Publisher: Tehran University of Medical Sciences   (Total: 21 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 28 of 28 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Acta Medica Iranica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 1)
Current J. of Neurology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.415, CiteScore: 1)
Dermatology and Cosmetic     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.532, CiteScore: 1)
Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hospital Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Occupational Hygiene     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Iranian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Iranian J. of Health and Environment     Open Access  
Iranian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Iranian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Iranian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Air Pollution and Health (رتبه علمی- پژوهشی)     Open Access  
J. of Arthropod-Borne Diseases     Open Access   (SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Dental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Family and Reproductive Health     Open Access   (SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Pharmaceutical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Tehran University Heart Center, The     Open Access   (SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Medical J. of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Nanomedicine Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tehran University Medical J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Translational Research in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Phenomena in Nano and Micro Scales     Open Access  
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Current Journal of Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.415
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2717-011X
Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Safety and efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning in patients with
           severe carotid artery stenosis before carotid artery stenting: A
           proof-of-concept, randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been proposed as a possible potential treatment for ischemic stroke. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of micro-embolic brain infarcts after RIPC in patients with stroke who underwent elective carotid artery stenting (CAS) treatment.Methods: This study was managed at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southwest Iran. Patients undergoing CAS were randomly allocated into RIPC and control groups. Patients in the RIPC group received three intermittent cycles of 5-minute arm ischemia followed by reperfusion using manual blood cuff inflation/deflation less than 30 minutes before CAS treatment. Afterward, stenting surgery was conducted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), was acquired within the first 24 hours after CAS.Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited (79.7% men, age: 72.30 ± 8.57). Both groups of RIPC and control had no significant difference in baseline parameters (P > 0.05). Fifteen patients  in the RIPC group and 19 (54.1%) patients in the control group developed restricted lesions in DWI MRI. In DWI+ patients, there were no significant differences according to the number of lesions, lesion surface area, largest lesion diameter, cortical infarcts (%) , and ipsilateral and bilateral infarcts between the two groups.Conclusion: Although RIPC is a safe and non-invasive modality before CAS to decrease infarcts, this study did not show the advantage of RIPC in the prevention of infarcts following CAS. It may be because of the small sample size.
       
  • The effect of prehospital notification by emergency medical service on
           outcomes in patients receiving recombinant tissue-type plasminogen
           activator (r-tPA)

    • Abstract: Background: According to the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines, in acute stroke, the door-to-computed tomography (CT) scan (DTC) time should be less than 25 minutes, and time to injection of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) [door-to-needle (DTN) time] should be less than 60 minutes.Methods: We had a tendency to prospectively collect the clinical and time information of patients who received r-tPA during one year after the initiation of prehospital notification (PN). Patients were divided into three groups, covering patients transferred by Emergency Medical Service (EMS) with and without PN, and non-EMS. We then contrasted the impact of EMS with PN and EMS use on onset-to-needle time (ONT), and the neurological outcome. Good outcome was determined as Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) ≤ 2 at 3-month follow-up.Results: Among 102 studied patients, 64% were transferred by EMS, of whom 53.9% entered PN. Compared with non-PN groups, EMS with PN group showed significantly shorter DTN and DTC time, as well as ONT.Conclusion: Our study showed that EMS with PN, rather than EMS, significantly improved stroke outcome by shortening of ONT.
       
  • Investigation of therapeutic effects of wearable robotic gloves on
           improving hand function in stroke patients: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Background: Over the past decades, wearable robotic gloves due to their positive features are used by clinicians to improve motor function in the upper extremity. This systematic review aims to evaluate the studies that investigated the therapeutic effects of wearable robotic gloves to improve hand function in stroke patients.Methods: The most related databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, IEEE, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and studies were collected up to September 2021. The methodological quality assessment was done using an adapted version of the Downs and Black checklist.Results: Of the 2674 articles searched, 5 studies were recognized as being relevant in this systematic review. The methodological quality of all included studies was between 7 to 10 points of adapted 12-point score of Downs and Black checklist. All studies concluded that the introduced robotic device had a good therapeutic effect on investigated patients' hand function. The studies had limitations in terms of the level of evidence, sample size, stroke patient groups, and therapeutic process.Conclusion: There is no standard approach with definite intervention timing to evaluate the effect of such devices. Therefore, more comprehensive studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects of wearable robotic gloves on improving hand function after a stroke.
       
  • B vitamins and their combination could reduce migraine headaches: A
           randomized double-blind controlled trial

    • Abstract: Background: The B vitamins can potentially help prevent migraine. This study was designed to examine the effects of supplementation with thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), folic acid (B9), and a combination of these vitamins on women with episodic migraine (EM).Methods: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial conducted on 120 women with EM. The participants were divided into the 6 groups of B1 (n = 20), B6 (n = 20), B12 (n = 20), B9 (n = 20), vitamin B complex (n = 20), and placebo (n = 20). Subjects received 1 capsule daily for 12 weeks. As part of the baseline and post-intervention phases, paper-based headache diaries were used to record the number of abortive drugs consumed and the frequency of headache attacks, and the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS) was used to assess migraine disability.Results: A 16-week study on women with EM revealed that the mean changes in the frequency of headache attacks decreased significantly in all vitamin groups in comparison with the placebo group (P < 0.001). In contrast to the placebo, there was also a significant improvement in the migraine disability score in each vitamin group (P < 0.001). The 12-week supplementation with vitamins B9, B1, B6, B12, and B complex also brought on a significant decrease in the use of abortive drugs compared to the placebo group (P = 0.032).Conclusion: The results of this study showed that B1, B6, B12, and B9, and a combination of these vitamins could be effective as an adjuvant in treatment and prophylaxis of EM. Further large trials with long-term follow-ups will be required to confirm our results.
       
  • Sleep status in multiple sclerosis: Role of vitamin D and body mass index

    • Abstract: Background: Sleep disorders are major but neglected symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to describe the sleep status in patients with MS.Methods: We selected mildly-disabled [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score < 4] patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). After determining the level of vitamin D in a blood sample of the patients, the validated Persian versions of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and snoring, tiredness, observed apnea, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), age, neck circumference, and gender (STOP-Bang) questionnaires were filled and the sleep condition was described. Besides, the impact of age, sex, disease duration, and EDSS on sleep status was determined.Results: 37.87% of 103 included patients with MS had poor sleep quality. 21.35% rate of subthreshold, 10.67% rate of moderate, and 1.94% rate of severe insomnia were also observed. Only 1.94% of patients had a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There was a significant relation between Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score with ISI (r = 0.45, P < 0.01), PSQI (r = 0.53, P < 0.01), and STOP (r = 0.20, P = 0.03). A significant correlation between STOP with BMI (r = 0.24, P = 0.01) and age (r = 0.21, P = 0.03) was also observed. Sleep status was not significantly different in groups of the patients based on vitamin D, overweight, or sex.Conclusion: Poor sleep quality is a common finding among mildly-disabled patients with MS. There is also a 33.99% rate of subthreshold or clinical insomnia in different severities. Quality of sleep and insomnia is not significantly correlated to BMI, level of vitamin D, and sex in patients with MS.
       
  • The association between body mass index, demographic and clinical
           characteristics with cognitive performance in patients with neuromyelitis
           optica spectrum disorder

    • Abstract: Background: Cognitive dysfunction is one of the problems that patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) suffer from. We aimed to assess the association between demographic and clinical features as well as body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function in patients with NMOSD.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 41 patients with definite diagnosis of NMOSD. Serum status of neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Cognitive function was assessed by Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS) battery which is validated for Persian people before and North American Adult Reading Test (NAART).Results: The mean score of NAART test was higher in participants with normal weight compared with overweight patients (40.47 ± 3.51 vs. 36.00 ± 5.74, P = 0.02). Current age was negatively correlated with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)-Sorting (P = 0.05, r = -0.30). The correlation of duration of disease and cognitive performance was not significant (P > 0.05). Higher physical disability based on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was correlated with lower results in Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) (P < 0.01, r = -0.50), California Verbal Learning Test-second edition (CVLT-II)-Delayed Recall (P = 0.02, r = -0.35), and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) (P = 0.03, r = -0.33) subtests of MACFIMS. Annual relapse rate was indirectly correlated with CVLT-II (P = 0.03, r = -0.34) and CVLT-II-Delayed Recall (P = 0.01, r = -0.38). Male participants obtained better scores in Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) subtest (P = 0.05). NMO-IgG seropositive patients had poorer performance in terms of CVLT-II-Delayed Recall, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and D-KEFS-Descriptive (P < 0.05). Participants with bachelor and master education degrees showed significantly better results compared to those with high school degree (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Investigating the clinical and demographic factors affecting cognitive impairment can increase the awareness of health care providers for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment in patients with NMOSD and increase the quality of health services.
       
  • Effect of energy conservation strategies on fatigue, function, and quality
           of life in adults with motor neuron disease: Randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: Background: Fatigue is one of the most frequent complaints in patients with motor neuron diseases (MNDs), with a significant impact on the quality of life (QOL). Current pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments of fatigue in this population lack enough evidence to be applied in the clinical setting. Energy conservation strategies are one of the key interventions for fatigue management in chronic diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of applying these techniques in the fatigue management of patients with MND.Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) study was carried out on 28 patients with MND. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. In addition to routine treatment, patients in the intervention group participated in 3 weekly 1-hour energy conservation programs provided by an experienced occupational therapist. The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score, 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were measured at baseline, immediately after the last intervention session, and one month later.Results: FSS and COPM significantly changed after the course in the intervention group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Both FSS and COPM improved significantly toward the final assessment only in the intervention group. The SF-36 changes were not significant in either intervention or control group.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, using energy conservation strategies could lead to better mid-term fatigue management and occupational performance improvement, but it did not improve QOL in patients with MND.
       
  • A retrospective study of the safety and efficacy of rituximab in Iranian
           patients with myasthenia gravis: A single-center experience

    • Abstract: Background: This retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of rituximab (RTX) for the management of myasthenia gravis (MG).Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 61 patients with refractory and non-refractory MG who received RTX. The Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) profile was used to assess MG symptoms and their effects on daily activities at the start of RTX and in the last follow-up. The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Post-Intervention Status (MGFA-PIS) scale has been used as an outcome measure after treatment with RTX in the 12th month and the last follow-up.Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.31 ± 13.53 years (range: 15-78 years). Of 61 patients, eight (13.1%) were double seronegative, 29 (47.5%) had anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR+) antibody, and 24 (39.3%) had anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody (MuSK+). According to the mean rank table, the results of this study showed that the drug was more effective in improving the symptoms of MuSK+ patients compared to the other two groups (P = 0.006). The mean MG-ADL was 4.86 ± 1.83 before treatment and 1.51 ± 2.02 in the last follow-up visit. Paired t-test showed a significant association between MG-ADL before and after treatment in the last visit [t(55): 11.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.79-3.99, P = 0.001)].Conclusion: This retrospective study showed a considerable effect of RTX as induction therapy in patients with MG, especially those with MuSk+ MG.
       
  • The effect of pyridostigmine on post-stroke dysphagia: A randomized
           clinical trial

    • Abstract: Background: Swallowing is one of the most complex functions of the central nervous system (CNS), which is controlled by different parts of the brain. Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is one of the most common complications after stroke. Despite a variety of behavioral, compensatory, and rehabilitative methods, many stroke patients still suffer from swallowing disorders that adversely affect their quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pyridostigmine on patients with post-stroke dysphagiaMethods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 40 patients suffering from post-stroke dysphagia. Patients were assigned randomly into two groups: intervention and control groups (20 in each group). The intervention group was treated with pyridostigmine (60 mg, three times a day, 30 minutes before each meal for three weeks), and the control group received placebo treatment in the same way. All patients (intervention and control) were evaluated according to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Functional Communication Measures (FCM)/American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) criteria at baseline and after three weeks of intervention. Values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: In the intervention group, the mean values of NIHSS, mRS, and ASHA/FCM were significantly reduced following three weeks of treatment with pyridostigmine (P = 0.002, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively), but no significant differences were found in the mean NIHSS, mRS, and ASHA/FCM in the placebo group.Conclusion: Although pyridogestamine is somewhat effective in post-stroke dysphagia, it has not been shown to be more important in preventing aspiration pneumonia and length of hospital stay.
       
  • Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT) with hydrocephalus as an
           initial symptom mimicking tuberculous meningitis: A case report

    • Abstract: -
       
  • Cerebral border zone infarctions: An etiologic study

    • Abstract: Background: Cerebral border zone infarctions (BZIs) are a subtype of acute ischemic stroke that occur at the junction between two major cerebral arterial territories. Internal and external BZIs are defined based on the known patterns in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the etiology and pathophysiology of these two types of BZI are still debated. This study aimed to determine the etiologic differences of two types of BZI to guide tailor appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with BZIs were enrolled from patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, from 2017 to 2019. Appropriate clinical and laboratory workups were applied to determine possible etiologies of ischemic stroke according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification system. Results: The study included 106 patients with BZI, 53 patients in each group. Both types of BZI were more frequent in males. However, there was no significant difference between the two types concerning sex, age, and profile of major stroke risk factors. The results showed no correlation between the type of BZI and hemodynamic factors (P = 0.086). However, large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was the most frequent etiology within each subtype of BZI; LAA in internal (P = 0.016) and cardioembolism (P = 0.046) in external BZI were more frequent etiologic subtypes of cerebral infarction. Conclusion: LAA might be the most common etiology for internal and external cerebral BZIs. Cardioembolism might have a more important etiologic role in the external subtype.
       
  • A comparative study on the effectiveness of topiramate and propranolol in
           patients with migraine with aura

    • Abstract: Background: Migraine is considered as one of the most common and disabling diseases of the nervous system that has a great impact on quality of life (QOL) and a little risk of neurologic complications such as stroke. Migraine aura is known to be the result of cortical spreading depression and is associated with higher risk of this complication. Thus, the present study was conducted with the aim to compare the effects of topiramate as an antiepileptic, and propranolol in patients with migraine with aura. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients with migraine with aura referred to the neurology clinic of Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, in the period of 2019-2020. The patients were randomized into two groups and received either topiramate or propranolol. The Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) score was evaluated before and at the end of three months after initiating the treatment. Results: Reduction in the MIDAS score in patients taking topiramate (-16.94) was greater than that in the propranolol group (-14.5), but this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.005). No significant relationship was found between gender and changes in the MIDAS score after the treatment of both groups (P > 0.050). However, the changes in the MIDAS score were greater in younger patients, and this relationship was statistically significant (P < 0.050). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the efficacy of topiramate and propranolol in patients with migraine with aura. No significant relationship was found between gender and changes in the MIDAS score after the treatment in both groups, but the reduction in the MIDAS scores was significantly higher in younger patients of both groups.
       
  • Factors predisposing patients with temporal lobe epilepsy to seizure
           cluster

    • Abstract: Background: We aimed to identify the potential risk factors associated with seizure clusters in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on all the consecutive patients with TLE, who were admitted to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU), Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Seizure cluster was defined as three or more habitual seizures occurring within 24 hours, in over 50% of ictal events, with inter-seizure interval of less than 8 hours. The patients’ demographic data, epilepsy duration, seizure frequency, frequency of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were collected Results: Among a total number of 124 patients with TLE, 62 (50.0%) patients reported seizure clusters. In addition, 44 (37.9%), 42 (36.2%), and 30 (25.9%) patients had normal-appearing brain MRI, mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), and other brain pathologies, respectively. In terms of IEDs frequency, 35 (29.4%), 43 (36.1%), 17 (14.3%), and 24 (20.2%) patients had respectively frequent, occasional, rare, and no spikes in one-hour of interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recording. In our study, seizure clusters were not associated with the epilepsy duration (P = 0.100), the amount of IEDs (P = 0.764), or MRI findings (P = 0.112). Conclusion: In patients with TLE, seizure clustering had no correlation with the epilepsy duration, the amount of IEDs, or brain MRI findings.
       
  • Assessment of computed tomography perfusion RAPID estimated core volume
           accuracy in patients following thrombectomy

    • Abstract: Background: Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) maps ischemic core volume (CV) and penumbra following a stroke; however, its accuracy in early symptom onset is not well studied. We compared the accuracy of CTP RAPID estimated CV with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) infarct volume (IV) in patients following thrombectomy. Methods: Charts of anterior circulation large vessel occlusion post-thrombectomy cases with thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b/3 reperfusion from 2017 to 2019 were reviewed. CTP time was dichotomized as 0-3 hours and ≥ 3 hours from the last known normal (LKN) cognition. The volumetric difference (VD), defined as DWI IV minus CTP CV, core volume overestimation (CVO), defined as CTP CV minus DWI IV and Alberta stroke programme early CT score (ASPECTS) were calculated. Large CV was defined as ≥ 50 ml CV. Modified Rankin Score (mRS) at 90 days were reviewed. We performed independent sample t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient test. Results: Total cases (n) were 61. In < 3 hours window from LKN (n = 27), the mean VD was 58.3 ± 0.1 ml (P = 0.990) and CVO (n = 11; 40.7%) was39.6 ± 35.7 ml (P = 0.008). Mean large CV (n = 8) was 78.3 ± 25.4 ml with median ASPECTS of 8 [interquartile range (IQR) = 6.5-9.0]and median mRS at 90 days of 2 (IQR = 0.8-3.3). In ≥ 3 hours window from LKN (n = 34), CVO (n = 5) was uncommon and large CV had median mRS at 90 days of 5 (IQR = 4.0-6.0). Conclusion: CTP more frequently overestimates CV in patients who are < 3 hours from LKN. The treated patients with large CV in < 3 hours and > 3 hours had good and poor functional outcomes, respectively.
       
  • The prevalence and major determinants of non-compliance with anti-seizure
           medication among children

    • Abstract: Background: A wide range of adherence to the use of anti-seizure medications has been reported among children with the disease, and accordingly, various factors on the degree of adherence to the drug have been reported. But in our society, there is no clear picture of drug adherence and related factors among children with seizures. We evaluated the frequency of adherence to anti-seizure medication as well as related factors.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 children with epilepsy who referred to Ali Asghar Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2019 and 2020. Along with demographic characteristics, adherence to antiepileptic medications was assessed by the Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale [E1] (MMAS).Results: The overall frequency of adherence to anti-seizure medications among children was reported to be about 41.7%. Among all baseline characteristics, much higher adherence was revealed in patients with educated parents. The rate of drug adherence in children with a history of perinatal morbidities was much lower than in other patients. The type of seizure could also affect the rate of drug adherence as the highest and the lowest adherence was found concerning focal impaired awareness seizure (57.1%) and atonic seizures (11.1%) indicating a significant difference (P = 0.022). The most common causes of non-adherence to treatment were expressing inability to treat the patient (23.0%), parents’ forgetfulness to give medicine to the child (18.3%), and not taking medication when traveling or leaving home (16.7%).Conclusion: The lower level of education of the parents, type of seizure, as well as the presence of underlying perinatal morbidity in the child can predict non-compliance with anticonvulsant medication regimens among affected children.
       
  • Simultaneous screening for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte
           glycoprotein and aquaporin-4 in patients with optic neuritis using
           cell-based assay

    • Abstract: Background: This study was aimed to test simultaneous detection of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)/aquaporin‑4 (AQP4) in serum samples of patients with clinically-diagnosed optic neuritis (ON), by fixed cell-based immunofluorescence assay (CBIFA). Methods: The study involved 237 serum samples of patients with ON which were tested for MOG and AQP4 antibodies using fixed CBIFA kit which utilizes AQP4 or MOG protein transfected cells as a substrate. Results: Of 237 serum samples, 22 (9%) were positive for AQP4, 66 (28%) were positive for MOG, and 138 (58%) were negative for both AQP4 and MOG antibodies. 11 (5%) patients with clinically-diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) were negative for both antibodies. None of the samples were positive for both AQP4 and MOG. Among 237, 132 women [18 (13.6%) and 37 (28%)] and 105 men [4 (3.8%) and 29 (27.6%)] were positive for AQP4/MOG antibodies and remaining percentage belonged to double negative and MS. Seropositivity rate was higher in women than men. Antibodies to MOG were significantly higher than AQP4 antibodies and evenly found in all age groups. There was no ambiguous result encountered in the study. Conclusion: In this study, the seropositivity for antibodies to MOG is more than AQP4 antibody in patients with ON. Fixed CBIFA is a useful tool for laboratory diagnosis of ON in the clinical setting of neuro-ophthalmology to plan the next line of treatment management effectively. 
       
  • Validation of myasthenia gravis activity of daily living questionnaire:
           Persian version

    • Abstract: Background: The 8-item myasthenia gravis activity of daily living (MG-ADL) questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating myasthenia gravis (MG)-associated disability. This study aims to assess its validity and reliability in the Iranian population. Methods: A total number of 58 patients with MG were qualified for the examination. All 58 patients completed the Persian translation of 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life (MG-QOL15) and MG-ADL questionnaires initially, and 30 filled out the MG-ADL questionnaire 2 to 4 weeks after the initial visit. Pearson correlation coefficient of questionnaires, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha (α), and test-retest repeatability of the questionnaire were evaluated. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient of Persian versions of MG-QOL and MG-ADL was 0.93 (P < 0.01). The Persian MG-ADL showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.89) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The Persian MG-ADL is a valid and reliable questionnaire for the determination of activities of daily life in Iranian patients with MG.
       
  • Brain, heart, and sudden death

    • Abstract: During the past 30 years, rate of coronary artery disease, as the main cause of sudden death, has decreased more than rate of sudden death. Likewise, cause of sudden death remains elusive in not a trivial portion of its victims. One possible reason is attention to only one organ, the heart, as the cause of sudden death. In fact, sudden death literature focuses more on the heart, less on the brain, and seldom on both. A change is required. In this paper, we first review the pathological findings seen in heart autopsies of sudden death victims after psychological stressors such as physical assault victims without internal injuries. Then, we summarize new studies investigating brain areas, like the insula, whose malfunctions and injuries are related to sudden death. Then, we review prototypes of neurological diseases and psychological stressors associated with sudden death and look at heart failure related sudden death providing evidence for the brain-heart connection. Finally, we propose a new look at sudden death risk factors considering both brain and heart in their association with sudden death, and review strategies for prevention of sudden death from this perspective.
       
  • Diet and disease-related outcomes in multiple sclerosis: A systematic
           review of clinical trials

    • Abstract: Background: A growing number of clinical trials have investigated the role of diet in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We systematically reviewed the literature for clinical trials to assess the impact of different kinds of diets on MS-related outcomes. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant studies published before July 2019. The clinical trials included a defined dietary intervention and MS outcomes, including fatigue, relapse rate (RR), quality of life (QOL), and disability. Results: In the present review, 15 trials on 669 MS patients were included. The 2 plant-based diet trials, 1 was low-fat and the other was low-calorie, included in the review showed a large effect (ES: 0.6 to 0.7) on fatigue compared to the regular diet. The other plant-based diet was a low-protein diet and showed moderate to large effects on disability and RR compared to the Western diet. Moreover, 2 studies showed the clinically meaningful effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on QOL and disability compared to the regular diet. In addition, 2 studies compared fish oil (FO) to placebo and found a small effect on disability (ES: 0.1 to 0.3). There were 2 studies that evaluated evening primrose oil and hemp seed oil and showed medium to large effect (ES: 0.7 to 1.5) on RR compared to olive oil. Finally, we found 2 studies that showed high flavonoid cocoa had a moderate effect (ES: 0.4) on fatigue and a small effect (ES: 0.04) on QOL compared to low flavonoid cocoa. Conclusion: Plant-based diet is a backbone for dietary recommendations in MS patients although low-fat, low-calorie, and KD diets with the addition of fish oil, vegetable oil, and flavonoids could be helpful.
       
  • Natalizumab-induced thrombocytopenia: A case report

    • Abstract: -
       
 
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