Abstract: Fano profiles are caused by the interference between the discrete states and continuum. It is a very common phenomenon in multi-electron Rydberg states, such as the Rydberg states of group II elements in the periodic table. It often leads to autoionization due to the fact that a discrete state couples with an autoionizing state. Unlike the typical asymmetric line shape, here we report a symmetric unusual Fano line shape that has been predicted. In addition, this profile is caused by molecular states or polymer states instead of multi-electron atomic states. Moreover, it is shown that the fano profile caused by the multi-electron polymer states does not necessarily lead to autoionization. We propose that the Fano profile studied is caused by the interference between discrete levels and the multipole-multipole coupled continuum, or energy band. PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2023 11:59:19 +000

Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the light and dark fringe in Young's double-slit experiment is not actually the diffraction and interference pattern of light wave. We investigate the scattering phenomenon after the particle flow passes through the gaps and find that the scattering type and scattering degrees of freedom of the particle flow depend on the physical parameters of the particles and the gaps. When the particle flow undergoes uniform scattering, a uniform "yes" and "no" interspersed discrete distribution pattern will form on the receiving screen. Based on the diffraction-like and interference-like mechanism of particle flow, this paper explains the electron diffraction and interference experiment, as well as the Young's double-slit interference experiment and the diffraction of light through circular holes and plates. This article provides an in-depth discussion on Einstein's concept of wave particle duality and de Broglie's matter wave hypothesis, as well as an analysis of Feynman's experimental idea of electron double slit interference. Our research shows that the matter wave hypothesis is not valid, which has shaken the foundation of modern quantum mechanics and has significant scientific significance. In addition, this study has important application value for the development of technology for detecting and analyzing particles or gaps. PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 05:30:32 +000

Abstract: Novel (dark matter) particles, while known to exist, refuse to show up explicitly. Theoretical approaches within the Standard Model (SM) as for example, looking for the dark photon with Feynman diagrams, in the process γγ −→ e+e , is still inconclusive (Xu, I. et al., 2022). However, empirical-like methods can give the proof about the existence of dark matter, see for instance (Clowe, D. et al., 2006). Hence it is reasonable trying to understand as to why ordinary and novel (dm) particles differ so much from each other. This we wish to do with solutions of the bicubic equation for particle limiting velocities ( ˇ Soln, J., 2014-2022). Once we have the solutions for novel and ordinary particle limiting velocities from ( ˇ Soln, J. 2021.1.2, 2022), we first establish, with the help of evolutionary congruent parameters, ordinary z1 and novel z2, satisfying z1 ⪯ 1and z2 ⪰ 1,the smooth matching point of equal values for ordinary and novel particles at z1 = z2 = 1. At this point the limiting velocities and other physical quantities of ordinary and novel particles have equal values, which can be also characterized by z1× z2 = 1; this, consistent with Discriminants of ordinary and novel limiting velocity solutions, is extended everywhere, so that z2 = 1/ z1. the novel particle limiting velocity solutions reveal congruent angle α, contained now in z1 and z2, and as such can also serve as another evolutionary parameter. The smooth matching point is now α = π/2. If physically equivalent ordinary and novel particles move away from this point to α ̸= π/2, they will physically be different from each other. In other words, the novel particle is in z2 ⪰ 1 territory, and the ordinary particle is in z1 ⪯ 1 territory and direct interactions are likely impossible. With this formalism, we investigate physical differences between ordinary and novel particles, when moving away from α = π/2. In tis article, we largely are dealing with high energy leptons together with relevant photons with congruent parameter ranges of 0 ≺ α ⪯ π/2, 0 ≺ z1 ⪯ 1,∞≻ z2 ⪰ 1. In fact due to a large interest in photons, here, within this formalism, we evaluate very precisely limiting velocities for the ordinary and novel photons. From these evaluations, we deduce numerically that congruent angles of novel and ordinary photons are related through the quantum jump α(γN) = 2α(γ), which is verified also for other particles. Hence, the general quantum jump between congruent angles of limiting velocities associated with ordinary and novel particles is α(xN) = α(x), where x = γ, e, ν, etc. The congruent angle quantum jump connects every ordinary particle, such as electron e, or neutrino ν,respectively, to novel electron eN and novel neutrino νN. This, definitively is a rather simple way to identify novel particles. All that one needs is to find them. PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 05:21:06 +000

Abstract: Hubble's law has been considered as the scientific basis of the one atom exploding Big Bang Theory (BBT) for nearly hundred years. But with simple mathematical model we proved that the Hubble’s law does not correctly describe the expanding Universe suggested by the BBT. And we found a lot of wrong observing reports that were based on the calculation of Hubble's law, which strongly supported our arguments. That is why we tried to explain the Hubble's observing results from a different point of view, namely Velocity of Observed Image (VOI) of celestial body. A new mathematic model was built to replace the calculation model of the cosmic redshift that is the essence of Hubble's law. This model does not require the condition of the expanding of the Universe, which tells us again that Hubble's law does not support BBT. PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2023 07:58:19 +000

Abstract: It is pointed out that the most experiments on the invariant speed of light in special relativity proves the round-trip invariant speed of light, not one-way invariant. This paper makes a distinction between them. The Michelson-Morley experiment and the experiment of high-energy particles emitting photons and so on are the round-trip experiment of light’s speed, showing that the average speed of light is a constant. But the Sagnac effect experiment, the Michelson-Gale's experiment that the earth's rotation effects the speed of light, and the satellite signal propagation between China and Japan are the one-way experiments of light’s speed, showing that the speed of light is variable, satisfying the Galilean velocity addition rule. The orbit shape changes of binary stars and the phenomenon of charm stars cannot be observed due to that the calculated observing directions are different from the practical observing direction for the observers on the Earth. The Fizeau water flow experiment and the Sagnac experiment are combined to prove that the rotation of optical fiber would affects the speed of light. The problem that the Sagnac effect is independent of the refractive index of optical fiber is explained well. It is proved that the Sagnac effect formula derived from special relativity is consistent with that derived from classical mechanics when the optical fiber’s refractive index . When , there is no the Sagnac effect according to special relativity. While according to classical mechanics, there is the Sagnac effect. The original experiment of Sagnac effect in 1913 was carried out in atmosphere with . Therefore, the original Sagnac experiment became a judgment experiment. It certainly jugated that the velocity of light satisfied the Galilean addition rule rather than the Lorentz transformation formula. PubDate: Fri, 20 Oct 2023 08:08:56 +000

Abstract: This paper proposes a symmetric ring galaxy (SRG) model based on the general structure of galaxies. Based on this model, we have obtained results that are consistent with the actual observation results of the galaxy rotation curve, thus solving the problem of inconsistency between the observation results of the galaxy rotation curve and the expected results, which has long plagued the astronomical community. This article also analyzes the root causes of the problem of galaxy rotation curves, and finds that the main reason is that people use unrealistic galaxy models and incorrect calculation methods. Therefore, the dark matter hypothesis and gravitational correction theory that explain the problem of galaxy rotation curves have lost their theoretical basis, and the correctness of these theories undoubtedly faces serious challenges and profound doubts. PubDate: Fri, 20 Oct 2023 07:40:47 +000

Abstract: This work is concerned with fractional constrained Hamiltonian systems. Constrained systems with first class constraints and second class constraints are studied using fractional Lagrangian, then the Hamiltonian is found in fractional form, after that the conjugate momenta are obtained from the fractional Lagrangian, when ; the results of fractional technique reduce to those obtained from classical technique. Two illustrative examples are used to explain this technique. PubDate: Fri, 15 Sep 2023 05:58:41 +000

Abstract: The foam drainage is extremely important in many situations where fiber foams are used. Enhancing wet foam stability requires a complete understanding of the mechanisms and factors affecting wet foam drainage. Investigation of the drainage behavior of fiber foams has been studied in this review. The mechanics behind fiber foam drainage are discussed in detail, along with the influence of surfactant concentration, fiber consistency, and other variables. It also investigated adding additives, such as chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP), affects foam drainage. Highlighting the most recent developments in experimental and theoretical methods for describing and forecasting foam drainage behavior are presented. This review acts as a reference to offer useful understanding of the essential factors of foam drainage in fiber foams solution. PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:56:30 +000

Abstract: It is revealed in this paper that there were three serious mistakes in the Einstein’s original paper in 1905. Einstein did not prove that the motion equation of classical electromagnetic field could satisfy the invariance of the Lorentz coordinate transformation. The Einstein’s derivations on the formulas of transverse and longitudinal masses, as well as the calculation on the mass-energy relation are wrong. 1. In order to prove that the classical Maxwell electromagnetic field equation satisfied the invariance of Lorentz transformation in free space without charged and current, Einstein introduced the transformations of electromagnetic fields themselves, called the Einstein’s transformations of electromagnetic fields. However, these transformations are completely different from the Lorentz transformations of electromagnetic fields themself, which leads to contradiction and does not hold. 2. For the electromagnetic field equations in non-free space with charge and current, the Einstein’s transformations can not make the electromagnetic fields unchanged under the Lorentz transformation. 3. The constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory in the medium do not satisfy the invariance of the Lorentz transformation too. Therefore, the classical electromagnetic field equations have no the invariance of the Lorentz transformation actually, and the most important theoretical and experimental basis of special relativity do not exist. 4. The Einstein's derivations on the formulas of transverse and longitudinal masses have a series of elementary mistakes in mathematics and physics. Einstein took the relative speed between two reference frames as the arbitrary moving velocity of a particle, and the obtained formulas were completely different from the existing mass-velocity of special relativity. 3. When Einstein derived the mass-energy relationship, he only calculated the work done by the force in the x-axis direction of particle’s motion, ignoring the work done by the force at the y- and z-axes directions. Meanwhile, the constant relative motion velocity between two reference frames was misused as the variable arbitrary velocity of a particle. Therefore, Einstein had not derived the mass-velocity formula and mass-energy relationship used in the present special relativity. PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2023 02:15:29 +000

Abstract: It is speculated that a microorganism can take carbon monoxide from the surrounding atmospheric air through the process of adsorption. When this microorganism is exposed to sunlight / near uv light, the adsorbed carbon monoxide may transform into carbonyl diradical which together with the (polycarbonyl) polymer can cause harmful biological effects similar to those observed in COVID-19. For this, it can act as a virus identical with COVID-19. One important property of the speculated virus (SV) is that it can undergo mutation by inserting the associated carbonyl diradical at the C-H, C-O, and C-N bonds in DNA/RNA and their precursors which form its core. PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2023 07:50:03 +000

Abstract: I have already reported "Property of Tensor Satisfying Binary Law 3". This article is the article that I revise contents of "Property of Tensor Satisfying Binary Law 3", and increased the report about new characteristics. I did not touch it about a contraction in the tensor which satisfied Binary Law in "Property of Tensor Satisfying Binary Law 3". I report a contraction in the tensor satisfying Binary Law in this article. PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2023 03:37:36 +000

Abstract: This paper points out that there is no any experimental evidence for the length contraction of a moving object in special relativity. It is just a theoretical prediction based on the Lorentz transformation formula. Einstein put forward the concept of simultaneous relativity in order to explain the length contraction. In this paper, an example called Ji Hao's bridge-breaking paradox is provided to prove that this kind of paradoxes cannot be explained by simultaneous relativity. A completely symmetric method is introduced to prove that the famous twin paradox is unsolvable. The time delay experiments of special relativity, such as the life time of μ meson and the atomic clocks moving around the Earth are discussed. It is proved that time slows down of a moving clock does not exist too. It is a misunderstanding to use the lifetime of μ mesons to prove the time delay of special relativity because μ mesons decay prematurely due to strong collisions with other nuclei in the Earth's surface atmosphere. What calculated in theory is the time difference between two atomic clocks flying east and west observed in the stationary reference frame of the Earth's mass center. But the measurement of time difference is on the surface of the Earth. Because of the symmetry of motion speed, there is no time difference caused by the motion speed between the two atomic clocks observed on the Earth’s surface, so the experiment of atomic clocks moving around the Earth is invalid. The experiment is also suspected of fabricating experimental data. The conclusion of this paper is that the space-time contraction of special relativity and its relativity cannot happen in real nature, time and space are absolute concepts, and the Lorentz transformation cannot be correct. PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2023 03:29:41 +000

Abstract: In this paper Euler Lagrange equation is studied to obtain the equations of motion of the regular systems with higher order Lagrangian. The solutions of the equations of motion help us to obtain the action integral by substituting the solutions in the given Lagrangian. Then, action integral is typically represented as an integral of the Lagrangian over time, taken along the path of the system between the initial time and the final time of the system. The regular systems with higher order Lagrangian are examined using illustrative example. PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2023 06:59:06 +000

Abstract: A spring term is added into Newton’s law of gravitation. The universe accelerates to luminal or superluminal speed at the outer rim of the Hubble sphere where no matters can be observed. Such a big bang is explained three dimensionally from which we obtain the Hubble constant 10-17.5 /s which is the square root of the cosmological constant 10-35 /s2 . The missing mass of galaxies in the rotation curves can be clarified via the virial theorm in which galaxies mass 1041 kg and their spring constant 10-31 /s2 match with other authors. Under certain conditions in Sect.5, the Schroedinger equation can be reduced to 1st order for long range interaction and 2nd order(both time and spatial part) for micro interaction; whereas the latter has the same form as the Klein-Gordan equation. Upon a simple modification of the classical field theory, we derive the equation V(r) = a ln(1 + b/r) + C which is compatible with the well known Cornell potential in quark confinement. Such a modified field theory can furtherly apply to planetary motions by adding a spring term in the Binet equation to estimate different spring constants of the sun for the inner planets;they are 1��-14 /s2Mercury, 10-15/s2 Venus amd 10-16 PubDate: Fri, 04 Aug 2023 02:39:52 +000

Abstract: Foam physics is a field of study that scientists and researchers are interested in due to the vast range of uses, e.g. foam-foamed materials, oil extraction, and food processing. This study proposes a new equation for the drainage of wet foam that could add to the science of foam. To improve our comprehension of the intricate behaviour of wet foam, this model expands on a theoretical derivation. The usage of a bubble size formula that was proposed using the experimental data is one of the model's distinguishing characteristics. The size of foam bubbles can be predicted using this formula more precisely. A thorough derivation of the theoretical model is provided in the paper. Finally, this work presents a novel wet foam drainage model that has the potential to enhance the field of foam physics. The results of this work have important implications for industries. Therefore, more study is needed for developing a two dimensional drainage equation. PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2023 03:22:16 +000

Abstract: Evolution of fundamental mathematical tools (such as trigonometric functions sin(α) and cos(α)) has inherent repercusions on how we solve problems in applied physics. Recently published extended or gamma sine function sin∗(α, γ) and cosine function cos∗(α, γ) — along with their upgraded identity angle sum and subtraction rules sin∗(A ± B, γ) and cos∗(A ± B, γ) — have enabled a new approach on how to tackle practical problems using mathematics (a published example is the energy-coupled mass-spring oscilatory system). The usefullness of a theory is measured by both the insight it generates, and the solution it produces, when applied to physical problems with pertinent applications. Its acceptance amongst peers depends on the availability of such examples, as way-showers of how the theory can be applied in practice, and how useful results can be derived by employing it in similar or related examples/problems. This article has the purpose of providing this bridge between the above theories and its application in some common scientific fields. Several exercises are solved employing these new formulae, and new potential applications are identified that cover various topics in physics such as civil engineering (i.e., measuring distances in bridges), aerospace and aeronautics (i.e., turbine velocity triangles and optimum orbital deployment for a satellite constellation) and telecommunications (i.e., antenna array beamforming and steering, as well as new modulations based on quadrature phase-shift keying). These problems (and solutions) are designed to indicate the usefullness of these new expanded functions, and can become practical classroom exercises applicable to both academic and professional environments. PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2023 03:17:39 +000