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J. for the Study of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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J. of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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J. of Safety Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Research in Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Journal of Agricultural Studies
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2166-0379
Published by Macrothink Institute Homepage  [47 journals]
  • Growth performance of Heterobranchus longifilis, (Valenciennes, 1840)
           Fingerlings Fed with Nymphaea lotus (Linné, 1753)

    • Authors: Otchoumou Kraidy Athanase, Blé Mélécony Célestin, Saki Suomion Justin, Alla Yao Laurent
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: A 56-day feeding trial was performed to examine the effects of using Nymphaea lotus leaf meal (NLM) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, and survival rate of African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis). Five treatment groups in triplicates with an average of the initial weight of 0.26±0.07g were fed diets incorporated with graded levels of NLM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%). The obtained results showed that higher final body weight (FBW), daily weight gain (DWG), and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed with fish fed the control diet (CD) and NLM at the level of 20% compared to those of fish fed other diets. Protein efficiency ratios (PER) were not altered with dietary treatment. In addition, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish groups fed up to 30% of NLM were not varied (p>0.05), meanwhile, daily feed intake of fish fed NLM diets exhibited lower values compared to those of fish fed CD. Final whole body proximate compositions of catfish showed no significant differences (P>0.05) except for the body total fat and ash contents. Fat contents of fish fed diets incorporated with NLM were significantly lower than those of fish fed the control diet (CD) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, ash contents of fish fed diets incorporated with high levels of NLM (30, 40%) were significantly lower than those of fish fed the control diet (CD) (P<0.05). Survival rates ranged between 72 - 80% and there were no differences among all groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that up to 20% of NLM protein can be incorporated in the diet of African catfish with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, and survival rate.
      PubDate: 2019-06-20
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.14819
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Optimum Control of Grazing and Cattle Movement in the Silvopastoral
           Establishment "La Aguada" (Córdoba-Argentina)

    • Authors: Sergio Drumond Ventura, Angel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Vinicius Teixeira do Nascimento, José Omar Plevich
      Pages: 9 - 28
      Abstract: Currently silvopastoral systems have been presented as a viable and sustainable alternative in economic, social and environmental terms. The objective of this work is to present an integer linear programming model (ILP), that numerically represents or simulates the optimal operating conditions of a silvopastoral system inspired by the typology of the rural establishment "La Aguada", an experimental agricultural and forestry center, belonging to the National University of Rio Cuarto and located in the province of Córdoba (Argentina). The model imposes conditions on the adequacy of the gain of the live weight of each animal of the herd considered in the system, as well as the optimal control of the areas of pasture and bovine movement. It is important to highlight that this is an attempt to mathematically model improvements in food production systems. Each ILP was solved using the INTLINPROG solver in MATLAB software. Thus, after the computational implementation, it was verified that the program meets all restrictions imposed, maximizes the gain of the live weight of each animal and optimizes the pasture area use, thus showing a consistent, balanced and recommended program for the economic controlling of a silvopastoral system in general.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.14832
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Responses of Cherry Plant Grafted onto CAB-6P, MaxMa 14 and Mazzard
           Rootstocks to Short Term Salinity

    • Authors: Servet Aras, Ahmet Eşitken
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Salt stress is a common environmental challenge that adversely affects plant growth. However, little is known about the responses of plants to short term salinity. In the current experiment, we investigated morphological and physiological responses of a cherry cultivar (0900 Ziraat) grafted onto three rootstocks (CAB-6P, MaxMa 14 and Mazzard) to 35 mM NaCl stress. After one month, salt stress decreased plant growth of cherry plants. Rootstock, scion and shoot diameters and shoot length significantly decreased with salinity. The higher decrease in membrane permeability under salt stress was found in 0900/MaxMa 14 by 41%. 0900/Mazzard had the highest decline in LRWC by 15%. The results obtained demonstrate that a higher tolerance to short term salt stress was found in 0900 Ziraat grafted onto Mazzard is associated with: lower depression in plant growth, less decrease in chlorophyll content and more stability in cell membranes determined in membrane permeability measurement. Furthermore, the results showed that in the short term, cherry can be considered salt tolerant.
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15114
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Economic Assessment of Adopting Nutrient Expert® Wheat Model Vs
           Conventional Wheat Fertilizer Application Management in Morang, Nepal

    • Authors: Saurav Raj Kunwar, Sujata Bogati, Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Lal Prasad Amgain
      Pages: 38 - 48
      Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production is very sensitive towards the proper nutrient dose and its application methods. Wheat production in Nepal is declining due to inadequate fertility application and/or management program. Nutrient Expert® (NE) Model was adopted to compare with the conventional fertilizer application. Thus, the objectives of this research were to assess the adopted Nutrient Expert® Model vis-à-vis its conventional counterpart in Morang District of Nepal. The experiment was conducted from January 2015 to August 2017 in Itahara and Babiyabirta of Morang district of Eastern Nepal. The experiment comprised of two treatments and twenty replications. The results showed that there is a significant yield difference between the adopted Nutrient Expert® software doses compared to the farmers’ conventional practices. The percent increase in the grain yield among the treatments was 95.33% in Nutrient Expert® compared to the conventional system. Significantly, higher net return was recorded in treatment NE (Nepalese Rupee (NRs.) 47,968) than the farmers’ fields practice (NRs 10,784). Field experiment validation confirmed that the Nutrient Expert® Wheat model could be used as a practical tool for the decision support system to make a more authentic fertilizer recommendation.
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.14900
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Economic Assessment of the Productive Parameters in Meat Sheep Production
           Using Discrete Event and Agent-Based Simulation

    • Authors: Thayla Sara Soares Stivari Reijers, Gustavo Lineu Sartorello, Oscar Alejandro Ojeda-Rojas, Camila Raineri, Marcos Nogueira, Rodolfo Silva, Thiago Barros Brito, Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro, Augusto Hauber Gameiro
      Pages: 49 - 69
      Abstract: A hybrid stochastic model was developed including discrete events and agent-based simulations in order to identify the productive parameters and management criteria that most affect meat sheep production. A sheep herd on a pasture termination system, without weaning and with natural mating, was outlined. In order to devise this herd, a pre-existing database from between 1999 and 2013 was used. This conceptual model included the flushing, mating, gestation, lactation, termination and maintenance phases. Health, feeding and management criteria were also considered and recommended. Simulation scenarios were built which were later evaluated by regression analysis. The net operational margin was between R$ 11 741.80 and R$ 21 389.80, and an average of R$ 14 412.14 ± R$ 3 873.02 for different scenarios. Food costs had the greatest impact (25.4%) in relation to operating costs, while health costs were the lowest (1.3%). The abortion rate showed a higher linear response in contrast to the birth rate and the net operating margin, upon analysing ewe productivity parameters. However, neonatal mortality showed the greatest impact on net profit and on general lamb mortality. Carrying out economic analyses within the livestock sector can make a difference within such a competitive market, where prices are not controlled, only costs. The use of discrete event and agent-based simulation methodologies allowed for the assessment of different approaches to sheep production. The present study demonstrated the tool’s potential within the scope of meat sheep production, but this model can act as a guideline for other animal production systems.
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.14904
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Antibiotic Resistance of Azotobacter Isolated from Mercury-Contaminated

    • Authors: Reginawanti Hindersah, Gina Nurhabibah, Priyanka Asmiran, Etty Pratiwi
      Pages: 70 - 81
      Abstract: Nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter is a renewable source of biofertilizer for plant growth. Increased of antibiotic level in soil due to intensive used manure is believed to induce bacterial sensitivity to antaibiotic. An antibiotic sensitivity test has been carried out to study the inhibition effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol on Azotobacter isolated from mercury-contaminated taling. The resistance test was performend by using disc plate method in Nitrogen-free Ashby’s agar with and without mercury. The results showed that the presence of 20 mg/L mercury in plate agar totally inhibited Azotobater growth. In the absence of mercury chloride, all isolates showed different sensitivity to antibiotics. Growth of Azotobacter buru1 was only inhibited by tetracycline. Azotobacter buru2 was susceptible to high and low concentration of tetracycline and streptomycin but they were resistance to low concentration of chloramphenicol as well as ampicillin; while Azotobacter bd3a were sensitive to all tested antibiotic. In conclusion, order of Azotobacter resistance to antibiotics in the absence of mercury was Bd3a<Buru2<Buru1. This research have not revealed the resistance of Azotobacter to antibiotic in the presence of mercury.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.14834
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Influence of Dehydration in the Physical-Chemical Quality of Commercial
           Sunflower Almonds

    • Authors: Sâmela Leal Barros, Newton Carlos Santos, Amanda Priscila da Silva Nascimento, Mylena Olga Pessoa Melo, Victor Herbert de Alcântara Ribeiro, Vírginia Mirtes de Alcântara Silva
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Sunflower almonds are widely marketed and have numerous technological applications. Through the drying process occurs the reduction of the water content of the product, a factor that contributes to increase its useful life. However, nutritional losses and physical damage can also occur. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different temperatures applied in the drying process on the physical-chemical characteristics of commercial sunflower almonds. Convective drying was performed using temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 80 °C. Afterwards, the samples before and after the drying process were analyzed with respect to the following parameters: moisture, water activity, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and energetic value to observe the influence of different drying temperatures on these attributes. It was verified that the increase of the temperature of the drying air causes an increase in the ash content, total solids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetic value. However, the reduction of moisture content, water activity and proteins was observed. There was no significant difference between the samples in relation to pH.
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15121
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Structural and Productive Characteristics of Urochloa Cultivars Submitted
           to Different Defoliation Frequencies in Semiarid Region

    • Authors: Jacqueline dos Santos Oliveira, João Virgínio Emerenciano Neto, Rodrigo da Silva Santos, Breno Ramon de Souza Bonfim, Fábio Nunes Lista, Vanessa Alexandre Vieira, Gelson dos Santos Difante
      Pages: 91 - 102
      Abstract: This study assessed the effect of three cutting intervals (30, 45 and 60 days) on structural and production features of five different cultivars (Urochloa Brizantha: Marandu, Piatã and Xaraés; Urochloa decumbens: Basilisk; Urochloa hybrid: Mulato I). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. The interaction between the defoliation frequency and the cultivars not significant to the length and width of the leaf blade, the diameter of the stem, and the number of living leaves. There was no effect of the cutting intervals on the width of the leaf blade, and the number or living leaves. The length and width of the leaf blade were highest in the Xaraés grass. The diameter of the stem, the height canopy and the forage mass grew as a function of the cutting interval. Cv. Xaraés displayed the highest heights and was the most productive. Stems and leaves masses, and the accumulation rates grew with the increase of the cutting intervals. The ratio leaf blade stem decreased as increasing the cutting intervals. Urochloa pastures should be handled with defoliation frequencies up to 45 days. Cv. Xaraés displays a high dry matter production and we suggest its use in intensive production systems.
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15177
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Raising the Key Issues Facing the Resettlement Practice in Development
           Induced Displacement: Evidences From Households Displaced by Railway
           Construction in Dukem, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Bikila Ayele Suyum
      Pages: 103 - 121
      Abstract: Development projects are inevitably resulted in massive displacement and resettlement of people. Despite gradual improvement in resettlement practices and results, the impoverishment caused by development projects related resettlements is still widely observed. This study is intended to investigate the key issues facing resettlement practice based on experiences from households displaced by railway corridor construction in Dukem area, central Ethiopia. Data were collected by using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and archival file review. The study has revealed that a number of policy and practical factors were constraining effective resettlement and rehabilitation of the displaced households. The study indicates that the existing Ethiopian policy and legal frameworks on resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced people in the context of the development projects were not effectively implemented in the study population context. The practice of valuation, compensation and expropriation were not fair and satisfactory mainly due to lack objective criteria of evaluation, lack of technically competent valuation experts and corruption in valuation and compensation of properties. The existing policy and legal frameworks on resettlement and rehabilitation of evicted people also lacks a clear statement on the livelihood rehabilitation of displaced households. The current compensation practice is monetary-based, inadequate, delayed; the rehabilitation approach lacks special consideration for vulnerable groups. Therefore, the researcher recommends the need for devising policy, legal and institutional frameworks which have clear provisions on how to deal with the multifaceted problems of displacement, resettlement and rehabilitation. Additionally, ensuring effective reform to the structures of implementing agents of resettlement is very important.
      PubDate: 2019-08-14
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15268
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Relocating Households to Unaccustomed Livelihood: The Impacts of
           Development-Induced Displacement in Urban Vicinity of Dukem Town, Central

    • Authors: Bikila Ayele Suyum
      Pages: 122 - 143
      Abstract: Involuntary displacement of people in the context of development projects often causes damage to livelihood of displaced people. The level of livelihood risks and impoverishments is often far reaching when the displaced people are relocated to unaccustomed livelihood setting. This research examined the impacts of development-induced displacement on the livelihoods of households displaced by Addis-Djibouti railway corridor construction in the vicinity of Dukem. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. In-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion and survey methods of data collection were used as tools for primary data collection. In addition, relevant secondary data were also collected from different secondary sources. To analyze the impacts of displacement on the livelihoods of displaced households, the study used Cernea’s impoverishment risks and reconstruction model as an analytical framework. The study uncovered that the majority of the displaced households have experienced a deterioration of economic bases-such as landlessness, cattlelessness and joblessness; the decline in productivity and food insecurity, socioeconomic marginalization, weakening of social networks and deterioration of access to community services after displacement. Deterioration in access to the livelihood assets due to the displacement has resulted in the deterioration livelihood of the majority of displaced households.
      PubDate: 2019-08-14
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15269
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Evaluation of Leaf Properties of Eight Cherry Cultivars Grafted onto Maxma
           14 Rootstock

    • Authors: Servet Aras, Hakan Keles
      Pages: 144 - 152
      Abstract: The study was conducted in order to assess the leaf properties of different sweet cherry varieties grafted onto MaxMa 14 rootstock. The experiment was arranged in a randomized plot desing with three replicates of five plants per replication. The soil analyses showed that the soil properties of experiment site were found as moderate alkaline, low amount of organic material, N, P, Zn and Mn. The soil characteristics may be sub-optimum for cherry growing. According to our results, Kordia had the highest SPAD value (37.86) among the cultivars. Samba, Regina, Kordia and 0900 Ziraat cultivars had the highest anthocyanin contents. The highest stomatal conductance was in 0900 Ziraat cv followed by Sweetheart. Samba had greater leaf area (53.25 cm2) compared to other cultivars. The highest LRWC was obtained with Lorry Bloom. Epicuticular was content of Regina leaves was higher among the cultivars. The results of the present study provide useful informations about how the cherry scions grafted onto MaxMa 14 response to environmental challenges in nature. The identified leaf properties are valuable targets for physiological studies related with environmental stresses.
      PubDate: 2019-08-14
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15270
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
  • Responses of Apple Plants to Drought Stress

    • Authors: Servet Aras, Hakan Keles
      Pages: 153 - 159
      Abstract: In order to screen apple rootstocks for drought tolerance, two different drought levels moderate and severe stress, and a control were applied to apple cultivar Red Chief grafted onto M9 and MM106 rootstocks. Apple plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for 15 and 19 days in the greenhouse conditions, while the control treatment was continued watering. Data were recorded 15 (moderate drought stress) and 19 days (severe drought stress) after application of drought stress. At the end of the experiment, both rootstocks were significantly affected under drought conditions. Severe drought stress caused decrease in SPAD value in Red Chief grafted onto M9 and MM106 by 15.7 % and 11.1 %, respectively. Severe drought stress declined anthocyanin content in M9 and MM106 by 7.8 % and 28.4 %, respectively. Stomatal conductance was remarkably affected by drought stress. Effects of drought stress on plants depended on rootstocks, severity and duration of drought stress. As a result, the more invigorating rootstock MM106 was found more drought-tolerant when compared to M9 that is needed to be evaluated with more parameters.
      PubDate: 2019-08-14
      DOI: 10.5296/jas.v7i3.15271
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
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