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BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2325-7628
Published by Boise State University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Affordable Learning Initiative Action Plan

    • Authors: Boise State University
      Abstract: After input from faculty senate representatives from around the state of Idaho as well as representatives from community colleges, the State Board of Education passed Policy III. U, Instructional Material Access and Affordability during the summer of 2021. This policy requires postsecondary institutions to develop a plan in support of access and affordability of learning materials.Policy III. U. asks that plans address the following elements:
      Resources and support to help faculty ensure all instructional materials are relevant and accessible for all students, especially those who require learning accommodations or additional modes of delivery (e.g. a print version of a digital textbook, internet access, etc.).
      Policies and/or strategies that minimize the cost of instructional materials for students while maintaining the quality of education, the academic freedom and responsibility of faculty and students, and the recognition that the average cost of instructional materials is higher in certain disciplines, and some disciplines require higher cost materials which are used over multiple terms or throughout an entire program.
      Professional development opportunities for faculty and staff related to the discovery, adoption, and use of OER and other affordable instructional materials.
      Strategies to support faculty adoption, adaption, and/or use of OER and other affordable instructional materials.
      Programs, incentive structures, or other strategies to encourage and support faculty to publicly share OER developed for their own courses.
      Course marking processes at the time of course schedule releases that indicate the cost of instructional materials in course sections that are reliably zero cost or very low cost, as defined in this policy.
      Course marking processes at the time of course schedule releases that indicate course sections that reliably require the purchase of, including an automatic charge for, any access codes for instructional materials.
      Strategies with measurable goals for improving and using readily available and relevant OER or other very low cost instructional materials in common indexed courses as articulated in Board Policy III.N.6.b, including dual credit courses. Although open educational resources (OER) are a component of the required plans, the policy addresses affordability of learning materials in a broader sense. Therefore, in order to move a plan forward for Boise State University in a thoughtful manner, it needed to include voices from diverse campus stakeholders. At the end of 2021, the Provost’s Office appointed a Learning Materials Access and Affordability (LMAA) Task Force charged with the development of a university plan in support of access and affordability of instructional materials.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 15:49:48 PDT
       
  • Word Walls in Social Studies: One Solution to the "Vocabulary
           Conundrum"

    • Authors: Dianna Townsend et al.
      Abstract: Julia Kearney and Lori Bingham (pseudonyms), two middle school social studies teachers in a large urban school, have a problem. They want to have their students asking and exploring important questions about American history, and they want them to have the vocabulary knowledge needed to do so. While Julia and Lori recognize the rich linguistic resources their students bring to their classrooms, they also recognize the intense vocabulary demands of social studies. Julia and Lori recently participated in a professional learning initiative to develop research-based approaches for building students’ academic vocabulary knowledge in social studies. They learned about the potential of strategic word walls, in general, and in social studies, and the instructional routines that can grow out of them.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jun 2022 10:14:41 PDT
       
  • Coding Protocol: Early Math Interventions in Informal Learning Settings:
           Attention to Literacy

    • Authors: Hannah Carter et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this document is to provide readers with the coding protocol that authors used to code 51 studies that met inclusion criteria for a systematic review. This systematic review focused on how literacy is incorporated into informal math intervention studies for children in preschool to third grade. We investigated what types of literacy activities were integrated, how literacy was a part of data sources collected, and in what ways literacy was mentioned explicitly by authors in research reports. We coded studies in this systematic review to answer the following research questions: (1) How is literacy incorporated' (2) What literacy activities are integrated' (3) How is literacy a part of data sources collected' And (4) In what ways do researchers explicitly mention literacy in their research reports' The most common literacy activity was speaking and listening, and the most frequently included data source related to literacy was standardized literacy achievement measures. Finally, we found that overall, researchers did not detail literacy throughout their research reports.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jun 2022 07:44:43 PDT
       
  • Indirect Remote Sensing Techniques for Long Term Monitoring of CO2 Leakage
           in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Review

    • Authors: Sureka Thiruchittampalam et al.
      Abstract: Development of monitoring framework for geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is challenging due to the involved subsurface uncertainties. Remote sensing (RS) methods gain edge over other methods for long term monitoring of CO2 leakage through their wide spatial coverage and minimal environmental impact. Furthermore, indirect RS methods use a proxy, such as vegetation stress, to infer subsurface leakage. Indirect RS methods are low-cost compared to some direct RS methods; however they have several limitations since these methods rely on many uncontrollable external factors. Hence, this review aims to evaluate the sensitivity of indirect RS techniques to identify site-specific CO2 leakage.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 15:05:28 PDT
       
  • Pulses in Silicic Arc Magmatism Initiate End-Permian Climate Instability
           and Extinction

    • Authors: Timothy Chapman et al.
      Abstract: Brief pulses of intense volcanic eruptions along convergent margins emit substantial volatiles that drive climatic excursions that can lead to major extinction events. However, correlating volcanic outpouring to environmental crises in the geological past is often difficult due to poor preservation of volcanic sequences and the need for precise dating methods. Here we present a high-fidelity CA-TIMS U–Pb zircon record of an end-Permian flare-up event in eastern Australia, which involved the eruption of>39,000–150,000 km3 of silicic magma in circa 4.21 ± 0.5 million years. A correlated high-resolution tephra record (circa 260–249 Ma) in the proximal sedimentary basins suggests recurrence of eruptions from the volcanic field in intervals of ~51,000–145,000 years. Peak eruption activity at 253 ± 0.5 million years ago is chronologically associated with intervals of pronounced species decline and the demise of the Glossopteris forests in the initial stages of the end-Permian mass extinction event (~1–2 Myr). Simultaneous eruptions along multiple arcs around the globe occurred at the same time as eastern Australia. In conjunction, these global eruptions are considered as a trigger of greenhouse crises and ecosystem stress that preceded the catastrophic eruption of the Siberian Traps.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 15:05:22 PDT
       
  • Conservation and the Production of Wildlife as Resource

    • Authors: Elizabeth Lunstrum et al.
      Abstract: Despite its allure of wildness and timelessness, wildlife is a natural resource that has been produced as such through a series of human-led interventions. In this chapter, we chart wildlife's ongoing and shifting production as resource through the practice and science of wildlife conservation and draw attention to the values that underpin this production. We begin with the early days of conservation and move through the contemporary commodification and militarization of wildlife as resource. Through this movement, we highlight both how the production of wildlife reflects processes of resource-making highlighted by the critical resource geography literature as well as how wildlife is distinct. We also show how conservation's production of wildlife has led to additional forms of world-making that produce not just animals but new categories of the human, namely “the poacher.” We close by examining the possible danger of exposing wildlife as a human-produced resource especially in the age of antienvironmental activism and suggest how we might begin to address this.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 14:45:05 PDT
       
  • Optimal Control of a 5-Link Biped Using Quadratic Polynomial Model of
           Two-Point Boundary Value Problem

    • Authors: Ernesto Hernandez-Hinojosa et al.
      Abstract: To walk over constrained environments, bipedal robots must meet concise control objectives of speed and foot placement. The decisions made at the current step need to factor in their effects over a time horizon. Such step-to-step control is formulated as a two-point boundary value problem (2-BVP). As the dimensionality of the biped increases, it becomes increasingly difficult to solve this 2-BVP in real-time. The common method to use a simple linearized model for real-time planning followed by mapping on the high dimensional model cannot capture the nonlinearities and leads to potentially poor performance for fast walking speeds. In this paper, we present a framework for real-time control based on using partial feedback linearization (PFL) for model reduction, followed by a data-driven approach to find a quadratic polynomial model for the 2-BVP. This simple step-to-step model along with constraints is then used to formulate and solve a quadratically constrained quadratic program to generate real-time control commands. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach in simulation on a 5-link biped following a reference velocity profile and on a terrain with ditches. A video is here: https://youtu.be/-UL-wkv4XF8.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 13:56:18 PDT
       
  • Supine Lying Center of Pressure Movement Characteristics as a Predictor of
           Normal Developmental Stages in Early Infancy

    • Authors: Junsig Wang et al.
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Absent or abnormal fidgety movements in young infants are associated with subsequent diagnoses of developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy. The General Movement Assessment (GMA) is a qualitative clinical tool to visually identify infants with absent or abnormal fidgety movements associated with developmental stage, yet no quantitative measures exist to detect fidgety activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a correlation exists between quantitative Center of Pressure (CoP) measurements during supine lying and age. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy full-term infants participated in the Institutional Review Board-approved study. Participants were placed supine in view of a GoPro camera on an AMTI force plate for two minutes. Spontaneous movements were evaluated by three trained raters using the GMA. Traditional CoP parameters (range, total path length, mean velocity, and mean acceleration of resultant CoP) were assessed, and complexity of each of the resultant CoP variables (location, velocity, and acceleration) was calculated by sample entropy. Linear regression with Pearson correlation was performed to assess the correlations between the CoP parameters and adjusted age. RESULTS: Nineteen infants were deemed fidgety per the GMA and were included in further analyses. All Sample entropy measures and range of resultant CoP had significant correlations with adjusted age (p< 0.05). Sample entropy of resultant CoP decreased with increasing age while range of resultant CoP increased with increasing age. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that complexity of CoP and range of CoP are good predictors of age in typical developing infants during the fidgety period. Therefore, an approach using these parameters should be explored further as a quantifiable tool to identify infants at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 13:56:13 PDT
       
  • Energy Conversion in Ni-Mn-Ga with Asymmetrical Bias Magnetic Field

    • Authors: Medha Veligatla et al.
      Abstract: We studied the mechano-electric energy conversion for Ni-Mn-Ga alloys with dynamic experiments under a bias magnetic field. At low and at high magnetic fields, the magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy and the Zeeman energy dominate the formation of magnetic domains, respectively. At lower fields and when the bias field is tilted against the twin boundary, the formation of 180° magnetic domains reduces the net magnetization parallel to the load axis. However, at low strains and in a compressed state and when the bias field is tilted along the twin boundary, the majority of the volume saturates parallel to the load axis. Further, the evolution of the magnetic domains with increasing the magnetic field is different in each twin domain; a lower magnetic field is needed to eliminate magnetic domain boundaries in the twin domain with the direction of easy magnetization closely aligned with the field than in the twin domain with the direction of easy magnetization at a large angle to the field. Therefore, due to increased net magnetization parallel to the load axis, the magnetic structure generated at lower bias fields tilted parallel to the twin boundary is more favorable to maximize power conversion. However, a minimum bias field is required to expand the sample against the axial load and this field must be higher than the switching field. Therefore, in order to optimize electric power output, the energy conversion has to take place at lower bias magnetic fields and on samples with low twinning stress with the field direction inclined nearly parallel to the twin boundaries.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 13:38:56 PDT
       
  • Systematic Trends of Transformation Temperatures and Crystal Structure of
           Ni–Mn–Ga–Fe–Cu Alloys

    • Authors: Andrew Armstrong et al.
      Abstract: Here we report a systematic research on effects of Fe and Cu upon properties relevant for the magnetic shape memory effect of Ni–Mn–Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Fe and Cu were identified as elements with potential synergism to increase the martensite transformation temperature of Ni–Mn–Ga magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys. Eighteen Ni–Mn–Ga–Fe–Cu alloys with different systematic trends in substituting the ternary elements with Cu and Fe have been investigated. We found a method to describe the effectiveness of Ni, Mn, and Cu upon raising the martensitic transformation temperature, lowering the saturation magnetization, and varying the Curie temperature. We find the martensite transformation temperature most influenced by the Ni content, followed by Mn, with a smaller effect of Cu. The saturation magnetization decreases with similar coefficients for Mn and Cu alloying. The Curie temperature monotonously decreases with Mn, but not Cu. The 10M martensite structure is stable for the composition Ni46.5Mn25+XGa25−X−YFe3.5CuY with X and Y range of 0–5.7, and 0.8–3.0. Used in combination with the total e/a, the elemental e/a-ratio gives some insight into the complex behavior of quinary MSM alloys and is a useful method of analyzing MSM alloys for improved functional properties.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 13:38:52 PDT
       
  • Challenges and Opportunities to Alloyed and Composite Fuel Architectures
           to Mitigate High Uranium Density Fuel Oxidation: Uranium Diboride and
           Uranium Carbide

    • Authors: Jennifer K. Watkins et al.
      Abstract: The challenges and opportunities to alloyed and composite fuel architectures designed and intended to mitigate oxidation of the fuel during a cladding breach of a water-cooled reactor are discussed in this manuscript focused on the oxidation performance of uranium diboride and uranium monocarbide. Several high uranium density fuels are under consideration for deployment as accident tolerant and/or advanced technology nuclear reactor fuels, including UN, U3Si2, UB2, and UC. Presented here is the literature for UB2 and UC degradation modes, thermodynamics, and oxidation performance of the pure compounds and reported alloyed and composite architectures. Furthermore, this review covers the materials and techniques for the incorporation of additives, dopants, or composite fuel architectures to improve the oxidation behavior for high uranium density fuels for use in LWRs.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 13:38:47 PDT
       
  • Independent Living Facilities as Affordable Housing and Homelessness
           Response Research

    • Authors: Brittany Winkler et al.
      Abstract: Boise and the surrounding Treasure Valley have grown significantly in the past ten years. Since 2018; the Ada County population increased just over 5% while the Canyon County population increased by 5.5%. As a result, both median home and median rent prices increased by about 10%. These changes have resulted in many Treasure Valley residents experiencing housing instability. Nearly 50% of all renting households qualify as housing burdened (pay 30% or more of their income on housing costs). In 2021, 1,054 people sought homelessness services in Boise and an additional 4,307 sought services in the surrounding counties.The pressure to mitigate these housing problems is felt by nonprofit, private, and government organizations alike. Interventions in the Treasure Valley tend to fall under the following categories: homelssness prevention, emergency shelters, rapid rehousing, transitional housing, permanent supportive housing, or permanent housing. Most permanent affordable housing in the Treasure Valley is only made available through The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) funds, including Section 8 housing vouchers. Rapid rehousing and transitional housing is provided through nonprofits that also act as homeless shelters. Good Samaritan Home (GSH) in a unique independent living facility in Boise. GSH offers permanent and affordable housing to adults with low or fixed incomes, including seniors, veterans, and adults with disabilities. Residents are provided with a room of their own and three meals each day. Shared meals and other shared spaces create a sense of community for residents.After 80 years of operation, GSH is interested in better understanding the successes and challenges of similar programs across the country. More specifically:
      What are the impacts of independent living facilities on residents and communities'
      Are there independent living facilities similar to GSH that have scaled up or have completed impact studies' What can be learned from them'
      What affordable and innovative housing solutions exist in the Treasure Valley' How does GSH compare to these solutions' To answer these questions Idaho Policy Institute explored peer-reviewed literature and investigated housing programs in peer cities to Boise. Focusing on peer cities allows for an understanding of successful methods in areas with similar demographics. IPI was unable to find information on any identical or similar programs in Boise or peer cities. However, when observing the structure of GSH, IPI noted the similarities of GSH to tiny home villages. Although these are not directly comparable, the impact is believed to be similar, as such tiny home villages are mentioned often throughout this summary.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 08:38:53 PDT
       
  • Idaho Parks and Recreation Survey of Idahoans 2022

    • Authors: McAllister Hall et al.
      Abstract: Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation (IDPR) commissioned Idaho Policy Institute (IPI) to conduct a public opinion survey to inform the Idaho Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP). The public opinion survey asked Idahoans about their current outdoor recreation habits, plans for future recreation, barriers to participation, and recreation needs.IPI collaborated with GS Strategy Group (GSS) to field the public opinion survey on behalf of IDPR. The three entities jointly developed a series of survey questions which GSS fielded using a combination of text and online methods. The survey was fielded from January 3 through January 12, 2022, to 1,000 Idaho adults.Key findings:
      Over 90% of respondents find recreation important to the economies of both their community and the state of Idaho
      Most people recreate within their own region, sometimes traveling to recreate in nearby regions but usually not much farther
      Those with higher incomes are more likely to participate in most recreation activities
      Upgrading and maintaining facilities is the highest recommended priority for IDPR across regions
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 08:38:49 PDT
       
  • Assessing the Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Idahoans

    • Authors: McAllister Hall et al.
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has, in many ways, highlighted the challenges and benefits of our collective humanity. It brought us together, it tore us apart. It spread great fear but also gave rise to great hope. It took the existing challenges facing the Treasure Valley – health, housing, education, and poverty, among others – and often made them more pronounced. Job losses and childcare capacity changes, and school shutdowns can be especially devastating for low-income families, and the stress of illness can accentuate financial stress. While these pandemic impacts occurred, Idaho’s housing costs continued rising significantly, adding yet another challenge for income-restricted households. It is hard to deny that the pandemic was a time of hardship for many households.However, by making these challenges more visible and more a part of our social conversation the pandemic also created opportunities. The financial assistance provided for struggling families during the pandemic may have helped to mitigate some of the worst possibilities from COVID-19. In addition, the conversations sparked by these challenges may benefit Idaho and the Treasure Valley in the future.Collecting data on humans is always a challenge, and COVID-19 certainly did not improve that challenge. Most data reporting agencies faced delays and complications, making it difficult to get a clear picture of the impact COVID-19 had on different aspects of society. However, as time goes on, obstacles give way, or paths get built around them. This report represents the best efforts to collect the latest data on the impacts of the pandemic on Idaho’s Treasure Valley composed of Ada, Canyon, Elmore, Gem, and Owyhee Counties, with a focus on demographics, poverty, housing, health, and education.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 08:13:50 PDT
       
  • Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of UO2 with the Addition of UB2 via
           Conventional Sintering Techniques

    • Authors: Jennifer K. Watkins et al.
      Abstract: Uranium dioxide has been the primary fuel type used in light water reactors for more than 40 years and proven to be reliable and robust. However, the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident has motivated new work evaluating fuels with characteristics promoting accident tolerance, including enhanced thermal conductivity. Recently, additives have been investigated to increase thermal conductivity, but research has been largely focused on non-fissile additions. This study investigated the use of fissile additives to not only increase the thermal conductivity but also increase the uranium loading. Uranium diboride was chosen as the additive for this study due to its promising corrosion behavior as well as its significantly higher thermal conductivity at 573 K (25 Wm−1K−1) when compared to UO2 (7 Wm−1K−1). Uranium diboride powder was fabricated via the arc melting technique and a ball milling process prior to mixing with UO2 in a 90/10 wt% UO2/UB2 ratio. Green bodies were made using a uniaxial die and subjected to a traditional pressureless sintering technique at 2073 K in argon. Sintered samples were analyzed via laser flash analysis for thermal diffusivity and differential scanning calorimetry for specific heat capacity in order to calculate thermal conductivity. The samples displayed an increase of 36–55% in thermal conductivity between 323 and 1273 K when compared to the benchmark samples (pure UO2) as reported in open literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 14:08:22 PDT
       
  • Teaching Blockchain Through Coding: Educating the Future Accounting
           Professional

    • Authors: Stacey R. Kaden et al.
      Abstract: This paper presents the motivation, learning experiences, and practical concerns regarding implementing a code-based method to teach blockchain technology to accounting students. With 53 percent of companies reporting blockchain as a critical priority for their organization, accountants' work will be impacted (Deloitte 2019). Yet, most blockchain education for accountants appears to be limited to theoretical exercises removed from the technology itself. This article details how coding exercises can improve students' understanding of blockchain technology. Students in a graduate accounting data analytics class were introduced to blockchain through a series of scaffolded exercises that engaged them in writing blockchain code in R. Results from implementing this module in a medium-sized accounting program showed that using code-based methods to teach blockchain to accountants was feasible and instructive. We provide code examples and Teaching Notes for those who wish to implement a similar curriculum.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 14:01:13 PDT
       
  • Time Trends in Physical Activity Using Wearable Devices: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies from 1995 to 2017

    • Authors: Scott A. Conger et al.
      Abstract: Introduction: Conflicting evidence exists on whether physical activity (PA) levels of humans have changed over the last quarter-century. The main objective of this study was to determine if there is evidence of time trends in PA, from cross-sectional studies that assessed PA at different time points using wearable devices (e.g., pedometers and accelerometers). A secondary objective was to quantify the rate of change in PA. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted of English-language studies indexed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science (1960–2020) using search terms (time OR temporal OR secular) AND trends AND (steps per day OR pedometer OR accelerometer OR MVPA). Subsequently, a meta-analytic approach was used to aggregate data from multiple studies and to examine specific factors (i.e., sex, age-group, sex and age-group, and PA metric). Results: Based on 16 peer-reviewed scientific studies conducted between 1995 and 2017, levels of ambulatory PA are trending downward in developed countries. Significant declines were seen in both males and females (P < 0.001) as well as in children (P = 0.020), adolescents (P < 0.001), and adults (P = 0.004). . The average study duration was 9.4 yr (accelerometer studies, 5.3 yr; pedometer studies, 10.8 yr). For studies that assessed steps, the average change in PA was −1118 steps per day over the course of the study (P < 0.001), and adolescents had the greatest change in PA at −2278 steps per day (P < 0.001). Adolescents also had the steepest rate of change over time, expressed in steps per day per decade. Conclusions: Evidence from studies conducted in eight developed nations over a 22-yr period indicates that PA levels have declined overall, especially in adolescents. This study emphasizes the need for continued research tracking time trends in PA using wearable devices.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 13:01:48 PDT
       
  • Marrying the Agile Framework with InfoSec Management Education

    • Authors: Leigh A. Mutchler et al.
      Abstract: Information security is in dire need of qualified graduates with the ability to hit the ground running. Yet IS courses in InfoSec management struggle to simply present the breadth of topics available, let alone give students adequate opportunities to practice those skills. Existing literature offers little guidance for instructors to design an applied course in InfoSec management. To address this gap and student needs, we redesigned the InfoSec management course by incorporating an agile framework. This redesign provides avenues for students to acquire technology and soft skills and practice honing those skills, thereby increasing the relevance of the course and producing graduates able to fill the myriad of job openings in the field of information security. The initial analyses of student survey responses are positive, lending support to the effectiveness of the course redesign and contributing in a meaningful way to the IS pedagogy literature. This paper will interest instructors and researchers in information security.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 12:50:45 PDT
       
  • Monte Carlo Simulations of Coupled Body- and Rayleigh-Wave Multiple
           Scattering in Elastic Media

    • Authors: Zongbo Xu et al.
      Abstract: Seismic coda waves are commonly used in estimation of subsurface Q values and monitoring subsurface changes. Coda waves mainly consist of multiply scattered body and surface waves. These two types of waves interact with each other in the multiple scattering process, which thus leads to a spatiotemporal evolution of the body and surface wave energies. One cannot characterize the evolution because one has not fully understood the multiple scattering of the two types of waves. Thus one commonly assumes only one type of waves exists or ignores their interaction while studying the coda waves. However, neglecting the interaction leads to an incorrect energy evolution of the two types of waves and consequently biases the Q estimation or interpretation of coda wave changes for monitoring. To better understand the interaction between these waves during multiple scattering and to model the energy evolution correctly, we propose a Monte Carlo algorithm to model the multiple scattering process. We describe the physics of the scattering for the two types of waves and derive scattering properties like cross sections for perturbations in elastic properties (e.g. density, shear modulus and Lamé parameters). Our algorithm incorporates this knowledge and thus physically models the body- and surface wave energy evolution in space and time. The energy partitioning ratios between surface and body waves provided by our algorithm match the theoretical prediction based on equipartition theory. In the equipartition state, our simulation results also match Lambert’s cosine law for body waves on the free surface. We discuss how the Rayleigh-to-body-wave scattering affects the energy partitioning ratios. Our algorithm provides a new tool to study multiple scattering and coda waves in elastic media with a free surface.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 12:50:38 PDT
       
  • Pandemics and Partisanship: Following Old Paths into Uncharted Territory

    • Authors: Luke Fowler et al.
      Abstract: Although partisan politics tend be set aside during crisis, the timing of gubernatorial actions in response to COVID-19 is telling about how partisanship is shaping the way elected officials are reacting to this pandemic. Using an event history analysis, the authors find that Democratic governors responded to the White House’s attempts to downplay the severity of the pandemic by declaring emergencies in order to draw citizen attention to and to prepare for a public health crisis. On the other hand, Republican governors resisted doing so until Trump declared a national emergency on March 13; however, Republican reactions were conditional on the president’s job approval in their states. While the COVID-19 pandemic has pushed governments into uncharted territory, state governors appear to be following patterns of vertical partisan competition that mirror those of more conventional policy areas in recent years.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 10:51:10 PDT
       
 
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