Publisher: CCSE   (Total: 43 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cancer and Clinical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computer and Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
English Language and Literature Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global J. of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Intl. Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Marketing Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Psychological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Statistics and Probability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Law Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Education and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Educational and Developmental Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Geography and Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
J. of Management and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Materials Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Mathematics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Plant Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Politics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Network and Communication Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Public Administration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Review of European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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International Journal of English Linguistics
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1923-869X - ISSN (Online) 1923-8703
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English
           Linguistics, Vol. 9, No. 3

    • Abstract: Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2019. 
      PubDate: Fri, 31 May 2019 10:31:32 +000
  • First-Year Students’ EFL Reading Difficulties at a Greek Merchant Marine
           Academy: An Activity Theory Perspective

    • Abstract: This paper explores how the transition from secondary to tertiary education influences Greek marine engineering students’ EFL reading behaviors and strategies from an activity-theory perspective. Data were gathered through individual semi-structured interviews with four first-year students who struggled with reading texts in English. Findings suggest that these students experience difficulties in reading lengthy discipline-specific texts such as technical manuals due to the fact they still use the same EFL reading strategies and have the same expectations they had before entering tertiary education. From an activity theory perspective, these students’ difficulties are associated with two distinct EFL reading activity systems which have diverse goals, tools, values, and division of labour. The first system is placed within the wider Greek foreign language education context these students belonged in high school. The second, involves the system that emerged after they entered the Merchant Marine Academy as tertiary education students. These two EFL reading systems clash and create obstacles in their discipline-specific reading which in turn slows down their disciplinary socialization in the marine engineering community.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 May 2019 10:22:40 +000
  • Stylistic Analysis of Robert Frost’s Poem “Stopping by Woods
           on a Snowy Evening”

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the style of Robert Frost’s poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”. A lot of work has been done on this poem in the domain of literary criticism but very little or almost no comprehensive research has been conducted yet, to find out the stylistic features. So, the present study focuses on the use of stylistic devices. Each level has been studied deeply and comprehensively, by looking at the choice of language at phonetic, phonological, graphitic, semantic and grammatical levels. It has been concluded that Frost used a number of stylistic devices including cacophony, alliteration, assonance, tone modulation, denotation, connotation, metaphor, personification, symbolism, and imagery to highlight the idea of dismay and death. The repetition of certain words and choice of mental process verbs like think, see, know, and watch leave a significant effect on the mind of readers. It has also been found that, Frost tried to show the responsibilities and duties of human on this earth, which everyone has to perform. Furthermore, he portrayed the short life span of human to perform all these duties, which finally result in state of depression and anxiety. So, the present study is significant as it will help the reader to understand the author’s point of view stylistically on linguistic basis rather in the domain of literary criticism.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 May 2019 06:35:33 +000
  • Deconstructing the Discursive Construction of Environmental Colonialism in
           Native America: A Study of Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony and Almanac of
           the Dead

    • Abstract: This paper deconstructs the Europeans’ environmental colonialism in Native America and, in that, elucidates that the rhetorical tactics and fundamental motivations, which are employed to ‘other’ people, are essentially the same as those used to ‘other’ environment and nature with all of its ecological subjects. A qualitative content analysis, the study investigates this notion in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony and Almanac of the Dead in the light of the joint critique of biocolonization and critical discourse analysis. Linguistically, it applies Fairclough’s approach of critical discourse analysis focusing on three scenarios of discourse: an acceptance of difference, an accentuation of difference, and an attempt to resolve difference. Through this critique of power, hegemony and identity, the research highlights the Natives’ objectification and representation by the white colonizer and the subsequent resistance by the Natives. The analysis reveals how the process of environmental colonialism, specifically biopiracy and biocolonization, is naturalized by the colonizer through discourse structure. Additionally, it deconstructs this discourse structure to attempt to resolve the difference exploited by the colonizer to exercise their colonial practice over the natives and their environment. Hence, the study discursively adds to the existing solutions to combat the environmental colonialism.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 May 2019 06:33:37 +000
  • Analysis of Lecxico-Semantic Relations of Punjabi Shahmukhi Nouns: A
           Corpus Based Study

    • Abstract: The current study is an effort in the development of Lecxico-semantic relations among Punjabi Shahmukhi nouns. Semantic relations are those nets, which are found among nouns on the bases of word meanings. Development of semantic nets is taken as a key part while developing WordNet of any language. The WordNet of Punjabi Shahmukhi is not developed yet. The digital exposure and progress of Punjabi Shahmukhi is very slow in comparison to other languages of the world. The present study explores the kind of semantic relations found among the nouns of Punjabi Shahmukhi. WordNet organizes words on the basis of word meanings rather than word forms. WordNet of English includes four open class categories including; nouns, verbs, adverbs and adjectives, but present study is limited to the analysis of nouns. A corpus of 2 million words of Punjabi Shahmukhi was taken from different sources. Then, it was POS tagged and a list of 846 nouns was generated. Then, each noun was analyzed individually to develop its Lecxico-semantic relations including: synonymy, antonymy, meronyms, holonymy, hyponymy, hypernymy, singular, plural, masculine, feminine and HAS a part. The present research is significant and useful in the development of WordNet for Punjabi Shahmukhi. With the development of WordNet, it will be possible to run digital applications in Punjabi Shahmukhi including: machine translation, information retrieval, querying archive and report generation to automatic speech recognition, data mining, read aloud, robotics and many more. On the other hand, WordNet will help to maintain an international status for Punjabi Shahmukhi.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 May 2019 06:31:27 +000
  • Using an Estimate of Language Ability for Making Pass-or-Fail Decisions at
           an Intensive English Program in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: The pass-or-fail decisions at an intensive English program in Saudi Arabia are often based on assumptions as to whether the learner has passed in all language skills. For instance; if a learner fails in one skill, he is treated as if he failed in all skills. Scores that sum up skill scores or average them out are marginalized in the making of a pass-or-fail decision. Learners who fail in one or two skills, usually have to repeat the whole course of study at the levels they were attending. Hence, the current study aims to prove the adequacy of reporting total average scores along with individual skill scores and using them to decide whether a learner should pass or fail. It employed score data from 644 learners’ score reports at an intensive English program in Saudi Arabia. The results of factor analysis, linear regression, and correlation tests revealed that a total average score could serve both as an accurate estimate of language ability and as a basis on which a pass-or-fail decision could best be made. The study report concludes with practical implications that can go hand in hand with the implementation of such a research finding.  
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 14:20:57 +000
  • Bilingualism as the Medium of Educational Instruction: An Exploratory
           Study of Student and Teachers’ Views in Lebanon

    • Abstract: Bilingualism as the medium of educational instruction in institutions has led to much controversy. The challenge, however, for policy makers is to address the issue of what languages are to be the medium of instruction and the place of the home and minority languages in EFL contexts as English becomes the lingua franca worldwide.  Further, research has shown that bilingual students when compared to monolingual students perform better in academic institutions as they have developed higher cognitive skills required for learning. Although bilingualism as the medium of instruction has been researched and has become more common in institutions worldwide, it is under researched in L1 Arabic contexts especially in the Lebanese multilingual/cultural context from the student and teachers’ point of view. This paper reports on an exploratory survey study of student and teachers’ preferences in one English medium institution in Lebanon as to what language(s) they prefer to study in at both the pre and university levels. Main findings indicate that both students and teachers show a high preference for bilingualism as the medium of instruction at both the pre and university levels with English the priority medium.  Implications and recommendations for future research are made.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 14:18:24 +000
  • Introducing and Testing a Measurement Tool for English Language
           Proficiency: Aisha’s Tool

    • Abstract: The IELTS English proficiency tests are discussed as being highly effective in determining students’ level of proficiency in the language. However, the study points out that the processes involved in the administration of the tests along with the associated cost make affect the effectiveness of its use in the assessment of learners. A Sentence Pattern test is offered as an alternative with 97 participants taking part in the assessment to test its effectiveness. Each of the non-native study participants is subjected to both the SP test and the IELTS test for the establishment of the correlation in the results posted for the two tests. The findings demonstrate that the students’ performance in the IELTS test correlated with their corresponding SP test results. High performing students in the IELTS test also posted high scores in their SP test. As demonstrated in the study, the correlation in the results illustrates the effectiveness of the SP test as an alternative for the IELTS tests in proving English language proficiency.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 13:55:33 +000
  • Cognitive and Discoursive Features of Speech Etiquette in Corporate

    • Abstract: Today, the cultural, community-driven and individual-specific facets of speech etiquette are discussed in terms of the functional aspects manifested in various types of communication, including corporate interaction. This article analyzes the main cognitive and discoursive characteristics of the British and American speech etiquette from the perspective of cultural, social and role stereotypes, gives a characteristic of the content structure of speech behavior in corporate communication in three main areas—information, evaluation, motivation—and identifies ways to form these values. In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks are to be solved: (1) to determine the functions of speech formulas and their influence on the speech etiquette of British and American businesspeople, and (2) to identify the most outstanding characteristics in the use of formulas of agreement or disagreement in British and American speech etiquette. The article reveals the conditionality of the choice of speech etiquette formulas in the socio-cultural aspect and argues that speech etiquette in corporate communication is characterized by specialized functions and their clear implementation, which is the key to successful communication. The authors conclude that the change of the communicative setting entails the transformation of the register, therefore, the use of other formulas of speech etiquette. Consequently, the transition from formality to individualization of formulas has appeared in the use of formulas of agreement or disagreement in speech etiquette. So, business partners choose formulas based on the appropriateness and acceptability of use in the current setting with a specific interlocutor.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 12:05:45 +000
  • Environmental Discourse: A Comparative Ecocritical Study of Pakistani and
           American Fiction in English

    • Abstract: This article is an overview of how language communicates and construes humanity’s relationship to the environment in different cultural contexts. With reference to Moth Smoke (2012), Trespassing (2005), White Noise (1999) and A Thousand Acres (1991) the study explores particularities of American and Pakistani environmental discourse. Informed by interdisciplinary approaches like ecocriticism and toxic discourse the analysis seeks to demonstrate writers’ engagement with issues and concerns on environmental degradation. The purpose of the study is to explore the plurality of perspectives that are required to address the environmental contamination taking place globally. To understand the fundamental premise of how different cultures view and frame ecological crisis especially in the form of toxicity, pollution and contamination, this article briefly examines the selected Pakistani and American writers’ representation of their society’s ecological relationship with the living and non-living world recognising the complex altering relationship between the environment and the social sphere.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 May 2019 12:17:44 +000
  • Yemeni EFL Learners’ Identity Conflicts: An Exploratory Case Study

    • Abstract: The importance of the concept of “identity” in the context of language learning is unassailable. Stemming from this premise, the current study is intended to explore the identity conflicts of a group of Yemeni learners who were studying English, as well as the techniques and strategies used to mitigate and/or lessen the conflicts between their actual identity and the identity associated with the target language, i.e., English. This research project used a qualitative exploratory case study research design with a sample of 20 students who were requested to write their journal diaries. Following that, semi-structured interviews were conducted using the double-sampling technique to select 10 of the previously sampled students who were proven to have written the most stimulating and intriguing journal entries. From the results of the study, tangible identity conflicts between the Yemeni culture and society at large and the implied behaviors and conventions accompanying the intensive study of the English language became apparent. The students exhibit a high level of motivation and they also exert their efforts using different techniques and strategies to excel at the learning and/or acquisition of the speaking skill of the English language. These conflicts may be consciously or subconsciously realized by the language learners, but what has been proven is that their attitudes, motivation and general inclinations towards the goal of speaking with a native or a native-like accent are unquestionably genuine. Lastly, the study suggested or recommended a revamp of the current textbooks giving teachers more training sessions in order to improve their individual repertoire, as well as a higher degree of awareness upon the part of the Yemeni society at large that these conflicts can interfere with the strong motivations, both aspirational and actual, to achieve the learning outcomes of the nation’s most promising future leaders and pioneers.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 May 2019 12:14:26 +000
  • College ESL Learners’ Politeness in Using Linguistic Taboos and
           Euphemisms: Looking Through the Socio-Pragmatic Lens

    • Abstract: Many researches have delved into politeness theory, but few have studied how politeness theory operates within the context of college ESL learners through the use of linguistic taboos and euphemisms. This paper determines the extent of students’ use of and their perceptions about linguistic taboos and euphemisms. It has made use of the sequential-explanatory design. Participants were 313 college ESL learners in a premier state university. Data were gathered by using a questionnaire, focus-group discussion technique, and actual recorded conversations of the informants. In terms of politeness, ESL learners always strive to keep their “positive face” intact. Students perceive that taboo words are bad, masculine, and immoral. Moreover, this study posits that, sometimes, uttering linguistic taboos becomes a way by which people can establish closeness with others. Hence, taboo words may be uttered once in a while depending on the context and setting, such as when interlocutors are friends or have established a short social distance.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 May 2019 04:48:30 +000
  • Use of Discourse Analysis in Various Disciplines

    • Abstract: The language plays an important role in the exchange of information and communication of knowledge of society, history, culture, traditions, and customs. Linguists analyse various uses of language to determine its impact and role in various domains of society such as media, politics, journalism, reporting, advertisement, war, criticism, and other such areas. Discourse analysis is associated with the use of language in various forms of communication such as written, spoken or signs of language. It helps in analysing how people say things, its impact on the audience, and how it affects the society, or the way society influences language/communication. This study aims to provide a systemic review of literature from various domains to determine how previous researchers explored discourse and language use in the society. The result reveals a strong connection between discourse analysis and language that reflect social practices and issues.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 07:12:58 +000
  • Impact of Use of Language on Audience’s Perception: A Qualitative
           Analysis of Speeches by Hillary Clinton

    • Abstract: Discourse is a fundamental factor to communicate and to identify a language or use of language. Therefore, the language used in political discourse is important for the candidates to persuade the voters. In the light of Hillary Clinton’s political discourses, interviews and debates, the present study aims to identify the impact of her language on audience’s perception. A total of Clinton’s 29 debates and 3 interviews have been extracted from YouTube, which were transcribed in the written text. The findings of the study revealed that pronouns, metaphors, and rhetoric aspects in the speeches fulfil the strategic communicative functions. This allows the study to present a political agenda, identify the important issues, and highlight her political actions. The media portrayal of Clinton’s leadership skills and language used in political speeches had a great impact on the voters. Therefore, more research should be conducted to recognize what voters want from a female candidate as a president.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 07:11:19 +000
  • Does English Help You Accomplish More' Exploring the Instrumentality
           of English Learning in East and Southeast Asia

    • Abstract: This study empirically investigates the relationship between English proficiency and personal accomplishment in East and Southeast Asia. With the database of AsiaBarometer Survey 2006 and 2007, 15082 questionnaire respondents from China, Hong Kong of China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan of China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines and Thailand formed the sample. We present the following findings with correlation and regression analysis: a) English proficiency positively influences personal accomplishment; b) the focal relationship is partly mediated by income, career and quality of life; and c) the focal relationship is positively moderated by international involvement. Such findings disclose and confirm the instrumentality of English learning in globalization. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 07:09:48 +000
  • Intertextuality as a Catalyst for Ideology Formation: A Study of Media
           Discourse Dynamics

    • Abstract: This article investigates how intertextuality in media discourse works as an ideological catalyst. It explores how discursivity and intertextuality in media discourse permeate all levels of society and shape the social and political ideologies of the readers. Media discourse producers are both politicians and reporters. The article investigates how they use language as a manipulating tool. The article also discovers how intertextuality is created in media discourse by clipping specific linguistic elements of different discourses and then forging them together for effect. Four Pakistani English daily newspapers have been analyzed which were selected through non-probability sampling method. The study is qualitative in nature and spreads over six months that is from March 2013 to August 2013. The tenets of critical discourse analysis (CDA) were employed as the main research tool. For understanding the linguistic aspects, Fairclough’s (1995) idea of texts and genres was used and for interpreting the contextual use of language, Halliday’s ideas of field, tenor and mode were incorporated. The analyses revealed how politicians as well as reporters instill tacit ideas into the minds of their addressees which blur and downplay their thinking pattern and entice them to think and behave the way these discourse producers want them to.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 06:57:35 +000
  • A Correlational Study Between Some Motivational Constructs and EFL Writing
           Performance in a Blended Learning Environment

    • Abstract: The present study examined the correlation between some motivational constructs and writing performance of EFL university students. Participants were female students enrolled in an English language writing course at Zulfi College of Education. Participants studied writing essays in a blended learning environment i.e., in regular classroom lectures and online via Desire2Learn (D2L) learning tools. Participants’ writing motivation was measured by a Motivational Writing Questionnaire (MWQ). Their writing performance was assessed by an EFL Writing Performance Test (WPT). For analyzing data, SPSS was used. A Pearson correlation analysis was calculated to explore the correlation between four writing motivational constructs: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and effort, and writing performance. Findings indicated a significant and positive correlation between writing motivational constructs and writing performance in a blended learning environment.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 06:55:37 +000
  • Revisiting the Effects of Blog-Aided Language Learning on EFL Student
           Writers: A Corpus Approach

    • Abstract: Taking a corpus approach, this study analyzed writing samples collected from student bloggers and non-blogging students. The aim was to determine whether the two groups of students wrote with different linguistic features (tokens, types, token-type ratio, parts of speech, and lexical features). Any similarities and differences found in the comparison between the writing samples would have implications for the effects of the blogging approach on student writers. The results show that the non-blogging student writers wrote more (tokens, types) than the student bloggers did; there were also differences between the two groups of students writing in terms of POS tags in their writing and the results of keyword analysis. However, a closer look at the differences found here suggests no particularly significant variations between the textual information created by the two groups of students. Nevertheless, taken together, the results tend to suggest that classroom blogging had a relatively weaker effect than the conventional teaching approach on Taiwanese EFL student writers.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 06:52:59 +000
  • English Language Speaking Skill Issues in an EMP Context: Causes and

    • Abstract: A good start in researching on language teaching and learning issues is to first analyse target learners’ actual performance and their needs. This mixed-methods 2-cycle study is aimed to analyse medical-college students’ language needs through two instruments—a self-rated report and a guided focus group. Out of the main four language skills (speaking, reading, listening, and writing), Cycle 1 aimed at exploring the most trouble-provoking skill for EMP students through a 7-item rating report with a sample of 45 participants. Based on the results of Cycle 1 which labelled speaking as the most problematic language skill for the target learners, Cycle 2 proceeded with 9 interviewees to narrow the study focus on the factors contributing to the inefficiency of speaking skills among EMP learners, discussing solutions from the learners’ perspectives. Pedagogically, this research helps practitioners innovate and integrate new techniques in language teaching and learning to overcome the issue of students’ speaking performance that has been deemed below expectations.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Apr 2019 03:29:52 +000
  • An Investigation of Anxiety Factors During English Oral Presentation
           Skills of Engineering Undergraduates in Pakistan

    • Abstract: This study aims to investigate the factors affecting oral presentation skills of undergraduate-learners of English that influence their academic performance which potentially can affect professional career. The study has used quantitative instrument as questionnaire partially adopted from McCroskey (1982) for data collection among 100 undergraduate-participants on factors affecting oral communication skills at one Public Sector University. Purposive sampling method was used since participants were selected on specific criteria of only first year engineering undergraduates. The data were analysed through SPSS, v.20 for obtaining percentage, mean, median, standard deviation, and standard error of mean to be measured. The findings revealed that oral presentation skills as the most problematic for engineering undergraduates. The results also revealed that the several factors affected engineering undergraduates’ oral presentations.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Apr 2019 12:22:21 +000
  • Depictives: An LFG Approach

    • Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to discuss two issues in analyzing depictive constructions. The first issue is related to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), where there is an overlap between depictives and adverbs. This paper distinguishes between depictives in MSA, where the word in accusative case is adjective and adverbs, where the word in accusative case is a verbal noun. The second issue that is discussed in this paper is the syntactic analysis of depictives. In this regard, we contribute a new analysis within the Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) framework, in which depictives are analyzed as single adjuncts that modify participants in the main predicate in the same way as adjectives, when they function as modifiers, do.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Apr 2019 12:18:35 +000
  • The Discourse Analysis of Psychological Factors Influencing Interest
           Contention in Business Dispute Settlement: A Perspective of Discourse
           Information Theory

    • Abstract: Interest contention which constitutes the kernel of business dispute settlement is one of the major issues to explore in the studies of business dispute and it structures the whole process of business dispute settlement from beginning to end. Under the influence of various factors, litigants with differing interest orientations and interest demands could make good use of a number of information resources for the purpose of communicating, defending and fighting for the interests of their own. The psychological factors in the context influence the distribution of discourse information resources in the interest contention in business dispute settlement. In view of this, the present study focuses on the discourse analysis of psychological factors influencing the interest contention in business dispute settlement at the stage of litigation from the perspective of Discourse Information Theory (DIT) (Du, 2007, 2013, 2015). It can be found that participants can utilize the psychological factors such as the intentions, consensus changes, and information sharing categories to affect interest contention in business dispute settlement.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Apr 2019 12:14:00 +000
  • Investigating the Social Functions of Code-Switching in Amarbail by Umera

    • Abstract: The present study attempts to investigate the social functions performed by English code-switching in an Urdu novel, Amarbail, written by Umera Ahmad. The focus of the study is to examine how the societal norms and patterns of a contextual society are externalized in the selected novel through code-switching phenomenon. The study has a pragmatic stylistic focus and qualitative method has been utilized to describe the social functions of code-switching in the selected novel. The data have been selected by employing handpick non-random sampling and insights have been taken mainly from Myers-Scotton, and Albakray and Hancock for the analysis of data. The results reveal that the code-switching is a deliberate literary device exploited by the author to show the sociolinguistic norms of the target society. The main social functions performed by English code-switching in Amarbail are i) depiction of power relations, ii) construction of fluid identities, iii) acculturation and iv) maintaining class difference. The study concludes that code-switching in a literary text is a multipurpose phenomenon which not only symbolizes the societal norms of its contextual society but also displays the writer’s artistic and creative aptitude. It is hoped that the bilingual writers and researchers would find results of this analysis opportune and beneficial.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Apr 2019 12:12:53 +000
  • The Impact of Pragmatic Markers Acquisition and Phonological Awareness on
           Word Choice in Translating Literary Texts from Arabic into English

    • Abstract: Pragmatic markers, either primary or secondary, contribute to the specificity of languages and are sensitive on being translated. This study traces the use of well, the commonest pragmatic marker in the English discourse, in a corpus of translated Arabic novels. The study, too, addresses the influence of the translators’ phonological awareness on their word choices, in the same corpus. Adjacent consonants, consonant-starting and quarter-syllabic words are studied in four groups: free writing of native authors as a control group (G1), literary translations by native English translators (G2), literary English translations by Arabic translators (G3) as well as literary English translations by joint effort (native-speaking and non-native-speaking translators) [G4]. The findings are statistically compared using one-way ANOVA test. Results show a statistically significant difference in the use of the pragmatic marker well and in the use of the three phonological patterns among the four groups. The findings are interpreted and implications are offered for the pragmatic gap and linguistic competence between native-speaking and non-native-speaking translators.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Apr 2019 06:44:47 +000
  • A Corpus-Based Analysis of Business Contract English Registers

    • Abstract: In trades between different countries, business English is the basic step and business contract is the guarantee. In this special transaction context, the wording of business contract English is fair and rigorous; the structure of it is clear; and the style of it is solemn. Based on the register theory in systemic functional linguistics, this paper analyzes the lexical, syntactic and textual rhetorical features of contract English. Some of the data are from business English Corpus established by University of International Business and Economics. It aims to promote the writing of business contract English.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:35:55 +000
  • Humor in TV Talk Shows

    • Abstract: Humor is considered a common element of human interaction. It is sometimes used to enhance the utterances so as to make them more comfortable. That is why it has been given a considerable attention by many scholars from different fields of knowledge such as linguistics, psychology and sociology. In linguistics, many scholars have tried to define humor and to show its functions and the factors that enable the humor act to be adequate and interesting. This led many theories and approaches to be formulated in order to study humor from different perspectives among which the incongruity theory by Kant (1790) and the relief theory by Moreal (1983). In addition, the non-observance of Grice’s conversational maxims (1975) can also be used to create humor. Accordingly, this study aims at analyzing humor as a strategic means by which participants achieve their goals in interpersonal interaction, in particular in TV Shows, namely, Oprah Winfrey Show and Piers Morgan Show. The study also aims at investigating the way by which participants shift the topic of interaction whenever they try to avoid a certain topic by shifting to a humorous style. It is concluded that there are many factors that affect humor in TV talk shows including the personality of the host and his/her interviewees, the topic of interaction and the way through which a character deals with a certain topic.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:32:34 +000
  • Dialogical Dynamics and Subversions of Political and Ideological
           Boundaries in Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah

    • Abstract: This article examines the subtle allegorical political nuances and implications in Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah (1987). The novel foregrounds and grapples with the problematics of voice, representation, and history where the more inclusive voice appears to be, the more suppressive and exclusive of other voices it is. Hence, the text enacts a journey toward a realm that rises above gender and class-based rigidities, fusing facets of Nigerian sociopolitical and environmental crises (in the past and present). The novel takes on multiple narratives that engender continuation and sharing vis-à-vis historical realities of political cleansing and ideologies and systems of exclusion. Counteracting condescendingly patronizing doctrines and reductive dichotomies, dialogism and ecofeminism pay equal attention to all parties and reject polarizations and divisions. A combination of these approaches precludes tantalization, and it also humanizes ecofeminism and gives it a wider scope. In principle, combined, these approaches guard against any rejectionist or exclusionary superstructures they seek to deconstruct. Ecofeminism, much like Bakhtinian dialogism in its quest for justice, hinges environmental degradation to gender-based, class-based, racist, and imperial variables, and it disrupts these ideologies and systems of oppression in order to assuage human and nonhuman conditions.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:31:21 +000
  • A Morpho-Syntactic Study of Contemporary Science Fiction Short Stories

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study is to research two morphological processes: acronym and compounding (phrasal compounds/circumlocution) and one syntactic category which are ‘existential sentences’ in science fiction short stories. The present paper identifies different types and rates of existential sentences. In this respect, ‘bare existential and locative’ read the high percentages and may be contrasted with other classifications of English existential sentences which have a verb other than ‘be’ and a definite expression. ‘Phrasal compounds’ vary in rates as they constitute notable percentage for those that involve ‘lexical means and lexical relations’ followed by ‘prepositional compounds’, ‘conjunctional compounds’, and those involve ‘a noun, pronoun, and an adjective’. Furthermore, ‘phrasal compounds’ containing a verb’ having the value of zero. Analysis of data has acknowledged that ‘atomic’ acronym constitutes the high percentage than ‘molecular’ and this explains the abundance of the unpronounceable acronym in science fiction. Generally, existential sentences, existential sentences may give the entire clause a fresh status.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:29:55 +000
  • The Metaphorical Use of Collocations: A Corpus-Based Study

    • Abstract: The meanings of collocations, which have been accepted as an abstraction at the syntagmatic level, may have been defined by the way human beings conceptualize the world. The patterns in the use of the English word “contain” are summarized using the British National Corpus and an attempt is made to use conceptual metaphors to interpret how these patterns came into being and how they could have derived from human beings’ earliest bodily experience in the physical world. Such insight into English collocations may help improve the teaching of collocations to EFL learners.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:28:29 +000
  • Politeness Strategies in Directive Speech Acts in Local Indonesian
           Parliament Assembly Proceedings

    • Abstract: This study reports on politeness in directive speech acts appearing within the proceedings of the local parliament for Sukoharjo, Indonesia. The aim is to explain the politeness strategies used to convey intended persuasive forces during parliamentary discourses. Drawing upon the pragmatic qualitative approach, this study examined 18 parliamentarians and data on their previous utterances’ form, function, meaning, and context in the proceedings. Using data collected through observation, records, and documentation, it looks at how the politicians acted. The results show that directive acts represent the main performance, with 154 tokens of illocution and 44 directive speech acts for politeness. Politeness strategies to perform directive speech acts are colored with on record, positive politeness, and aversion-to-acting negative politeness. The characters for positive politeness include inviting-gentle-direct, repressing-gentle-direct, suggesting-gentle-indirect, repressing-gentle-indirect, gentle-indirect, and respecting direct. This study implies pragmatic analysis in a different setting where an emphasized degree of formality is required. Suggestions are made to compare or contrast with utterances in less formal interactions, such as in the negotiations between a buyer and seller, and in religious circumstances like sermons in a mosque, church, or colloquial proceedings.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:25:43 +000
  • Intertextuality Between T. S Eliot and Al Sayyab’s Poetry

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to shed light on ‘intertextuality’ as a cross cultural technique between modern Arabic and English poetry with reference to T. S Eliot and Al Sayyab. It aims to uncover the intertextual aspects of ‘allusion’, ‘symbols and myths’, ‘irony’, ‘the objective equivalent’, ‘conceptual metaphor’ and ‘impersonality’ between Eliot and Al Sayyab and the impact of Eliot’s thoughts, themes, expressions and style on Al Sayyab’s. However, the study reveals that the strategy of intertextuality takes a one-way direction, i.e., from Eliot to Al Sayyab, and Eliot’s fingerprints are quite manifest in Al Sayyab’s poetry. Moreover, although some of Eliot’s key expressions, ideas, symbols, myths and themes are borrowed by Al Sayyab, he could professionally use intertextuality and maintain his illustrious style.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:23:38 +000
  • Construction of the Belt and Road Initiative in Chinese and American
           Media: A Critical Discourse Analysis Based on Self-Built Corpora

    • Abstract: The Belt and Road Initiative reflects China’s ascendance in the world arena. Since its inception, this initiative has received great attention from Chinese and American media. This study applies the critical discourse analysis (CDA) method to investigate the mainstream media construction of the Belt and Road Initiative. Based on the “Lexis Advance” database, a sample of news reports dated between January, 2017 and November, 2018 were selected to build two corpora of China Daily (368 reports with 232 550 words) and The New York Times (154 reports with 106 401 words). Assisted by the two self-built corpora and the corpus software AntConc 3.2.4, the study probes into the similarities and differences between Chinese and American reports in terms of high-frequency words, collocation networks, concordance lines and concordance plots. The findings are (1) both the Chinese and American media pay great attention to the contribution of this initiative to the world economy. (2) Chinese media emphasize the concrete measures of this initiative, while American media focus on its political influence. (3) Chinese media use explicit positive vocabulary to appraise the achievement of this initiative, while American media use explicit negative vocabulary to express Trump administration’s skepticism about this initiative. (4) American government’s attitudes towards this initiative have gradually changed since Trump came to power. Though negative comments still exist, the positive voice has increased.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:21:04 +000
  • American Dream or Avaratia: Critical Circumspectis of American Dream
           Through Ages

    • Abstract: This paper is an attempt to apply Jacques Derrida’s theory of Deconstruction to American Dream and its treatment in the language of Edward Albee’s play American Dream and other American Playwrights. Different deconstructive terms have been applied to understand and analyze the language of Albee’s The American Dream. Deconstructive terms; Différance, Erasure and Aporia have been applied to the language used by Albee to analyze the concept of American dream and its relation to its context of old American Dream as envisaged by the founding fathers and the new American Dream as defined by James Truslow Adams. These deconstructive terms will help readers to understand the themes and language of postmodern and post war American drama in general and those of Albee’s in particular. This, in turn, makes the reader realize that American dream as depicted in modern American Playwrights is materialistic, illogical, futile and bizarre: Albee’s play reflects modern American society and its sensibility. Language of modern is simple yet it communicates multi-faceted interpretations and those interpretations have been explored in the light of all these deconstructive terms. The basic purpose of involving these deconstructive terms in analyzing the language of Albee’s The American Dream and the other major postmodern American plays is not only to understand the mutability and fluidity in the diction but also to expose absurdity and apparent meaninglessness in it.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:19:05 +000
  • Keywords in Written Academic Legal Texts: A Corpus-Derived List

    • Abstract: This study presents the Written Academic Legal Vocabulary (WALV), a discipline-specific genre-focused list of keywords in a corpus of academic legal texts. To generate this list, a purpose-customized corpus of full-length academic texts is created and analyzed with the help of corpus-based analytical tools. Items on the list are chosen based on criteria such as frequency of occurrence, range and keyness. The keywords recur more frequently in a specialized corpus than in a general reference corpus, a finding that attests to the pedagogical utility of these expressions as possible focus of explicit instruction. The final list consists of 298 headwords and 219 families (lemmas). Findings also indicate that the list includes words belonging to different grammatical types, the most common of which are nouns. The list also incorporates a large number of abbreviations, shortenings and acronyms.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:17:39 +000
  • The Role of an Instructor’s Asynchronous Feedback in Promoting
           Students’ Interaction and Text Revisions

    • Abstract: This study focused on teacher asynchronous feedback and how it engaged 15 English as Foreign language (EFL) learners in revising their writing. The data was collected from (1) the teacher’s feedback, (2) students’ responses and, (3) students’ drafts of writing. The data analysis showed that the teacher provided a number of 832 items of feedback which were categorized into “question” as the most dominating category, followed by “statement”, “suggestion”, “directive” and “correction”. Three hundred and eighty (380;46%) of the feedback items were direct, while 452 (54%) were indirect. The feedback focused on content, organization, vocabulary, grammar, mechanics and more general/not specific comments. Teacher’s feedback (1) engaged the learners in text revisions (overall=1102 comments), (2) stimulated their responses (overall=1032 comments) and (3) extended their online asynchronous interactions. Of the total amount of text revisions (1102), 362 (33%) were made based on the teacher’s direct feedback, and 427 (38%) of them were based on the teacher’s indirect feedback, while 313 (29%) were based on peers’ and self-corrections. The learners revised their writing in terms of content, organization, vocabulary, grammar and mechanics. The findings have implications for teacher interactive feedback practices in writing and the role of asynchronous tools in facilitating such practices.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:16:17 +000
  • A Corpus-Based Study of Hillary Clinton’s and Donald Trump’s
           Linguistic Styles

    • Abstract: Since the 2016 U.S. presidential election, research on Hillary Clinton’s and Donald Trump’s linguistic styles has witnessed an exponential increase, with a lopsided focus on Trump in particular. This study compared Clinton’s and Trumps’ campaign speeches during the general election using a corpus-based approach. Discourse analysis of the corpora was conducted using the textual analysis software AntConc 3.2.4. The results showed that Clinton used a more diverse vocabulary compared with Trump, and that both candidates stuck to their core campaign messages in their speeches. Three major differences between Clinton’s and Trump’s linguistic styles were identified: 1) Clinton was inclined towards rational discussions of public policy, while Trump was adept at appealing to voters’ emotions; 2) Clinton was more positive and focused on her vision of the future, while Trump was more negative and fixated at depicting a dystopian reality; 3) Clinton aimed to find commonalities with the American people, while Trump aimed to highlight differences between himself and his opponents. By putting Clinton’s rhetoric on a par with Trump’s, this study highlighted their linguistic style differences as part of their grand campaign strategy, which could contribute to current understanding of the two candidates’ rhetorical preferences, political beliefs and strategies in their 2016 campaigns.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:14:48 +000
  • Language Blogging Community: Fostering the Learning Attitudes and Writing
           Skills of EFL Students

    • Abstract: This paper empirically studies a group of first-year EFL college students in a blog-supported composition class in Taiwan. To improve their writing skills, the participants kept journal blogs within a language blogging community (LBC) where users could receive free help (e.g., corrections/comments) from native speakers regarding entries written in a second/foreign language (in this case, English). Students’ writing skills and learning attitudes (anxiety about writing) were assessed (by multifaceted examination) before and after the classes. The results show that over the sessions the participants formed active blogging patterns and expressed themselves better, using more linguistic information. These encouraging signs echoed the students’ improved compositional skills and reduced writing anxiety. The pedagogical suitability of blogging in EFL writing classes is discussed and topics are suggested for future studies.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 13:13:05 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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