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Journal of Agricultural Studies
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2166-0379
Published by Macrothink Institute Homepage  [47 journals]
  • Genotypic Performance of Kenyan Rice Cultivars for Grain Yield and Quality

    • Authors: Bryan Elwich John Denis; Kahiu Ngugi, J.M. Kimani
      Abstract: Rice is the third most important staple food in Kenya after maize and wheat and it is mostly grown by small scale farmers both for food and cash under irrigated and rainfed production systems. In this study, fourteen F 2.3 segregating populations together with their parental lines, were evaluated during the long and short rainy seasons of 2016/2017 at the Mwea Research Station (KALRO) in a randomized complete block design of three replications for grain yield, quality and agronomic traits. There were significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. Genotypes, Nerica 1, Nerica 2 and Basmati-370 matured earliest, whereas genotype, Basmati-370 gave the highest grain yields in both seasons. The F1 generations of crosses of Dourado x Nerica 3 and Mwur 4 x Nerica 3 had the highest positive Specific Combining Ability (SCA) gene effects for panicle length, days to flowering and grain yield. However in the F 2.3 generations, the progenies of Nerica 2 x Basmati-370 and Nerica 3 x Basmati-370 had the highest grain yields. Generations of Nerica 10 x Mwur 4 crosses, had the longest grains whereas the Basmati-370 genotype had the strongest aroma. Generations of NERICA 3 x Basmati 370 and NERICA 2 x Basmati 370 crosses were of mild aroma, but those of K1-99 x KOMBOKA and NERCA 10 were non aromatic. Grain yield was positively significantly correlated with number of productive tillers, number of filled grains and 1000 grain weight indicating that these traits could serve as secondary selection indices for yield. It is inferred that breeding rice cultivars with improved traits for grain yield, long grain and strong aroma would benefit from the utilization of parental and population germplasm identified in this study, in the pursuit of filling the current rice production deficit in the Kenyan consumer markets.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Nov 2022 01:06:24 -080
       
  • The Profile of Family Farmers in the Regions of Brazil

    • Authors: Thyena Karen Magalhães Dias; Ahmad Saeed Khan, Edward Martins Costa, Francisco José Silva Tabosa, Pablo Urano de Carvalho Castelar
      Abstract: Despite the importance of modernizing Brazilian agriculture through capitalization, alongside agricultural public policies, at the regional level this process has taken place asymmetrically and continues as such to this day. Thus, this work aims to verify the characteristics of family farmers and their establishments in the different regions of Brazil, based on municipal data from the 2017 Agricultural Census, using the Logit Multinomial econometric model. The results suggest heterogeneity among the different regions of the country, which corroborates the process of asymmetric modernization of Brazilian agriculture, and, through the econometric estimation, based on variations in the characteristics observed, the South region of Brazil has, in general, more favorable characteristics when compared to the other regions.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2022 19:14:38 -080
       
  • Erosivity and rainfall patterns for Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil

    • Authors: Cássia Cristina Rezende; Roriz Luciano Machado, Aline Franciel de Andrade, Talles Victor Silva, Elizabete Alves Ferreira, Wilian Henrique Diniz Buso
      Abstract: Water erosion is one of the biggest environmental problems, causing a reduction in agricultural productivity and compromising the quality and quantity of water resources. Therefore, the development of researches that help in the planning of land use and management aiming at sustainable agriculture is a necessity in the state of Goiás. This work was carried out with the objectives of analyzing the annual distribution of rainfall erosivity, determining the factor erosivity of rain (R fator) of the universal soil loss equation (USLE) and the rainfall patterns of Pirenópolis - Goiás (GO). A pluviographic series from the period from 2002 to 2007 and a rainfall series from 1986 to 2014 were used. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design in a 7 (months) x 3 (patterns) factorial scheme. Through the results, it was possible to verify that: the erosive potential was concentrated between the months of October and April, corresponding to 94.2% of the average annual to index EI30. The factor R of the USLE for the locality of Pirenópolis - GO was 7,799.5 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, and 130.2 MJ ha-1 year-1, for the index KE> 25. The advanced hydrological pattern was the most frequent among the analyzed precipitations, followed by the delayed and intermediate patterns. According to the analysis, the intermediate pattern presents higher erosivity values for individual precipitation events for the months of November, December and April.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -080
       
  • Germination Pattern of Four Soybean Varieties on Media Containing Al, Fe,
           and Mn

    • Authors: Paul Benyamin Timotiwu; Ermawati Ermawati, Dyah Tri Lestari, Tumiar Katarina Manik
      Abstract: Acid soils in Lampung contain a lot of Al, Fe, and Mn, which inhibit soybean growth and production. The study of seed germination is important since plant growth begins with seeds. The study aimed to determine (1) the viability of various local soybean seeds: Anjasmoro, Grobogan, Dena-1, and Devon-1 on Al, Fe, and Mn heavy metal media and (2) the highest effect of dissolved metals among Al, Fe, and Mn on the viability of soybean seeds. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Seed and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Lampung from November 2019 to March 2020. The research applied a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and the data were averaged and presented as bar charts and standard deviation. The experiments were evaluated based on germination variables including germination capacity, average seed germination time, primary root length of normal germination, and dry weight of normal seedlings.The results showed that Grobogan and Anjasmoro varieties had high resistance to dissolved metals Al, Fe, and Mn, followed by Dena-1 varieties while Devon-1 was the most susceptible. The fourth day of germination showed that Fe caused the highest damage to the seeds, followed by Mn and finally Al. Interestingly, on the fifth day of germination, dissolved metal Mn had the highest toxicity effect, followed by Fe and Al.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Nov 2022 04:04:06 -080
       
  • Dichlorvos (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate DDVP (SNIPER)) Toxicity
           on Histological Organs of Wistar Rats Fed on Treated Cowpea Grains (Vigna
           unguiculata (L.) Walp)

    • Authors: Olajumoke O. Fayinminnu; Rofiat M. Adebimpe, Opeyemi E. Adebiyi, Frankly I. Oshoke
      Abstract: Cowpea is an important grain legume that provides half of the plant protein and is consumed worldwide. The crop is usually affected by pests on the field and in storage which always result in huge losses, hence being controlled by using synthetic pesticides. However, consumption of cowpea grains treated with synthetic pesticides had resulted in bioaccumulation and several health-related problems. Therefore, this study examined the toxic effects of Dichlorvos (DDVP) treated cowpea grains fed to Wistar rats for four weeks. Sixteen male rats weighing 125±20g were used for this experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups of four rats each including the control and acclimatised for one week fed with Standard Feed Ratio (SFR). The DDVP (98% purity) was applied at the rates of 0 (control), 0.23, 0.33, and 0.43mL/kg directly to 1kg cowpea grains of IT 89k-391, respectively. Treated cowpea grains were milled (with a 2 mm sieve) and mixed with SFR and fed to the animals daily for four weeks. Data were collected weeks after treatment (WAT) on feed intake, body weight gain/loss, hematology, and, serum chemistry and analysed using ANOVA at p<0.05, while histopathology was examined. Results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in all the parameters. There was a reduction in feed intake and body weights progressively in DDVP cowpea treated animals, while the control animals increased. Hematological parameters showed 0.23 mL/kg DDVP recording the highest hemoglobin (g/dl) (17.00±1.16), while the lowest value in white blood cells (1100±5.78 x 103/µL), and  0.43 mL/kg recorded the lowest and highest red blood cells (103/µL) (5.34±0.78) and (8.83±0.23) all between 1 and 4 WAT. Serum parameters revealed Total protein having lowest values (5.22±0.01, 5.13±0.01, 5.18±0.01) from 0.23, 0.33, and 0.43 mL/kg DDVP treated animals. Alkaline phosphate, Aspartate aminotransferase, and Alanine transaminase recorded the highest values from 0.43 and 0.33 mL/kg treatments at 3 and 4 WAT, respectively.  Histopathology at 1 to 4 WAT revealed capillary congestion with necrotic changes, severe cell infiltration of interstitial and parenchyma with inflammatory cells in the kidneys of 0.23, and 0.33 mL/kg DDVP cowpea fed animals. On liver organs, 0.23, 0.33, and 0.43 mL/kg treatments showed necrosis, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and congestion with distinct cysts and granular formation. The central portions of livers were pale and distinct patterns of arrangement in cords were absent. However, the control animals recorded the highest values in the aforementioned parameters with clear and normal liver and kidney organs in the experiment. In this study, varied changes observed on the hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological parameters at 0.23, 0.33, and 0.43 mL/kg dichlorvos (DDVP) treated cowpea grains could result in impairment of vital organs, hence ill health issues. Continued use of dichlorvos for cowpea grains in preservation should be discouraged to prevent health problems and promote high-quality nutrition and safe food. 
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -070
       
  • Socioeconomics of Urban Agriculture in Curuçambá Neighborhood,
           Metropolitan Region of Belém, Brazilian Amazon

    • Authors: Paulo Silvano Magno Fróes Júnior; Fabrício Khoury Rebello, Cyntia Meireles Martins, Maria Lúcia Bahia Lopes, Caio Cezar Ferreira de Souza, Joyce dos Santos Saraiva, João Paulo Borges de Loureiro, Antônia do Socorro Aleixo Barbosa, Geany Cleide Carvalho Martins, Janayna Galvão de Araújo, Marcos Antônio Souza dos Santos
      Abstract: This study aims to characterize the agricultural production systems under urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in the Curuçambá neighborhood; identify the main techniques and technologies adopted, cultivations and creations conducted, and the activity relationship within the Metropolitan Region of Belém (RMB); and estimate the production contribution to family consumption complementarily and exploratorily. Data were obtained through interviews conducted among 63 residents in the neighborhood (representing 52.50% of the universe) by monitoring the food consumption of six producers’ families for two weeks and georeferencing images from Google Satellite. Farmers were mainly from the northeast of Pará (57.14%) and other Brazilian states such as Maranhão (9.52%), Ceará (9.52%), and Paraíba (1.59%). Clearly, urban agriculture in the region was established during the migration of rural areas to Amazonian cities. Generally, most farmers had reached elementary school II (69.84%) and had an average monthly income of one to two minimum wages (50.79%). Agricultural production was promoted by approximately 111 residences in the neighborhood and was based on horticulture and small livestock keeping. Additionally, the items analyzed were allegedly produced in six production systems: common beds (71.43%), suspended beds (12.70%), fruticulture (6.35%), agroforestry yards (3.17%), hydroponics (4.76%), and aquaponics (1.59%), and were directed to supply the RMB markets. On average, 30.89% of farmers’ income covered family consumption; we estimated the opportunity cost of consumption for the five main products cultivated in the neighborhood (jambu, lettuce, coriander, chicory, and cariru) as R$ 79.88 monthly, accounting for 8.37% of the current minimum wage at that time.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Oct 2022 01:59:38 -070
       
  • Motivational Factors of Women Entrepreneurs in Agribusiness
           Entrepreneurial Development in Malaysia

    • Authors: M. S. Surainita; F Abdul Fatah, N. H. Mohammad Azam
      Abstract: Successful women entrepreneurs are recognized through their strong motivation, desire, and capabilities to enhance economic development and increase entrepreneurial diversity in a range of various economic contexts. Motivation comprises biological, emotional, social, and cognitive components that drive behavior and agribusiness entrepreneurship. Given the important role played by women in contributing to the development of entrepreneurial activities in agribusiness, this study therefore aims to examine the motivating factors for women involved in agricultural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial development in agribusiness. An online survey was conducted among women entrepreneurs in Malaysia, and descriptive analysis and multiple regression analyses were employed to analyze the data quantitatively. The findings revealed that women in the study area mostly received support from implicit and explicit motivation, such as psychological characteristics and competencies to achieve their business goals and boost their efforts in uplifting economic wellbeing and developing the agribusiness sector. Women who engaged in community development were highly influenced by connections and attitude motivational patterns that predict entrepreneur behavior. Hence, activities that led to increased motivation for women to improve their competency, power, and involvement in agribusiness should be fully supported. These factors enhanced job creation and built their credibility in agricultural entrepreneurship development.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -070
       
  • Evaluation the Efficiency of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (SSF) for
           Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Semi-arid Environment

    • Authors: Luna Al Hadidi; Amer Sweity
      Abstract: The efficiency of subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was evaluated on the treatment of secondary treated wastewater to improve the quality of the effluent for reuse purposes. A horizontal SSF system was constructed to evaluate the efficiency to enhance the quality of secondary treated wastewater effluent from Ramtha wastewater treatment plant WWTP and its potential uses for crop production at Hydrulic retention time HRT of 1 day. The SSF was planted with barley crop (Hordium vulgare), retrieved from the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry-land (ACSAD) variety followed by corn crop (Zea mays L.), using BONANZA, F1 variety in the other season. Weekly physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the outlet from the wetlands in addition to the TWW treated wastewater effluent (inlet) in order to assess the removal efficiency of each stage of the treatment process and the total treatment system and it was used for irrigation of a fodder crop field. The SSF wetland subsequently influenced the physicochemical parameters. The SSF reduced the concentration of COD, NO-3, and TKN by 48%, 18%, and 20% respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE) for corn and barley were improved tremendously compared to the traditional irrigation techniques used in the field. The results showed a great possibility of using the SSF wetlands for the growth and production of fodder crops.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -070
       
  • Member Satisfaction Level With Service Performance of Kud Surya Adi in
           Helping Oil Palm Farmers in Mesuji District Ogan Komering Ilir District

    • Authors: Aexs Ardiyansyah; Mustopa Marli Batubara, Sisva Berty Afriyatna
      Abstract: This study aims to determine how the performance of Surya Adi KUD services to members and to determine the level of member satisfaction with the performance of services provided by Surya Adi KUD. The research implementation time is from October 2021 to December 2021. The method used in this research is a survey method, which aims to see the situation that is the object of research as it really is, by looking at the data and information in the sample, without giving special treatment. The sample in this study were members of KUD Surya Adi totaling 54 people. The results showed that the performance of KUD Surya Adi management was based on the distribution of each attribute, namely Physical Evidence (Tangible), Reliability (Reliability), Responsiveness (Responsive), Guarantee and Certainty (Assurance), and Giving Attention (Emphaty).), in accordance with members' expectations, but for the Important Performance Analysis (IPA) method of analysis there are still 9 (nine) distributions that must be improved, and members are satisfied with the service performance of Surya Adi KUD. This can be seen from the test using the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) analysis method with a score of 0.74 in the satisfied category.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -070
       
  • Assessment of Farmers Perception about Climate Change Impact and
           Adaptation Strategies Use for Tomato Production in The Gambia

    • Authors: Lamin Sanneh; Amadou Hamadoun Babana, Sidat Yaffa
      Abstract: Tomato production in The Gambia is ranked second after onion in terms of production acreage among vegetables. Tomatoes are major sources of lycopene, a dietary carotenoid found in high concentration in processed tomato products. The crop is high in vitamin AB and C and also contain good amount of potassium, iron and phosphorus. Fresh tomatoes and canned types such as concentrates puree and paste are increasingly in demand in West Africa where they form an essential part of the diet. The study investigated farmer’s perception about climate change impact and adaptation strategies use for tomato production in the Gambia through survey. The survey was conducted in the West Coast Region originally known as Western Division situated in the west near the capital. Random sampling was used for the selection of farmers for the individual survey and focus group discussions. The findings concluded that significant number of the tomato growers are aware and also strongly believed that climate change is existing. Constant increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall, an unpredictable rainfall pattern and prolonged drought among others served as evidences. Large number of respondents said to have experienced climate change effects for more than five years while minority indicated about 5-10years of experienced. Most of the tomato growers said they became to know about climate change through personal experience. Climate change causes severe dropping of flowers by rain and wind and rotting of tomato fruits as well as pest attack at the reproductive stage. For the case of adaptation strategies, great numbers of the farmers are using synthetic pesticide to control insect pests e.g., red spider mites, planting of trees (wind breakers) to reduce heavy wind speed and application of large quantity of fertilizers to improve the soil fertility.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -070
       
  • Case Study: Evaluation and Reuse of Rainwater in a Prison in Santa
           Catarina State, Brazil

    • Authors: Jair Juarez João; Matheus Frederico Ferreira Henckmaier, Gustavo Reche Santa Rosa, Amanda Schueng Lima, Vitória de Godoy Saciloto
      Abstract: The capture and reuse of rainwater is a viable alternative in regions where water is scarce or in places where water consumption is high. However, the economic viability of the implementation of an appropriate system is reduced by the need to install pumps, filter pipes and filters. This case study was focused on evaluating the potential for the harvesting and reuse of rainwater in a prison in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out at Tubarão prison, where three sampling points were strategically selected for the collection of rainwater. The total area of the prison is 4793.73 m² and in this research only the roof areas of the buildings used to keep inmates in closed and semi-open regimes were used. In total, 3483.53 m² were considered, which guarantees an annual capture of 4314 m3 of water and corresponds to 17% of the water consumed in the prison, providing potential savings of US$ 5408 per year. After collection, the water was filtered through an activated carbon filter to be applied as reuse water. The results demonstrate significant reductions for all parameters analyzed. In general, the average efficiency was above 70%. The best results were obtained for the removal of suspended solids (94%), dissolved solids (94%), total solids (83) and phosphorus (81%). In addition, removal values for color, chlorides and nitrate were around 70%, verifying that the filtration system with activated carbon is efficient for harvested rainwater.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -070
       
  • Fluazuron Influences the in vitro Production Embryos of Wagyu Cow

    • Authors: Vinicius Eduardo Gargaro Silva; Fábio Luiz Bim Cavalieri, Márcia Aparecida Andreazzi, José Eduardo Gonçalves, José Maurício Gonçalves dos Santos, Danieli Aparecida Bóbbo Moreski, Laura Paulino Mardigan, Tales da Silveira Faria
      Abstract: Imported breeds raised in tropical countries demand greater use of chemical control of ectoparasites, however, this practice can compromise the results of biotechnologies of reproduction. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of chemical residues of tick or their metabolites in the blood and in the follicular fluid and to verify the in vitro embryo production (IVEP) of Wagyu cows, raised in a tropical country, submitted to fluazuron based tick treatment. Twenty adult Wagyu bovine females were used, donors of oocytes, divided into 2 groups: G1 - animals that were not submitted to tick control and G2, animals that were submitted to chemical control of ticks with fluazuron based product (2.5 mg kg-1 of body weight). After application (D0), all cows were submitted to estrous synchronization and, in four moments (D12, D33, D54 and D75) the aspirations of the follicular fluid from the dominant follicles were performed, the oocytes were collected for IVEP and were collected blood samples for extraction and analysis of the presence of chemical residues, using GC-MS. Plasma residues of fluazuron were detected up to 54 days after application of the tick, but no residues were detected in the follicular fluid. Group 1 had a higher number of total and viable oocytes (p<0.0001), however, the viability rate and the blastocyst rate was lower (p<0.0001), showing that the use of ticks compromised IVEP.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2022 20:33:48 -070
       
 
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