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Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.168, CiteScore: 0)
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Pharmacy Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.168
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1560-2214 - ISSN (Online) 1477-2701
Published by FIP Homepage  [1 journal]
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Explaining the influence behind Malaysia’s pharmacy
           students’ career choices within the pharmaceutical industry

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      Authors: Nur Farah Diyaanah Ibrahim, Ernieda Hatah, Siti Azdiah Abd Aziz, Shairyzah Ahmad Hisham, Irma Wati Ngadimon, Muhammad Junaid Farukh, Mohd Fadli Mohd Asmadi
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Objective: The pharmaceutical industry has been portrayed as a promising sector for pharmacy graduates. Nonetheless, little is known about pharmacy students’ preferences, knowledge, and attitudes toward careers in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the factors that may influence them. Method: A self-developed questionnaire was administered to pharmacy students in public and private universities in Malaysia from October to November 2018 via online platforms. Results: Only 38.8% out of 433 students who completed the survey stated their preference for working in the pharmaceutical industry. The mean (SD) of knowledge, perceived syllabus, and attitudes related to pharmaceutical industry career preferences were 8.73 (1.77) (full score of 12), 28.50 (5.83) (full score of 40), and 30.59 (4.32) (full score of 50), respectively. Students from private universities, those in years one and three of study, and those with higher attitude scores were more likely to choose the pharmaceutical industry as their career option. Conclusion: Increasing exposure to pharmaceutical industry careers that involve patient contact and clinical knowledge application is needed to improve students’ attitudes toward pursuing a career in this field.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.19
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Evaluation of pharmacy students’ knowledge and
           perceptions of transitions of care services

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      Authors: Tianrui Yang, Jessica Wooster
      Pages: 10 - 15
      Abstract: Introduction: Studies support incorporation of pharmacists and pharmacy students to improve health and financial outcomes during transition of care (TOC). Standardisation of TOC educational training is currently lacking in pharmacy curricula. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional, descriptive study with a convenience sample at one college of pharmacy. Students participated in an anonymous Qualtrics survey including items on TOC service understanding and educational training. Results are reported as means and standard deviation for continuous data; frequencies and percentages for categorical data. Results: Of 116 survey responses, 112 provided informed consent. Seventy-eight percent of respondents stated they have learned about TOC and 66% felt they understood what TOC entails. When asked to identify disease states commonly targeted for TOC, 77% responded incorrectly to this item. When asked to select TOC clinical activities, 66% incorrectly selected medication dispensing. Ninety-six percent of respondents replied that additional educational training on TOC would be beneficial. Conclusion: There is a discrepancy in students’ perception of TOC services with their actual knowledge of TOC services based on survey responses.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.1015
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: An entrepreneurial activity implementation and
           assessment among pharmacy students amid the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

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      Authors: Elaine V. Nguyen, So Hyun Kim, Mohammed A. Islam, Youngil Chang, Judy Aoyagi, Alamdar Hussain
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Objective: To implement and assess innovation and entrepreneurship (IE) learning experience in professional pharmacy students using presentations based on the Shark Tank model. Methods: First-year doctor of pharmacy students were invited to participate in an IE learning experience emphasising the importance of self-care needs of the society during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Students’ proposals were assessed by Sharks (inquisitors) based on a grading rubric, and a post-activity survey captured students’ reflections of their experience. Results: Twelve students participated in the IE activity, and presented their proposals virtually in a Shark Tank style format. Students’ scores for the proposals ranged from 87.5% (capable entrepreneurs) to 56.8% (incapable entrepreneurs), with the winner receiving a gift certificate. Survey ratings given by students on a scale of one to five for the IE activity were overwhelmingly favourable, with both the activity (4.73 (1.09)) and presentation style (4.27 (0.37)) viewed to be timely and relevant. Conclusion: An IE learning activity was implemented and assessed in the pharmacy programme using Shark Tank style presentations. The authors believe such initiatives, conducted either virtually or face-to-face, could serve as prototypes for professional pharmacy schools interested in creating exciting ways to implement IE activities in their programmes.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.1622
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Virtual OSCE: Experience and challenges with a
           large cohort of pharmacy students

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      Authors: Hanis Hanum Zulkifly, Izzati Abdul Halim Zaki, Mahmathi Karuppannan, Zakiah Mohd Noordin
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: In response to the inability to conduct conventional face-to-face objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) due to the COVID-19 lockdown, this study explored options to design virtual OSCE (vOSCE) that meets the objectives and standards of effective competency-based assessment for a large cohort of pharmacy students. The vOSCE required advanced planning of the actual assessment and technical conduct. The development of a master plan consisting of the types of competencies to test, topics and number of cases, and assessment rubrics, guided the team members to develop an adequate OSCE assessment module. Technical aspects included recruitment of examiners, simulated patients (SP), technical support, and a platform for vOSCE. The main challenges were to ensure well-ordered vOSCE and a stable internet connection for examiners, SP, and students. Google Meet was utilised due to its functionality, familiarity, and low internet consumption to all parties involved. Feedback was obtained from stakeholders to improve future OSCE conduct.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.2332
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Pharmacy education shift during times of pandemic
           and collapse: A perspective from a school of pharmacy in Lebanon

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      Authors: Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Jihan Safwan, Marwan Akel, Mohamad Rahal
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Introduction: The health and economic crisis in Lebanon during the COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental effects on many sectors including higher education. This report presents the major changes in teaching/learning undertaken by three departments of the bachelor programme in a school of pharmacy in Lebanon to cope with uncertain times. Description: The educational process was modified from autumn 2019/20 to spring 2020/21, with economical instabilities and the emergence of COVID-19, where regular teaching and summative assessments were completely and forcefully switched to remote and online. Evaluation: Although a grade trend showed some changes in evaluation with the crisis, grades returned nearly to normal upon adopting the completely online system. Technical support and training for the faculty were required to help cross transitioning periods and maintain the quality of the programme. Conclusion: The crisis and the pandemic influenced pharmacy education, but gave students and faculty the chance to learn and utilise modern information and communication technology (ICT) educational tools.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.3340
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Development of an Innovative Drug Information
           Evidence-Based Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

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      Authors: Jessica Starr, Dana Carroll, Kristi Kelley, Nathan Pinner, Lynn Stevenson, Katelin Lisenby, Taylor Steuber
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Aim: To describe the development, implementation, and structure of an innovative evidence-based medicine (EBM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) rotation and evaluate student pharmacists’ perceptions of the course. Methods: A five-week, EBM APPE rotation was designed by seven faculty. Students worked remotely in teams and individually to complete pre- and post-assessments, journal clubs, journal scans, drug information questions, and clinical debates, as well as self- and peer-assessments. Students were asked to rate their perceptions of the course on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of eighteen students, precepted by seven faculty members, completed the rotation. Students completed three group journal clubs, three individual journal scans, one individual journal club, one drug information question, and one clinical debate. Students survey data indicated that confidence in EBM skills was high following the rotation. Conclusion: This EBM APPE rotation was successful. The structure of this rotation may be transferable to a variety of settings.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.4147
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Evaluation of faculty inter-variability OSCE grade
           scoring on overall student performance in a laboratory course

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      Authors: Salome Bwayo Weaver , Monika Daftary, La'Marcus Wingate, Malaika Turner
      Pages: 48 - 53
      Abstract: Introduction: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are considered the gold standard for evaluating pharmacy students’ clinical skills due to their reliability and validity. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether faculty inter-variability in OSCE grading had a significant impact on a student’s overall performance. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from two cohorts of third-year pharmacy students. Descriptive statistics, simple linear regression, and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: There were 120 students that participated in the OSCE with a mean score of 66.7%. Higher scores in the Integrated Therapeutics (IT) 2 lecture series and the IT 2 lab course corresponded to better OSCE scores. Out of 17 evaluators, six were found to rate students significantly lower and one was found to rate students significantly higher in comparison to a reference evaluator who evaluated students closest to the overall mean. Conclusion: It is likely that standardised grading, and possibly additional training, may be needed to ensure a fair and appropriate evaluation of OSCE performance.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.4853
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Multi-inquiry hybrid e-learning: Instructor-learner
           experiences

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      Authors: Valerie Oji, Katherine Dillion, Salome Weaver
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: Background: Hybrid teaching methodologies involve the purposeful combination of traditional teaching with technology advances. Despite some challenges, they have gained popularity recently, especially during the coronavirus pandemic. This study evaluated hybrid e-learning with multiple inquiries involving students’ receptiveness, preferences, behaviours and instructor observations. Method: The methodology involved a mixed-method approach with a qualitative observational case study, surveys and interviews for problem-based learning alternatives to traditional lectures. Instruction included: 1) Assigned primary literature reading with study questions to be completed before class; 2) Out-of-class online video-clips with visual, practical application (i.e. lithium and non-lithium induced tremor assessment) and online discussion in CANVAS Learning Management System; 3) Start-of-class quiz in ExamSoft, in-class team-based application questions with instructor-led discussion; 4) Out-of-class team final exam review assignment in CANVAS. Results: Qualitative themes were student engagement, flexibility, preferences, academic and non-academic stressors, etiquette, and defining responsibility for academic success. The majority of students preferred primary literature review, video clips, followed by online CANVAS discussions. Written assignments were the least desirable. Conclusion: These experiences are useful for qualitative evaluation of teaching and learning methods.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.5462
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • REVIEW: A systematic review of using team-based learning in a
           pharmacokinetics course

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      Authors: Jutima Methaneethorn, Janthima Methaneethorn
      Pages: 63 - 72
      Abstract: Background: This systematic review aimed to summarise an application of team-based learning (TBL) in pharmacokinetics courses, to compare the learning outcomes of TBL to that of traditional lecture-based courses, and to identify the benefits of using a TBL strategy in pharmacokinetics courses. Method: PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC EBSCO databases were systematically searched, and 191 non-redundant articles were retrieved. Of these, seven articles were included. Results: Implementation of a TBL in pharmacokinetic courses resulted in several positive results including higher examination grades, improvement in professionalism aspects such as altruism, accountability, and honesty. Student engagement, peer learning, and the development of transferable skills could also be observed. Despite these positive benefits, some challenges exist, such as an increase in initial workload for faculty members, preparation of appropriate assignments, and suitable strategy to facilitate students. Conclusion: Future TBL implementation should be critically designed to optimise faculties’ workload and students’ engagement to the course.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.6372
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: A pilot programme to teach pharmacology using the
           international nonproprietary names in a pharmacy school in Spain

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      Authors: Conxita Mestres, Marta Hernández Hernández, Nilhan Uzman, Màrius Duran, Raffaella Balocco
      Pages: 73 - 76
      Abstract: Introduction: In pharmacology lectures, one of the major challenges faced by students is how students can remember an increasing list of a large number of drug names. Although university teachers use the international non-proprietary names (INNs) of drugs in their teaching practice, this is not enough to help students be competent in this area. Programme description: The School of Health Sciences Blanquerna, University Ramon Llull, was invited to join the World Health Organization (WHO) School of INN (SoINN) project as an expert consultant to represent the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Academic Institutional Membership (AIM). A pilot programme in utilising the INN in the pharmacology lecture in an undergraduate pharmacy programme was conducted. Evaluation: To assess how the students perceived this new topic, a short survey was conducted at the end of the term. Of the 32 students, 50% of them completed the survey. Most of them provided high value on the use of stems in their learning. Future plan: The current course was extended to other degrees of the pharmacy programme.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.7376
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: A mentalising education programme for community
           pharmacy workforce

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      Authors: Christina Fosgerau, Nanna Broch Clemmensen, Gitte Reventlov Husted, Susanne Kaae, Charlotte Rossing
      Pages: 77 - 87
      Abstract: This article describes the development and content of the continuing education programme “Counseling first hand – understanding the customer and yourself through mentalising”. The education programme is targeted at the community pharmacy workforce and aims at increasing the pharmacy workforce’ awareness of mental states in pharmacy counselling in order to ultimately centre the interaction around the customer’s perspectives. As such, the education programme combines the traditions of pharmacy practice with a psychologically-based theory of interaction, i.e. mentalising. The education programme is developed between partners from the University of Copenhagen and from Pharmakon-the Danish College of Pharmacy Practice and is funded by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Health. The continuing education programme spans four months and combines physical attendance with online modules.
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.7787
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Recommendations for implementing work-integrated
           learning in South African schools of pharmacy

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      Authors: Irma Kotzé, Gerda Reitsma, René Botha
      Pages: 88 - 99
      Abstract: Aim: Pharmacy schools in South Africa need to prove compliance with work-integrated learning (WIL) as articulated in the Good Pharmacy Education Standards (GPES). This study aims to determine the current status of WIL in South African schools of pharmacy. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with heads of pharmacy schools regarding the challenges experienced with the implementation of WIL. Results: Four of the possible nine heads of South African schools of pharmacy participated in the study. Categories and subcategories were identified under the theme ‘challenges of WIL’. Conclusion: Findings showed that pharmacy schools in South Africa comply partially with WIL requirements. Possible reasons for partial compliance are challenges experienced relating to resources, campus-based infrastructure and service providers. Based on this study’s findings, the authors present several recommendations for the implementation of WIL in South African pharmacy schools.
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.8899
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Prevalence and roles of vice-chairs in schools and
           colleges of pharmacy

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      Authors: Joycelyn Yamzon, David Q Pham, Karl Hess
      Pages: 100 - 107
      Abstract: Introduction: The activities and roles of vice-chairs (VC) in academic medicine are described in the literature but are not presently known in academic pharmacy. Aim: The objectives of this pilot study were to determine the prevalence of VC, describe the roles and responsibilities of VC in various departments, and evaluate why some institutions may not have VC. Methods: A Qualtrics survey was sent to all pharmacy school Deans from October to November 2018. Survey results were analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: Based on the 49.6% response rate, the overall prevalence of VC was estimated to be 41%. The primary reason for VC was to support the department chair and responsibilities included faculty mentorship, development, and evaluations. Fifty-five per cent of those without VC stated the position was not perceived as needed. Conclusion: VC are not widely utilised by pharmacy schools. For institutions considering VC, they may help offset the department chair’s workload.
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.100107
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Training to address vaccine hesitancy in first-year
           students

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      Authors: La Vonne Downey, Cara Brock
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: Aim: This study's aim was to determine if an additional educational component on pharmacy students can increase their knowledge and skill level to address vaccine hesitancy and/or refusal related to a future Covid 19 vaccine. Methods: First-year pharmacy students were given additional education beyond what they received in their Accreditation Council for Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE) module, on motivational interviewing (MI). They were given a pre-and post-survey assessing their knowledge and confidence in addressing vaccine hesitancy and the application of MI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results: This study showed that additional motivational interviewing education had a significant impact on the student's knowledge, self-assessment of skills in talking to patients, and understanding how the skills impacted patients regarding vaccines both general and Covid-19 vaccines. Conclusion: The study’s findings indicate that additional training that focuses on motivational methods to engage patients is needed for students to be able to address vaccine hesitancy, especially when a new vaccine using different science is on the market.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.108115
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Internship programmes in the pharmacy faculties and
           their compliance with the standards: A study in Turkey

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      Authors: Gulbin Ozcelikay, Sıdıka Zübarioğlu
      Pages: 116 - 128
      Abstract: Objective: Pharmacy faculties endeavour to equip future pharmacy candidates with up-to-date drug knowledge and skills to prepare them for future professional life. To train pharmacists to play an active role in each field of pharmaceuticals according to a wide range of the pharmaceutical industry, is a challenging process that needs to be well-planned. The internship programme is one of the building blocks of this challenging process. Methods: The document analysis method was used to conduct this research. The material of the study consists of the internship guidelines of a total of 48 programmes. Results: 79.5% of pharmacy faculties comply with standards in terms of internship periods and their durations. Another important point is internship areas and Turkey provides many options for these internships. Although 97.5% of the 39 pharmacy faculties (with a total of 43 pharmacy programmes) were up to date, 20.5% did not comply with the standards prepared by the Council of Higher Education in line with the European Union's directive no. 2005/36/EC. Discussion: It is not possible to discuss homogeneity between Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in terms of pharmacy programmes’ internship practices as there exist significant differences between them. However, when Turkey is considered alone, 85.7% of faculties carried out internship practices with minor changes by adhering to the standards.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.116128
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Virtual patients in clinical decision making – A
           design-based research approach

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      Authors: Nataly Martini, Ashwini Datt
      Pages: 129 - 141
      Abstract: This paper reports on a longitudinal, design-based research (DBR) study to promote clinical decision making using a virtual patient (VP) simulation for emergency renal care. The VP was piloted with pharmacy students, then offered as an interprofessional learning exercise for pharmacy and medical students, before being introduced as part of the curriculum. In this paper, the DBR framework used to design, implement and evaluate the VP is described. The iterative changes made and implications for the integration of virtual patient simulation in the pharmacy curriculum are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.129141
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Qualitative analysis of healthcare providers and
           administrators' perceptions, expectations, barriers, and facilitators
           towards pharmacists in mental healthcare in Saudi Arabia

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      Authors: Badar Dhehawi A Aldhafeeri
      Pages: 142 - 154
      Abstract: Objective: To explore the views and experiences of healthcare providers (HCPs) and their expectations toward pharmacists in mental healthcare, in addition to their acceptance of new pharmacist roles. Barriers and facilitators that are emerging in the process of developing enhanced pharmacist-related roles were also explored. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with HCPs who had worked in mental health services in Saudi Arabia. The data were thematically analysed using a constant comparison with NVivo software to develop a series of key themes from the interviews. Results: Most HCPs indicated that they rarely interacted with pharmacists. They expected pharmacists to educate both patients and other healthcare workers in the future. Concerns were raised regarding inadequate pharmacy education and lack of clinical training for pharmacists. Conclusion: This study revealed that interactions between HCPs and pharmacists concerning mental health are still limited. A communication strategy for addressing mental health issues should be developed among pharmacists and other HCPs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.142154
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • REVIEW: Pharmacy education in the Sultanate of Oman: Challenges and
           opportunities

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      Authors: Ahmed A. Abusham, Muna A. Aljuma, Leena A. Ali, Qasim A. Al Riyami
      Pages: 155 - 164
      Abstract: Pharmacy degree in Oman makes up to 5-year in Bachelor of Pharmacy and 4-year in diploma of pharmacy. The curricula of the pharmacy programme include basic sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacy practice, and experiential learning. Students are posted in different healthcare sectors and facilities during experiential learning to gain the practice experience. Graduates must complete an internship programme in various healthcare settings, including hospitals, polyclinics, health centres, and community pharmacies. Pharmacists and assistant pharmacists should fulfil the pharmacy licensing conditions and pass the Prometric exam to register and practice pharmacy. There is a shortage of pharmacy workforce in practice, academia, and industry. With the need for a specialised pharmacy workforce in different sectors, it is time to review the pharmacy education in Oman to meet the national needs and priorities.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.155164
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Online OSCE in pharmacy education: Strategies to
           preserve academic integrity of high-stakes assessment

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      Authors: Sunanthiny Krishnan, Sara Chuang, Vivienne Mak
      Pages: 165 - 171
      Abstract: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a highly valued performance-based competency assessment that is extensively employed in medical and health professions education. In pharmacy undergraduate programmes, OSCE is an integral component of the curriculum, constituting both formative and summative assessments of the course. When the COVID-19 pandemic posed an overarching challenge in the delivery of face-to-face teaching and learning activities, academic institutions around the world ineluctably transitioned to online mode of education. Conducting OSCEs on virtual platforms presents its unique set of challenges. In the absence of physical isolation and invigilation of students, the risk of cheating and collusion is particularly high during virtual OSCEs. With the experience of conducting high-stakes OSCEs on virtual platforms at two different campuses simultaneously, the authors outline several strategies that can be implemented to ensure the academic integrity of the assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.165171
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Online course delivery, assessment, and student
           satisfaction: The case of Quantitative Chemical Analysis course in the
           time of COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Ghassan Sonji, Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Zeina Mehyou, Mohamad Rahal
      Pages: 172 - 182
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the concept and perception of normalcy, compelling instructors to switch from face-to-face to online instruction overnight. Meanwhile, the satisfaction of course learning outcomes remains a critical element of modern educational systems and should be monitored during online education. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the online delivery and assessment tools of a Quantitative Chemical Analysis course and evaluate student satisfaction. Methods: Formative and summative assessments were used to test students' learning and the application of Quantitative Chemical Analysis concepts using online teaching models. At the end of the semester, a Likert scale survey was sent to all students to get their feedback. Results: Students were extremely satisfied with online learning, believing that the course's intended learning outcomes were met, with student ability to perform calculations and evaluate errors, precision, and accuracy receiving the highest scores, and student ability to explore multiple solutions for a given problem receiving the lowest scores.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.172182
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity for
           the clinical cases in simulated community pharmacy

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      Authors: Palanisamy Amirthalingam
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is used to measure the clinical competence of pharmacy students in a community pharmacy setup. However, the OSCE needs to be standardised to assess the clinical competence of the student accurately. Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the reliability and validity of two clinical cases used in the simulated community pharmacy. Methods: OSCE simulation was performed by the students with two clinical cases in a simulated community pharmacy. The reliability was measured using Cronbach’s α and Mc Donald’s ω. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to measure the validity of the cases. Results: Among the two cases, the first case scenario was found to have a good model fit. However, the second case scenario has a poor model fit which was determined by the CFA. The inadequate sample size and factor loading in EFA were the main reasons for poor model fit in the second case scenario. Conclusion: The internal consistency, sample adequacy, factor loading, test for an exact fit, and fit measurements should be ensured for the clinical cases included in OSCE. This will help the academician to ensure the accurate assessment of the clinical competence of the student in a simulated community pharmacy.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.183190
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards
           online assessments used during the COVID-19 pandemic in a public
           university in Malaysia

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      Authors: Usman Abubakar, A'isyah Humaira' Mohd Salehudin, Nik Afiqah Athirah Nik Mohd Asri, Nur Atiqah Mohammad Rohi, Nur Hasyimah Ramli, Nur Izzah Mohd Khairuddin, Nur Fariesya Saiful Izham, Siti Hajar Nasrullah, Auwal Adam Sa’ad
      Pages: 191 - 198
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards online assessments used during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, validated and pre-tested online questionnaire. The data were collected from December 2020 to January 2021 and analysed using descriptive and inferential tests. Results: Of the 233 respondents (response rate: 72%), approximately 45% strongly disagree or disagree that online assessment is better than the conventional method of assessment. Only 23.6% were very satisfied or satisfied with online assessment, while 28.8% were very dissatisfied or dissatisfied. About 80% experienced problems with online assessment including failure of portal/online server (63.5%), slow or failure of internet connection (45.5%) and a problem with laptop/gadget (40.8%). Females, final year students, and those who have access to very fast internet speed had significantly better perceptions towards online assessment. Conclusion: Undergraduate pharmacy students have negative perceptions towards online assessment used during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the students experienced difficulties with online assessment and this may affect their performances. The challenges identified should be addressed in order to improve the use of online assessment in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.191198
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Classroom engagement through short stories and
           motivational messages

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      Authors: Santosh Kumar, Sanjana Haque, Lina Zhou, Christina A Spivey
      Pages: 199 - 210
      Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to introduce short stories and motivational messages on soft skills in pharmacy didactic courses to improve classroom engagement. Methods: Surveys were then conducted on the impact of students’ understanding of soft skills and their impact on classroom engagement. Results: The survey results from the two classes (2022 and 2023) of first year students showed that they gained an understanding of soft skills appropriately. The strategy also improved their classroom engagement and well-being. A further survey from a class of 2023 third year students indicated the strategy continued to be helpful in subsequent years. The results from students’ feedback also showed that students generally appreciated the strategy, and it helped them stay positive and engaged in the classroom. Conclusion: Overall, the study concluded that this unique delivery of soft skill information helped students in classroom engagement and helped them learn various soft skill sets.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.199210
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: The Lebanese experience for early career development:
           Bridging the gap to reach the International Pharmaceutical Federation
           (FIP) Global Competency Framework

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      Authors: Aline Hajj, Rony M. Zeenny, Marwan Akel, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh
      Pages: 211 - 220
      Abstract: Introduction: Currently, there is no official national competency framework for pharmacy education or early career development programs in Lebanon. In 2017, the Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon attempted to fill that gap by developing and validating a framework using the FIP Global Competency Framework version 1 among others. Methods: Since this framework has not been implemented by the Lebanese educational bodies, it was deemed necessary to adapt it further, adding innovative aspects according to the recently published FIP Global Competency Framework version 2. This study identified recommendations to ways of improving pharmacy education. Results: There are missing barriers, which pose major challenges to the implementation of early career training in pharmacy schools in Lebanon. The implementation of these recommendations would produce practice-ready pharmacists with homogeneous competencies. Conclusion: A critical analysis of the contextual factors affecting the success of early-career training would help set expected outcomes to ensure best fit for society.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.211220
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Final year pharmacy students’ knowledge and
           perceptions towards generic medicines: A survey-based pilot study from
           Eastern province, Saudi Arabia

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      Authors: Sherihan Ahmad Ghosn, Mohammad Daud Ali, Zahra Ahmed Alzaher, Ayaz Ahmad
      Pages: 221 - 225
      Abstract: Objective: A prospective cross-sectional survey-based pilot study was conducted amongst final year pharmacy students at a private pharmacy college in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the knowledge and perception toward generic medicines. Methods: This online survey-based study was carried out amongst all final year students enrolled in the pharmacy programme between 1 February and 30 April 2020. Results: The response rate was 95.56%. Most participants (66.27%) agreed that generic products are therapeutically equivalent to the innovator brand product, and 75.57% reported the need for more information on how bioequivalence tests are conducted for generic medicines. Furthermore, 34.88% agreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality to brand drugs and 73.24% reported the need for more information on the issues pertaining to the safety and efficacy of generic medicines. Conclusion: This study showed that fifth-year pharmacy students had a basic knowledge of generic medicines, with an ambivalent perception of generics’ quality and safety standards. A number of collaborative initiatives should be planned and executed to equip future pharmacists with broad knowledge concerning generic medications.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.221225
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • REVIEW: Transition to practice in pharmacy: An ill-defined concept'

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      Authors: Maude Arsenault, Gilles Leclerc, Pierre-Marie David, Émilie Angrignon-Girouard
      Pages: 226 - 235
      Abstract: Commonly described as the passage from school to practice, transition to practice, as a concept, as yet to be explored in-depth, is clearly circumscribed and conceptualised to better address the issues experienced by new health professionals when they begin their professional practice. This study intends to describe how the process of transition to practice is represented and studied within various health disciplines, particularly in pharmacy. A scoping review design was chosen to sort out a corpus of published papers on the transition to practice. The primary objectives of this review are to clarify the key concepts related to the transition to practice, make sense of the available literature and evidence on the transition to practice in health disciplines, detect gaps in the current knowledge, particularly in pharmacy, and identify relevant lines of inquiry that would provide a better understanding of this critical and vital process.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.226235
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Critical thinking among pharmacy students: Do age, sex
           and academic variants matter'

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      Authors: Elsy Ramia, Alain Maasri, Jad Abdallah
      Pages: 236 - 248
      Abstract: Background: Critical thinking (CT) is recognised as an essential component of higher education, and many academic institutions are working on improving their students’ CT skills. To date, the complex relationships between students’ ability to think critically and their age, sex, academic performance, major and prior experience taken all together have not been investigated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess CT among undergraduate students from different health and non-health-related majors. Results: The results of this study show that the majority of students reported the ability to analyse data, employ formulas, and draw conclusions. However, integrating ideas from different disciplines and revising conclusions based on new findings remained most challenging for students. Moreover, age and academic performance were correlated with students’ CT, while no correlation was found for sex and prior degree variables. Conclusion: This study contributes to a growing body of literature designed to improve CT among college and higher education students.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.236248
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Professional competency and challenges of clinical
           pharmacists in India: An assessment among the Pharm.D. graduates

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      Authors: Anitha Jose Subin, Sarath Chandran C., Aiswarya Thomas, Swathy Ramesh T C
      Pages: 249 - 256
      Abstract: Objectives: To assess the suitability of the existing Pharm.D. programme curriculum in producing professionally competent clinical pharmacists in India. Methods: A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions, among the Pharm.D. graduates who were working as clinical pharmacists across various hospitals in India. The questionnaire was shared using an online platform (Google Forms) among 138 clinical pharmacists and the responses obtained were assessed and discussed. Results: The response rate was 25.3% with the majority of participants in the age category below 25 years. 65.7% of participants had not undergone any training programmes to improve their professional skills after the completion of the Pharm.D. programme. 45.7% of the study population had the opinion that the absence of clinical preceptors with clinical knowledge in their pharmacy school was the reason for the weak outcomes of the programme. The weakness of the curriculum was well explained by the participants by the absence of clinical training and specific objectives of the curriculum. The professional difficulties faced by the clinical pharmacists include lack of confidence to interact with other health care professionals (41.9%), poor professional management (32.3%) and difficulty in identifying the appropriate drug and dosage forms (19.4%). 24.2% had the opinion that they may avoid pursuing the Pharm.D. programme in India if they were starting all over again. Conclusion: The pharmacy schools should not conduct programmes only to make monetary benefits, but the prescribed quality standards shall be met completely without compromise. The assignment of setting up clinical pharmacy expertise in the nation may remain another unfulfilled dream, if screening, tuning in, and updating is not carried out at whatever point essential.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.249256
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: Implementation of a transitions of care elective
           course at a pharmacy school with branch sites

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      Authors: Heather Taylor, Elizabeth F. Englin
      Pages: 257 - 264
      Abstract: Background: The Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education educational outcomes include an objective regarding managing patient's healthcare needs during transitions of care (TOC). Pharmacy school curriculums should be designed to teach student pharmacists to provide TOC services. Methods: A TOC focused elective was implemented across three sites of a pharmacy school. The course involved lectures, interactive activities, flip-the-classroom activities, and group projects. Results: A total of 51 students completed course evaluation surveys over two course offerings. Most students, 92.2% (n = 47), agreed or strongly agreed that the course objectives were met. Similarly, 96.1% (n = 49) agreed or strongly agreed that the course was well organised. Conclusion: An assessment of course evaluations demonstrated positive student perceptions of the course and successful course implementation. Schools of pharmacy should consider implementing a TOC focused elective to provide students with foundational knowledge for caring for patients throughout the continuum of care.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.257264
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Assessment of knowledge and awareness regarding opioid
           overdose and toxicity among a sample of healthcare providers

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      Authors: Fahad Marzouq Alotaibi, Mohammed Fathullah Zaitoun, Rayid Shabeeb Alotabi, Mohammed Saeed A. Alhadi, Amani Mohammed AlShahrani, Alyah Abdullah Almoeed, Marzouq Saeed AlNasser, Ghazi Bamagous
      Pages: 265 - 275
      Abstract: Background: Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers regarding opioid toxicity are significant concerns. Objective: Investigate the knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and comfort level regarding overdosing among a sample of healthcare providers working at the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region (AFHSR). Methods: Anonymous surveys were administered to AFHSR staff to assess attitude, knowledge, comfort level, and fear of consequences using a 5-point scale. Participants were AFHSR primary care physicians/internists, surgeons, physician assistants/advanced practice registered nurses, and pharmacists. Results: Healthcare providers demonstrated a lack of knowledge, awareness, and fear of the consequences associated with opioid use, overdose, and the indications and administration of naloxone. This study’s findings indicate that healthcare providers are hesitant to engage in discussions with patients about preventative measures for opioid overdose, with the majority believing that doing so will make no difference in preventing opioid overdose incidence. Additionally, a distinct difference in knowledge and perceptions of opioid abuse and toxicity was found between nurses and physicians. Further, the findings indicate a difference in knowledge and awareness regarding opioid overdose and toxicity between nurses and pharmacists.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.265275
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE: Structured incremental measurement of directed and
           objective simulation experiences-pilot (SIM DOSE-P)

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      Authors: Michael C. Thomas, Georges Adunlin, Megan Z. Roberts, Jennifer W. Beall, Elizabeth W. Covington, Mary A. Worthington, Jeffrey A. Kyle
      Pages: 276 - 286
      Abstract: Objective: To describe performance, anxiety, confidence, and time effects across multiple individual simulation experiences in an acute care environment among volunteer Pharm.D. students. Methods: This pilot study used five different cases spanning five weeks. Participants were not aware of case content until each simulation began but topics had been taught in the curriculum. Performance on a SOAP note, self-reported anxiety and confidence, and time to complete each activity were measured. A focus group provided qualitative feedback. Results: Fifteen participants completed the study. Mean performance scores across all cases were variable without a predictable pattern. Global measures of anxiety and confidence numerically improved. The average time to complete simulation activities was similar across the first three cases but decreased for the remaining two cases. Participant comments supported the overall design as meaningful and encouraged self-directed learning. Conclusion: The design of repeated individual simulation experiences improves anxiety and confidence scores and promotes self-directed learning.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.46542/pe.2022.221.276286
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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