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Global J. of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Intl. Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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J. of Politics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
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Public Administration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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Global Journal of Health Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.416
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1916-9736 - ISSN (Online) 1916-9744
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • Reviewer Acknowledgements for Global Journal of Health Science, Vol. 12,
           No. 11

    • Abstract: Reviewer Acknowledgements for Global Journal of Health Science, Vol. 12, No. 11, 2020.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Oct 2020 09:32:50 +000
  • Pakistan’s Community-based Lady Health Workers (LHWs): Change Agents
           for Child Health'

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Pakistan’s high child mortality context, a large-scale Lady Health Worker (LHW) Program raises the need to look at whether LHWs are delivering their key mandate as agents of change for child health. This study examines the quantity and quality of LHW interactions with mothers for child health and their impact on mothers' knowledge and child health practices.METHODS: 1,968 mothers of children
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 08:54:11 +000
  • Factor Predicting the Use of Physical Restrain in Clinical Setting

    • Authors: Abd Alhadi Hasan
      Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify the factors predicting psychiatric nurses’ decision to use physical restraint in a clinical psychiatric setting in the Province of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A descriptive explanatory design was used. 110 nurses working in a psychiatric hospital in Jeddah city were recruited during the period 27th April to 29th June 2017. The outcome was assessed on the following scales: level of knowledge, occupational stress, working environment, nurses’ attitude toward use of physical restraint and nurses’ practice toward use of physical restraint. RESULTS: The study participants had sufficient knowledge about the use of physical restraint, experienced high levels of occupational stress, suffered an unproductive working environment and accepted attitudes and practice toward physical restraint. In addition, these variables significantly predicted the nurses’ use of physical restraint. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that the level of knowledge and occupational stress scales, the working environment, and nurses’ attitude and practice toward the use of physical restraint significantly predicted the nurses’ use of physical restraint. RECOMMENDATIONS: The study recommends the establishment of educational and awareness programmes for nurses to better understand the concept of restraining a patient and the consideration of alternative measures for controlling agitated and violent patients. It also recommends that providing adequate staffing and other resources, maintaining a therapeutic ward environment, and decreasing work-related stress could influence psychiatric nurses’ decisions to use physical restraint on their patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 08:37:27 +000
  • High Risk Health Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents: A Comparison
           between Gender

    • Abstract: PURPOSE: The main objective was to study health risk behaviours, knowledge and perception amongst Malaysian adolescents aged between 13-17 years of age.METHODS: Modified version of Youth Behaviour Risk Factor Surveillance System (YBRFSS) was used in this nationwide cross-sectional study involving 5,000 students enrolled from 50 selected schools, by adopting multi-stage sampling with randomization of schools and classes from all states in Malaysia. Descriptive data for behaviours, knowledge and perception were also compared between genders. RESULTS: Overall, 72.6% and 21.1% adolescents were found to not perform adequate exercise or did not perform any exercise, respectively. Majority of them also (81.8%) spent time watching TV beyond one hour per day. Although overall compliance to meal timings showed better result for girls (89.2%) than boys (84.8%); non-compliance to breakfast timing was the most frequent (74.7%) compared to other meal timings. Signs of continuous sadness ranked highest (21.3%), followed by signs of depression (9.4%) and suicidal ideation (7.8%). Girls suffered worse than boys for signs of continuous sadness (25.4% vs. 16.2%) and suicidal ideation (10.4% vs. 4.5%). In terms of perception, only 50.1% responded favourably to managing their anger. Boys were more satisfied with their own body weight and body shapes compared with the girls (43.3% vs. 34.7%; 45.3% vs. 37.9%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although adolescents in Malaysia had good overall knowledge and perception on the healthy habits, they still practiced risky behaviours which may lead to early morbidity and mortality among adolescence.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2020 12:47:23 +000
  • The Potential Impact of Mass Media Education in the Psycho-Social Life and
           Epidemiology of Sickle Cell Disease in Nigeria

    • Authors: Emmanuel Morka
      Abstract: The lack of public awareness and education is the greatest challenge in the fight against Sickle Disease (SCD) in Nigeria. The sufferers of the disease experience debilitating pains, psychological challenges, stigmatization and as a result many have very poor social life style. What enduring step, has the mass media, as a reliable societal medium taken to address the spread of SCD' No serious attention has been given to the use of media technology in the education of the masses on the risk factors of SCD. The mass media has a key role to play in the treatment and management of SCD in Nigeria.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 07:11:21 +000
  • Collaborative Learning Through Global Partnerships: Student-Led
           Community-Engaged Research

    • Abstract: Public health research in an international setting demands a framework that encourages collaboration between investigators and their host country during the planning stages of the research project and throughout its execution phase. The aim of the current project was to develop a needs assessment with rural Nicaraguan communities. The Community Oriented Primary Care model, which promotes commitment to partnerships and sustainability, was used to guide the needs assessment and research process. A multidisciplinary team of students traveled to three rural communities in Nicaragua to conduct a comprehensive needs assessment, focused on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In this paper, the authors highlight the experience, challenges, and facilitators experienced by this team of students during the global health research process. Findings indicate using the COPC model as a guide afforded the research team with the opportunity to assess community needs, from community member perspectives, as a first step toward partnering with the community to develop appropriate future intervention projects.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 06:25:00 +000
  • External Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with
           Invisalign®: A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Deema AlShammary
      Abstract: AIM: To measure the incidence and severity of root resorption after orthodontic treatment with Invisalign.MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2017 to January 2018. Pre- treatment and post-treatment Orthopantographs were obtained from orthodontic records of 29 patients managed with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) at different dental clinics in Riyadh City. The selected sample was fulfilled the following criteria: (1) Class I malocclusion, (2) Mild to moderate crowding, (3) Non-extraction orthodontic treatment, (3) No evidence of root resorption before orthodontic treatment, (4) No root abnormalities or dilaceration, and (5) Good quality of pre- and post-treatment Orthopantographs. One examiner performed the measurements directly on the Orthopantographs using electronic digital caliper (Mitutoyo Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) with an accuracy of 0.01mm. The measurements were performed on maxillary and mandibular central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines pre- and post-operatively, resulting in a total of 696 measurements. The crown length was measured from incisal edge to cemento- enamel-junction, while the root length from cemento-enamel-junction to root apex.RESULTS: In our study, 72% of the teeth demonstrated root resorption, in regard to the severity of root resorption, we found that mild root resorption> 0% up to 2% in all the affected teeth. Upper Anterior teeth have more significant resorption rate than lower anterior teeth P
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 05:13:42 +000
  • The Relationship between External and Internal Risk Factors with Pulmonary
           Tuberculosis in Children Aged 0-59 Months in Slums in Indonesia, 2013

    • Authors: Made Agus Nurjana
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (Tb) remains a health problem throughout the world. World Health Organization (WHO) has set it as a “Global Emergency” disease. The difficulty of confirming the diagnosis of it in children, different from it in adults, causes the treatment of it in children often neglected. This problem is exacerbated by the supporting environmental conditions, namely living in slums, which makes the risk of transmission even higher.OBJECTIVE: To identify internal and external factors related to Tb in children aged 0-59 months living in slums in Indonesia.MATERIAL & METHOD: The data source used was the 2013 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) using a sample of children less than five years old who lived in slums in 34 provinces in Indonesia. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis found three risk factors, namely BCG immunization status (age-based), at-risk home environment, and gender (residential area-based). Vaccinated children under one year of age have the best probability of not suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. Those who live in a house inhabited by less than five people, or in that occupied by more than four with no one of which smokes or does not suffer from pulmonary tuberculosis has a probability of not being exposed to it. Likewise, women who live in rural areas have almost two times less probability of suffering from it, compared to men in urban areas. CONCLUSION: Factors contributing to the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in infants in slums are the status of BCG immunization, air cleanliness in the neighborhood, which can be seen from the differences of risks in rural and urban, and the number of inhabitants per house and their behavior.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 04:43:41 +000
  • The Impact of Blood Flow Rate and Duration of Dialysis Session on
           Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    • Authors: Nur Samsu
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blood flow rate (BFR) and time of dialysis are important determinants of dialysis adequacy. This study aimed to determine the impact of higher BFR and longer dialysis time on nutritional status in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: Real-world evidence (RWE) studies of 3 HD units in different hospitals that differ in BFR and/or dialysis time. Group I, HD 5 hr and BFR 200-250 mL/min; group II, HD 4 hr and BFR 270-320 mL/min, and group III, HD 4 hr and BFR 200-250 mL/min. All HD units use the same dialysate flow and dialysis frequency. Nutritional status was assessed using a 3-point scale Subjective Global Assessment. RESULTS: A total of 233 chronic HD patients were included, mean of age was 52 ± 12.9 years, 46.5% were male. There are 69.5% on SGA class A, 27.5% on SGA class B, and 3% on SGA class C. The proportion of SGA class A in group II was highest compared to group II and III (93.5% vs 79.0% vs 32.1% (p
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 03:09:54 +000
  • Mental Health Concerns of Frontline Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic:
           A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Jeavana Sritharan
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The current COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on the mental health of frontline workers worldwide. Currently there are limited published studies addressing mental health issues in frontline workers. The objective of this scoping review is to examine the range of existing global literature on mental health issues reported in frontline workers during the COVID-19 pandemic and to understand what mitigating factors exist.METHODS: The scoping review was guided by the Levac Colquhoun and O’Brien’s adapted version of Arkey and O’Malley’s framework. We performed a comprehensive search of three databases, Pubmed, APA PsychINFO, and CINAHL, identifying 684 studies. In total, 16 original studies and 4 letters to editors were included in this review.RESULTS: Of the original studies, 13 were published in China, and the remaining 3 in Italy, Turkey, and Iraq; all letters to editors were published in China. Sources of stress reported in frontline workers across studies included direct contact with COVID-19 patients, isolation, putting loved ones at risk, facing life and death decision making with COVID-19 patients, uncertainty with COVID-19 disease control, limited personal protective equipment, time spent thinking about COVID-19, limited staff/resources/pay, burnout, and stigma. Mental health symptoms and outcomes reported in frontline workers were fear, stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia, burnout, and psychological distress.CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate the immediate need to increase mental health awareness and resources at an individual and system wide level. Mental health programs need to be catered towards each unique workplace to provide the necessary resources for frontline workers.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 01:49:29 +000
  • The Social and Economic Correlates of Tobacco Consumption in Developing
           Countries Compared to Developed Countries: Evidence from Burkina Faso and

    • Abstract: This paper examines the socio-demographic and economic factors affecting tobacco consumption in a developing country like Burkina Faso compared to a developed country like Canada. Using nationally representative data from the 2016 round of Burkina Faso’s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2015-2016, we estimated multivariate fixed effects models to identify the social and economic factors associated with tobacco consumption in these countries. We find evidence that age has an inverted U-shaped positive effect on cigarettes consumption in both countries with a peak at 24-35 years old in Burkina Faso and a peak at 40-54 years old in Canada. Second, being single increases the consumption of cigarettes while education and employment reduce cigarettes consumption in both countries. The gender gap in tobacco consumption between men and women is larger in Burkina Faso (5.021 cigarettes) compared to Canada (1.45 cigarettes). Third, while income have a negative impact on cigarettes consumption in Canada, it displays a U-shape effect in Burkina Faso. Hence, the social and economic context should be considered by the international organization while addressing the issue of smoking in developed and developing countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Sep 2020 13:38:04 +000
  • Preventions of HIV/AIDS Transmission from Mother to Child in
           Pematangsiantar City, Indonesia

    • Authors: Dame Evalina Simangunsong
      Abstract: Prevention of the HIV/AIDS transmission from mother to child should be a focus of common concern, considering that this effort is an effective and broad-impact strategy in suppressing maternal and infant mortality and is an indicator of the degree of public health in a country. Community Health Center with the Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) service in Pematangsiantar has not fully provided the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT). Therefore pregnant women still refuse to undergo HIV screening. In these circumstances, Pematangsiantar will potentially have an increase in the number of cases. In realizing the vision of health education institutions to integrate the promotion of HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for pregnant women, this research has studied the perception of pregnant women in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission from mother to child. So that the appropriate intervention strategy in suppressing the spread of HIV/AIDS can be done. The research type is quasi-experiment with the population in this study was all pregnant mothers who refused to undergo HIV screening at the time of the ANC, 194 people. Data analysis is processed with T-Test and conducted to view differences in the behavior and perception of pregnant women's beliefs against the transmission of HIV/AIDS after the intervention. The result showed there is an increased difference in the value of behavioral indicators and the health confidence of pregnant women after home visits. It is advisable to approach strategies with personal counseling, peer-Education, and home visits in the nets of pregnant women with HIV.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 11:55:23 +000
  • Self-Management Practices among Diabetic Women of Reproductive Age in a
           Tertiary Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate self-management practices of diet, exercise, medication, and self-monitoring of blood glucose among diabetic women of reproductive age in OAUTHC.METHODS: This study employed a descriptive design. A total enumeration of 185 diabetic women of reproductive age in a tertiary hospital in Osun state constituted a sample size. A self-structured questionnaire with 40 items under 5 sections and a check list for recording glyceamic control measures were used for data collection. The data retrieved from the respondents were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Results were presented as frequencies, mean and standard deviation.RESULTS: The findings from the study revealed a moderate level of dietary intake (mean = 2.80), moderate physical exercise (mean = 2.80), moderate medication intake (mean = 2.13) and moderate self-management practices (mean = 2.85) on 5points Likert scale.DISCUSSION: The findings of the study were compared with previous studies and the researchers showed how the relevant theories that guided the study were used to explain the findings.CONCLUSION: It was concluded that most of the women had moderate practice of diet, exercise, medication and self- monitoring of blood glucose as shown in their past medical history.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 11:42:36 +000
  • Assessment of Awareness and Knowledge About Rickets in Primary Health Care
           Centers in Saudi Arabia Based on Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive

    • Authors: Alaa Alahmadi
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rickets is considered a significant health issue affecting children especially infants and toddlers. Despite the development affordable and accessible of a health care system in Saudi Arabia, Saudi children had a high prevalence of rickets. This study aims to assess knowledge and awareness of mothers about rickets after short interventional program based on the health belief model and social cognitive theory.METHODS: A Quasi-experimental design pre-posttest type was carried out by using self-administered questionnaire. A sample size of 180 mothers who attended the well-baby clinic in primary health care centers in Riyadh and Medina Region were consented and then enrolled in the study. The questionnaire focused on 7 domains; demographic information and the other 6 domains based on health believe model and social cognitive theory.RESULTS: The mean scores of knowledge, self-efficacy, and health belief model constructs (susceptibility, severity, benefits) significantly increased. The mean score and the percentages of knowledge and health belief model constructs show changes between pretest and post test result with statistical significant (27.9% in knowledge and self-efficacy, 34.9% in perceived susceptibility, 54.5% in perceived severity, 25.9% in perceived benefits, 11.7% in perceived barriers and 5.4% in cues to action) all were with a p-value of less than 0.05. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention based on social cognitive theory and health belief model were effective in improving knowledge, awareness and practice related to preventive behaviors of rickets.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 08:02:21 +000
  • Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure Among the Elderly in Kenya

    • Abstract: Financial risk protection against the burden of out-of-pocket health expenditure (OOPHE) by achieving universal health coverage (UHC) is a key health priority for developing countries. The elderly is a vulnerable demographic group that need this protection. This study sought to analyze how selected social and demographic factors affect OOPHE among the elderly in Kenya. Further, it aimed to determine the distribution of OOPHE among the various wealth quintiles in the elderly using a cross-sectional study. Data was sourced from the Kenya Household Health Expenditure and Utilization Survey (KHHEUS) 2013. The sample size (2,853) consisted of individuals ≥ 60 years who had utilized health services. A multiple regression model and concentration curves were applied. Increasing age, having chronic illnesses, male gender, higher education level, more wealth, possessing health insurance, increased distance, and a higher number of visits to the health facility positively affected OOPHE. These results were statistically significant (P < .050) for presence of chronic illnesses, increasing age, possessing a health insurance cover and being in the richest wealth quintile and insignificant for the rest. Moreover, concentration curves revealed that out-of-pocket (OOP) health payments were concentrated in the richest quintile individuals. Consequently, OOPHE is a regressive way of funding health care among the elderly. In conclusion, elderly persons need financial protection when seeking health care: achievable mainly through health reforms, especially the ones targeting health insurance.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 06:21:33 +000
  • Environment as a Breast Cancer-Causing Factors in Urban Women in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Environmental influence is one of the important factors in breast cancer incidence because residential and work environments may be potential for breast cancer outcomes. This study aimed to determine residential and workplace environments with the occurrence of women breast cancer in urban areas in Indonesia. This study used data from Non-Communicable Disease (NCD Research) in 2016 which covered 34 provinces in Indonesia. There were 38,790 people to measure the occurrence of breast cancer in women aged 25–64 years. The sample was women who were willing to be interviewed and to conduct clinical breast examinations (Sadanis). The analysis was aimed at finding out the correlation between exposure, residential environment, and workplaces with the occurrence of breast tumor/cancer. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer in women who worked in risky workplaces from the normal state was 1.96 times higher than women who worked in non-risky workplaces (OR=1.96; 95% CI= 1.41 to 2.7; p
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Sep 2020 13:53:06 +000
  • A Systematic Review on School Air Quality and Its Impact on Student’s
           Health in Tropical Countries

    • Authors: Bambang Wispriyono
      Abstract: Poor air quality in school areas has a negative impact on the student’s health. Several studies in tropical countries have reported the risk exposure and environmental factors that were associated to the air quality in school areas. This paper presents a review of several case study research associated to air pollutants and environmental factors on the surrounding school environment and the health impact on students in tropical country. We selected and reviewed 18 research papers related to air quality in schools. The selection method was based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Throughout these studies, the most common source of air pollutants found in the classroom was particulate matter. Air quality in schools is affected by the distance between the school and the source of pollutants, ventilation, inhabitant, and season. Exposure to poor indoor air quality can increase health risk, respiratory problems, ocular problems, and students’ absence from school.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Sep 2020 13:43:07 +000
  • Sociodemographic Determinants of Patients’ Satisfaction with the Quality
           of Care in the General Hospitals in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    • Authors: MaryJoy Umoke
      Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to assess sociodemographic determinants of patients? satisfaction with the quality of care in the General Hospitals in Ebonyi State. Four hypotheses were formulated for the study. Demographic characteristics of age, level of education, marital status, and income level on patients? satisfaction were ascertained.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised 1, 363, 633 (18 years and above) who attended general out-patient clinics in the General Hospitals using a sample of 400. Data were analyzed using mean ( ), t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to answer the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The SPSS version 20 was employed for the analysis.RESULTS: Findings showed that patients who were 40–60 years ( = 2.96), had tertiary education ( = 2.97), earned income of N40, 000 – N59, 000 ( = 2.96) and were married ( = 3.09) were most satisfied. Besides, age, marital status, and income were not significantly associated (p>0.05) with patients’ satisfaction while the level of education was significant (p
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Sep 2020 13:59:49 +000
  • Correlation of Wells Score, Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial
           Thromboplastin Time, Fibrinogen and D-Dimer Levels with Doppler
           Ultrasonography in Suspected Deep Vein Thrombosis Patients

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occur from formation of blood clots in the veins, which are mostly composed of fibrin and red blood cells with a small component of leukocytes and platelets. Most VTE manifests as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). The lack of availability of Doppler ultrasound in health facilities especially in remote areas, makes the diagnosis of DVT challenging. There for, history taking, physical examination and laboratory findings are very important in diagnosing DVT especially in those area where Doppler ultrasound unavailable. Based on this we study the correlation Wells scores, Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen, and D-Dimer levels with the findings on Doppler ultrasound in patients with suspected DVT in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar. METHOD: The study was conducted in Department of Internal Medicine, Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from 2018 to 2019. Subjects were inpatients in Department of Internal Medicine with DVT suspicion. Wells scores, PT, APTT, Fibrinogen, D-Dimer levels and Doppler ultrasound results of all subjects were recorded and then analyzed. The patient is DVT positive if confirmed by Doppler Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistical calculations and frequency distribution as well as the Independent-t statistical test, Chi Square test and Fisher Exact test.RESULTS: Among 38 subject, 24 were men (63.2%) and 14 were women (36.8%). We found higher Wells score, shortened PT and APTT, increased fibrinogen in subject with positive Doppler ultrasound, without a significant correlation. A significant correlation was found between increased D-Dimer levels positive Doppler ultrasound results (79.4%, p = 0.048). When Wells score is added with analysis a significant correlation was also found (80.6%, p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: A significant correlation was found between increased D-Dimer levels positive Doppler ultrasound results (79.4%, p = 0.048). When Wells score is added with analysis a significant correlation was also found (80.6%, p = 0.044).
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Sep 2020 06:45:20 +000
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