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English Language Teaching
Number of Followers: 33  

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ISSN (Print) 1916-4742 - ISSN (Online) 1916-4750
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • English Language Teaching, Vol. 14, No. 12, December 2021

    • Abstract: English Language Teaching, Vol. 14, No. 12, December 2021
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 02:20:48 +000
       
  • The Empirical Study of Lexical Approach in College English Classroom
           Teaching and its Effects on Art Major’s Writing

    • Abstract: Lexical approach has been believed to be an ideal way for language teaching and learning, but few empirical studies are concerned with the effects that lexical approach has on art major students’ English writing. This study aims to explore the effects the lexical has on writing through an experiment in which the lexical approach was applied in an English class for art majors. All of them attended the pre-test before the experiment and the post-test after the experiment. Through analyzing the data of composition scores and the number of lexical chunks used in compositions by paired sample t tests, this study finds that the lexical approach has positive effect on art majors’ writing proficiency and it is quite feasible and effective to apply the lexical approach to college English teaching, especially in English writing teaching. 
       
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:41:03 +000
       
  • A Study of Communicative Strategies of Thai and Filipino Teachers of
           English

    • Abstract: There are many non-native English language teachers communicating with each other on a daily basis in English. The communicative strategies of non-native English language teachers can be easily identified. This study investigated the communicative strategies used by Thai and Filipino teachers. This research focused on the teacher’s interaction, the framework of communicative strategies of ASEAN English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) speaker, and the lack of studies in communicative strategies. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the significant relationship and communicative strategies between intercultural teaching personnel. The population sample consisted of Thai and Filipinos teachers who provide classroom instruction in English. The research tools used to collect data included a questionnaire, observations during two pair speaking tasks, and a Jigsaw task. A stimulated recall interview was performed after the tasks. All conversations and interactions were recorded and then transcribed. The results revealed that as listeners, “Listen to the message” was ranked the highest among the communicative strategies used by both the Thai and Filipino teachers. “Non-verbal language” was ranked the highest for the Thai teachers; while, “Persuasion” was most frequently used by the Filipino teachers. A Chi-square test showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between communicative strategies used by the Thai and Filipino teachers. Based on the findings of the study, communicative strategies identified in this study should be incorporated into English curriculums and English language teaching in Thailand. Educators, teachers, and non-native English learners should adopt these communicative strategies to promote mutual understandings in the ELF context.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 08:41:34 +000
       
  • Teachers’ Practice and Perceptions of Self-Assessment and Peer
           Assessment of Presentation Skills

    • Abstract: Assessment has shifted from assessment of learning to assessment for learning. Self-assessment and peer assessment therefore appear to play more important roles as they encourage students to critically reflect on their own and their peers’ learning progress and performance. Although self-assessment and peer assessment of written language performance have been widely explored, assessment of spoken language, especially in presentation skills, is under-explored. Additionally, students’ peer assessments are found to be different from teachers’ assessments (De Grez, Valcke, & Roozen, 2012), with this possibly due to the lack of training. This study aimed to investigate whether in-service teacher participants, with experience in marking students’ performance, would be able to undertake self-assessment and peer assessment effectively in comparison to the teacher’s assessment. The study also intended to explore participants’ perceptions of self-assessment and peer assessment of English presentation skills. The participants were 14 in-service teachers teaching their native language at different levels, ranging from primary to tertiary, who were also studying English as a foreign language. The research instruments were scoring rubrics and an online questionnaire. The data were analysed by Pearson’s correlation coefficients, means and standard deviations. The results revealed that in-service teachers could perform better in peer assessment. The study’s discussion provides fruitful implications for language assessment. 
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 03:16:27 +000
       
  • Peer Scaffolding During EFL Reading Activities: A Sociocultural
           Perspective

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the types of peer scaffolding used by Thai EFL students while completing reading activities. Pre-test, post-test and reading test procedures were implemented to measure the impact of peer scaffolding on students’ reading comprehension. The peer scaffolding checklist was employed to identify the types of peer scaffolding the EFL students used in the reading classroom. This study found that the EFL students gained higher post-test mean scores after engaging in reading activities along with peer scaffolding strategies. The beginner and elementary EFL students mostly used procedural assistance, whereas the intermediate EFL students frequently used sharing and questing as peer scaffolding. These findings may provide sociocultural theoretical and pedagogical implications for EFL teachers when supporting peer scaffolding and assisting EFL students to develop reading comprehension. 
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 03:09:30 +000
       
  • “Please Let me Use Google Translate”: Thai EFL Students’ Behavior
           and Attitudes toward Google Translate Use in English Writing

    • Abstract: The present study aims to investigate how Thai EFL university students use Google Translate (GT) in English writing, how they post-edit (PE) its outputs, and how they view GT use in English writing. The participants were 15 third-year non-English major students from three universities in Thailand. The data collection tools were an interview and two writing assignments. After the data analysis, the findings revealed the students’ behavior of GT use and their output PE as well as their attitudes toward GT use in English writing. The results reported the students always used GT in completing writing tasks at both sentence and paragraph levels, and most students did PE the outputs before applying them. However, a few students used the outputs with no PE because they trusted in GT more than they did in themselves. Regarding the PE level, the students intended to address lexical and syntax errors, so their correcting covered the light level. The results also revealed mixed messages in their attitudes toward GT use in English writing. Most students viewed GT as a helpful, reliable assistant enhancing their writing quality, but some raw GT outputs of phrases, idioms, long sentences, and paragraphs were found incomprehensible. Also, the students acquired some bad habits from using GT. However, most students disagreed with not being allowed to use GT in English writing. The study recommended language teachers to provide Thai EFL students adequate instructions for the effective use of GT and its output PE.
       
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 02:36:28 +000
       
  • Effect of Instructions in Course Book Tasks on Promoting Higher-Order
           Thinking Skills

    • Abstract: As stakeholders of educational systems, teachers are urged to participate in social change through the implementation of critical thinking skills into the educational setting. English language teaching has primarily focused on critical thinking, particularly in the recent years. Therefore, teachers are required to examine their teaching materials to ensure that they meet the needs of the 21st century. This study investigates the extent of implemented higher-order thinking skills using revised Bloom’s taxonomy. It examines tasks in course books used at the College of Technological Studies at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training in Kuwait. The course books examined are Tech Talk at the elementary, pre-intermediate, and intermediate levels. The findings of this study prove that most of the tasks in the sample chosen encourage students’ lower cognitive skills. Therefore, syllabus and material designers and teachers should include tasks that foster higher-order cognitive skills. The results are expected to serve as reference for direct language teachers when planning lessons in their course book adaptation and with curriculum development.
       
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 02:10:03 +000
       
  • The Impact of Using Automated Writing Feedback in ESL/EFL Classroom
           Contexts

    • Abstract: It is undeniable that attempts to develop automated feedback systems that support and enhance language learning and assessment have increased in the last few years. The growing demand for using technology in the classroom and the promotions provided by automated- written-feedback program developers and designers, drive many educational institutions to acquire and use these tools for educational purposes (Chen & Cheng, 2008). It remains debatable, however, whether students’ use of these tools leads to improvement in their essay quality or writing outcomes. In this paper I investigate the affordances and shortcomings of automated writing evaluation (AWE) on students’ writing in ESL/EFL contexts. My discussion shows that AWE can improve the quality of writing and learning outcomes if it is integrated with and supported by human feedback. I provide recommendations for further research into improving AWE tools to give more effective and constructive feedback.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 01:30:39 +000
       
  • The Impact of EFL Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs and Practices:
           Communicative Language Teaching in a Saudi University Context

    • Abstract: This study aims to explore the pedagogical beliefs of Saudi instructors of English as a foreign language (EFL), and the extent to which they apply the values of the communicative language teaching (CLT) approach in their classroom practice. The study was conducted with 42 Saudi EFL teachers and employed a mixed methods approach. A descriptive analysis of classroom observation data was conducted. The results showed that teachers hold positive views of CLT, but that there are some discrepancies between their beliefs and their implementations of the approach. For example, most of the instructors continued to apply traditional teaching methods (i.e., grammar translation and the audio-lingual approach). The study concludes that it is essential in the Saudi EFL context for teachers to cultivate relations between their beliefs and practices to assure better language learning outcomes. The key contribution of this study lies in disclosing the reasons for the discrepancies between Saudi EFL teachers’ beliefs and practices to help them develop congruence, and in highlighting the pedagogical implementations. 
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 09:08:52 +000
       
  • Impact of Affective Factors on Senior High School Students with Low
           English Reading Ability

    • Abstract: In 2017, the Ministry of Education promulgated the General High School English Curriculum Standards (2017 Edition), which stressed the importance of affective factors in English learning. This study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods such as student questionnaires and interviews to explore the motivational function of affective factors and its negative influence upon English reading of 80 students with low English reading ability in a high school in Jiujiang. The results of the study show that reading anxiety is common among high school students, the internal motivation for English reading is weak and the external motivation is strong, the self-efficacy of reading is not clear and firm. The study further found that the great academic pressure and high school students’ self-awareness which are subject to external environment, language and other factors cause high school students’ anxiety, the international social environment and examination system have a large impact on high school student’ external motivation. In order to improve the English reading ability of high school students, this research tries to make corresponding suggestions for teachers, students and other aspects from the perspective of affective factors. As for the English teachers, they should set up diversified activities and increase the interest of teaching content in order to promote emotions with knowledge. As for the students, they should clarify their tasks to enhance learning motivation. The school should set up mental health courses and psychological counseling room and provide psychological training for teachers. Then, parents should try to communicate with students and learn to ask for help rather than paying too much attention to students’ performance.
       
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 07:33:02 +000
       
  • Investigation Into Motivation Types of Saudi and Chines EFL Learners and
           Gender Role Differences

    • Abstract: This study investigates motivation types of Saudi and Chines EFL learners and gender role differences. I selected these two groups because they constituted the most dominant groups that study English abroad. The descriptive and correlational approaches were used to examine the participants’ motivation by collecting the data through questionnaire and interviews. Twenty-five Saudi and Chinese college level English language students were selected as samples for collecting data for answering the research questions. The findings showed that both groups have extrinsic and intrinsic motivation as well integrative and instrumental motivation. The Chinese group’s intrinsic motivation is stronger than the extrinsic motivation. 
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 07:28:33 +000
       
  • Instructional Design for EFL Reading at Senior High Schools from the
           Perspective of Thinking Quality

    • Abstract: Thinking quality is one of the important parts of the core competencies of English courses at senior high schools in China, indicating the cognitive ability and level of thinking in logical, critical, and innovative aspects. This study attempts to integrate the development of cognitive skills into reading instruction, showing how to immerse students with diverse learning activities in the teaching-learning process in terms of information acquisition, information processing, and information output. And their cognitive competencies at different levels are purposefully cultivated. Specifically, they are not only nurtured at the level of understanding factual information through observation and comparison but also facilitated for the deep understanding of the text through analysis, inference, and induction. Most importantly, they are encouraged to use their linguistic knowledge creatively with evaluative abilities, thus promoting the development of their English learning and thinking ability concurrently.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 07:00:05 +000
       
  • The Effect of Total Physical Response Method on Vocabulary
           Learning/Teaching: A Mixed Research Synthesis

    • Abstract: This aim of this study is to determine the effect of the TPR method on students' vocabulary learning and the factors affecting the effectiveness of this method by combining the findings obtained from both qualitative and quantitative studies. For this purpose, a primary study with 13 quantitative and 7 qualitative findings was included in this study using mixed research synthesis. The data obtained from the studies with quantitative findings were combined with the meta-analysis method and the studies with qualitative findings were separately combined with the thematic synthesis method. Then, using the analytical themes obtained from the thematic synthesis, the variance among the studies included in the meta-analysis was attempted to be explained. As a result of the meta-analysis, it was determined that instruction based on the TPR Model had a “strong” effect size (ES=1.131, 95% CI: -0.705 to 3.729) on academic achievement. As a result of the thematic synthesis, four descriptive themes were formed: "Learning-teaching process in TPR method", "Learning outcomes in TPR method", "motivation" and "Implementation suggestions/requirements". It has been determined that teaching based on the TPR method has significant contributions to the learning process (increasing active participation, learning by having fun, cooperative learning, etc.) and learning outcomes (word learning, correct use, creativity, etc.), motivation in learning, and some requirements (according to teacher and feature) have been determined. According to the descriptive themes obtained from the thematic synthesis, 10 analytical themes were developed. It was observed that all analytical themes were made in the experimental studies, and two of the 10 analytical themes explained the variance among the studies included in the meta-analysis significantly (p
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 05:26:08 +000
       
  • L2 English Speakers’ Perception of Their English Accent: An
           Investigation of European and Asian Attitudes

    • Abstract: According to previous studies, Japanese learners of English (JLEs) have a negative perception of their own variety of English along with a strong desire to sound native-like. Language attitudes toward L2 (second language) English accents may affect their active participation in English communication situations. The present study is cross-national and investigates whether other L2 English learners from different L1 (first language) backgrounds negatively perceive their own variety of English and English pronunciation as JLEs do. A total of 290 college students in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Malaysia, China, Japan, and Kazakhstan evaluated their own accent by responding to 10 statements on a 6-point scale. By comparing the responses as percentages and the binomial test, the analysis revealed that the Japanese perceived their accent most negatively, followed by the Chinese, whereas the Europeans, Malaysians, and Kazakhs perceived their accents positively to varying degrees. Among the seven countries, the L1 Danish group perceived their own variety as native-like most and non-native accent least, where the JLEs showed the opposite results. On the other hand, the endorsement for native accent was recognized across the countries. Based on the results, I claim that individual socio-contextual settings could have a critical impact on developing distinct attitudes toward one’s own accent among EFL speakers. 
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 02:35:40 +000
       
  • Chinese EFL University Students’ Self-Reported Use of Vocabulary
           Learning Strategies

    • Abstract: This study conducted the semi-structured interview to investigate the types of vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) Chinese English major university students employed and the factors for their VLS use. Chinese EFL learners frequently employed determination and cognitive strategies. They mainly used the mechanical strategies and focused on English words’ meanings based on Chinese equivalents. They preferred bilingual dictionaries, repetition, and memorization of fixed examples involving news words. They used metacognitive and memory strategies less frequently. This study proposed that Chinese EFL students’ rote memorization of English vocabulary was due to Chinese culture of learning, which values knowledge authority, consolidation and foundation, and also effort and perseverance. Additionally, the less L2 English immersion including L1 Chinese environment and non-communicative EFL environment also leads to Chinese EFL students’ VLSs use. Therefore, it is suggested that students be encouraged to use more memory strategies and metacognitive strategies. English teachers should provide students with strategy instructions and guide students to learn vocabulary through different types of VLSs in classes. After class, students could be encouraged to learn vocabulary incidentally through both intensive and extensive reading. 
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 02:02:53 +000
       
  • On Intercultural Communicative Competence: Student-teachers’ Accounts of
           Colombian Cultural Identity

    • Abstract: In student-teachers’ education, it is fundamental to foster the intercultural communicative competence for them to express their views on cultural concepts and phenomena in written and orally, with native and non-native speakers of a foreign language. In the same vein, future foreign language teachers, particularly at an early stage of their learning process, are expected to possess some basic citizen competencies which allow them, amongst other things, to show an understanding of the country they live in, the cultural diversity it has, and the current situation they and their co-nationals are facing (cognitive dimension). 
      Bering in mind the importance of competences mentioned before. This short-scale quantitative study set out to classify the perceptions that a group of student-teachers had on Colombia, their cultural identity, and Colombians’ cultural identity in general. To that end, one oral and two written short narratives along with a final questionnaire were collected and analysed using Atlas TI. 8 and Excell spreadsheets. The counting and classification of prominent speech parts that conveyed perceptions (nouns, nouns plus adjectives and adjective per se) unveiled that participants held quite optimistic views on their nation, particularly in cultural, natural, geographic, and culinary aspects. It was also revealed that student-teachers had a high appreciation of themselves culturally speaking, praising their personality and mood as most important features. Furthermore, it was unveiled that participants held a positive view about their compatriots, highlighting their personality, mood, and character. It is important to remark that positive views about own identity were much higher than general views on Colombians.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Nov 2021 00:44:38 +000
       
  • Parents’ Involvement in High-Stakes Language Assessment: A Review of
           Test Impact on Parent Behavior

    • Abstract: This paper reviews a total of 20 empirical research studies concerning parents’ behavior under the context of high-stakes language assessment, aiming to reveal the impact of the assessment on parents’ behavior. The results show that (1) parents are typically involved in high-stakes language assessment process; (2) their involvement practice includes general (such as hiring tutors for children) and extreme involvement behavior (such as participating in movement against high-stakes testing); (3) no unanimous conclusion is reached concerning the effectiveness of parents’ involvement in high-stakes language assessment; (4) multiple factors that affect parents’ involvement in high-stakes language assessment are identified, including parents’ perceptions of tests, their educational background, and the time they spend with their children. This study concludes that tests might influence the ways parents are involved in children’s education. However, not all parents might be influenced by testing, and testing might have a positive impact on some parents but a negative impact on others. This synthesis has several practical implications. Firstly, it indicates that parents’ involvement behavior in the context of high-stakes language assessment deserves to be further investigated. Secondly, it points that various intervention programs should be provided for parents to help them better support their children’s learning and test preparation. The paper also offers several suggestions for future research. 
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Nov 2021 05:08:24 +000
       
  • Challenges of Implementing Technology in ESL Writing Classrooms: A Case
           Study

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the challenges and barriers encountered by ESL teachers when they implement technological tools in writing classroom. It also explored teachers’ perceptions towards integrating technology in writing classroom. The study involved observing a number of writing classes from different levels at an English Language Institute at a southwestern university in the United States. Next, an interview was conducted with one of the observed teachers to enquire about implementing technology in the classroom and reasons behind possible challenges. The study revealed some challenges that hindered or prevented teachers from applying technology in writing classroom. Such challenges were technical problems, students’ attitudes towards using technology, lack of time, lack of computers and other devices, and lack of technical support. Moreover, the study showed that teachers had positive perceptions toward using technology to facilitate teaching process. Pedagogical implications and solutions to overcome technical issues are provided for ESL/EFL writing teachers and policy makers.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Nov 2021 08:14:45 +000
       
  • Application of Cohesion Theory in CET-4 Listening Comprehension

    • Abstract: Cohesion is a very important part of learning English. The Cohesion Theory of Halliday and Hasan is of great importance for people to acquire the knowledge of cohesion. This study is aimed at applying this Cohesion Theory in CET-4 listening comprehension which is an important test for Chinese college students. This study uses the test papers of CET-4 in June 2021 as examples to demonstrate that it is obvious that there are certain cohesive relations between the listening materials and the correct answers. It is also practicable to apply the Cohesion Theory in listening comprehension of CET-4. It mainly analyzes the cohesive devices applied in figuring out the correct choices by understanding the cohesive relations between the listening materials with the right answers. It demonstrated obviously that there exists the cohesive relations between the listening materials with the right answers in the test, and both the grammatical device and lexical device are often used interactively. The cohesive devices can serve as the important clues for students to make the right choices. The findings of this study suggest that the application of the Cohesion Theory in CET-4 listening comprehension is practicable and effective. It can not only help the students get good performance in the CET-4 tests, the same approach can also be used in other important tests. 
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Nov 2021 02:18:04 +000
       
  • Revisiting Effects of Native Speakerism on Thai Teachers and Students in
           the Age of English as a Lingua Franca

    • Abstract: Currently, the role of English language has changed from being a language used among native English speakers (NESs) to being a language spoken by people of various backgrounds or known as English as a lingua franca (ELF). This phenomenon has affected different aspects of global English usage and users across the world. However, in Thailand, this issue does not seem to be taken into account with regard to English language teaching (ELT) and learning practices as different ELT stakeholders continue to conform to traditional teaching methods related to NESs. This action is reflected in an English language ideology called ‘native speakerism’ which has long been entrenched in Thai society. It has repeatedly caused different problems for both Thai teachers and students of English language until the present day. This review article aims to demonstrate the impacts of the native speakerism ideology on Thai teachers and students of English language in the period of English as a global lingua franca. The article begins with an explanation of how the changes of role and status of English challenge traditional perspectives of English language and how the ELT industry around the world, including in Thailand, should adapt to such changes. Then, the article gives brief conceptualizations of native speakerism and its effects on English teachers and students. Finally, it moves on to discuss the native speakerism ideology in Thailand and reports different negative effects of native speakerism on Thai teachers and students of English language.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Nov 2021 02:04:44 +000
       
  • Exploring Secondary School EFL Teachers’ Assessment Literacy in
           Practice: A Case Study in China

    • Abstract: Assessment literacy (AL) has emerged as an important research field during the past decade, yet it remains a great challenge for secondary school EFL teachers in China to appropriately enact their assessment literacy. Due attention needs to be paid to research upon teachers’ conceptions of assessment (CoA) and assessment practice. Based upon a semester’s observation of the English classes in a secondary school in China, weekly meetings on English teaching and research, a focus group interview, individual interviews, documents such as the participants’ lesson plans and reflective journals, this qualitative study aims at exploring: (1) what are the conceptions of assessment of the participating secondary EFL teachers' (2) what is the teachers’ assessment literacy in practice (TALiP)' (3) How could their assessment literacy be enhanced' 
      Self-reported findings show that the EFL teachers have a wide scope of conceptions of assessment and individual variations in their assessment practices. The former range from knowledge of assessment purposes and criteria to regarding assessment as learning (AaL), and the latter from giving instant feedback of nodding or simple comments to practicing assessment for learning (AfL) in classroom teaching. Findings from observation also reveal that when tempting AaL, the participants could generally achieve AfL to some extent. Implications for further teacher professional development are discussed concerning how to enhance assessment literacy mentoring in internship and in-service training.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Nov 2021 03:17:11 +000
       
 
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