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Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1858-4942 - ISSN (Online) 2338-3119
Published by Diponegoro University Homepage  [18 journals]
  • The effect of whey protein on malondialdehyde, aerobic capacity, and leg
           muscle explosive power in basketball athletes

    • Authors: Novia Arista, M Zen Rahfiludin, Ali Rosidi
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Background: High-physical activity, including aerobic capacity and leg muscle explosive power, can cause stress oxidative and decrease the performance of athletes. Whey protein contains essential amino acids that were beneficial to decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels.
      Objective: To analyze the effect of whey protein on MDA level, aerobic capacity, and leg muscle explosive power in basketball athletes.
      Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trial using pre- and post-test design was conducted on 12 male athletes aged 16-18 years at PPLOP Central Java Basketball Club. The treatment group received 30 grams of whey protein, and the control group received 30 grams of chocolate powder as a placebo for 28 days. MDA levels were measured through Elisa methods. Aerobic capacity was measured by 20 meters sprint. Leg muscle explosive power was measured by vertical jump. Data were analyzed by an independent t-test.
      Results: The mean MDA levels before intervention in the whey protein group were 182.36 (±59.05), and the mean after the intervention was 171.83 (±5.46). The mean before the aerobic intervention capacity was 36.95 (±5.84), and the mean after the intervention was 49.75 (±3.53). The mean leg muscle explosive was 83.50 (±21.58), and the mean after the intervention was 87.33 (±16.68). There were no effect of whey protein on MDA levels (p>0,05), aerobic capacity (p>0,05) and leg muscle explosive power (p>0,05).
      Conclusion: Whey protein for 28 days had no effect on MDA levels, aerobic capacity, and leg muscle explosive power
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.1-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Red dragon fruit juice in reducing ros levels and insulin resistance In
           rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus model

    • Authors: Mahendri Deayu Putri, Budiyanti Wiboworini, Paramasari Dirgahayu
      Pages: 6 - 14
      Abstract: Background: The peel of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) had been proven to have a total polyphenol content and total flavonoids 2 to 3 times more than its flesh. These components could reduce oxidative stress and maintain the function of pancreatic beta cells, which could affect blood sugar levels.
      Objectives: This study aimed to test the red dragon fruit juice using peel and flesh to reduce oxidative stress and insulin resistance in T2DM model rats.
      Materials and Methods: This study was a true experimental study with a randomized controlled trial, with a Matching Pretest Post-test Control Group Design. We used 21 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus) Wistar strain which was divided into three groups: (P1) negative control group (induced Streptozotocin + Nicotinamide induction), (P2) positive control group (given Streptozotocin + Nicotinamide and given Metformin HCl induction 0,9 mg/kg BW, and (P3) Red Dragon fruit group (induced Streptozotocin + Nicotinamide and given Red Dragon Fruit juice 3.6 ml / 200 g BW / day given for 14 days. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test, paired t-test, and Post Hoc.
      Results: After 14 days of intervention, the average HOMA-IR levels were as follows: negative control group (Mean=8.32; SD=0.26), positive group (Mean 4.89; SD=0.29), and the Red Dragon Fruit intervention group (Mean=4.65; SD=0.30). The average MDA levels were as follows: control group (Mean = 9.08; SD = 0.68), positive group (Mean=3.34;SD=0.22), and the red dragon fruit intervention group (Mean = 3.05; SD = 0.47). Both the Metformin group and the Red Dragon Fruit group had low HOMA-IR and MDA levels compared to the negative control group.
      Conclusions: When administered alone, red dragon fruit and metformin effectively reduced HOMA-IR and MDA levels in rats with type 2 DM. Red dragon fruit can be used as an alternative to metformin because of its effectiveness in reducing plasma HOMA-IR and MDA.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.6-14
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Effectiveness of Parental Assistance in Providing Food on Nutritional
           Intake Among Children with Malnutrition

    • Authors: Nur Chabibah, Milatun Khanifah, Rini Kristiyanti
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Background: Prevalence of stunting continues to affect 21.3% of children aged <5 years worldwide. The problem of malnutrition in children is caused by several factors, such as poor access to nutritious food, recurrent infections, and inadequate practice of offering food and care for mothers and children during the first 1,000 days.
      Objectives: The purpose of the study was to know the effectiveness of feeding parenting style assistance to mothers of toddlers in increasing the nutritional intake of under-nutrition children
      Materials and Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test control group design approach. The population in this study was toddlers with malnutrition (according to weight/height). The sample size for each group was 35 mothers. The sample was divided into two groups. The first group was given parental assistance consisting of nutrition education and food processing guidance for the toddler for 3 months (the intervention group) and the second group was given health education about balanced nutrition for children under five (the control group). Collecting data had used a checklist of identity, nutritional status, and semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, p-value <0.05 for the 95% confidence interval.
      Results: The nutritional intakes of children under five showed a significant difference between the group of mothers under five who were given intensive assistance (the intervention group) and the group that was only given nutrition education for children under five (the control group). The differences in nutritional intakes seen in macronutrients were the difference in calorie intake (p-value: 0.042; CI: 4.005-213.543) and protein intake (p-value: 0.040; CI: 0.197-8.065). The differences in micronutrient intakes were seen in the increase in consumption of vitamin E (p-value: 0.000; CI: 0.446-4.416), sodium (p-value: 0.000; CI: 61.859-193.741), potassium (p-value: 0.005; CI: 70.743-373.102), calcium (p-value: 0.000; CI: 51.851-137.863), and phosphor (p-value: 0.041; CI: 2.133-99.604).
      Conclusion: Food parenting assistance for mothers of toddlers was effective in increasing toddler nutrition
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.15-20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Correlation of dietary intake and physical activity with nutritional
           status, body composition and hand grip strength in elderly

    • Authors: Etisa Adi Murbawani, Hertanto Wahyu Subagio, Niken Puruhita, Enny Probosari, Aryu Candra
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: ABSTRACT               Background: Increased life expectancy has both positive and negative impacts. Elderly group are prone to nutritional issues and body function disorder such as sarcopenia. Factors including dietary intake and physical activity are contributors of sarcopenia.
      Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation of dietary intake and physical activity with nutritional status, body composition and hand grip strength (HGS) in elderly.
      Materials and Methods: The study was held on July-October 2020 at the Panti Wredha Dharma Bakti Surakarta. This was a cross-sectional study of 54 elderly subjects. Subjects were selected by purposive sampling method. The data included height was measured using microtoise, while weight and body composition was measured using Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA). Dietary intake was obtained through comstock observation. Physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Hand grip strength values was measured by hand grip dynamometer. Data normality analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Bivariate test analyzed by Rank Spearman test.
      Results: Energy, carbohydrate and fat intake had no correlation with nutritional status, total body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage and skeletal muscle mass percentage (p value > 0.05), but there was a relationship between energy (p value = 0.33), carbohydrate (p value = 0.016) and fat intake (p value = 0.047) with visceral fat percentage. Physical activity had relation with nutritional status (p = 0.048) but had no relationship with total body fat percentage, visceral fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage and skeletal muscle mass percentage. Protein intake also had no relationship with HGS value (p value> 0.05).
      Conclusions: Dietary intake only correlated with visceral fat percentage, but had no correlation with other body composition parameters. Physical activity correlated with nutritional status, but had no correlation with all of body composition parameters. Protein intake also had no correlation with HGS.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.21-27
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Catfish Oil (Pangasius hypophthalmus) effect to ferritin and sTfR in iron
           deficiency anemia

    • Authors: Hersanti Sulistyaningrum, Fronthea Swastawati, Maria Mexitalia, Etika Ratna Noer
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: Background: Iron deficiency anemia is a micronutrient problem and the prevalence is still high. Catfish oil (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is a natural source of heme iron which can improve body iron levels.
      Objectives: This study was aimed to examine and analyze the effect of catfish oil on ferritin and sTfR levels in male wistar rats with iron deficiency anemia models.
      Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on male wistar rats which were divided into groups C- (standard feed), C+ (standard feed but had the iron removed), X1 (standard feed without iron but was supplemented with catfish oil), X2 (standard feed without iron but was supplemented with ferrous sulfate) for 14 days. Ferritin and sTfR levels were measured before and after intervention using ELISA.
      Results: The study showed an increase ferritin levels in X1 (21.87 ng/ml ±0.76), X2 (24.47 ng/ml ±0.54) and there was no significant difference between the two (p=0.069; p>0.05); a decrease in C- (0.25 ng/ml ±0.43), C+ (0.32 ng/ml ±0.059) (p=0.00; p<0.05). The sTfR levels decreased before and after intervention (p=0.00; p<0.05) in C+ (0.24 μ/mL ±0.99), X1 (60.66 μ/mL ±0.29), X2 (62.10 μ/mL ±0.90) and increased in C- (0.40 μ/mL ±0.97).
      Conclusions: The study indicates ferritin levels increased in the rats receiving catfish oil is not different from the rats that received ferrous sulfate and sTfR levels decreased significantly in wistar rats with iron deficiency anemia receiving catfish oil although the results were not as good as ferrous sulfate supplementation
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.28-35
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Evaluating the food consumption among Indonesian young adults lived in a
           different environment

    • Authors: Rany Adelina, Esti Nurwanti, Rathi Paramastri, Carissa Cerdasari, Jane C J Chao
      Pages: 36 - 44
      Abstract: Background: Indonesian young adults who live abroad usually buy meals from café or catering. These meals tend to be less nutritious, including high fat, low fiber, and high carbohydrate.
      Objective: This study aimed to investigate the pattern of food consumption among young Indonesian adults who lived in a different environment.
      Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out with 497 participants (73 men and 420 women). Data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 78 food groups. In addition, the Mann-Whitney U test was conducted to compare consumption patterns among study participants who lived in a different environment (Malang city, East Java, Indonesia, and Taipei City, Taiwan). Furthermore, the Chi-Square test and Fisher’s exact test analyzed the consumption level by gender.
      Results: Our study indicated no significant differences between food consumption of Indonesian young adults in Malang city, Indonesia, and Taipei City, Taiwan (p=0.623). Meanwhile, beverage (tea) was significantly different between gender in the home country (p=0.005). In contrast, participants who lived abroad showed significantly different consumption levels of fast food (instant noodle) and plant protein source (tofu) across gender (p=0.01 and p=0.02).
      Conclusion: The present study showed that fruits were often changed into juices, especially more frequent in a home country than abroad. Meanwhile, several food items, including beverages (tea), fast food, and plant protein source (tofu), showed significant differences across gender.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.36-44
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Defining food literacy and dietary patterns among senior high school
           students in Malang City, East Java

    • Authors: Ira Dwijayanti, Yi Wen Chien, Ghislain G Poda, Jane C J Chao
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Background: Food literacy is a collection of interrelated knowledge, skills, and behavior required to plan, manage, select, prepare, and eat food for further meeting dietary requirements and determining dietary intake. In Indonesia, 93.6% of all adolescents aged 10 years or over consumed an inadequate amount of fruits and vegetables and more than half often consumed food rich in sugar, fat and salt. Only one-third of students always had breakfast, only 3,81% always brought their own food to school. Adolescence has been considered as a nutritionally critical period of life. Improve the health promotion is important to prevent malnutrition and risk of chronic disease.Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the association of food literacy and dietary patterns among senior high school students in Malang, East Java.Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study determined food literacy level and dietary patterns among senior high school students using a questionnaire as the instrument. This study recruited 464 students aged from 14 to 18 years old. Demographic characteristics of adolescents and their parents, adolescent food literacy, and dietary intake data were self-report collected. The height was measured using stature meter and weight using electronic scale to determine the BMI-for-age. The research was conducted from July to September 2015 in Malang, East Java.Results: Out of 464 adolescents, 59.9% were females, and female adolescents had a better food literacy (P < .001) and higher dietary pattern scores (P < .05). Adolescents whose family had higher income or higher percentage of income spent on food consumed more vegetables (P < .05) and dairy products (P < .05), and had higher dietary pattern scores (P < .05) compared with those whose family had lower income or lower percentage of income spent on food. The perception of food literacy (r = 0.187, P < .001), the behavior of food literacy (r = 0.333, P < .001), and overall food literacy (r = 0.329, P < .001) were positively correlated with dietary pattern scores.Conclusions: Food literacy is positively associated with dietary patterns in adolescents. Nutrition education is suggested to implement as a guide in healthy food choices for adolescent.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.45-53
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Counselor’s Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Infant and Young Child
           Feeding (IYCF) Counselling

    • Authors: Syifa Fakhomah Syihab, Ayu Mutiara Santanu, Delita Septia Rosdiana, Isti Kumalasari
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Background:  Efforts to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition can be done with the proper IYCF practices. IYCF promotion and counseling activities for caregivers can increase the success of IYCF implementation and reduce the prevalence of malnutrition.Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the association between the level of education, knowledge, and behavior of Posyandu counselors on IYCF practice in the Parongpong District of West Bandung Regency.Materials and Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study with a consecutive sampling technique. Descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the characteristics of the respondents, and the multivariate test was used to determine the variables meets the model equation.Results: Multivariable analysis showed that the variables that were significantly related to the practice of IYCF counseling were the level of education, knowledge, and behavior which were controlled by the confounding variable for the period of being a counselor.Conclusion: The level of education, knowledge, and behavior of Posyandu counselors in IYCF counseling practice is an important factor that can support the improvement of children's nutritional status.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.54-60
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • The effect of nutrition counseling on nutritional status for breast cancer
           patients in dr. Sardjito Hospital, Indonesia

    • Authors: Susetyowati Susetyowati, Sri Retna Dwidanarti, Retno Pangastuti, Hanifah Wulandari, Farah Faza, Nadira D'mas Getare Sanubari
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Background: Nutrition counseling in breast cancer (BC) patients show long-term adherence to a dietary pattern and effects on nutritional status and quality of life (QOL).Objective : We evaluated the effects of nutrition counseling for nutrients intake dan nutritional status improvement among breast cancer patients.Material and Methods: This research was conducted in a Pre-experimental design; one group pretest-postest design was conducted on 45 BC patients who underwent radiotherapy for five weeks in the Radiotherapy Unit, dr. Sardjito Hospital, Indonesia. Nutrition counseling was demonstrated by trained fieldworkers to 45 participants using a nutrition booklet for BC patients and a food model as an intervention technique. Continuous nutrition counseling was given three times: weeks 1, 3, and 5 of radiotherapy. We examined anthropometry, biochemical, physical, dietary, and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire to obtain nutritional status.Results: Most of the participants had a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (62.2%). After the participants were receiving nutrition counseling, there were increases in intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E amounted 124.54 kcal, 8.12 g (p=0.01), 5.84 g, 234.43 mg, 0.042 mg, and 0.44 mg, respectively. Intake of fruits and vegetables improved on the first, third, and fifth week (1.44, 2.36, and 4.03 portion/day, respectively) (p=0.001). Handgrip strength (HGS) showed slight improvement (p=0.081). However, HGS ameliorated from 15.85 kgs in the early to 16.97 kgs in the end stage of therapy. Bodyweight decreased 0.28 kg; however, there are no changes in PG-SGA score, hemoglobin (Hb), and albumin levels.Conclusion: Nutrition counseling improves patients’ nutrition intake despite there is no significant alteration in nutritional status. In addition, nutrition counseling for breast cancer patients during radiotherapy is essential to maintain and improve nutrient intake and nutritional status. In the long-term period, it might be affected to improve quality of life. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.61-71
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Risk factor of growth faltering in infants aged 2-12 months

    • Authors: Rina Pratiwi, Adriyan Pramono, Galuh Hardaningsih
      Pages: 72 - 79
      Abstract: Background: Growth faltering is a condition of growth disturbance that marked by slower growth velocity compared with previous growth chart. Growth faltering can cause effects in immune response, cognitive, & physical and psychomotor disturbance, behavioral disorder, learning problems, higher risk of infection and mortality.
      Objectives: To analyze risk factor of growth faltering in infant aged 2-12 months.
      Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted in Public Health Center in Semarang city. Subject were infants aged 2 until 12 months with growth faltering. Variables were divided to exclusive breastfeeding, mother’s education, mother’s employment, social economic status, infection, mother’s nutrition and gestational age. Anthropometric and questionnaire data were obtained and analyzed among 116 infants. Statistic test used Chi square and multivariate analysis.
      Results: Chi-square analysis showed that breastfeeding (p=0.016) and gender (p=0.04) had a significant relationship with growth faltering in infant 2-12 months. Under standard parent’s income (p=0.809), Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) (p=0.377), diarrhea (p=0.243), mother’s nutrition (p=1.00), gestational age (p=0.77), low mother’s education (p=0.83) and working mother (p=0.26) didn’t have a significant relationship with growth faltering in infant aged 2-12 months. Multivariate analysis showed that gender (p=0.035) and breastfeeding (p=0.019) were the most influencing variable to growth faltering. In 2-6 group, breastfeeding pattern had significant relationship with growth faltering (p=0.77)
      Conclusions: Breastfeeding and gender were risk factors of growth faltering in infant aged 2-12 months. Further research needed on how to prevent growth faltering in first 1000 days of life so it may avoid stunting in later life.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.72-79
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • The Effect of Breastfeeding Calendar Training on Knowledge and Attitudes
           of Mothers in Exclusive Breastfeeding

    • Authors: Ari Indra Susanti, Aminarista Aminarista, Neneng Martini, Nur Rahmah, Sri Astuti
      Pages: 80 - 87
      Abstract: Background: Lactating mothers were successful in giving exclusive breastfeeding as much as 42% based on SDKI (Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia) in 2012. This is depend on the support of husbands and families as well as health workers. Thus, the husband or family should remind and motivate mothers as well as monitor the breastfeeding activity every day for 6 months using breastfeeding calendar.
      Objectives: This study aimed to determine the increase in knowledge and attitudes of mothers in providing exclusive breastfeeding after the exclusive breastfeeding calendar training.
      Materials and Methods: The research design used a quasi-experimental one group pre-test post-test design. This research was conducted on mothers who had babies (age 0-12 months) in Pasawahan Village and Pasawahan Kidul Village, Pasawahan District, Purwakarta Regency in April to November 2018, with 96 respondents. The sampling technique was conducted by purposive sampling. Data were collected by giving questionnaires to respondents, before and after the breastfeeding calendar training were given. The Wilcoxon test was used for the analysis of the data in this study.
      Results: The results showed that there were differences in the knowledge of mothers before and after training on breastfeeding calendar (p <0,000) and there were differences in the attitudes of mothers before and after the training on breastfeeding calendar (p <0,000).
      Conclusions: There was an increase in knowledge and changes in the attitude of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding after being given the breastfeeding Calendar training. Therefore, suggestions for health workers, especially midwives and nutrition workers, can use the breastfeeding calendar as an educational medium to increase husband and family support in exclusive breastfeeding.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.1.80-87
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
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