, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as a decrease in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, sodium ion, chloride ion, and albumin were noted. At necropsy, dark red and enlarged lymph nodes were noted in the hilum of lung, multiple abscesses with yellow pus and multifocal hemorrhage were noted in the lung, and a large amount of frothy yellow fluid were noted in the trachea. In pathological examinations, severe neutrophilic inflammation, diffuse and moderate macrophage aggregation, mild hemorrhage, and moderate alveolar emphysema were noted in the lung, and severe sinusoidal stasis were noted in portal lymph nodes.Discussion: The current case presented a profile of the appearance, treatment, hematological examination, coagulation examination, clinical chemistry, macroscopic and histological changes in the lung. Multiple purulent abscesses, infiltration of neutrophils, macrophage, and hemorrhage, were correlated to the increase in WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and the decrease in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets. In the coagulation examination, an increase in Fbg concentration was noted. This change may be induced by the coagulase effect of the S. pseudintermedius, yet no effect on PT or APTT was noted, indicating the coagulation function has not been affected. In the clinical chemistry, the increase of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase may indicate tissue cell damages. Significant increase of globulin may be caused by the inflammatory status. In conclusion, the findings in this case indicate that both Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can induce infections in laboratory beagle dogs under certain conditions, and might result in a fatal pneumonia which could progress very fast within several days.
      PubDate: 2021-03-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107684
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Ultrasonographic Detection of Interstitial Nephritis in a Canine Fetus

    • Authors: Priscila Silva, Marjury Cristina Maronezi, Beatriz Gasser, Letícia Pavan, Luiz Paulo Nogueira Aires, Luciana Cristina Padilha-Nakaghi, Ricardo Andrés Ramirez Uscategui, Marcus Antônio Rossi Feliciano
      Abstract: Background: A detailed ultrasound examination of the fetal urinary tract as part of prenatal care is important to detect possible abnormalities. Early diagnosis can prevent more serious damage such as loss of kidney function. Interstitial nephritis can compromise renal functionality. Also, acute interstitial nephritis is a frequent cause of acute kidney injury and can become chronic if not treated. Besides, a renal biopsy can help in the diagnosis and at the staging of the disease. Therefore, this report aims to describe the ultrasonographic findings of the renal tissues in a canine fetus affected by interstitial nephritis.Case: Gestational ultrasound evaluations were performed in a female Pug, at the 25th, 45th, and 58th gestational days. Ultrasound examination was performed with a 9.0 MHz linear transducer and a high-resolution digital transducer with a frequency standardized at 17.0 MHz. During the first evaluation, embryonic vesicles were detected and were compatible with the gestational period. At 45 days of gestation, some abnormalities were observed in the kidneys of one of the fetuses, such as increased cortical echogenicity, cortical thickening, loss of corticomedullary ratio (1:1), renal pelvis and ureter dilatation by echogenic content. Biparietal and abdominal diameters were also lower than that from the other fetuses, which did not show abnormalities, being compatible with the estimated gestational age. However, the heart rate was similar among all fetuses. On the 58th day, we observed in the underdeveloped fetus that both kidneys still presented the abnormalities seen previously, in addition to the presence of a cystic structure in the right kidney, in the cranial topography of the cortex. The other fetuses kept showing normal ultrasonographic findings, normal heartbeat, all of these compatible with the ultrasound gestational age. The delivery occurred without complications and only the underdeveloped fetus stillborn. Then, it was submitted to a necropsy where chronic interstitial nephritis was found in the histopathological analysis.Discussion: Adequate prenatal care is important to detect abnormalities in fetuses, in which ultrasound examination allows to access fetal development. The gestation in the bitch seemed to be occurring without complications, but the B mode and High Definition ultrasound techniques were able to identify abnormal development of the fetus' kidneys. Both techniques showed to be secure to the fetuses and the mother, as they are non-invasive and free of radiation. These findings, different from those described as normal for a fetus, reinforce the warning signal for a possible establishment of anomalies consistent with nephropathy. Still, histopathology is important to exclude other diseases and help to define prognosis. Interstitial nephritis can significantly affect perinatal survey, considering that the fetus was stillborn, confirming that the description of such anomalies can help to prevent disease. Since nephritis can be associate with the use of some medicines, the orientation of the owner regarding drug use during bitch pregnancy is essential.  Therefore, this is the first report describing renal abnormalities in a canine fetus, which highlights the importance of ultrasound examination for disease identification in prenatal care. Lastly, high-resolution ultrasound (HD) could provide detailed information on abnormalities in the fetal kidney.
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106692
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Conidiobolomycosis in Ovine in Southeast Bahia - Brazil

    • Authors: Gisele Dias Silva, Fernando Alzamora Filho, Thiago Santos Ribeiro, Emilly Oliveira Santos, João Luciano Andrioli, Fabiana Lessa Silva
      Abstract: Background: Conidiobolomycosis is a highly lethal, granulomatous disease that primarily affects the respiratory system of sheep. The etiological agents are fungi of the genus Conidiobolus, including Conidiobolus coronatus, C. incongruus, and C. lamprageus. In Northeast Brazil, this disease is particularly important considering the significant impact sheep and goats have on the regional economy. The present report describes the occurrence of conidiobolomycosis in two sheep from the same property in the Itabuna-BA region that were referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the State University of Santa Cruz, Bahia, Brazil. Case: The primary complaint in both animals was bilateral bloody nasal discharge over a period of approximately 15 days and frequent coughing. On physical examination, the animals exhibited “goosebumps” and opaque hair, with a body score of 1 (scale, 1-5), mild dehydration (7%), apathy, frequent cough with putrid odor, bilateral serosanguinolent nasal discharge, craniofacial asymmetry, expiratory dyspnea, enlargement of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, audible pulmonary rales, and pain on percussion of the pulmonary field. A therapeutic support protocol was established to stabilize the animals until the results of complete blood count, radiography, and microbiological evaluation of nasal content were available. Definitive diagnosis of disease was made by direct positive mycological examination, that revealed the presence of wide rarely septate hyphae, and isolation and cultivation of the fungus Conidiobolus sp., with microculture on slides and staining with lactophenol blue cotton. Due to disease diagnosis and the severity of injuries observed, the prognoses of both animals were considered to be unfavorable and led to euthanasia and necropsy. At necropsy, the most relevant findings were granulomatous rhinitis with ascending inflammatory processes to the meninges and adjacent structures, in addition to cranioventral areas of pulmonary consolidation with drainage of purulent exudate at the cut surface, suggestive of bronchopneumonia. Histopathology revealed intense pyogranulomatous inflammation associated with the presence of hyphae in negative images within the cytoplasm of multinucleated giant cells in the nasal cavity, lungs, meninges, and brain. Discussion: The association of necropsy findings, histopathological changes, and microbiological isolation of the fungus facilitated understanding of the changes observed in the respiratory system and other organs, and enabled correlation between the recorded lesions and clinical manifestations exhibited by the animals. Based on the lesions observed clinically and at necropsy, both cases were diagnosed with rhinopharyngeal conidiobolomycosis. The histopathological and macroscopic changes observed were similar to what are often described in severe cases of the disease. Considering the severity of the disease and its high lethality in these animals, conidiobolomycosis can lead to significant damage of the production chain; this was observed in the present property, where three animals in a herd of 20 died with signs of the disease, highlighting the importance of the disease, particularly in the Northeast region, where the largest flocks of sheep are found in Brazil. The implementation of prophylactic measures is particularly important considering the unfavorable prognosis and the absence of effective treatments.
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106793
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Intravascular Lymphoma in Canine - Clinical, Pathological and
           Immunohistochemical Aspects

    • Authors: Filipe Krasinski Cestari, Monica Regina de Matos, Jéssica Gonçalves dos Santos, Giovane Franchesco de Carvalho, Karim Cristhine Pase Montagnini, Márcio Hamamura, Olicies da Cunha, Aline de Marco Viott
      Abstract: Background: Intravascular lymphoma (IL) is a rare disease characterized by presence of neoplastic lymphocytes in the lumen of blood vessels. Any tissue can be affected; however, the most frequently compromised areas of the body are the skin and the central nervous system (CNS). The clinical signs and macroscopic alterations caused by IL are nonspecific and are usually secondary to a continuous proliferative disorder, which leads to occlusion of the blood vessels with consequent thrombosis, hemorrhage and infarction. The objective of this work is to report a case of IL in a dog.Case: An 8-year-old male Rottweiler dog was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná with a history of cerebellar ataxia that had not improved after treatment. At the neurological examination, cerebellar ataxia and deficit of nasal reflex were detected. A complete blood count showed presence of slight anemia (4.8 million red blood cells/mm3; normal ranges= 5.5-8.5 million/mm3) and thrombocytopenia (176.000/mm3; normal ranges= 250.000-500.000/mm3). Biochemical tests revealed a small increase in alanine aminotransferase (42 IU/L; normal ranges= 14-38 IU/L) and a slight decrease in alkaline phosphatase (49 IU/L; normal ranges= 90-170 IU/L). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exhibited an increased protein concentration (147.3 mg/dL; normal ranges= 18-44 mg/dL) and pleocytosis (8 cells/µL; normal ranges= up to 5 cells/µL). No alterations were observed at radiographic and ultrasonographic exams. A clinical treatment was prescribed; however, in view of the worsening of the clinical signs, euthanasia was performed, and the body was submitted to a Laboratory of Pathology. At necropsy, moderate multifocal ulcers were observed in the oral cavity and ventral side of the tongue; moderately infarcted areas were detected in the spleen. Additional alterations such as fatty liver degeneration, glomerulonephritis, and pulmonary edema were also observed. Consequently, fragments from various tissues were collected, fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and processed for paraffin embedding and microtomy. Sections with a thickness of 5 µm were cut, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopically, the cerebral cortex exhibited a marked number of round neoplastic cells with well-defined edges and scant cytoplasm filling the vascular lumen. Similar cells were observed in the lumen of the blood vessels in the cerebellum, spinal cord, liver, lungs, kidneys, and mucocutaneous junction. The cerebellum, mucocutaneous junction, and kidneys were submitted to immunohistochemical evaluation. The results were consistent with T cell lymphoma in the telencephalon, in the mucocutaneous junction, and in the cerebellum; however, the neoplastic cells observed in the kidneys were not positively stained by the antibodies used.Discussion: Since, in this neoplasia, there is no formation of solid tumors as in other lymphomas, the diagnosis is more difficult both clinically and macroscopically, and hence a combination of immunohistochemistry and microscopy are indispensable. Immunohistochemistry for detection of the markers CD3, CD45RA, CD20, PAX5 and CD79a was essential to determine the cell type especially in the mucocutaneous junction, telencephalon, and cerebellum. Absence of staining for any of these markers on the neoplastic cells in the kidneys may be associated with a high degree of cellular undifferentiation, which worsens the prognosis. This case report highlights the importance of the combination of histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations with laboratory tests and the clinical picture of the animal for the diagnosis of this neoplasia, which can be difficult to identify.
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108580
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Cervical Spinal Cord Surgical Stabilization in a Sheep

    • Authors: Gabriela Lugoch, Geórgia Camargo Góss, Danilo Augusto Mendes Viana, Marília Teresa Oliveira, Bruno Leite dos Anjos, Alexandre Mazzanti, Diego Vilibaldo Beckmann
      Abstract: Background: Trauma is the main cause of spinal fractures and dislocations in humans and large animals. Clinical signs present with acute onset and vary according to the location and severity of the spinal cord injury. The treatment of fractures in large animals depends on economic value, cost of procedures, prognosis, location and type of fracture. However, although spinal fractures in large animals are not uncommon, the literature about their clinical aspects and treatment is scanty. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to describe a surgical stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation, fracture of the third cervical vertebra and C2-C3 subluxation.Case: An approximately 2-year-old Île-de-France sheep, weighing 101 kg, with a history of cervical trauma and non-ambulatory tetraparesis was treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Institution (UNIPAMPA). During physical examination, the animal presented good general physical condition and heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature was according to physiological parameters for the species. The animal remained in lateral decubitus, with minimal head and limb movements, and exhibited deep pain sensitivity. Clinical treatment with dexamethasone, limb physiotherapy and change in lateral decubitus position were employed, but failed to improve the animal’s condition. After five days of unresponsive to clinical treatment, the patient was referred to the neurology department, where it underwent neurological examination and radiographic examination of the cervical region was performed under general anesthesia. The radiographic examination revealed atlantoaxial subluxation, by displacement of the odontoid process into the vertebral canal, fracture of the third cervical vertebra and C2-C3 vertebral subluxation. The surgical planning aimed cervical vertebral instability repair using atlantoaxial arthrodesis associated the stabilization of C1-C2 and C2-C3 vertebrae with Schanz pins and bone cement, due facility and versatility this association. The postoperative radiographic examination showed incomplete insertion of the Schanz pin into the left Atlas wing and a cervical collar was recommended. The clinical evaluation was performed daily, and after 23 days of surgery the animal could crawl in lateral decubitus besides assisted walking ability. However, the animal died 36 days after surgery due to severe dyspnea. A necropsy revealed pulmonary edema and hepatic lipidosis, besides hepatic septic thrombus. Moreover, the vertebral canal of C1-C2 and C2-C3 segments stayed realigned and stabilized, without spinal cord injury and trachea compression.Discussion: Non-ambulatory tetraparesis, and minimal head and limb movements confirm severe spinal cord injury. The failure of clinical treatment, craniocervical instability in C1-C2 and C2-C3 and the high economic and genetic value of patients was definite for the surgical indication, besides reserved prognosis. The surgical treatment aim is recovery motor function from spinal cord decompression, vertebral canal realignment and the stabilization of vertebral instability. The cervical collar was placed on the patient after the surgery was intended to prevent rotation of the atlantoaxial joint, aiding vertebral stability. It is believed that the recovery of large animals with spinal cord injuries like in this case report is slower due to their heavy weight and the difficulty in managing such patients. This case report confirms that the techniques employed here achieved the proposed objectives of spinal canal alignment and spinal stabilization, showing improvement of clinical signs and recovery of the animal’s limb and neck movements.
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.108515
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Histomoniasis in Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in the Potiguar Semiarid

    • Authors: Ana Caroline Freitas Caetano de Sousa, Gabriela Rebouças de Oliveira, Hélio Noberto de Araújo Júnior, Fabiano Rocha Prazeres Júnior, Caio Sérgio Santos, Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó, Carlos Iberê Alves Freitas, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga
      Abstract: Background: Histomoniasis is a disease caused by Histomonas meleagridis, a flagellated protozoan that can cause severe necrotizing hepatitis and typhlitis in several bird species. The disease has a cosmopolitan distribution. In experimental infection, peacocks (Pavo spp.) showed susceptibility to histomoniasis, however there are few reports on natural histomoniasis in this species. In northeastern Brazil, reports about its occurrence in avian species are scarce and nonexistent in peacocks. Therefore, this report aims to describe the epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of a histomoniasis case in a peacock (Pavo cristatus) in the Brazilian semiarid region.Case: A 3-month-old male peacock with a history of apathy and anorexia was attended in the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Mossoró, RN, Brazil. The animal was raised extensively in a farm without basic sanitary measures, also with a history of living with animals of different species. After clinical examination, in which intense apathy and weight loss were confirmed, the bird was submitted to emergency therapeutic measures, however there was no clinical improvement and the bird died. At necropsy, intense diffuse bilateral necrotizing typhlitis and multifocal to coalescent necrotizing hepatitis were observed. Fragments of the organs were collected in 10% formaldehyde buffered with phosphate-saline buffer for histopathological analysis and cecal content were collected for microbiological analysis. Histopathology of the cecum revealed transmural necrotizing typhlitis associated with myriads of trophozoites morphologically compatible with Histomonas meleagridis. The same microorganisms observed in association with necrotizing hepatitis lesions, which allowed the diagnosis of histomoniasis. Also, the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans was isolated from the cecal content.Discussion: The macroscopic and microscopic findings allowed the diagnosis and the first recording of histomoniasis in peacock in the semi-arid region of Rio Grande do Norte. The bird was raised in an extensive breeding and without sanitary management, such as the use of anthelmintics, which may favor infection by the nematode Heterakis gallinarum, that’ transmits the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. The contamination, which begins by the orofecal route, happens through the ingestion of eggs of the nematode contaminated with H. meleagridis that pass through the gastrointestinal tract, reaching the ceca and causing intense lesions in the organ, such as the bilateral transmural typhlitis that we observed in this case. From ceca, the protozoan has access to the bloodstream and reaches the liver, where it causes necrotic hepatitis, also present in the peacock. Both cecal and hepatic lesions were associated with myriads of microorganisms morphologically compatible with H. meleagridis, which allowed the diagnosis of the disease. The challenge in diagnosing this disease occurs mainly due to nonspecific clinical signs, such as apathy and weight loss, the only signs reported by the breeder and observed in this peacock. Confirmation of the occurrence of histomoniasis in any region is important to establish the disease among the differential diagnoses for the species, as in this case. Since this is the first report of peacock histomoniasis in the semi-arid region of Rio Grande do Norte, it is evident the need to consider the disease among possible diagnoses in cases of nonspecific symptoms and it also demonstrates the need to implement control and prophylaxis measures in peacock breeding aiming to avoid losses of birds and economic losses to the breeders and to promote quality of life to the animals.
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107400
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Equine Pasture Asthma in Brazil

    • Authors: Liana Villela de Gouvêa, Camila Bernardes, Michel José Sales Abdalla Helayel, Nayro Xavier de Alencar, Maria Fernanda Mello Costa, Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa
      Abstract: Background: Summer Pasture Associated Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPAOPD), or Equine Pasture Asthma (EPA), as termed by Ferrari et al. [17], has been described as an environmentally-induced respiratory disease that occurs during the warmer and more humid months, leading to reversible airway obstruction, persistent and non-specific airway hyper-responsiveness, and chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation. Exacerbation of clinical signs vary according to warm seasons, and range from mild to severe episodes of wheezing, coughing, and laboured breathing in a chronic state that is debilitating for the equine [4]. This report describes two cases of Equine Pasture Asthma that show clinical and environmental similarities with Summer Pasture Associated Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.Case: The patients were crossbreed geldings that have never been stabled and were used for cattle management in a farm in southeastern Brazil. They presented poor performance and a persistent cough for over 3 years. Initially, the respiratory signs were only observed after exercise but, over the years, it gradually progressed to being observed when the horses were at rest. Both animals had a history of regular deworming and were previously treated by other veterinarians with antibiotics, clenbuterol, and mucokinetics. Little improvement was noticed by the owner and the signs returned over time as treatment was often discontinued. Clinical findings were compatible with the grade 3 mucus classification of Gerber et al. [18] as well as with score 2 for Severe Asthma of Davis and Sheats [13]. BALF cytology was done following the technique described by Couetil et al. [10]. Animal 1 presented slides with free yeast; macrophages and mucus with Curschmann’s spiral and counting of 29,7% of neutrophils (NE), 43,7% of lymphocytes (LP), 25,3% of macrophages (MC) and 1,3% of eosinophils (EO). Animal 2 presented slides with phagocytized yeast, mucus and counting of 27% of NE, 38,5% of LP, 33% of MC and 1,5% of EO.Discussion: Diagnostic findings fit the clinical score 2 (from 0 to 3) for Severe Asthma [13], where the animal presented frequent cough with periods of no coughing, nostrils flares in inspiration and exhalation, obvious abdominal flattening and “heave line”, pulmonary auscultation with crackles, and scarce mucous nasal discharge. The cytological findings of our reported cases also falls within the Severe Asthma classification [13], when the specific counting of 300 cells is equivalent to ≥20% of neutrophils on BALF analysis and the animal present increase in respiratory rate/effort at rest. Similar counts were found by Costa et al. [9] counting 200 cells, Rossi et al. [28] also counting 300 cells, and Couetil and Thompson [11] counting 5 fields (of at least 100 cells) on a cytocentrifuge smear. The present report took place in a region of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, which shows predisposing climatic characteristics similar to those described in previous SPAOPD reports. Yet, this very climate remains somewhat constant throughout the year, as seasonality in the Rio de Janeiro State is not as marked as in the Northern Hemisphere. Given this contrasting aspect, we believe that the term Equine Pasture Asthma, instead of SPAOPD, is more appropriate to describe the cases presented here. Also, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first documented description in Brazil of Equine Pasture Asthma in animals that were never stabled or fed with hay. This documented evidence of a chronic respiratory condition consistent with Equine Pasture Asthma but little related to seasonal changes presents as a warning to other possible cases that might be unnoticed in equine herds in Brazil and in similar climates.
      PubDate: 2021-03-14
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107923
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Caseous Stomatitis Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Boa constrictor

    • Authors: Nathana Beatriz Martins, Lucas Arthur Ricardo Ferreira, Caroline Lopes Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Garcez Buiatte, Anna Monteiro Correia Lima, Rafael Rocha de Souza, Wilson Junior Oliveira, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
      Abstract: Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that belongs to the microbiota of snakes, but it may also be an opportunistic pathogen and contaminate humans through fecal contact, bites, and injuries. In snakes, this microorganism may present high pathogenicity at certain conditions and have been associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reports of infection of Boa constrictor by this pathogen are rare. Thus, this study aimed to describe the P. aeruginosa oral infection in a snake specimen (Boa constrictor amarali), approaching the isolation and identification of the infectious agents involved, the antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance, and the therapeutic protocol adopted.Case: A free-living adult female specimen of Boa constrictor amarali (Amaral's boa), with no described previous history was rescued in an urban area by the Environmental Police. Clinical evaluations showed structures of caseous aspect in the oral cavity, with hyperemia spots in the mucosa. Samples of these lesions were sent for mycological examination, and fungal forms were not found. Samples were collected for isolation and culture. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated microorganisms was determined by the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. P. aeruginosa was isolated and showed susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin, and polymyxin-B; intermediate susceptibility to azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin; and resistance to cephalexin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and enrofloxacin. The treatment consisted of cleaning of the oral cavity, local infiltration of lidocaine for debridement of the caseous area that were later cauterized with iodine. Systemic antibiotic therapy was used, with intramuscular administration of amikacin (5 mg/kg) for the first dose and (2.5 mg/kg) for the other doses with intervals of 72 h, and oral administration of metronidazole (20 mg/kg) with intervals of 48 h, both during 21 days. Daily subcutaneous fluid therapy was performed as support treatment, using Lactated Ringer's solution (25 mg/kg) and Vitamin C (10 mg/kg) with intervals of 24 h, being the cure observed at the end of treatment.Discussion: This paper presents the pathological findings of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa oral infection in a B. constrictor amarali. This bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly found  in snakes, thus, humans in contact with these animals may be contaminated with this pathogen. However, oral cavity lesions associated with P. aeruginosa had not yet been related to Boa constrictor amarali, which is a non-venomous species. Few bacteria associated with reptile diseases are primary causative agents. Clinical bacterial infections generally tend to be secondary to viral infections. Predisposing factors for the development of bacterial diseases in these reptiles include immunodepression, malnutrition, poor adaptation to captivity, and the maintenance of these animals at temperatures and humidities outside their thermal comfort range. In the present study, the P. aeruginosa behaved as an opportunistic pathogen, resulting in clinical manifestations with caseous lesions in the oral cavity, probably due to an imbalance of the microbiota caused by stress or immunodepression. The antibiogram allowed the adoption of a correct therapeutic protocol based on the susceptibility of the pathogen, resulting in remission of lesions and clinical signs after 21 days of treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105257
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Extradural Synovial Cyst of the Cervical Spine in a Saint Bernard

    • Authors: Dênis Antonio Ferrarin, Dakir Nilton Polidoro Neto, Marcelo Luís Schwab, Angel Ripplinger, Mathias Reginatto Wrzesinski, Júlia da Silva Rauber, Marcia Cristina da Silva, Alexandre Mazzanti
      Abstract: Background: Extradural synovial cysts (ESC) originate from an extrusion of the synovium in unstable or degenerated joints. In the spine, this condition can cause neurological signs such as hyperesthesia, proprioceptive ataxia and paresis. Since extradural presentations of synovial cysts are unusual in dogs, the aim of this manuscript is to report a case of extradural synovial cyst of the cervical spine, as well as the clinical findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment and clinical evolution after therapy.Case: A 3-year-old spayed Saint Bernard weighing 60 kg was presented to a Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital with a history of acute paraparesis that evolved to non-ambulatory tetraparesis five days after the appearance of the first clinical signs. Neurological examination revealed non-ambulatory tetraparesis, normal muscle tone and segmental spinal reflexes in the thoracic and pelvic limbs, as well as cervical pain associated with limited neck movement. According to the neurological examination, the likely lesion location was the C1-C5 spinal cord segment. The differential diagnosis list included intervertebral disc disease, caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy, neoplasm, infectious or noninfectious inflammatory disease, and cystic diseases. Complete blood (cell) count and serum biochemistry tests were within reference limits. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed 35 mg/dL of protein (< 30 mg/dL) and 27 cells (up to 5 cells/mm3) with a predominance of lymphocytes. In plain radiography, bone proliferations of the C4 (caudal) C5 (cranial) articular processes were observed and, in myelography, extradural spinal cord compression was evident between C4-C5 on the right side. The animal underwent dorsal laminectomy for spinal cord decompression. An extradural synovial cyst and proliferated articular processes were removed. At 1,281 days after surgery, the dog was clinically normal and presented no neurological deficits.Discussion: The etiology of synovial cysts has not been well established. However, it is believed that osteoarthritic degeneration associated with joint mobility could cause a rupture in the articular capsule, leading to a synovial membrane protrusion, which would fill with synovial fluid and compress spinal structures. ESC in the cervical region have been reported, often associated with cervical neoplasm. The case we report had no evidence of bone or intervertebral disc compression in myelographic and radiographic exams, abnormalities that would appear in cervical neoplasm. The patient underwent dorsal laminectomy to confirm the presumptive diagnosis and decompress the spine. In the histopathological exam, the cystic material consisted of connective fibrous tissue with a synovial cell lining layer, compatible with synovial cysts. The fluid drained during surgery was also analyzed, showing similarities to synovial fluid drained from other conventional joints. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed mononuclear pleocytosis, a common finding in ESC. The ESC should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with cervical myelopathy, especially in young animals and large breeds. A myelographic exam is an important but not definitive auxiliary tool for diagnosis and the therapeutic plan. Dorsal laminectomy is an effective technique for treating ESC.
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.101479
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Ultrasonographic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Ectopic Ureter in a Dog

    • Authors: Carmen Vládia Soares de Sousa, Caroline Coelho Rocha, Roberto Sávio Bessa da Silva, Araceli Alves Dutra, Brizza Zorayd Luz Lopes Rocha, Thays Ribeiro Pacó, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes
      Abstract: Background: Ureteral ectopia (or ectopic ureter) is a congenital anomaly of the urinary system in which the ureter inserts anywhere other than the vesical trigone. This anatomical change may have unilateral or bilateral involvement. The most evident clinical sign, occurring mostly in females, is urinary incontinence, however in some cases the condition may progress to nephritis and dilation of the renal pelvis. The diagnosis is established through imaging, and definitive treatment requires surgical approach. The present study reports a case of ureteral ectopia in a dog which was diagnosed by ultrasound and contrast radiography (excretory urography) and successfully treated by neoureterostomy.Case: A 10-month-old female American Pit Bull Terrier was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid (UFERSA), in Mossoró, RN. Her owner reported incontinence of dark, malodorous urine since birth as the chief complaint. After clinical examination, cystitis was suspected, and a complete blood count, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound was requested. The blood count and creatinine were within the reference values. The presence of struvite crystals were found on urinalysis. Ultrasound examination revealed a tortuous, dilated right ureter from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder; no uroliths were identified as a cause of potential obstruction, but the ipsilateral kidney showed increased cortical echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary definition, and moderate pelvic dilation. These findings supported a presumptive diagnosis of ectopic ureter. For the purpose of confirming this suspicion, excretory urography was performed, revealing unilateral ureteral dilation and radiopaque contrast uptake following the path of the urethra. Once the diagnosis was confirmed, surgery was performed to correct the ureteral ectopia using the standard neoureterocistostomy technique. Considering the unilateral involvement, location of the insertion, and preserved renal function, the decision was made to perform a neoureterostomy. During the surgery it was possible to identify that the ectopic ureter was found to be intramural. At 2-month follow-up, urinary incontinence had resolved and control ultrasound showed significant improvement in the inflammatory appearance of the right renal parenchyma, with no signs of dilation of the renal pelvis or ureter.Discussion: Different from what happens in male dogs, females with an ectopic ureter will often present with urinary incontinence as the main (and, often, only) symptom, usually in the first months of life. As pollakiuria suggests a wide range of diseases of the urinary tract, ultrasound was considered the first-line imaging modality of choice, indispensable for ruling out other differential diagnoses such as a severe urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, or even malignancy. Despite the literature reporting that urinary incontinence persists in 44 to 67% of cases of ureteral ectopia, even after surgery in this case there was complete recovery of the patient after two months. Accessible techniques like ultrasonography and contrast radiography (excretory urography) supplemented one another in the elucidation of this case, with both demonstrating an excellent contribution to the diagnosis of ectopic ureter as well as served as support for surgical planning, enabling effective repair and consequent recovery of the patient. 
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107325
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Juvenile-Onset Ischemic Dermatopathy in a Dog

    • Authors: Gabriela Cousandier, Ariane Damiani Scholten, Gisele Scotton, Carine Stefanello
      Abstract: Background: Juvenile-onset ischemic dermatopathy is a rare dermatosis in dogs. Reports on this condition are scarce in the literature, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. This disease consists of a set of alterations that exhibit similar clinical and histological characteristics, and which are associated with cutaneous vasculopathic processes. Consequently, this case report describes the clinical case of a dog diagnosed with juvenile-onset ischemic dermatopathy. Case: A 9-month-old female mongrel dog exhibited significant tegumentary alterations, while other contact animals (siblings and mother) did not. The patient history did not contain a complete record of vaccines, and included previous therapeutic failures. A general skin examination revealed the presence of erythematous lesions containing crusts and erosions associated with extended areas with alopecia, especially in the ears, nose, and tail. Therefore, skin cytology and a parasitological examination of the skin and cerumen were performed. These tests revealed the presence of neutrophilic inflammatory process, bacterial inflammation, and various yeast-like structures compatible with Malassezia sp. The parasitological examination of the cerumen revealed the presence of numerous mites of the Otodectes cynotis species.Consequently, the dog received a treatment that included amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate, itraconazole, therapeutic baths with a shampoo containing chlorhexidine and miconazole, and an antiparasitic medication containing sarolaner, which was administered once every 35 days. Thirty days later, the patient returned with a significant improvement of the lesions, except those in the ears and tail; consequently, material from these two body areas was submitted to histopathological examination, and additional tests were performed to allow differential diagnosis. The histopathological report indicated the existence of interface dermatitis (cytotoxic), and suggested the clinical hypothesis of chronic juvenile ischemic dermatopathy secondary to vasculitis, since the patient exhibited lesions and clinical history compatible with this condition. Accordingly, the patient was given a treatment with oclacitinib at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg every 12 h for 60 days, and at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg every 24 h thereafter. This treatment resulted in significant improvement of the lesions, with only scars remaining. Complete blood count and biochemical tests performed after two months of treatment returned values within the normal ranges. Side effects from the medication used were not observed. Six months after commencement of oclacitinib administration, the patient remained stable and exhibited no new lesions. Discussion: Cutaneous vasculopathies are not biased by breed, and are secondary to deposition of immune complexes that develop owing to factors such as presence of pathogenic agents, immune-mediated diseases, exposure to viral particles present in the rabies vaccine, and alimentary hypersensitivities, among others. This condition is divided into five distinct categories, among which juvenile-onset ischemic dermatopathy is included. A specific treatment for this condition is not established, as it has peculiar characteristics. However, reported studies have demonstrated good results with the use of oclacitinib maleate. This drug is an inhibitor of Janus kinase, an enzyme involved in hypersensitivity reactions and pruritus in dogs. Published studies have reported that oclacitinib is effective for the control of the inflammatory processes that occur in this type of cutaneous vasculopathy, which explains the therapeutic success in the case described here. 

      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105583
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Focal Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with Lymphoma in Dogs

    • Authors: Paloma Helena Sanches da Silva, Gleidice Eunice Lavalle, Bernardo de Caro Martins, Bruna Voltolin de Sena, Ana Luísa Fajardo Ferreira, Rodrigo dos Santos Horta
      Abstract: Background: Peripheral neuropathies result in sensory, motor or autonomic dysfunctions due to impairment of peripheral spinal or cranial nerves. Neoplasms such as lymphoma are cited as one of the many aetiological causes and it may affect the nerve directly, by compression, or indirectly, or paraneoplastic, by remote action of the neoplasm located in an extra-neural site. This study aimed to report two cases of cranial nerve neuropathy (trigeminal and facial) associated with canine lymphoma, contributing to a better understanding of its paraneoplastic effects on the nervous system, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.Cases: Two cases of canine lymphoma associated with possible signs of paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy were attended at the Veterinary Hospital from the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HV UFMG). Case 1. A spayed mixed breed bitch, with lethargy and unilateral exophthalmos. Brain computed tomography revealed a retrobulbar mass and cytology was diagnostic for extranodal lymphoma. Subsequent to computed tomography, the dog was presented with hypotrophy of the facial musculature and difficulty in grasping food, consistent with trigeminal nerve palsy, which resolved after institution of the 19-week chemotherapy protocol from the University of Wisconsin. Nevertheless, disease reccurred and a rescue protocol was initiated. Case 2. A female Dalmatian, spayed, was diagnosed with multicentric lymphoma, after cytology of the left mandibular lymph node. Chemotherapy was initiated with the same protocol of the previous case. However, the disease progressed and it was observed facial asymmetry with ptosis of the left eyelid, pina and lips, in addition to difficulty in grasping food, suggesting facial and trigeminal cranial nerve palsy. Clinical signs resolved after institution of a rescue chemotherapy protocol. However, in both cases, disease progression and poor clinical condition resulted in decision of euthanasia and necropsy was not authorized.Discussion: Canine lymphoma is often associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, with neuropathy being one of its possible clinical manifestations. In spite of that its pathogenesis remains unclear, with little information in the veterinary literature. Diagnosis is challenging and must be initially based on recognition of neurological clinical signs and lesion localization, as in the reported cases with lesions located on the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. In the patient from the first case, the absence of clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities suggestive of endocrinopathies, associated with neurological signs restricted to the trigeminal nerve, bilaterally, before starting chemotherapy and without the identification of brain lesions in computed tomography, suggested paraneoplastic involvement as the cause of neuropathy. In the second case described, the absence of clinical signs and laboratory abnormalitiess suggestive of endocrinopathies or nutritional deficiencies, associated with neurological signs restricted to the facial and trigeminal cranial nerves, suggested direct or indirect tumour involvement. Both cases showed improvement of neurological clinical signs after chemotherapy which favored the therapeutic diagnosis. Nevertheless, failure to authorize necropsy of patients made it impossible to confirm that peripheral neuropathy is secondary to the remote effect of lymphoma.
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107461
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis in Dogs

    • Authors: Nathalia Saynovich Dutra Silveira, Eduarda Mariana Mendes, Marcy Lancia Pereira, Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela, Angela Patricia Medeiros Veiga, Francielli Cordeiro Zimermann
      Abstract: Background: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonosis of variable clinical presentation, either in systemic or cutaneous form. Clinical signs include anorexia, ophthalmopathies, and chronic kidney disease. In the state of Santa Catarina, the foci are concentrated in the capital and its adjacencies, in the east side of the state. The objective of this study is to outline the first three reported cases of CVL in the municipality of Curitibanos, since there are no reports to date in the region of the mountainous plateau, in the middle west of Santa Catarina.Cases: All dogs were treated at the Veterinary Clinic School of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Curitibanos. The animals, two males and one female, belonged to the same tutor, resided in Curitibanos, and were attended between 2016 and 2020. In the first case, attended in 2016, the complaint was of eye and skin changes about three months ago. The animal lived in an urban environment and came from Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul. On physical examination, the animal presented skin peeling, wet and crusty lesions, bloody discharge in the ears and nasal hyperkeratosis, as well as signs suggestive of uveitis. In this case, euthanasia was carried out. The second case had complaints of respiratory, eye changes, hyporexia, and polydipsia. The dog was prostrate, dehydrated, with lymphadenomegaly and respiratory disorders, compatible with bacterial pneumonia. Bilateral corneal edema confirmed uveitis. Upon return, the animal remained dehydrated with enlarged lymph nodes. In the aspiration of the lymph nodes, suggestive forms of Leishmania sp. were observed. The recommended confirmatory tests were performed, leading to a definitive diagnosis of CVL. The patient was treated with miltefosine, but later died. The third case was attended for general evaluation after a positive diagnosis for CVL during an epidemiological survey of the second case. The animal was alert, tachycardic, and tachypneic with hyperemic mucous membranes. Miltefosine-based treatment and permanent use of deltamethrin-impregnated collar were prescribed and ovariohysterectomy was carried out. The patient is clinically well. In the search for vectors, in no place or moment of search, referring to the cases, vectors for CVL were found.Discussion: It is suggested that patients 2 and 3 are autochthonous cases, whose transmission form has not been fully elucidated, and vector transmission cannot be ruled out, as well as other less common forms of transmission. For case 1, it is suggested that it is an allochthone case, probably imported from the Uruguaiana region, where the disease is endemic. The conduct of a positive result for CVL is euthanasia, with the exception of dogs that have guardians who wish to perform treatment, but not always possible due to the high cost of miltefosine, the only drug approved for dog therapy in Brazil. In the first case, the owner opted for euthanasia, since in 2016 there was no possibility of treatment. For the last two cases, a treatment cycle was performed as recommended by the guidelines. Regarding the municipality of Curitibanos, in the first case diagnosed in 2016, the animal came from Uruguaiana. In conclusion, this study aimed to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to the first three patients with CVL reported in Curitibanos.

      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106853
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Bullous Pemphigoid in a Dog

    • Authors: Suélen Dalegrave, Denner Francisco Tomadon Fiorin, Eduarda Gabriela Mansour, Monica Regina de Matos, Renato Herdina Erdmann, Laís Rezzadori Flecke, Luana Baptista de Azevedo, Eduardo Conceição de Oliveira
      Abstract: Background: In dogs, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepithelial autoimmune disease, a rare dermatopathy in the clinical routine. BP is characterized by formation of vesicles and subepidermal blisters that result from dissolution of the dermal-epithelial junction. Clinical signs of BP usually include severe dermatological alterations with a variable prognosis. The aim of this work is to report a case of BP in a dog to contribute information for diagnosis, and to present clinical and pathological aspects that emerge during development of BP.Case: An adult male mongrel dog exhibited hyperemic, exudative, crusty lesions on the lip commissure and periocular areas. Results from laboratory tests were normal. Results from parasitological and mycological tests on skin scrapings were negative. Imprint cytology of the crusts revealed presence of gram-positive cocci bacteria. In the histopathological analysis of punch biopsy material, the epidermis was detached from the dermis, leading to formation of vesicles. There were inflammatory infiltrates containing neutrophils, eosinophils, and high amounts of fibrin, and areas of multifocal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. Multifocal infiltrates containing lymphocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells were observed on the superficial portions of the dermis, which indicated a diagnosis of BP. After the definitive clinical diagnosis, the animal was treated with enrofloxacin (Baytril Flavour®; 5 mg/kg once a day for 10 days), and prednisolone (Prediderm®; 2 mg/kg once a day until further instructions). On the follow-up visit, 15 days later, the clinical picture had improved, and the lesions had decreased. Continuity of the treatment was prescribed, along with a gradual decrease in the corticoid dose. The dose of prednisolone was initially reduced to 1 mg/kg once a day, and later to 0.5 mg/kg until improvement of the clinical status of the patient. Remission of the lesions was observed 13 weeks later.Discussion: The diagnosis of BP was established after identification of the clinical cutaneous lesions and observation of microscopic findings on punch biopsy material obtained from the ocular and lip regions. BP does not exhibit breed or sex predisposition, and affects adult dogs. The clinical signs of BP are characteristic of autoimmune diseases that affect the dermoepidermal junction, and consist of erythematous, ulcerated, crusty, and painful lesions on the nose, dorsal area of the muzzle, and periorbital region. However, these lesions must be differentiated, by histological analysis, from several other conditions with a similar clinical presentation. Diseases that must be considered in the differential diagnosis comprise other variants of the pemphigus complex, lupus erythematosus, drug eruption, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, epitheliotropic lymphoma, inherited bullous epidermolysis, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and lymphoreticular neoplasia. The clinicopathological findings indicated that the lesions were compatible with BP. The occurrence of necrotic and erythematous lesions is due to production of antibodies accompanied by a strong response of neutrophils, which results in loss of cell adhesion and epidermal necrosis. The presence of detachment of the epidermis from the dermis, inflammation in the superficial portion of the dermis, and infiltrates containing lymphocytes, histiocytes and plasma cells observed at the histopathological examination indicated the occurrence of BP. The skin histopathological examination warranted establishment of a diagnosis and therapeutic success. The lack of recurrence of clinical manifestations 43 weeks after the end of the glucocorticoid treatment demonstrated that the therapeutic approach and the cooperation of the owner are essential for success of the treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106575
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Non-Epitheliotropic Cutaneous Lymphoma with Systemic Dissemination in a

    • Authors: Laís Guedes Rosseto, Beatriz Crepaldi Aléssio Pitol, Paulo Antonio Terrabuio Andreussi, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo, Adriana Ventura, Veronica Jorge Babo-Terra
      Abstract: Background: Cutaneous lymphoma is a highly malignant neoplasm, which can originate in the epidermis or dermis, as well as be disseminated to other organs such as lung, heart, arm, liver and bone marrow. It comes in the form of nodes of various sizes, erythematous and alopecic, itching may or may not occur. The diagnosis is made by cytological and histopathological examination of the compromised tissue. However, it is important to perform complementary tests for clinical staging and prognostic characterization. The objective is to report a case of non-epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma with systemic dissemination in a dog.Case: A female mixed bred adult canine was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul with a history of progressive weight loss and the presence of alopecic and non-pruritic subcutaneous nodules in the torso, nasal plane and pelvic limbs, starting 4 months ago. After approximately 20 days, the presence of rapidly evolving ulcerated nodules was noted. On physical examination, generalized lymphadenomegaly was observed and among the dermatological findings were multiple nodules of varying sizes with the presence of ulceration in the center of the lesions, alopecia, erythema and raised edges, in the region of the nasal sinus, pelvic and thoracic limbs, tail, thoracolumbar and abdominal region. The animal also presented right pelvic limb edema with painful sensibility to manipulation CBC and biochemical tests (albumin, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, globulins, total proteins and fractions) were performed, being observed as normocytic normochromic type anemia alteration (erythrocytes: 2.78 106/µL; hemoglobin: 6.8 g/µL; globular volume: 18.8%), leukopenia (4,000/mm³) with presence of metamyelocytes (120/mm³) and rods (1,080/mm³) and lymphopenia (80/mm³). Three samples of the nodules were collected for histopathological examination and a definitive diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma was obtained. The material was then submitted to immunohistochemical examination, which showed that it was a non-epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma of T immunophenotype. Due to the compromised quality of life and unfavorable prognosis, the owner opted for euthanasia of the animal. In the necropsy examination, lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, pericardial sac, tongue and multifocal infiltrate of neoplastic cells were observed, findings suggestive of multicentric lymphoma or infiltrations by dissemination of cutaneous lymphoma.Discussion: Non-epitheliotropic skin lymphomas exhibit rapid progression and infiltration into lymph nodes and subsequent systemic involvement. The diagnosis is based on clinical-dermatological signs, fine needle cytology, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Normocytic normochromic anemia is the most observed alteration in patients with lymphoma, followed by leukocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia and leukoerythroblastic reactions.  Dogs with T-cell lymphoma have a worse prognosis for life span and disease-free intervals than those with B-cell lymphoma, so immunophenotyping is critical to determine prognosis. In the present report, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were decisive for the diagnosis of the present report, because the expression CD3 and the negativity for CD79a proved that the neoplasm is of T lymphocyte lineage. The definitive diagnosis was obtained by histopathology, however, immunohistochemistry determined the immunophenotype of the neoplasia as non-epitheliotropic T lymphocyte. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107597
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Feline Eosinophilic Keratoconjunctivitis: Nonsteroidal vs Corticosteroid
           Topical Treatment

    • Authors: Gabrielly Costa Gomes Rodrigues, Ana Maria Tatoni Pereira Coelho, João Pedro Brochado Souza, Joyce Maira Araújo, Márcio Virgílio Figueiredo Silva, Polyana Mayume Pereira Silva, Gabriel Utida Eguchi
      Abstract: Background: Feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis is a proliferative eye lesion of chronic aspect with usually unilateral presentation that may initiate as a superficial vascularization that evolves to a proliferative, granular, irregular lesion of whitish-pink aspect. With its association with an immune-mediated response, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories do not appear to be efficient, although few studies describe its use. This case report describes a case of a feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis with its clinical evolution since the use of nonsteroidal topical anti-inflammatory drug in an undiagnosed patient and the transition to a topical corticosteroid and cure after 14 days since diagnosis.Case: An 8-year-old female cat was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Dom Bosco Catholic University (UCDB), with main complaint being an eye injury with at least 36 days of evolution andunresponsive to treatment (topical tobramycin 0.3% every 12 h / ketorolac trometamol 0.5%/ every 12 h and ophthalmic lubricant/every 4 h). Since the patient had free access to the street, the owners suspected of trauma-induced lesion. At physical examination, it was observed a proliferative lesion at the peri-limbal superotemporal quadrant of the right cornea with approximately 0.4 cm diameter, with color varying of pale to pink, with irregular surface and low vascularity, the adjacent conjunctiva was also affected with similar multiple nodular lesions (0.1 cm). Fluorescein test was negative as well as FIV/FeLV immunochromatography testing. Feline herpesvirus investigation was not possible. The patient was anesthetized and a lesion specimen was acquired with a cotton swab scraping and a fine needle aspiration. Cytology showed predominance of eosinophils and mast cells, with rare corneal epithelial cells, with smear background containing mast cell granules and free eosinophils. Presumptive diagnosis was eosinophilic keratoconjunctivits. After 14 days of topical corticosteroid (prednisolone acetate 1% every 8 h) the patient showed complete remission of the lesions with no relapse in 48 days.Discussion: Misdiagnosis and consequently mistreatment seems a greater prejudice than the risks associated with sample collection of keratoconjunctival proliferative lesions. Due to the lack of cytobrush or cotton swab, apparently, the reported patient was not submitted to ophthalmic cytology due to reluctance of the staff regarding fine needle aspiration of the cornea lesion. Despite a greater risk of iatrogenic trauma with needle aspiration, with eye anatomy well defined, level size and movement amplitude respected, it is unlikely that severe complications could occur. In this case, the undiagnosed patient was submitted to unnecessary 15 days of topical antibiotic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, and no improvement of the clinical signs was observed. Despite non-recommended, few clinical trials as well as case descriptions are available comparing nonsteroidal and corticosteroid treatment of the disease. Once with diagnosis and beginning of topical prednisolone acetate 1% exclusively, the patient showed continuous improvement until complete remission of clinical signs after 14 days. This report reinforces the recommendation of corticosteroid therapy for feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis and the absence of efficacy of nonsteroidal drugs. It also highlights the importance of diagnosis before any medical treatment is considered.

      PubDate: 2021-02-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107032
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Peritoneal Cryptococcosis in a Dog

    • Authors: Beline Mergulhão de Oliveira Carvalho da Silva, Natália Freitas de Souza, Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira
      Abstract: Background: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic, systemic mycotic disease caused by a yeast of Cryptococcus neoformans. These pathogens cause serious public health problems, as they can be transmitted to humans, domestic and wild animals. In cats and dogs, the main site of infection is the upper lower respiratory tract, however, the infection can extend and affect other sites in the organism, however, the peritoneal manifestation of the disease is rare. Thus, the present work aims to report a case of cryptococcosis in a canine, mixed breed, female, adult, from the Metropolitan Region of Belém.Case: A mixed breed dog, female, adult was admitted in a veterinary hospital at Belém, presenting abdominal discomfort and, after the clinical examination, emergency exploratory laparotomy was indicated, and it were observed disseminated lesions in the abdominal cavity, with multiple nodules attached to the peritoneum and intestinal serosa and bladder, uterus, among other organs. Fragments from the surgical biopsy were fixed, and processed routinely according to the techniques for histological tissue processing. Histological examination revealed a predominance of granulomatous lesions in peritoneum and mesentery organs. It was observed a discrete inflammatory reaction of macrophages, epithelioid cells and giant cells, many in phagocytosis of spherical or ovoid organisms, with a thick capsule and a clear perinuclear halo. In the PAS staining, the Cryptococcus conidia presented eosinophilic characteristics and some of them had the capsule well demarcated, which was shown to be radiated. Also it was possible to see the budding yeast and in the Grocott stain, the Cryptococcus stained in black.Discussion: Cryptococcosis with peritoneal involvement in animals is rarely reported in the literature. Cryptococcus is an agent that presents tropism by the central nervous system and nasal cavity, however atypical presentations have been reported, especially at the level of the abdominal cavity (intestines and mesentery). It is believed that the gastrointestinal tract is the gateway for ascending contamination, or that the contamination can occur by fungal ingestion. The lesions presented a multiple distribution, with isolated and coalescent nodules adhered to the peritoneum and adjacent structures. The literature reports two cases of dogs with intra-abdominal cryptococcosis, in which, macroscopically, granulomatous formations were observed in the jejunum, with lymph nodes and mesentery. Microscopically, a discrete inflammatory infiltrate of macrophages and lymphocytes were observed. Some areas with granulomatous reaction, lymphocytes, epithelioid macrophages and giant cells and, in other areas, yeasts in the cytoplasm were observed. The yeasts were spherical or ovoid, surrounded by a thick capsule of polysaccharide. The periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and silver impregnation (Grocott) staining were used to highlight structures of the Cryptococcus wall which were presented by a strong stained polysaccharide capsule. It must be emphasized the zoonotic potential of cryptococcosis, a disease that can affect both animals and humans. Cryptococcosis in humans normally occurs when the fungus accesses the airways through inhalation and ranges from asymptomatic pulmonary colonization to compromised meninges, causing the human patient's life-threatening condition. In the present report, the diagnosis of cryptococcosis was established through histopathological and histochemical examination of the fungal structure, which were determinant in the etiological diagnosis of cryptococcosis.
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105462
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Systemic Infection by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           pseudintermedius in a Bitch

    • Authors: Jôiciglecia Pereira dos Santos, Valesca Ferreira Machado de Souza, Zayan Silva Pereira, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Maria Talita Soares Frade, Layze Cilmara Alves da Silva Vieira
      Abstract: Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen, belonging to the genus Staphylococcus. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococci have the mecA-gene, which confers them with the ability of becoming resistant to methicillin and multiple classes of antimicrobials, which makes the treatment of the affections caused by these specimens difficult. This work describes a case of systemic infection and death by methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermediusin a bitch.Case: A crossbred bitch (Canis lupus familiaris), was admitted to the University Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Western Bahia (HVU-UFOB). The main complaint reported by the owner was the presence of mammary nodules and constant nasal secretion. During the clinical examination was observed reactivity in the popliteal and left submandibular lymph nodes, pale mucous membranes, stomatitis, bilateral mucopurulent nasal secretion, abdominal pustules, serous secretion in the inguinal mammary gland and focal alopecia on the dorsum. On auscultation, was identified only arrhythmia and the other physiological parameters of the animal were within normality for the species. Samples of the nasal secretion and of the secretion from the abdominal pustules were collected, and sent to the Veterinary Microbiology Laboratory of the same institution. The samples collected were sown in 5% Blood Agar (BA), Sabouraud Agar (SAB) and MacConkey Agar (MCK), after 24 h was observed in BA the growth of macroscopically white colonies, with a humid aspect, creamy consistency, with presence of catalase and α-hemolysis. Microscopically, was observed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, suggestive of Staphylococcus sp.  Microscopically, was observed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, suggestive of Staphylococcus sp. In the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, was identified S. pseudintermedius. Enrofloxacin [Enrotrat tab® 25 mg, 5 mg/kg, SID, PO, 5 days] was prescribed and a follow-up consultation was requested. Two weeks after leaving the University Veterinary Hospital, the animal was admitted in emergency and was submitted to the support protocol and died during the procedure. After the owner’s authorization, the anatomopathological examination was carried out, and fragments of the liver, lung and kidney were collected, in addition to sample of the liquid of the abdominal cavity for microbiological examination, and was evidenced the growth of S. pseudintermedius in all the specimens. The bacterium’s susceptibility to 19 antibiotics was tested, and a high degree of resistance was found, with sensitivity only to amoxicillin+ clavulanate (20-10 μg), chloramphenicol (30 μg) and vancomycin (30 μg). Given the detection of MRSP in Chromogenic Agar and in cefoxitin disks, all the specimens were MRSP positive.Discussion: The diagnosis based on the bacteriological culture and anatopathological findings were essential for the confirmation of the clinical presentation of septicemia. The isolation of S. pseudintermedius in all the analyzed samples, associated to the identification by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry confirmed the clinical suspicion of systemic infection. Based on the result of the antibiogram and phenotypic tests, it was evidenced that all the isolates were MRSP positive, presenting multiple resistance to antibiotics, which may have interfered in the efficiency of the treatment. The results obtained in this report are worrying and signal the need for the implementation of phenotypical researches associated to anti-microbial susceptibility tests in bacteria isolated from animals attended in veterinary clinics and hospitals, in order to monitor and avoid the dissemination of pathogens with a multi-resistant profile.
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106554
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Island Skin Graft Associated with Non-Adherent Mesh in a Dog’s
           Pelvic Limb

    • Authors: Thayana Neiva de Lima Queiroz, Petra Cavalcanti Germano, Milena Giovana Magrin, Jorge Luiz Costa Castro
      Abstract: Background: Large skin defects are caused by tumor excision, making appropriate reconstruction and complete healing of the lesion a challenge for surgeons. There are some difficulties in reaching these goals, especially in cases of surgical wound in the limbs, due to the scarce amount of skin and its reduced elasticity, which limit the possibility of flaps when compared to the head, neck, and trunk. This study reports a case of wound closure on the lateral skin in the femoral region of a dog’s pelvic limb via island skin graft associated with the implantation of a nonadherent cellulose acetate mesh and intensive postoperative care.Case: An 8-year-old Rottweiler female dog was attended at Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná’s Veterinary Clinic (CVE), in Curitiba, Paraná, presenting a tumor located laterocaudally to the right stifle joint. After preoperative examinations, the patient underwent tumor surgery; however, two more surgical procedures were required due to suture dehiscence in the region, which resulted in increased wound size. At first, the wound was treated for granulation tissue to be formed. Subsequently, the island skin grafting technique was chosen to close the wound, associated with the implantation of a nonadherent cellulose acetate mesh imbibed with petrolatum emulsion to keep the grafted fragments in place. The mesh was fixed in a simple interrupted suture pattern using 2-0 nylon thread. The lateral regions of the chest and abdomen were chosen as donor skin beds due to their large dimensions, skin elasticity, and ease in defect reconstruction. The fragments were obtained using a 10-mm biopsy punch and scalpel, and the defects were sutured in a simple interrupted pattern using 2-0 nylon thread. The patient remained hospitalized for movement restriction and postoperative monitoring for 72 h, and the bandage remained untouched during this time interval. Thereafter, the patient was discharged and it was recommended to clean the wound with jets of 0.9% saline using a 40 × 12 needle attached to a 20 mL syringe, from a distance of 10 cm from the wound. The dressings were changed every 48 h to maintain minimum contact with the wound; however, still keeping it clean to optimize healing. Fourteen days postoperatively, the sutures as well as the non adherent mesh were removed from the donor beds. The dressing was changed and the lesion was cleaned every 24 h because the fixation between the receptor bed and the implanted tissue was considered good. After approximately 80 days, complete epithelialization of the wound was observed.Discussion: Closing of large skin defects in the limbs is challenging due to the impossibility of using other reconstructive surgery techniques, which have limited use because of the extension of the lesion. However, island skin grafting can be considered despite its slower skin healing process than that of skin flaps. Specific management is required for the successful execution of this technique, and in the present case, the application of the non adherent mesh after island skin grafting helped in the immobilization and better adhesion of the fragments to the receiving bed. Thus, it was demonstrated that in-depth knowledge of reconstructive surgery and the surgeon’s expertise favor the emergence of ideas and more effective techniques that ensure success of the surgical procedure by avoiding complications and improving the patients’ quality of life.

      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106819
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Uterine Torsion Associated with Open Pyometra in a Bitch

    • Authors: Stella Rehfeldt Borges Jagnow, Cristiane dos Reis Ritter, Silvia Cristiane Hervelha Mayer, Patrícia Tissiani, Juliana Farias Rolim, Cibele Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Barreto Coelho
      Abstract:   Background:  Pyometra or pyometritis is a serious and common condition of intact female dogs characterized by the inflammation of the uterus with a buildup of purulent exudate. It may be classified as open or closed. If untreated, pyometra can lead to uterine rupture and sepsis. Pyometra may also predispose to uterine torsion, defined as a rotation of one or both uterine horns around its longitudinal axis. Uterine torsion in female dogs is rare, and usually with late pregnancy or parturition. This case report describes the clinical presentation and therapeutic management of uterine torsion correlated with open pyometra in a non-gravid bitch with no history of exogenous progesterone exposure. Case: A 10-year-old intact Yorkshire Terrier bitch weighing 3.2 kg was referred to a veterinary clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, with a 7 day history of prostration, anorexia, polydipsia, and sanguinopurulent vulvar discharge. Physical examination revealed pronounced abdominal tenderness. On abdominal ultrasonography, the uterus was enlarged and filled with cellular anechoic content, suggestive of pyometra. A complete blood count showed mild microcytic normochromic anemia and leukocytosis. The animal was stabilized and an urgent ovariohysterectomy was performed. Preanesthetic analgesia consisted of subcutaneous methadone 0.3 mg/kg. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 3 mg/kg i.v. and maintained with inhaled isoflurane. During the procedure, significant enlargement of the left uterine horn and slight enlargement of the right uterine horn were observed. In addition, a torsion was identified near the left ovary, with copious sanguinopurulent secretion. The animal remained under observation and fluid therapy for 48 h after the procedure and was discharged to postoperative follow-up. After discharge, the following treatment was medicine, local cleaning and rest for 14 days. Concluding the therapeutic process with a satisfactory outcome.  Discussion: Uterine torsion is considered rare in female dogs, and when it does occur, it is usually associated with late pregnancy or parturition. In this case, pregnancy was not a predisposing factor, but the animal had pyometra, which may have contributed to the torsion. Exogenous progesterone administration to inhibit the estrous cycle significantly increases the risk of pyometra; however, in the case reported herein, there was no history of progesterone therapy. The most likely cause was prolonged, repeated progesterone stimulation in the luteal phase, since the animal developed pyometra at the age of 10. Both uterine torsion and pyometra may progress to cause severe systemic complications. However, none was observed in the present case. Despite the high mortality rate, the animal survived, probably due to the open pyometra, which is associated with better prognosis than closed pyometra. Nevertheless, drainage was not enough to relieve enlargement of the uterus and ligaments, which may have facilitated torsion. Pyometritis associated with uterine torsion has rarely been reported in the literature, especially in small animals. Early diagnosis is key, as is surgical treatment via ovariohysterectomy. The surgical procedure had therapeutic purpose and was managed satisfactorily. The mechanism of uterine torsion has yet to be fully elucidated, which highlights the importance of this report. Additionally, it is rare in dogs, with very few reports in the non-gravid uterus. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107276
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • True Infection by Capillaria hepatica in a Dog

    • Authors: Vanessa Caparelli de Oliveira, Marina Cazarini Madeira, Trayse Graneli Soares, Isabel Rodrigues Rosado, Ian Martin, Joely Ferreira Figueiredo Bittar, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves
      Abstract: Background: Capillaria hepatica is a nematode, zoonotic, with worldwide distribution. The main hosts are rodents, nevertheless other mammals can be affected. Although the parasite has high affinity for the liver, it rarely causes a hepatic disease in domestic animals and humans. The diagnosis is difficult and usually a biopsy is required. The treatment is difficult and is based in anti-helminthic and corticoid, but prevention is the best strategy against the disease. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of hepatic capillariosis in a dog approaching the clinical signs, diagnosis and therapeutic. Case: A 12-year-old Brazilian Terrier bitch, with a history of visit to the farm and regular hunting of rats, frogs, birds and other wild animals, was attended with hyporexia and apathy. At the physical exam the dog presented elevation of rectal temperature, intense jaundice and abdominal pain. In the biochemical exams was noticed a slight increase in globulins and a sharp increase in alkaline phosphatase (AP), total, direct and indirect bilirubin, suggesting a liver injury. In the ultrasonographic exam, hepatomegaly with dispersed hyperechoic areas were observed, suggesting hepatic steatosis. The patient was treated with ursodesoxicolic acid and S-adenosil metionin for 30 consecutive days, showing a clinic improvement. Two months after the end of the treatment the animal worsened, showing jaundice, ascites, motor incoordination, weakness, difficulty in food and water ingestion and changes in the mental state. In the complete blood count was observed a macrocytic hypochromic regenerative anemia, leukocytosis with neutrophilia and monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. In biochemical exams was detected decrease in creatinine and albumin and increase in alanine aminotransferase and AP, suggesting hepatopathy by biliary obstruction. There were performed exams for leishmania and ehrlichiosis that tested negative. In the ultrasonographic exam it was noticed that the liver had the same alterations and the presence of free fluid in the abdominal cavity. Due to the deterioration of the clinical picture a blood transfusion was necessary, however the patient worsened and presented respiratory difficulty for a bilateral pleural effusion. Then, the fluid was drained and a treatment with S-adenosil metionin, silymarin, ursodesoxicolic acid, doxycycline and prednisolone was started. After 17 days, a hepatic biopsy was performed, but the patient died at the surgery desk. Samples from the liver were collected for histopathologic exam. The diagnosis was confirmed in hepatic capillariosis and periportal chronic hepatitis, with the visualization of numerous parasites structures with bioperculated barrel shape. Discussion: Due to the nonspecific clinical alterations observed in the patient and the low prevalence of C. hepatica in domestic animals, there was a difficulty in the diagnosis which lead to a symptomatic, nonspecific and inefficient treatment that culminate with the death of the patient. The histopathologic exam of the liver is the best manner to find the correct diagnosis of C. hepatica infection, once the parasites eggs remains in the liver parenchyma wrapped by fibrosis and aren´t eliminate in the feces. The eggs elimination in the environment just occur after the death of the animal. Although there didn't exist a consensus about hepatic capillariosis treatment yet, if the diagnosis were done earlier, a specific treatment with better chances of a good result could be performed. We concluded that hepatic capillariosis should be included in differential diagnosis for patients with hepatic syndrome, mainly if the animal had a hunting habit and if it had access to surroundings with high rats’ infestation.

      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106696
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Clitoridectomy and Urethrostomy in a Pseudohermaphrodite Dog

    • Authors: Juliane Laís Roman, Ariele Aparecida Ferreira, Ana Paula Rossa, Wisley Iemanjá Malaquias Dos Santos, Renato Silva De Sousa, Jorge Luiz Costa Castro, Vinicius Gonzalez Peres Albernaz, Peterson Triches Dornbusch
      Abstract: Background: Hermaphroditism is a rare congenital disease that causes ambiguous sexual features. True hermaphrodites have testicular and ovarian tissue, whereas pseudohermaphrodites have only one type of gonadal tissue, genitalia, but secondary characteristics of the opposite sex. Pseudohermaphrodites are classified as male or female according to their gonads. Treatment of pseudohermaphroditism consists of surgical removal of the gonads including reconstruction of abnormal genitalia, especially if the urethra is involved. Therefore, the objective of this report is to describe a case of a male pseudohermaphrodite in a dog treated with clitoridectomy with urethrostomy.Case: A 7-month-old, mixed-breed dog was referred due to the presence of a flaccid structure similar to a small penis, containing an os clitoris, bulbourethral glands, and urethra protruding from the vulva. Physical examination, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were within normal ranges. Hormonal levels of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were 56.39 pg/mL, 127.9 ng/mL, and 0.892 ng/mL, respectively. The abdominal ultrasound and posteriorly the exploratory celiotomy found a normal size prostate and two round organs resembling testicles connected to a uterus-like tubular structure. The patient underwent surgical abdominal exploration that confirmed the ultrasonographic findings and led to gonadohysterectomy. Also, clitoridectomy and urethrostomy were performed to excise the protruded structure and maintain normal urethral patency. The histopathological examination of the clitoris and penis confirmed it was a male genital organ, however, the abdominal structures were compatible with the testicles, epididymis, uterus, and even a broad ligament. These organs are normally found in cases of male pseudohermaphroditism. The testicles were histologically composed of regular seminiferous tubules, single layer Sertoli cells but there were no spermatogenic cells. After ten months of follow-up, the patient was alive, without urination impairment or any other clinical signs.Discussion: The animal presented the protrusion of the penile structure as the sole clinical sign. The reproductive system had a female origin, been possible its masculinization due to high testosterone concentration that induced the development of Wolff ducts, resulting in the formation of the epididymis, deferent ducts, and seminal vesicles. In these cases, it led to an enlarged clitoris. The patient described had hormonal levels compatible with a neutered male/female or a female in anestrus. The clinical signs become evident as the clitoris gets hypertrophied increasing the sensibility, resulting in constant licking of the mucosa, chronic inflammation, and mucopurulent discharge. This patient was diagnosed with male pseudohermaphroditism as it had cryptorchid male gonads along with the uterus and external genitalia of a female dog but containing traces of male genitals such as the os clitoris. Surgery is indicated when there are clinical signs or when the clitoris had an os clitoris or urethra due to an intersex abnormality. The surgical resection of the external male genitalia associated with the excision of the internal reproductive tract treated while preserving the urethra in this animal. Clitorectomy is a simple technique and creates a normal female anatomy ending the clinical signs of the exposed clitoris and improving the quality of life.Clitoridectomy and Urethrostomy in a Pseudohermaphrodite Dog
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105237
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Treatment of Radius Curvus in a Young Dog with Association of Radial
           Physeal Stapling, Ulnar Ostectomy and Transarticular Dynamic External
           Fixator Techniques

    • Authors: Fernanda Simon, Leonardo Augusto Lopes Muzzi, Larissa Teixeira Pacheco, Ruthnea Aparecida Lázaro Muzzi, Laura Lourenço Freitas, Daniel Munhoz Garcia Perez Neto, Daniela Saldanha Abreu, Eric Orlando Barbosa Momesso
      Abstract: Background: Radius curvus is a clinical manifestation of the premature closure of the distal ulnar physis and the most common physeal disease in dogs, representing 63% of all physeal injuries. There are few reports indicating the technique of stapling for treatment of radius curvus in squeletically immature dogs. The aim of this study is to report a case of radius curvus in a young dog successfully treated with a combination of 3 surgical tecniques: 1- Stapling the medial and cranial portions of the distal radial physis; 2- Oblique osteotomy of the proximal ulna and ostectomy of the distal ulna, and 3- Dynamic external skeletal fixation in the elbow joint.Case: A 5-month-old female dog was referred to the University Veterinary Hospital with a history of left thoracic limb deformity for 2 weeks. There was a history of possible traumatic event on the front limb, in addition to providing nutritional supplements daily. In the radiographic evaluation the changes were identified in the left thoracic limb: shortening of the ulna, procurvatum and medial angulation of the distal radius, increased joint space and articular incongruity of the elbow joint. The dog was subjected to surgical treatment by the combination of three main surgical techniques. For the stapling of the distal radial physis the surgical approach on the cranial-medial surface of the distal radius was made. Two surgical staples were positioned in the distal radial physis. Thereafter a caudal approach was made to the distal region of the ulnar diaphysis for the distal ostectomy of the ulna. A bone segment of 1 cm in length of the distal ulnar diaphysis was removed. Another caudal approach was made to the proximal region of the ulnar diaphysis and a proximal oblique osteotomy of the ulna was performed. For the dynamic external skeletal fixation in the elbow joint two Steinmann pins were inserted. The first pin was proximal to the supracondilar foramen of the humerus and the second pin was caudal to the trochlear notch of the ulna, both parallel to the joint surface. To create a dynamic system, the pin tips were connected with elastic rubber bands on the medial and lateral sides of the elbow joint. Clinical and radiographic revaluation were made at 15, 30 and 60 days after surgery. Total correction of the limb deviation was achieved at 60 days postoperative. Two years after the surgical procedure, the owner was contacted and reported that the dog was very well and with no change in the operated limb.Discussion: The most common cause of premature closure of the distal ulnar physis is trauma. Due to the proper conical shape of the distal ulnar physis, there is more predisposition to the compression of the germinative cells in traumatic events, leading to radius curvus disease. Another cause of the radius curvus is the nutritional disbalances. In the reported case the patient had both predisponent factors, although unilateral limb involvement suggested trauma with primary causative agent. The treatment included the interruption of the supplementation of the diet associated with surgical techniques. The stapling of the distal radial physis is usually indicated for mild angular valgus deviation. In the current case the technique was applied with success regardless of the higher grade of radial deviation. Generally, the ulnar ostectomy is preferred to the osteotomy, since it reduces the rate of ulnar osteosynthesis, ensuring that the restrictive effect of the ulna upon the radial growth does not restart. In the reported case the ulnar ostectomy was associated with ulnar osteotomy to achieve a more effective result. Furthermore, the proximal ulnar osteotomy is usually indicated when elbow subluxation is present. In the current case the joint congruence was improved with the use of the dynamic external skeletal fixator.
      PubDate: 2021-01-30
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105684
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Canine Leproid Granuloma in Mineiros City Mid-West Region of Brazil

    • Authors: Debora da Silva Freitas Ribeiro, Jhosani Beatriz Bispo da Silva, Tatiane Souza Saldanha, Juliana Evangelista Bezerril, Rodrigo Martins Ribeiro
      Abstract: Background: Among the bacterial dermopathy the canine leproid granuloma (CLG) is a nodular pyogranulomatous disorder that affects the skin or subcutaneous tissue mainly in the dorsal face of ear pinna, head, and extremity of members caused by Mycobacterium spp. The pathogenicity is still not well clarified regarding the causative agent, which has not yet been completely typified, but phylogenetically, it is related to Mycobacterium tilburgii, M. simiae, and M. genavense, in Brazil, by the species M. murphy. The objective of this study is to report a case of canine leproid granuloma, through cytology and histopathology, and present the therapeutic procedures until the regression of cutaneous lesion.Case: A 5-year-old Boxer breed, intac male weighing 32 kg, was assisted at the Veterinary Clinic of UNIFIMES, in Mineiros City, Mid-West Region of Brazil, GO, Brazil.  The animal had 4 nodules in the ears with evolution of 30 days, with no pruritus and without previous treatment. During the physical exam, the animal had normal physiological parameters. The cutaneous lesions were characterised by papules and alopecic nodules of firm to fibroelastic consistency, with progressive increase, located in the convex face of the ears. The fine needle aspiration puncture technique (FNAP) and histopathology for a definitive diagnosis was used, allowing the differentiation between inflammatory processes, infectious and neoplastic. Furthermore, blood was collected for hemogram and biochemical analysis for the assessment of renal and hepatic functions. In cytology, the stained blades by the Diff-quick stain in the microscopic exam had elevated cellularity, with several macrophages, and bacilliform structures in the negative image. Staining was also conducted by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique, which showed the presence of alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli (AARB) inside macrophages and in the centre of granuloma. In the animal’s follow up, a punch biopsy for histopathologic was conducted. A predominance of macrophages of epithelioid appearance, which were localised in the centre of nodulations, variable quantities de-agglomerates of degenerated neutrophils, was observed. In the periphery of the lesion intense infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasmocytes was found. Based on the clinical history, in the physical exam and laboratory findings, a treatment for mycobacteriosis with oral enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg every 24 h associated to doxycycline 10 mg/kg every 24 h and rifampicin topical twice a day in the cutaneous lesions was initiated. After three months of treatment, the animal did not have collateral effects with the association of antibiotics and had a complete clinical resolution, without recurrence.Discussion: Despite that the CLG etiopathogeny is not well clarified, it is important to highlight the involvement of insects, such as flies and mosquitoes, inoculating the mycobacteria. Despite the fact that large size dogs, of breeds with short hair that are raised outdoors, have greater susceptibility to CLG and the lesions can be located specially in the face and ears, it is recommended to use complementary exams, such as cytology and histopathology, to obtain a definitive diagnosis. The CLG is a disease already reported in some regions of the Brazilian territory; however, it is believed that it is underdiagnosed, making it difficult to effectively use the therapeutic protocol.

      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.107181
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Diagnostic Process in a Crioulo Horse with Cushing’s Syndrome

    • Authors: Fernanda Aquino Franco, Fernanda Carlini Cunha dos Santos, Gabriela Vicensi da Costa, Henrique Ramos Oliveira, Lays Wouters Ugolini, Carlos Bondan, Leonardo Porto Alves
      Abstract: Background: Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, also known as equine Cushing’s syndrome, is a neurodegenerative disease. An important risk factor for Cushing’s is advanced aging and it is the most common endocrine disorder in older horses. The prevalence in horses aged over 10 and 15 years is reported as 9.3% and 21%, respectively. Due to the slow progressive nature of the disease, seasonal variation in hormone output and overlapping endocrine response to other events, accurate diagnosis is challenging. The diagnosis requires the combination of anamnesis, clinical signs, in addition to laboratory tests results. This study aimed to report Cushing’s syndrome in a Crioulo breed horse focusing on diagnostic methods.Case: A 13-year-old male Crioulo breed, orchiectomized, was attended at the Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. The owner reported that the animal had progressive weight loss and coat abnormal growth, with curly appearance. From visual inspection, body condition score was 4 (1-9) bulging abdomen was noticed, hirsutism, depression and lethargy. Also, there was a large neoplastic mass on the left side of gluteal region. Later, this mass was classified in histopathological examination as a fibroblastic sarcoid and was treated. The animal presented physical parameters within the physiological limits of the specie. Normochromic normocytic anemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were reported in the hematologic evaluation. In coproparasitological examination, there were 300 eggs per gram of feaces. Hyperadrenocorticism was suspected in the clinical examination and dexamethasone suppression test was performed to confirm the fact. Basal serum was collected at 17 h (M0) and subsequently 40 µg/kg of dexamethasone was administered intramuscularly. Serum samples were taken after 15 (M15) and 19 (M19) h, resulting in cortisol levels of 1.7 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. The M15 and M19 results were above reference values for horses (below 1 μg/dL). Combination of information gathered from anamnesis, clinical examination and dexamethasone suppression test resulted in the definitive diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism, also known as Cushing’s syndrome. Paliative treatment included shearing all over the body and vitamin supplementation.Discussion: In animals without obvious clinical signs, Cushing's syndrome diagnosis is challenging. The most unique and specific clinical signs are the development of abnormal hair coat, mainly hirsutism, delayed or incomplete shedding, and in aged horse, lightening of coat color. The mechanistic cause of these signs is still barely understood. Cushing's is a collection of syndromes each with a unique set of clinical signs and hormone profiles, which varies according to each individual. Complementary examinations are extremely important and endocrine tests are highly recommended in addition to suggestive findings. However, despite the variety of existing tests, false negatives or false positives can frequently happen. Dexamethasone suppression test is considered the gold standard, well validated, practical and low cost for the diagnosis of this disease. In the present report, the combination of anamnesis (13 years old, weight loss, and abnormal coat), clinical exam (hirsutism) and dexamethasone suppression test (over 1 μg/dL of cortisol 15 h and 19 h after dexamethasone administration) resulted in the definitive diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Measurements of plasma concentrations of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, serum insulin concentration and necropsy are other available tests. History, clinical signs and test results are important to achieve the definitive diagnoses, and when possible, it is advisable to perform post-mortem evaluation of the pituitary gland.
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105355
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Partial Obstruction and Intestinal Bleeding Secondary to a Congenital
           Duodenal Diverticulum in a Dog

    • Authors: Carla Aparecida Batista Lorigados, Aline Machado Zoppa, Andre Schiller, Iara Tiburcio, Fabio Giusti Calderon, Marianna Pantano
      Abstract: Background: Intestinal diverticulum is an abnormality resulting in the formation of a blind-ended saccular pouch that can be acquired either congenital, true (involving all intestinal layers) or false (involving the mucosa and submucosa), with extraluminal and intraluminal type. In humans, the acquired is more frequent, being the colon is the most affected segment followed by duodenum; most of duodenal diverticulum remains asymptomatic, but biliary obstruction, recurrent acute pancreatitis, hemorrhagic ulcer, proximal intestinal obstruction and perforation may occur. The aim of this report is to present a case of a congenital disease in dogs, prone to misdiagnosis due to non-specific clinical signs.Case: An 8-month-old male Boxer was evaluated due to recurrent hyporexia, vomiting, melena and syncope over three months with signs of a possible intestinal obstruction. Physical examination showed no abnormalities except for pale mucous membranes. Complete blood count revealed anemia and leukocytosis. Platelets and biochemical profiles were normal. Abdominal ultrasound examination indicated a dilated duodenum, measuring approximately 3.36 cm in diameter, with heterogeneous fluid content and hyperechogenic structures with acoustic shadow, peristalsis appeared decreased and non-progressive. The gastrointestinal positive contrast study was performed to better evaluate abnormalities detected at ultrasonography. Images after 30 m of contrast administration demonstrated a marked distension of the duodenum, filled with contrast and a mildly filled stomach displaced to the left. Sixty min after contrast administration a marked distension of the entire duodenum, with tortuous aspect and filled with contrast was seen. The caudal duodenal flexure was connected to a large barium filled saccular structure that measured approximately 7 cm in diameter, consistent with a duodenal diverticulum. A blood transfusion was performed and surgical treatment indicated. The diverticulum and a small portion of the caudal duodenal segment were resected, an end-side enteroanastomosis was made due to the difference in diameter between intestinal segments. The patient was medicated with sucralfate (12.5 mg/kg), ranitidine (2 mg/kg), metronidazole (25 mg/kg), dipyrone (25 mg/kg) and, tramadol (2 mg/kg) and recovered quickly from surgery. Histopathological examination characterized the diverticular tissue as a true diverticulum by the presence of all intestinal layers. Post-operative and follow-up evaluations showed no recurrence of clinical signs.Discussion: In veterinary practice, congenital duodenal diverticulum is a rare condition documented in dogs, curiously all Boxers None of the reported cases in literature had the diagnostic of duodenal diverticulum made exclusively by ultrasonography. Other diagnostic imaging modalities, such as gastrointestinal barium study or endoscopy, were necessary. In one case a diagnostic was made during exploratory laparotomy. The marked dilatation of the duodenal segment impaired ultrasound evaluation, allowing recognition of an obstructive pattern, not the diverticulum itself. At histopathological examination, the diverticular tissue was characterized by a thickened wall with a hypertrophied muscle layer, characterizing a true duodenal diverticulum. The location, breed and age of the dogs affected with duodenal diverticulum was similar in all veterinary cases reported. Dogs presenting signs of gastrointestinal disease and abdominal pain are common in patients referred to ultrasound examination. However, despite the rare reports described, we must consider this affection as a differential diagnosis, whenever boxer puppies present these clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and syncope.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.100991
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Renal Dysplasia in a Free-Living Giant Anteater Cub (Myrmecophaga
           tridactyla) - Ultrasonographic and Tomographic Aspects

    • Authors: Lorena Tavares de Brito Neri Jaworski, Jullia de Pinho Borba, Bianca Costa Rezende, Jéssica Martins Lopes, Thais Oliveira Morgado, Pedro Brandini Néspoli
      Abstract: Background: Renal dysplasia is a congenital disorder that occurs during differentiation of the renal parenchyma or as a consequence of a functional and/or structural obstruction of the lower urinary tract. In wild animals, this pathology has been reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and African elephants (Loxodanta africana). However, there are no reports of the disease in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Thus, this paper describes a case of renal dysplasia in a free-living giant anteater cub, which was sent to the wild animal clinic of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. Case: The rescued animal had a good body condition score and clinical parameters within the normal range for the species. After a routine clinical evaluation, the anteater cub was subjected to radiography and ultrasound tests. Blood tests, serum tests for hepatic and renal profiles, urinalysis, urinary protein creatinine ratio, and chest X-rays did not reveal significant changes. However, the abdominal ultrasound examination revealed a volumetric loss of about 1.17 cm in length in the left kidney, and a renal length to aortic artery diameter ratio of approximately 2.8. This kidney showed irregular contours, loss of corticomedullary demarcation, with preserved echogenicity and cortical echotexture. The right kidney showed the standard size of the species, with a length of approximately 3.08 cm. In view of the suspicion of renal dysplasia, a contrast-enhanced CT scan was performed in order to assess the dynamics of uptake and excretion of the contrast medium in the affected kidney and in the ipsilateral collecting system.  An examination of the tomographic images indicated that the volume of the left kidney was reduced, isodense in relation to the right kidney, with discrete and homogeneous uptake in all phases after administration of the contrast medium, no occurrence of nephrogram and pyelogram phases, or any detection of contrast in the corresponding ureter.Discussion: Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are animals classified as a species vulnerable to extinction. Today, most research involving this species focuses on its ecology, behavior, diet, morphology and parasitology, but little is known about the imaging aspects of the species or about congenital changes such as renal dysplasia. Although the definitive diagnosis of this pathology depends on a histopathological examination, the same diagnosis can be made with a wide margin of safety by assessing the epidemiological aspects and the dynamics of renal uptake of the contrast medium through computed tomography. In this analysis, both vascularization and renal filtration capacity can be assessed. Thus, based on CT imaging, it was concluded that this was a case of renal dysplasia, since the left kidney showed a discrete homogeneous uptake stable in both the arterial and venous phases, without producing any accumulation of contrast medium in the pelvic region or the collecting system, proving to be completely nonfunctional. These findings differ from cases of renal hypoplasia, which, although they reduce renal volume, do not cause structural changes in the renal parenchyma or disturbances in the filtration dynamics of contrast media. They also differ from cases of acquired chronic nephropathy, since, albeit associated with reduced renal volume and changes in renal filtration dynamics, they produce different parenchymal ultrasound changes that usually occur in elderly animals and generally produce bilateral lesions.
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.103480
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Calcinosis Cutis with Large Extension and Uncommon Location in a Dog

    • Authors: Reiner Silveira de Moraes, Alana Flávia Romani, Andréia Vitor Couto do Amaral, Didier Quevedo Cagnini, Leuton Scharles Bonfim, Mariana Moreira Andraschko
      Abstract: Background: Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon dermatopathy characterized by the deposition of minerals in the skin, usually involving collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis. Usually, it results from dystrophic calcification and can be generalized or focal. The dermatopathy may be primary or secondary to certain disorders, especially chronic proliferative otitis, foreign body reactions, hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) and less frequently percutaneous penetration of calcium-rich products. The aim of this report is to describe a presentation of calcinosis cutis affecting the skin of the back, internal face of hind limbs and anal region of a 9-year-old bitch.Case: A 9-year-old, non-defined breed, bitch, ovariohysterectomized, weighing 9.45 kg, was attended at the Dermatological Service of companion animals at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Jataí (UFJ). The animal came in with the complaint of extensive dorsal alopecia, covered by firm lesions, with a 3-month evolution, additionally to polyuria and polydipsia. After physical examination, alopecic areas of great extension were confirmed on the dorsum, on the internal surface of the hind limbs and in the anal region. Also, an exudative and painful lesion located on the back was detected, plus loss of elasticity of the ventral abdomen skin and visible abdominal vessels. The screening tests showed a marked increase in the alanine aminotransferase enzyme (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total cholesterol. The specific urinary density was decreased. On the ultrasound examination, hepatomegaly and an increase in the caudal pole of the left adrenal were detected. Based on these findings, calcinosis cutis secondary to spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) was suspected. For confirmation, skin biopsy and low dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDS) were performed. LDDS test showed no reduction of serum cortisol after 8 h of dexamethasone dose administration and histopathological evaluation revealed multiple foci of calcinosis characterized by the deposition of basophilic material on the pre-existing collagen fibers, plus areas with pyogranulomatous inflammatory reaction and peripheral fibrosis with transepidermal elimination of minerals. Thus, trilostane and intense hydration of skin plaques were applied as treatment.Discussion: The dermatological alterations were compatible with those described in the consulted literature, with remarkable yellow-brown, firm, sandy-looking plaques, located on the back, internal face of hind limbs and anal region, possibly related to HAC later confirmed by LDDS test and biopsy. The management of the underlying disease and possible secondary bacterial infections are the basis of treatment. Therefore, the patient was treated with trilostane, antibiotic therapy and intensive hydration of the mineralized plaques resulting in a satisfactory involution of the clinical signs. Even though there are reports of calcinosis cutis on the dorsum, in the consulted literature there was no evidence of dorsum large extension lesion due to HAC as in this case report, but secondary to exogenous corticosteroid treatment, systemic blastomycosis and leptospirosis. In this case report, the affected thorax portion was the dorsum, differently from a study that pointed the ventral thorax as the affected portion. Similarly, anus and ventral part of the tail were hardly affected together with secondary inflammation and ulceration. Thus, the existent literature shows areas of calcinosis cutis in dogs in different parts of the body, but neither extensive as in the back of this reported female dog, nor widely affected as in the anal area, additionally to the internal face of hind limbs as already reported in the literature.
      PubDate: 2021-01-16
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106730
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Skin Burn by Termal Mattress - A Therapeutic Approach

    • Authors: Rochelle Gorczak, Marilia Avila Valandro, Isabella Michels Carvalho, Ana Carolina Coelho
      Abstract: Background: Burns are caused by a direct or indirect action of heat on an organism, compromising the functional integrity of the skin. Hypothermia is a common intercurrence in animals during the transoperative period; thermal mattresses are used to maintain the animal’s body temperature, but inappropriate use can cause the patient’s skin to burn. In humans, burns are quite common; however, in veterinary medicine, they are infrequent. The aim of this study was to describe a case of accidental burn in a canine caused by a thermal mattress, emphasizing wound treatment and analgesia used.Case: A 12-year-old male canine without defined breed weighing 15 kg underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy due to rupture of a spleen mass and presented with intercurrence hypothermia during the anesthesia procedure, which was controlled using a thermal mattress. Ten days after the surgical procedure, he developed a skin lesion with erythema, suffusion, and necrosis, evolving skin displacement along the entire back with a lot of pain which was possibly caused by the use of a thermal mattress in the transoperative procedure. The intuited analgesic treatment involved the use of numerous and different drugs, including Methadone (0.3 mg/kg, QID, SC), Dipyrone (25 mg/kg, TID, IV), and Ketamine (0.5 mg/kg, TID, SC) (during hospitalization), as well as Tramadol (4 mg/kg, TID, PO) and Dipyrone (25 mg/kg, TID, PO) after medical release as support therapy. For the wound treatment, calcium alginate was initially used daily and subsequently changed for daily application of dermisana oil. The patient followed up weekly for approximately two months for wound monitoring as well as adjustments to the drug therapy. The would almost completely healed, but the patient showed a significant worsening in the general clinical condition correlated with the neoplasm that he had, and the owner and clinical staff of the veterinary hospital opted for euthanasia.Discussion: Hypothermia should be avoided as much as possible during anesthesia, as the body’s temperature is very important in homeostasis, in addition to being able to change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of some drugs. The use of a thermal mattress to avoid hypothermia during the intraoperative period is a common and useful tool in veterinary routine, but should be used with caution and constant monitoring of the animal under general anesthesia to avoid skin burns which are not immediately noted. When diagnosed, the treatment should aim for wound healing and provide analgesia. Different pharmacological approaches can be used for this purpose, including topical therapies with different products that provide wound healing and regard to analgesia can be used for association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as meloxicam, opioids like morphine and tramadol, and N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blockers like ketamine for analgesia. Burn treatment is difficult but can have a favorable prognosis. In the present report, the conservative wound management using sodium alginate and dermisana oil almost completely cured the wound, and the canine responded positively to the analgesic protocol instituted with the association of different drugs. It is still important to highlight the attendance and commitment of the owner in the proposed treatment, as euthanasia, in this case, was due to the comorbidity presented by the patient.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105693
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Dehydration and Hemodynamic Changes as Causa Mortis Associated with
           Trichuris vulpis in a Dog

    • Authors: Eric Arantes da Silva, Igor Borges Oliveira, Thâmara Rossi Martins da Silva, Andreia Vitor Couto do Amaral, Raphaella Barbosa Meirelles-Bartoli, Ísis Assis Braga, Klaus Casaro Saturnino, Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos
      Abstract: Background: Trichuris vulpis, a species that belongs to Trichuris and shows a cosmopolitan distribution, parasitizes the gastrointestinal system of dogs causing trichuriasis. The infection occurs owing to ingestion of larval eggs and subsequent fixation of their adult form in the large intestine of the host. The objective of this paper is to report the case of a Border Collie dog that arrived at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV) of the Federal University of Jataí (UFJ) after exhibiting signs of intense dehydration and sudden death caused by severe T. vulpis infection, and to elucidate the macroscopic and microscopic histopathological correlations observed during necropsy.Case: A 7-year-old male Border Collie dog was referred for routine necroscopic examination on suspicion of death from intoxication. In the history, there were reports of bone ingestion, restlessness, and polydipsia for three days, followed by sudden death. Although the animal presented an adequate body state during the necroscopic procedure, enophthalmia and pale oral and ocular mucosa were observed, which are characteristic signs of severe dehydration and anemia. On opening the abdominal cavity, the visceral serosa were found to be stained and severely dry. Greenish mucous content was observed throughout the intestine, and in the large intestine, a moderate amount of mucus associated with high parasitic infestation by elongated parasites attached to the mucosa was identified. The parasites were harvested, stored in airtight vials containing 70% alcohol, processed, and subsequently identified as T. vulpis.Discussion: The necroscopic findings associated with the histopathology were compatible with T. vulpis infestation at high parasite intensity, with severe destruction of the intestinal mucosa and inability of water absorption, resulting in severe dehydration. In cases of parasitism, villous atrophy with crypt hypertrophy occurs, a fact observed in the present case. Possibly crypt hypertrophy occurs prior to villous atrophy, and occurs independently of previous lesions of the absorptive compartment. This results in poor absorption. Advanced loss of gastrointestinal tract fluids can usually be extensive and lead to progressive dehydration with loss of isotonic and hypertonic fluids, which can also be observed in the observation of blood components, severely accelerating changes such as hypovolemia and posterior hemoconcentration. Hypovolemia from severe dehydration also decreases renal perfusion and reduces the rate of glomerular filtration. Hypovolemia also leads to decreased blood pumping capacity, which may lead to heart failure and pulmonary circulatory disorders with notable effects on gas exchange, which may cause hypoxemia and possibly lethal metabolic acidosis. The necropsy performed on the animal found a severe dehydration that could be sustained mainly owing to signs of hypovolemia, associated with a series of pathophysiological events with the massive presence of parasites identified as T. vulpis. The damage caused to the intestinal mucosa by the oral stylet, the movement, and toxins of the parasites led to a severe condition of villosities destruction and tissue necrosis, leading to a large loss of the absorption function of nutrients in the intestines and especially of water, resulting in a condition of severe dehydration. This imbalance of system functioning also alters cardiac function because of increased blood viscosity generating possible lardaceous clots, which in turn are indicative of anemia. This cycle of deleterious changes can result in hypovolemic shock and consequent sudden death.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105590
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Gastrointestinal Syndrome in a Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    • Authors: Geórgia Carolina Rohden da Silva, Ronaldo José Piccoli, Stacy Wu, Vanessa Tiemi Endo, Lettycia Demczuk Thomas, Olicies da Cunha, Anderson Luiz de Carvalho
      Abstract: Background: The term “rabbit gastrointestinal syndrome” (RGIS) refers to a decrease in peristaltic movements, which in some cases can progress to absolute inactivity of the digestive apparatus. This condition is mostly secondary to others that promote changes in gastrointestinal motility, such as dehydration, fiber deficiency, excess carbohydrates in diets, stress, and acute or chronic painful processes. Clinical manifestations are mostly nonspecific. Thus, a case of RGIS resulting from environmental change in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is reported.Case: A 4-month-old male domestic rabbit weighing 0.962 kg was referred to a university veterinary hospital. The patient had a history of absence of defecation and anorexia for the past two days. The owner reported that the patient was apathetic but became aggressive when manipulated. The changes started after a move of residence. On physical evaluation, an increase in abdominal volume and a painful response to touch on the abdomen were observed. Complementary examinations were performed, such as a blood count and an ultrasound study. The blood tests showed no alterations, but the ultrasound evaluation showed the presence of free abdominal fluid, dilated intestinal loops due to fluid content, reduced gastrointestinal motility, and a hyperechoic structure associated with acoustic shading in the small intestine, all findings suggestive of obstruction. Given the failure of clinical management, the patient was referred for an exploratory laparotomy procedure followed by enterotomy. The obstruction point was located near the ileocecal junction. After surgery, analgesics, antibiotics, fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, intestinal motility inducers, and probiotics were prescribed. One week after the surgical procedure, the patient showed improvement in the clinical condition, with normal appetite, defecation, and docility.Discussion: RGIS is diagnosed based on the clinical history, clinical manifestations, and complementary examinations. In the reported case, the patient presented apathy, anorexia, absence of defecation, and aggressiveness on manipulation, which were associated with abdominal pain. In cases of RGIS, hematological changes may or may not be present, which matches the findings in this report. Imaging exams provide important information, such as the patient’s condition and evolution. Ultrasound evaluation showed the presence of free abdominal fluid, dilated intestinal loops due to fluid content, reduced gastrointestinal motility, and a hyperechoic, immobile acoustic shading structure in the small intestine. Ultrasound findings were compatible with those found in cases of foreign-body obstructions, a common complication in RGIS. Initially, a clinical approach was taken, but in view of the unfavorable evolution of the case, with worsening motility and alterations in the imaging examination, a surgical approach was instituted. Intestinal obstructions in rabbits are usually found either in the proximal duodenum or near the ileocecal junction. In the presently reported patient, an obstruction was identified in the ileocecal junction region and the content found was composed of hair and dehydrated food. There are several conditions that can alter intestinal peristalsis in rabbits; in the present case, it was considered that the distress caused by moving to a new household led to a condition of RGIS. Despite the reserved prognosis associated with surgical interventions in the gastrointestinal system of rabbits, as described in the literature, in the present case this approach made it possible to preserve the patient’s life, which returned to its normal activities and behavior.
      PubDate: 2021-01-10
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.106905
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
  • Anesthesia and Hematological and Electrocardiographic Changes in the
           Emergency Care of a Hooded Capuchin (Sapajus cay)

    • Authors: Angela Maria da Silva, Dayane Mendes dos Santos, Carla Pinheiro da Luz Flores, Marielza Pansera Machado, Andréia Lima Tomé Melo
      Abstract: Background: The hooded capuchin that occurs in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul belongs to the species Sapajus cay. This robust species of capuchin monkey is characterized by its highly varied diet. Although it is well adapted to the natural environment, the survival of this species has come under increasing threat. In fact, several animals have been rescued and taken into veterinary medical care, where its correct capture and restraint minimize the occurrence of adverse effects to the animal and to veterinary anesthesiologists. This paper reports on the emergency care of a hooded capuchin (S. cay) rescued by the Environmental Police of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and sent to veterinary medical care. Case: An adult female hooded capuchin, weighing 1.6 kg, was subjected to veterinary care to treat trauma probably caused by being run over. The animal exhibited intense prostration, 10% dehydration, pale and slightly jaundiced oral and ocular mucous membranes, impaired consciousness, cachexia, muscle weakness, sarcopenia, a probable fracture in the proximal portion of the left tibia and a laceration and possible fracture of the right metatarsus. The patient was stabilized by subjecting her to fluid therapy with Ringer’s lactate solution supplemented with glucose and vitamins. The animal was anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of 11 mg/kg ketamine and 0.6 mg/kg midazolam, and blood count, serum biochemistry and electrocardiography were performed. Blood tests revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, liver disease and a slight increase in urea to 56 mg/dL (reference: 14.4-48.9 mg/dL). The electrocardiogram revealed the following: HR: 260 b.p.m; P axis: -115.36º; QRS axis: 50.17º; T duration: 36 ms; R amplitude: 0.68 mV; P amplitude: 0.17 mV; P duration: 44 ms: PR interval: 52 ms; S amplitude: -0.12 mV; T amplitude: 16 ms; ST elevation: -0.05 mV; QT interval: 106 ms; Q amplitude: -0.2 mV; QRS duration: 54 ms. The patient exhibited tachycardia and sinus rhythm. Antibiotic treatment was administered via intravenous (IV) injection with 50 mg/kg ceftriaxone and 25 mg/kg metronidazole, while analgesia was administered subcutaneously (SC) with 2 mg/kg tramadol hydrochloride and 25 mg/kg sodium dipyrone and intramuscularly (IM) with 0.2 mg/kg meloxicam. The patient was stabilized and transferred by the Environmental Police to the Wild Animal Rehabilitation Center (CRAS) located in the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, to continue its treatment, perform complementary tests such as radiography of the fractured limb and clinical and surgical treatment.Discussion: Proper physical restraint is essential to the success and quality of biological samples that are collected. Surgical procedures, simple clinical exams and the collection of biological material may all require the use of anesthetics, and the type most commonly used for the restraint of wild animals are dissociative anesthetics. Ketamine is an neuroleptanalgesic drug widely used in primates, and can be administered separately or in combination with other anesthetics, such as midazolam, to increase chemical restraint and anesthesia and enable handling of the patient. As for hematological changes, female nonhuman primates are known to undergo blood loss during their menstrual cycle, which reduces the parameters of the erythrogram. In the case of this capuchin, the blood count revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, which may be related to the menstrual cycle of the species. With regard to biochemistry serum levels, liver function showed the greatest change, with altered aspartate aminotransferase - AST (368 U/L) and alanine aminotransferase - ALT enzyme levels (151 U/L), indicating possibly chronic liver damage. On the other hand, research involving Cebus flavius found that adult males had higher ALT levels than juveniles.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/1679-9216.105088
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2021)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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