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English Language Teaching
Number of Followers: 32  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1916-4742 - ISSN (Online) 1916-4750
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • English Language Teaching, Vol. 13, No. 8, August 2020

    • Abstract: English Language Teaching, Vol. 13, No. 8, August 2020
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 09:06:08 +000
       
  • Second Language Acquisition: A Framework and Historical Background on Its
           Research

    • Abstract: Research shows many problems and ambiguities of second language acquisition (SLA), which have made learners and readers worldwide unsatisfied. Therefore, this study attempts to highlight theories and research that have comprehensive explanations of the problems and ambiguities of second language acquisition, which learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) face while learning a second or foreign language. After that, the study discusses a framework discussion on second language acquisition (SLA). It discusses the historical background of SLA research on different decades and the most notable views of different scholars throughout the past decades on second language acquisition. This study is a longitudinal research that identifies the advantages that could be an assist to English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Longitudinal research is always based on the qualitative method. This study's data is based on the qualitative method that collects views, opinions, materials, and earlier studies on second language acquisition (SLA). It reveals the most significant theories which precisely connected to second language acquisition (SLA) and largely to applied linguistics. The study resulted in that: (i) second language acquisition still has several doubts and ambiguities in its many different aspects, (ii). In this study, the researcher summarizes second language acquisition (SLA) research's main goals and draws comparisons on the scholars' dissimilarities between language learning and second language acquisition (SLA) on different perceptions that could give insights towards learning of second and foreign languages easily by the English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:44:59 +000
       
  • An Investigation of Instructors' Approaches in Teaching
           Pronunciation: A Case Study

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate how instructors teach pronunciation based on the pronunciation training they received. This study involved instructors from King Abdul Aziz University, who were teaching at the English Language Institute (ELI). The data were collected through a questionnaire given to (50) instructors at (ELI). The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program.
      The results displayed that instructors used cognitive-content of teaching pronunciation and most of them focused on it as a valuable teaching approach. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the instructors had a constructive trend in teaching pronunciation. Most instructors pointed out that they taught pronunciation in their classes; in many cases they spent a considerable amount of time in pronunciation instruction. The lack of the pronunciation equipment and technological resources stands as a stumbling- block problem to teaching this language skill. In addition, the findings showed most of the language instructors did not receive any specific pronunciation training. Recommendations are given to provide suitable teaching pronunciation training which prepares the instructors to use powerful technology to boost teaching of this essential skill.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 08:23:50 +000
       
  • An Acoustic Study of Communication Apprehension during English Oral
           Presentations by Japanese University Students

    • Abstract: This study investigated the influence of communication apprehension and anxiety in second-language (L2) learning on oral performance of Japanese university students in terms of F0 (fundamental frequency) analysis. The participants were English-major students (3 males and 6 females) who presented at an oral communication festival for university students. The F0 analysis consisted of a mean F0 and F0 range. The participants’ utterances were digitized and analysed with Praat. Participants also completed two structured closed-ended questionnaires: a Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and a Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). One subscale of PRCA is Speech Anxiety (SA) that measures apprehension in public speaking. Acoustic analysis of F0 was conducted of the utterances provided by the students and their F0 data during rehearsal and the actual performance settings. The results revealed a significant difference in mean F0 between the rehearsal and actual performance. Mean F0 was significantly correlated with SA. These results suggest that students tend to show higher speech anxiety during an actual performance setting that is also reflected by a higher speaking F0.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 07:31:24 +000
       
  • Pragmatics in Teacher Talk: The Case of Pre-Primary Education

    • Abstract: This study aims to explore how the speech act of requesting is performed in Catalan (L1), English (L1) and EFL classrooms by pre-primary teachers. The study examines transcripts of 40-minute video-recorded lessons (six in Catalan/L1, six in English/FL, and three in English/L1) collected in several pre-primary schools in Catalonia, Spain. Recall interviews with the teachers were also conducted in order to examine their perceptions of their pragmatic performances in the classroom. Results show that teachers predominantly use imperatives in the three groups (Catalan L1, English L1 and EFL); however, a wider variety of requesting strategies is used in the L1 lessons. The study concludes with reflections on the pedagogical implications of the findings and calls for the need to raise teachers’ awareness about the effect their language use might have on the development of learners’ pragmatic competence both in the L1 and the foreign language.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 07:30:31 +000
       
  • Integration of Technology among Saudi EFL Teachers

    • Abstract: In the field of education, technology is currently considered a new trend. This study aims to examine the factors that affect the integration of new technologies in EFL classrooms. Factors considered include teacher’s age, teacher’s level of technological proficiency, and teacher’s perception of technology. To achieve this, the study involved a questionnaire consisting of 21 items and a total of 38 Saudi EFL teachers participated in it.
      The results indicate that there is no significant relationship between teacher age and technology integration. However, both teachers’ level of proficiency in technology and teacher’s perception of technology were significantly related to technology integration in Saudi EFL classrooms.
      It is recommended to provide teachers with professional development and support in technology integration and to supply classrooms with resources such as computers and smart boards. 
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 07:29:44 +000
       
  • English Language Teaching in Brazil: A Gap in Policy, Problems in Practice

    • Abstract: Only three percent of Brazilians are estimated to speak English despite the status of this language as a mandatory subject in grades 10 to 12 of basic education and preferred foreign language in grades 5 to 9. This paper will analyse possible reasons for this fact. The widespread concept in the Brazilian society that speaking English is beneficial to individuals because it provides access to the globalised world does not seem to be enough to promote the actual learning of the language by the majority of the population, and it is argued here that this fact has to do with a gap in the foreign language teaching policy documents: the 2015 National Education Guidelines and Framework Law (LDB 2015), the Brazilian National Curriculum Parameters for Primary Education (PCN-EF), and the Brazilian National Curriculum Parameters for Secondary Education (PCN-EM). These documents do not prescribe the necessary conditions for English Language Teaching (ELT) to take place effectively, but, instead, provide suggestions for teachers on how to adapt to the status quo, which means focusing on reading to the detriment of the other aspects of the English language due to a number of factors ranging from a lack of resources to a large number of students per class.
       
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 07:28:03 +000
       
  • Public Speaking in EFL Postgraduate Courses in Italy: A Case Study with
           Students of Political Science, University of Genoa

    • Abstract: The teaching of soft skills in EFL postgraduate courses is increasingly part of the Italian university curricula, albeit with some delay compared to foreign universities. Postgraduate English language courses need to focus on the use of language in foreseeable situations by creating opportunities to use the language in public contexts. Meetings, presentations, debates are the activities that young people will increasingly be called upon to engage in. Rather than solely on theoretical knowledge learned previously, these activities develop the practical use of language, in front of an audience, with a structured discourse and with some emphasis on the non-verbal elements of communication. Although these aspects may appear daunting to students, more often than not, they have been able to overcome their anxiety, not only in relation to the embarrassment of speaking a foreign language in public, but even to the mere act of speaking in public, which represents an obstacle in itself. In this study a case of Italian postgraduate students of Political Science was carried out and analysed.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 07:26:36 +000
       
  • Genre Pedagogy and ELLs’ Writing Skills: A Theme Analysis

    • Abstract: Coherent writing skill is an important prerequisite for academic success, especially at the tertiary level. This work studied the effect of four-month teaching intervention of genre pedagogy with Reading to Learn (R2L) approach for developing coherence in argumentative writing. It was implemented on 40 undergraduate Pakistani English Language Learners (ELLs). Pre-test evaluation informed learning gaps especially at theme choice and theme progression strategies in their argumentative writings. These gaps were addressed while planning the R2L teaching cycle of ELLs’ experimental group. They were assisted through a process of scaffolding with an aim to enable them to write coherent argumentative essays independently after learning. Then functional analysis of lexical and grammatical features of their independent argumentative writings was conducted. Findings revealed that genre pedagogy had a significant effect on students' organization of argumentative writing. This study suggests genre pedagogy as a useful instructional technique, which can improve teaching and learning writing skills at the tertiary level in Pakistan.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jul 2020 01:45:36 +000
       
  • Tuhaos with Hongbaos are Going to the English World: Study on the Features
           of Chinese English Neologisms Based on Web

    • Abstract: This article discusses the features, reasons, and values of the mushrooming Chinese English neologisms (CENs). Generally speaking, CENs are a variety of English words, namely Chinese English words, some of which have entered Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Based on data from Web Corp Live, the author finds that: (1) CENs take on the grammatical and morphological characteristics of English words, such as inflection and derivation, which are not found in the previous related studies; (2) CENs belong specific semantic domains, which are closely related to China’s latest social, economic, cultural development in the network era. CENs are the production of language contact between Chinese and English in the time of Internet. CENs possess important values to observe or understand Chinese new social phenomena and to promote the communications between the Chinese and the English world.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jul 2020 01:35:40 +000
       
  • The Effect of Japanese Animation Series on Informal Third Language
           Acquisition among Arabic Native Speakers

    • Abstract: Recent studies on language acquisition and motivation have targeted Japanese language learners in a formal educational context, with less attention paid to learners who study Japanese informally. The current study aims to investigate the impact of Japanese animations in the context of informal third language acquisition. It targets the native speakers of Arabic who are interested in learning Japanese as a third language (L3), and investigates the motivations of Arab teenagers and young adults to learn Japanese. Further, the paper also focuses on examining aspects of Japanese language proficiency among teenagers and young adults, including vocabulary enhancement and grammar competence. The methodology used in the current study is twofold: an online survey questionnaire adopted from Armour and Iida (2016), followed by an engaging experiment in which participants were divided into two groups (reality anime group vs. action anime group) in order to examine the effectiveness of anime selection in boosting proficiency level. The findings of the online survey indicate that Arabic native speakers are highly motivated to learn Japanese, while the experiment results confirm that the type of anime and consistency of exposure do support the acquisition process. Further, the study concluded that consumption of anime series contributes to the learning process and facilitates learners' proficiency in general and vocabulary learning in particular. However, it remains unknown whether or not Arabic native speakers' motivations lead to their enrollment into formal Japanese foreign language education. Avenues for future research and implications are also presented toward the end of the paper.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2020 07:44:57 +000
       
  • Language-Driven CLIL: Developing Written Production at the Secondary
           School Level

    • Abstract: This research study analyzes the effect the implementation of language-driven CLIL has on senior learners from Manuel J. Calle High School in Cuenca, Ecuador in relation to the development of written production in terms of Syntax, Content, Communicative Achievement, Organization, and Language compared to a non-language-driven CLIL classroom. There were 40 participants in the experimental group, and 38 participants in the control group. Learners from the experimental group received a condensed 35-hour intervention using CLIL. This study features an exploratory, mixed-method, and quasi-experimental research design. To collect qualitative data, an open-ended questionnaire was administered to explore the subjects learners preferred to study in a language-driven CLIL classroom. To collect quantitative data, a Pre and Post-Test based on the writing section of Cambridge Objective Primary English Test was administered. The data was analyzed through the Independent T-Test and Paired-T-Test to determine if there was a statistically significant difference present between the language-driven CLIL classroom and the non-language-driven CLIL classroom. The data was calculated through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A survey was administered to collect data on learners’ perceptions about CLIL and then analyzed statistically. Results indicated that learners preferred to study History, Biology, and Spanish Language and Literature. Results also demonstrated that the experimental group also demonstrated improvement in all the examined parameters when compared to the control group. However, when results from both groups are compared, there is only a statistical improvement in Organization and Syntax.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2020 05:26:42 +000
       
  • Code Switching in ESL Teaching at University Level in Pakistan

    • Abstract: Code-switching (CS) is a communicative strategy used by ESL bilingual teachers to teach English as a second language to non-native English speakers. Based on quantitative analysis of transcribed data from thirty ESL teachers at Pakistani universities, the present study examined the influence of code switching (CS) on ESL learners in Pakistan, exploring in particular the impact of CS on and teacher attitude towards CS in ESL instruction. The findings of the study indicate significant use of code-mixing and frequency of mixing words, phrase and the smallest unit of one language into another language. Furthermore, the findings suggest that CS is frequently used by the ESL teachers. The study also highlights that common nouns are followed by proper nouns, adjectives, verbs and abbreviations, with the most significant words used during instantiation of CS in the data comprising lexical items, phrases, compound words, and encouraging words. Thus, this study suggests that CS is used to facilitate the comprehension and participation of the bilingual learners.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2020 05:19:15 +000
       
  • Analytical Assessment of the Common Writing Errors among Saudi Foundation
           Year Students: A Comparative Study

    • Abstract: This research explored the most common writing errors of Science and Arts students of the Foundation year program at a Saudi University that hinder them from achieving their course goals, learning outcomes and becoming efficient writers. The importance of this research stems from the fact that, it is a comparative study that shows the differences in writing errors between Science and Arts students and relates writing difficulties to students’ background education, family support, level of the language and teacher’s feedback techniques. It unveils the causes of writing errors and suggests suitable remedies from teacher’s perspectives. The findings can be useful for teachers, students and course designers.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2020 05:10:51 +000
       
  • EFL Students’ Coherence Skill in Writing: A Case Study of Third Year
           Students of Bachelors in English Language

    • Abstract: Writing is considered an essential learning tool for all content areas. However, to master and have excellent writing skills for EFL students of undergraduate programs is challenging. Cohesion and coherence are both crucial textual elements to master writing. The present study examined coherence in English essays written by 46 female Saudi EFL third year at Unaizah College of Sciences and Arts, Qassim University. Examination of essays by the subject group designed to answer the research question. 1.) To what extent are EFL students competent in achieving coherence in writing skills' Each student was asked to write two essays (a writing test that included two essay questions). The data were analyzed through SPSS. The study results demonstrated that learners are not competent in achieving coherence in their writing tasks. In light of these results, recommendations are presented. The results also recommend further studies to investigate coherence and action research to improve this crucial skill among undergraduate Saudi EFL learners.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jul 2020 08:02:41 +000
       
  • Perfectionism and Writing Performance of Chinese EFL College Learners

    • Abstract: In the second language acquisition domain, researchers have devoted tremendous efforts to studying the relationship between L2 learning and some socio-affective factors, such as anxiety, motivation, etc. However, little research has been done to examine whether and how perfectionism, a psychological trait, affects L2 learning and L2 performance. The present study aims to fill this gap and investigate the relationship between the level of perfectionism and L2 performance among Chinese EFL college learners. Two specific questions are raised: (1) What is the relationship between perfectionism and L2 writing performance in terms of linguistic complexity, accuracy, and fluency' (2) What is the relationship between the six dimensions of perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, Parental Expectations, Parental Criticism, Doubts about Actions, Organization) and L2 writing performance in terms of linguistic complexity, accuracy, and fluency' To answer these questions, forty second-year students from Guangdong University of Foreign Studies majoring in English participated in the present study. The participants were required to compose a piece of English argumentative writing on the online system and then complete a 35-item Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale online immediately. The collected data were then processed and analyzed through SPSS (v. 17).The results of the analysis revealed that: (1) one of the measures of syntactic complexity has a significant negative relationship with perfectionism; (2) Personal Standards, one of the six dimensions of perfectionism, has a significant negative relationship with the participants’ L2 writing performance; (3) both Parental Expectations and Parental Criticism are found negatively correlated with the fluency aspect of the writing performance and the relationships have a significant effect. The implications of the findings are suggested for pedagogy and L2 learning.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 06:49:32 +000
       
  • Effect of the Comparative Continuation on L2 Writing Performance

    • Abstract: This study is a follow-up study of the continuation task, aiming to investigate the long-term alignment effects of the comparative continuation on L2 writing performance. The research lasted for a period of 16 weeks and employed a pretest-treatment-posttest research design. Two comparable groups of fifty-five Chinese undergraduate EFL learners participated. Both groups were assigned the same writing tasks i.e. writing an argument essay of the same topic within 30 minutes. One group was given an input text with comparative ideas before writing, while another group did not have any reading materials. After 8-week treatment, both groups received a posttest, in which the data were compared and analyzed with those of pretest. Results showed that (i) the comparative continuation task resulted in greater improvement in EFL learners’ writing performance than topic-writing task. (ii) the comparative continuation task was superior to the topic-writing task in incurring less meaning-based errors, but there was no difference in form-based errors between the two groups. The results can provide some enlightenment for teaching and research of foreign language writing.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jul 2020 05:26:42 +000
       
  • The Impact of Using Cambly on EFL University Students’ Speaking
           Proficiency

    • Abstract: This study sought to investigate the impact of using Cambly, a computer-mediated communication tool, on the speaking proficiency of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Further, it aimed to explore the participants’ perceptions of using Cambly. The study employed an experimental design featuring a mixed-methods approach to data collection that involved pre- and post-testing of the participants’ speaking proficiency as well as semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The study sample consisted of 28 EFL university students who were divided into the control and experimental groups. The participants in the experimental group used Cambly to conduct audio calls with native speakers of English over a period of 4 weeks. The quantitative analysis of the participants’ speaking proficiency tests revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-test scores. Moreover, no significant differences were found between the experimental group’s pre- and post-test scores. The qualitative analysis of the participants’ interviews revealed that the use of Cambly had a positive influence on their speaking proficiency, motivation, anxiety level, speaking opportunities, autonomy, social relationships, and cultural awareness.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 07:41:53 +000
       
  • Ghanaian EFL Teachers Working in Asia: Benefits and Implications for
           English Teachers Working Overseas

    • Abstract: The present study explores teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Asia, their attitudes toward teaching English, the roles of teaching the English language, motivations, benefits, implications, and the reason they are highly recognized in non-English speaking countries. The researcher applied the qualitative method through semi-structured interviews with (n=4) Ghanaian teachers working in three countries in Asia as EFL instructors; their strengths and weaknesses were investigated. The result of semi-structured interviews revealed that Ghanaian teachers' primary role in Asia is to teach English and literacy skills. Moreover, the reasons they chose to work in Asia are higher salaries and better working conditions. Their inability to speak the local language and culture diversity were their weaknesses. Native and Non-native English teachers' preferences, which directly/indirectly affect English teaching, are discussed.  The respondents' positive attitude toward English teaching overseas is also investigated and presented. This empirical study revealed the globalization of English in the 21st century.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 07:01:30 +000
       
 
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