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Austral : Brazilian Journal of Strategy & International Relations
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ISSN (Print) 2238-6262 - ISSN (Online) 2238-6912
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  • EDITOR'S NOTE

    • Authors: Paulo Visentini
      Abstract: In its twentieth edition, Austral: Brazilian Journal of Strategy & International Relations celebrates its tenth anniversary. Initially, there is a balance of the activities of the Journal, consolidated with a focus on SouthSouth Academic Cooperation and an independent posture. Below is a sequence of four articles that analyse aspects of China’s global projection, two of which also include Russia, at a time when the Biden administration exerts even greater pressure on both countries than that of former President Trump. The next seven articles address Defence and International Security Studies, with texts that provide an academic review of Security Studies, Naval Power, export of defense products, the role of NATO, Obama’s policy towards the East Middle and North Africa and on the role of the UN in the fight against terrorism in West Africa. It ends with an additional updated text on the South African political crisis.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.121430
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • AUSTRAL: 10 YEARS OF SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION

    • Authors: Paulo Visentini, Guilherme Thudium
      Abstract: Ever since the founding of NERINT, in 1999, our team of researchers planned the creation of a scientific journal that would disseminate their research, worldview, and establish a dialogue with academics from other nations and with members of the Brazilian diplomatic body. The periodical had to reflect the perspective of the developing world: the “South”. And this endeavour came to life exactly a decade ago, with the launch of AUSTRAL: Brazilian Journal of Strategy and International Relations.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.121429
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • THE SINO-RUSSIAN GEOPOLITICS IN EURASIA AND CHINA-USA DISPUTES:
           ASIA-PACIFIC-GREATER EURASIA VS INDO-PACIFIC

    • Authors: Lucas Gualberto do Nascimento, Marcos Cordeiro Pires
      Abstract: This article aims to analyze the main elements and processes underway in Eurasia, involving three essential actors: the United States, Russia, and China. At first, it is emphasized the importance of Eurasia as a space that has historically influenced the hegemonic disputes between Great Powers. Then, Eurasia is analyzed as a space for development cooperation, presenting the intersections of the Chinese BRI and the Russian EAEU. Last, the US approach to China is addressed, specifically the Indo-Pacific strategy. We conclude that despite the intense pressure to contain the rise of China and Russia in Eurasia, rivaling both powers is not feasible. In the current path, it will boost the cooperation between two giants, China and Russia.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.117778
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • CHINA AND RUSSIA: THE NAVAL PROJECTION OF LAND POWERS

    • Authors: Paulo Visentini
      Abstract: The Russian Federation and China are large land States (the first and fourth, respectively), characterized by their configuration as land powers from a geopolitical perspective. Recently, through its development and extroversion of its economy, China has built a naval power with a world presence. Russia, on the other hand, which lost much of the naval and coastal power that the USSR had, is trying to rebuild its capacity for maritime defense and exploration of the new Arctic Route, but still with limited global projection. By analyzing the recent naval projection of these traditional land powers, the article seeks to discuss the extent to which traditional geopolitics is reaching its zenith and initiating its own overcoming
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.120872
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • REVITALIZATION OF MARITIME SILK ROAD BASED ON THE SECURITY IMPLICATIONS
           AND COOPERATION

    • Authors: Haedar Akib, Lutfi Syaefullah, Hamsu Abdul Gani
      Abstract: The revitalization of the Silk Road as a trade route, cultural exchange, religion, science and civilization based on the “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR) is the focus of strategic studies and international relations. ASEAN countries, including Indonesia in the MSR route and the contestation of the United States and China who are fighting for dominance in the Indo-Pacific region, face challenges and opportunities. The results of this research, which uses a normative approach, show that the revitalization of the MSR may give positive impacts to China’s foreign affairs for the good interaction and communication among people by economic trade.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.108771
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • THE DYNAMICS OF THE SUCCESSION OF CURRENCIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY – A
           CASE OF CHINESE FINANCIAL LEADERSHIP'

    • Authors: Gustavo de Moraes, Leonardo Giacomin
      Abstract: The global monetary system since the Industrial Revolution in two periods had two periods. First, a period with Britain as the great economic and political power and the Pound Sterling as the most important international currency and second, the United States as the leading economy and a dollar-based international scenario. The relation between goods, money, and foreign exchange markets is important to understand patterns in terms of exchange rate and currency internationalization. Therefore, the Crowther balance of payments cycles may be important to identify these patterns and to serve as a standard of reference to investigate shifts in exchange rate, and their consequences on balance of payments movements. Since 1978, China has emerged as a strong candidate to assume protagonist in the global monetary system, displaying high and stable economic growth. This paper aims to investigate the necessary conditions for China to internationalize the Renminbi, local currency, and to infer its status in that progress.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.113284
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • THE ENDURING RELEVANCE OF NAVAL POWER: REFLECTIONS ON DEFENCE, SECURITY
           AND POWER PROJECTION OF SEA FRONTIER

    • Authors: Samuel Oyewole, Abiodun Duyile
      Abstract: The sea/maritime domain is a critical frontier of human exploration and exploitation for food production, transportation, commerce, research, communication, mining, defence, security, power projection and prestige in international system. These made it a frontier of strategic cooperation, competition and conflict. Consequently, the sea has been militarised by littoral states, which have led to the rise of naval powers, across time and space. Naval power is strategically relevant in defence, security and power projection, as evident in its roles in warfare, deterrence, policing, and diplomacy across history. This is even more pronounced during the golden age of naval power, when the roles of the navy were decisive in outcomes of war, territorial defence and conquest, empire building and maintenance, bargaining, industrialisation, commerce and global policing. However, the strategic relevance of naval power has undergone notable changes with the rise of air, nuclear and space powers. Against this background, this article examines the enduring strategic relevance of naval power over the last century, vis-à-vis its challenges and prospects among other instruments of force and frontiers of defence, security and power projection that have emerged.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.113269
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • PRIORITIZATION OF MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS ON EXPORT CONTROL OF DEFENSE
           PRODUCTS AND SENSITIVE TECHNOLOGIES BY HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS PROCESS

    • Authors: Luiz Octavio Gaviao, Luciano Dias Dutra, Sergio Kostin
      Abstract: This paper proposes a model to support the decision to choose which multilateral export control regime of defense products and sensitive technologies in which Brazil does not yet participate, namely, Wassenaar Arrangement, Australia Group and Zangger Committee, should be prioritized for adhesion. For the development of this model, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used, considered adequate for solving problems where criteria are qualitative and decisions tend to be based on personal experiences. The hierarchical structure of the problem used seven criteria (Country Legislation, Regulatory System, Licensing Structure, Enforcement Capacity, International Cooperation, Costs of Adhesion and Benefits for the Defense Industrial Base) to compare the three mentioned agreements. A questionnaire was set up and specialists related to National Defense were selected to answer them, after which their answers were collected, standardized, processed and analyzed. At the end, the agreements were ordered by preference to support decision making, illustrating the application of the proposed model.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.119666
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • DEFENSE EXPENDITURE AND STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES: DISSIMILARITIES AMONG
           SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    • Authors: Tássio Franchi, Angela Nogueira Neves
      Abstract: We take into account that interpretations of security complexes, traditions of long peace, and violent peace do not fully explain how South American countries are organized regarding Defense. Given those, we ran a cluster analysis with data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and Military Balance report with economic defense expenditure and capabilities investment from South American countries to identify how they are organized, determining those that are most similar to each other (which would form complexes) and how they differ from the others (dissimilarities). The results showed four different clusters: the first formed by Chile, Peru, Argentina, and Bolivia; the second by Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Paraguay; the third only by the Guyana; and the fourth, formed only by Uruguay. We interpreted these clusters considering the history of conflicts, current countries threats and treaties.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.118036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • GLOBALIZATION AND THE CHANGING CONCEPT OF NATO

    • Authors: Umair Pervez Khan, Kashaf Sohail
      Abstract: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been the most important and successful multilateral military cum political organization, pursuing the agenda of exporting democracy globally and ensuring the mutual defense of its allies. Historically, NATO was formed against the threat of communism emanating from USSR (Russia). The alliance did not use military option till the end of the cold war between the west and USSR, but post-cold war, it transformed and operated in Balkans, South Asia, Horn of Africa, and Middle East. The 9/11 incident further enhanced the military role of the organization and gave it ample reason to act internationally for ensuring the global security. America, being the leader of the alliance used it for fighting the so-called global war on terrorism and its adventures in Middle East. Nevertheless, in the last two decades the organization went through various changes and is now continuously in the state of transformation. The wave of populism which had influenced the very concept of globalization has posed serious challenges for the alliance. The Trump rhetoric of “America first”, BREXIT, challenges of migration, changing demography of Europe, assertion of Russia in global politics, confrontation between the NATO allies like Turkey and France, and rise of China are few factors which may affect the future of the so-called intergovernmental military alliance. This article concurrently discusses the new challenges for the NATO and sheds light on the possible options to the strategy of Biden administration to reverse the policies of its predecessor which have influenced the cooperation of different allies of NATO. In the end researcher has tried to put forth few recommendations which may help the policy makers to cope with the challenges NATO is facing. The study is qualitative and analytical in nature whereas primary as well as secondary sources are used for data collection.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.117757
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • FAILED STRATEGY' THE LEGACY OF BARACK OBAMA’S PRESIDENCY IN THE
           MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    • Authors: Michał Dahl, Magdalena Lewicka
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to verify whether “a failed strategy”, a phrase commonly used in the literature, is an adequate description of Barack Obama’s legacy in the Middle East and North Africa. Based on the selected political manifestos and actions in the sphere of diplomacy, it has been proven that the Middle East and North Africa was not a priority to the decision-makers in Washington in the years 2009–2012, unlike in the years 2005–2008. However, although President Obama did not manage to implement most of his original plans, he achieved a few significant successes, the most notable of which is the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq and the conclusion of the nuclear deal with Iran.
      Authors seek to contextualize and explain Obama’s failures and successes, arguing that using the phrase “a failed strategy” does not reflect the complexity of the problems analyzed.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.108984
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • SECURITY STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: EVOLUTION, APPROACHES AND
           CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

    • Authors: Ali Muhammad, Sugeng Riyanto
      Abstract: This article examines the growth and evolution of security studies since its emergence to the end the Cold War. Security studies as a subfield in international relations was dominated by realist approach during the Cold War. However, by the of the cold war, the concept of security was debated between the widener–deepener. Not only about the concept, but variety of theoretical approaches also emerged to challenge the traditional realist/liberal approach, such as, constructivism, critical theory, feminism, human security and postcolonialism. There were crucial differences in how these competing approaches constituted referent objects, the sectors to which security is applicable, and epistemological position as well. 
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.117331
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GLOBAL COUNTER TERRORISM
           STRATEGY IN WEST AFRICA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    • Authors: Enoch Ndem Okon, Dodeye Uduak Williams
      Abstract: AbstractThe paper discusses issues and challenges marring the regional implementation of the United Nations Global Counterterrorism Strategy in West Africa. It highlights economic, technology and socio-political factors that hinders the effective implementation of the strategy in the subregion which has become the hotbed of global terrorism. The study concludes that ECOWAS has the enabling instruments and institutions to implement the strategy. It therefore recommends the strengthening of existing institutions, enhancement of human security indices, and massive investment in infrastructural facilities, as measures to facilitate the implementation of the strategy in the subregion.                                                     Keywords:     United Nations Global Counterterrorism Strategy, West Africa, Implementation  La Implementación Regional de la Estrategia Global de las Naciones Unidas Contraterrorismo en África Occidental: Los Problemas y Desafíos El documento analiza los problemas y desafíos que obstaculizan la implementación regional de la Estrategia Global de las Naciones Unidas Contraterrorismo en África Occidental. Destaca factores económicos, tecnológicos y sociopolíticos que dificultan la implementación efectiva de la estrategia en la subregión que se ha convertido en el semillero del terrorismo global. El estudio concluye que la ECOWAS tiene los instrumentos y instituciones apropriados que le permiten implementar la estrategia. Por lo tanto, el recomienda el fortalecimiento de las instituciones existentes, la mejora de los índices de seguridad humana y la inversión masiva en instalaciones de infraestructura, como medidas para facilitar la implementación de la estrategia en la subregión. Palabras clave: Naciones Unidas La Estrategia de Contraterrorismo Global, África Occidental, Implementación
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.108219
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • NEW DAWN OR ETERNAL TWILIGHT'

    • Authors: Vladimir Shubin
      Abstract: The article was prepared within the project "Post-crisis world order: challenges and technologies, competition and cooperation" supported by the grant from Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation program for research projects in priority areas of scientific and technological development (Agreement № 075-15-2020-783).
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.119804
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
  • NERINT STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

    • Authors: Paulo Visentini, Gabriela Ruchel, Maria Gabriela Vieira, José Miguel Martins, João Gabriel Burmann da Costa, Luana Margarete Geiger, Guilherme Geremias da Conceição, Guilherme Thudium, Cristina Pecequilo
      Abstract: The acceleration of pace of international events and processes requires qualified analysis beyond the political-journalistic bias that often characterises most interpretations of contemporary matters. Thus, in addition to theoretical-analytical articles, it was considered imperative to publish a brief evaluation of important current events. To this end, the Brazilian Centre for Strategy and International Relations (NERINT/UFRGS), a member of the Centre for International Studies on Government (CEGOV/UFRGS), launched the NERINT Strategic Analysis series, with the contribution of its specialised researchers and guests with thematic expertise, which will be published at the end of every issue of AUSTRAL: Brazilian Journal of Strategy and International Relations.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.22456/2238-6912.121431
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 20 (2022)
       
 
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