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J. of Applied Research on Children     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Family Strengths     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Journal of Applied Research on Children
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.207
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2155-5834
Published by Texas Medical Center Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Best way to prevent firearm violence: Limit access to firearms

    • Authors: Annalyn S. DeMello et al.
      Abstract: The increased publicity of mass shootings and the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled American demand for firearm purchases. Firearm violence has largely been blamed on people with mental illnesses instead of firearm accessibility, despite the lack of population-level evidence associating mental illness with firearm violence perpetration. We support interventions and policies to limit firearm access in homes, schools, and by all intimate partners who have been convicted of domestic abuse. We advocate for restrictions on the civilian purchases of semi-automatic rifles and large capacity magazines. Finally, we call for research addressing firearm violence as an environmental and structural issue, not an intrapersonal one.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 11:58:03 PST
  • Impact of Neighborhood Quality and Recent Life Stressors on Sleep
           Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents at Risk for Maltreatment

    • Authors: Krithika Prakash et al.
      Abstract: It is estimated that around 70% of adolescents are not getting sufficient sleep. The impact of poor sleep during adolescence is related to both increased psychopathology and poorer academic and social functioning. While studies have established a link at the community level between earlier school start times and poorer sleep, there remain open questions about other aspects of community such as neighborhood factors and stressful life events. In this study, we investigated the impact of three neighborhood factors (chaos, stability, and efficacy) and recent life stressors on adolescent (n = 1354) sleep habits at ages 12, 14, and 16 in a sample of children at who were either maltreated or at a high risk for maltreatment via the Longitudinal Survey on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Overall, greater life stressors before age 12, led to greater sleep difficulties. Additionally, while neighborhood stability did not seem to predict more sleep problems, increased neighborhood chaos and lower collective efficacy predicted more sleep problems. These findings suggest it is important to assess the impact of various neighborhood factors separately, as the granular approach provided more nuance in understanding risk factors to poor sleep in adolescents. On a policy level, one implication is to intervene in reducing factors that lead to increased neighborhood chaos (e.g., vandalism, open drug activities) and promote collective neighborhood efficacy (e.g., developing neighborhood programs to increase interactions and trust between neighbors).
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 09:13:20 PDT
  • Examining the Association of Second Grade Children's Sleep and Screen
           Time Recommendations

    • Authors: Ethan T. Hunt et al.
      Abstract: Background: Adequate sleep is essential for various health outcomes (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease). However, sleep time is threatened by the increased opportunities for unsupervised screen time available to children of all ages. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that elementary-aged children sleep between 9-12 hours per night. Further, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children's recreational screen time be limited to less than two hours per day. Excess screen use can delay bedtime and lead to less restful sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adhering to screentime guidelines (/day) and the likelihood of meeting sleep guidelines (9-12 hours/day) in 2nd-grade children.Methods: This study utilized two waves (2015-2016 and 2019-2020) of 2nd graders' parent-reported weighted survey data from the Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) cross-sectional survey.Results: The final analytic sample included (n=3,193) individuals (53% female, 62% Hispanic) across two years of data collection. 65% of parents/guardians reported their children met the sleep guidelines, while 33% of parents/guardians reported their children meeting the screentime guideline. After controlling for BMI, race/ethnicity, school disadvantage, education, sex, and year of collection, parents who reported their children met the screentime guideline had 1.53 greater odds of meeting sleep guidelines compared to children whose parent/guardians reported their children did not meet the screentime guidelines OR (1.53 95%CI = 1.18, 1.99). In stratified analyses, we found that the associations between meeting sleep and screen time guidelines were primarily true for White children. A higher proportion of white children were more likely to meet both sleep time and screen time recommendations compared to black and Hispanic children, while Black and Hispanic children were as likely to meet screen time guidelines as White children; both groups had significantly lower odds of meeting sleep guidelines compared to White children OR 0.32 (95%CI = 0.18, 0.58) and OR 0.49 (95%CI = 0.29, 0.83) respectively.Discussion: Children's ability to meet the recommended sleep guidelines is associated with screentime guideline adherence. Further exploration is needed to understand racial/ethnic differences in guideline adherence for screentime and sleep. Interventions targeting sleep characteristics (e.g., duration, quality, and timing) should consider concomitantly targeting screentime adherence in elementary-aged children.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Sep 2022 12:03:00 PDT
  • Problematic online gaming. Is it real and does it matter to our

    • Authors: Kevin Kaplan MD et al.
      Abstract: Background: Video games and social media have become an ubiquitous part of our society. Video games have been associated with both positive and negative health consequences. There is a growing body of literature supporting the idea that users can develop problematic interactive media use. We hypothesized that teenagers who screened positive for internet gaming disorder would have correlations with other psychosocial and behavioral concerns when compared to their peers.Methods: An urban cohort of high school students aged 14-18 years completed validated self-reported questionnaires to screen for internet gaming disorder, risk of depression, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life measures.Results: Internet gaming disorder was present in 11.9% of participants. Teens screening positive for problematic online gaming also had significantly elevated risk of depression and a lower quality of life.Conclusion: High school aged students were screened for video game addiction through a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were separated into two groups, those who were identified as meeting criteria for video game addiction and those who did not. The group who screened positive for video game addiction also were at a higher risk for depression and scored lower on a quality-of-life survey. Video game addiction, although likely not causative, may be an indicator of other psychosocial issues faced by high school aged teenagers.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 05:13:24 PDT
  • Adolescent Sleep Behavioral Interventions and Opportunities to Improve
           Cognitive Functioning: A Call for Action

    • Authors: Leonell Torres-Pagan et al.
      Abstract: Sleep is related to cognitive functioning, learning, and brain development in the adolescent population. Recent research indicates a rise in the presence of chronic sleep disorders such as insomnia in adolescents, particularly following the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, research on the effectiveness of sleep interventions for adolescents is necessary to guide treatment in adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review of literature examining research on outcomes of treatment interventions for insomnia on sleep quality and cognitive functioning in adolescents. Results indicate a dearth of research examining effectiveness of treatment in adolescents, particularly in relation to the impact of such treatment on cognitive functioning in adolescents. The following paper provides a brief overview of existing research on treatment of insomnia or related problems including initiating, maintaining and awaking for adolescent populations with a focus on improvement of cognitive functioning within this population. The authors discuss existing barriers to research, emphasize the need to expand sleep research to include cognitive functioning outcomes, and inform best practices for treatment in adolescents following COVID-19. Lastly, the authors propose a call to action encouraging more widespread recognition of the need for research in this area.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Aug 2022 05:42:46 PDT
  • Better Sleep Through Screen Time: The Role of Telehealth in Sleep Care for
           the School-Aged Child

    • Authors: Innessa Donskoy et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundSleep plays an integral role in a child’s physical and neuropsychological development. Children with sleep disorders are at risk of developing inattention, hyperactivity, and learning difficulties, challenges that impact them, their families, their classmates, and their communities.26 There is a paucity of pediatric sleep medicine providers equipped to partner with families in identifying and addressing sleep disorders. Additional barriers to accessing this specialized care include geographic proximity, parental ability to take time off from work, and hesitance for a child to miss valuable learning time at school. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, our pediatric sleep department transitioned from largely in-person care to a predominantly virtual platform and collected data to monitor the impact of this transition. In this study, we share several key trends that emerged which may have broad implications on how pediatric sleep medicine providers can better support school-aged children with sleep challenges.MethodsWe performed a chart review of all scheduled pediatric sleep medicine visits from June 2019 to June 2021, a time frame that included the pandemic-driven overnight transition from in-person to virtual clinic visits. The STEM framework1 was developed by pediatric telehealth experts to provide a unified approach to assessing the impact of telehealth programs. We applied this framework to the collected data to gauge the impact on the four major domains highlighted in STEM: health outcomes, healthcare delivery, individual experience (patient and provider), and program implementation.ResultsThe data demonstrated an increased proportion of completed visits and a decreased proportion of canceled/no-show visits when care was provided virtually. Patients accessing virtual care were doing so from greater distances than those who had in-person visits. The school-aged (5-12 years) cohort utilizing telehealth had notable differences in past medical history, with significantly more Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. They also presented with significantly more insomnia and behavioral sleep difficulties.DiscussionSleep disorders are common, and school-aged children have much to gain from sleep optimization. However, pediatric sleep care can be challenging to access. Geographic distance and time away from school and work preclude many families from formal sleep consultations. Telehealth allows high-quality pediatric sleep care to be offered in an easily accessible format to those near and far, resulting in clinics running more efficiently and school-aged children, who need it most, to receive the tools they need to sleep soundly. With a convenient click, families are better able to fit virtual sleep consultations into their day, without the stress of travel or the waiting room. They complete more scheduled visits, allowing pediatric sleep medicine departments to deliver care more efficiently. The low-pressure virtual platform also permits families to seek care for behavioral sleep issues. While our department’s transition to predominantly virtual care occurred amidst a pandemic, with many confounding factors limiting the interpretation of the data we collected, the trends seen are very promising.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Aug 2022 05:42:36 PDT
  • Concordance in caregiver and child sleep health metrics among families
           experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage: A pilot study

    • Authors: Lauren Covington et al.
      Abstract: Purpose: Child and caregiver sleep occurs in a family system, with socioeconomically disadvantaged families experiencing disproportionately worse sleep health than more advantaged families. The extent to which objectively measured sleep health metrics (i.e., sleep duration, midpoint, regularity, efficiency) are concordant within disadvantaged family systems, including caregiver-child dyads, is not clear. To address this gap, this study aimed to: (1) characterize sleep health metrics and (2) identify levels of sleep health concordance among caregiver-child dyads living in families experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage.Design and methods: We enrolled 20 caregivers and 26 children in this micro-longitudinal study. Eligible primary caregivers slept in the same house as the child ≥4 nights/week and had no sleep disorders. Eligible children were aged 6-14 years and reported no medical problems. Dyads wore an actigraphy device continuously for 14 consecutive days. Sleep duration, bedtime, midpoint, and efficiency were estimated, and concordance evaluated using linear mixed modeling (R v.3.5.2).Results: Most caregivers were female (85%), Non-Hispanic Black (80%), and aged 40.45 years (SD=11.82). On average, caregivers were not meeting national recommendations for sleep duration and efficiency. Similarly, sleep duration recommendations were not met by child participants. Bivariate results showed that bedtime 𝑟=0.19, p
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 09:10:12 PDT
  • Guest Editor's Introduction

    • Authors: Binal Kancherla
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 09:10:05 PDT
  • Temporary Firearm Storage and Safe Firearm Storage Counseling at Gun
           Retailers and Ranges in the Greater Houston Area: A Potential New Partner
           in Addressing Child and Youth Firearm Injury'

    • Authors: Sandra McKay et al.
      Abstract: While firearm-related injuries are the leading cause of death among US children between 1-18, and account for nearly half of suicides among young people, public health experts continue to struggle in identifying efficacious mechanisms to reduce and prevent firearm access for children. Currently 4.8 million children live in a home with a loaded and unlocked firearm and more than a third of adolescents nationwide say that they can access a loaded firearm within five minutes. However, the risk of unintentional or self-inflicted firearm injury is lower if all household firearms are stored locked. It is imperative for parents to be counseled on safe firearm storage practices, and this has been studied within various healthcare settings. Yet, little is known about the impact on the education of safe firearm storage counseling within the community. Also, temporary emergency storage can be a vital option for families in crisis.We identified 130 firearm retailers and 31 firearm ranges in the Greater Houston Area and were able to successfully contact 66 retailers (51%) and 19 ranges (61%). Only 9% (n=8) of retailers and ranges contacted reported offering temporary emergency firearm storage. At point-of-sale, there was wide variation in the communication mechanisms employed in educating individuals on safe firearm storage practices including informational handouts, videos, posters, training classes, and verbal counseling. Collaborating with firearm retailers and ranges to introduce more consistent messaging on firearm safe storage at point-of-sale represents a novel approach to community-based interventions to firearm counseling and potentially suicide prevention.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2022 06:23:01 PDT
  • Wording Matters When Pediatricians Recommend HPV Vaccination

    • Authors: Lara S. Savas et al.
      Abstract: Background: Low adolescent HPV vaccination initiation due to parents declining vaccination remains a challenge for providers. In 2018, 65% of adolescent girls and 56% of adolescent boys in Texas initiated HPV vaccination. Gaps between HPV vaccination rates and those for Tdap (83%) and meningococcal vaccines (87%) among 13-17 year olds highlights missed opportunities to prevent HPV-related cancers. While leading medical organizations endorse a presumptive, bundled recommendation, in which the provider presents HPV vaccination the same way as other vaccines, bundled between Tdap and meningococcal at 11- or 12-year-old visits, provider recommendations vary.Methods: In 2015, we surveyed pediatricians in a large Texas pediatric clinic network to assess physician knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding adolescent HPV vaccination. To ascertain HPV vaccination outcomes, survey data were merged with patient electronic health records. We examined the association of pediatrician HPV vaccination recommendation and vaccination using multivariable multilevel generalized linear models clustered by physicians. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated.Results: Among 226 physicians, 59.8% completed the emailed survey. Controlling for patient and physician demographics, odds of HPV vaccination initiation were significantly increased if physicians used a bundled approach to recommend the HPV vaccine: “Your child is due for three vaccines: Tdap, HPV, and meningococcal vaccine” versus “Your child is due for two vaccines, Tdap and meningococcal. There is also the HPV vaccine, which is optional” (OR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.96).Conclusion: This study links physician HPV vaccine recommendation wording and outcomes, showing the significant effect of bundling HPV vaccination for adolescent patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 05:13:19 PDT
  • Comprehensive Local Injury Surveillance for Pediatric Fatal and Nonfatal
           Firearm Injury Prevention Planning

    • Authors: Bindi Naik-Mathuria et al.
      Abstract: Injury by firearm is now the leading cause of death in children in the U.S.. Effective injury prevention requires first defining the problem and identifying risk and protective factors before implementing prevention strategies. There is no comprehensive source available to define firearm injuries, especially at the local level. We propose a local firearm injury surveillance model based on the socio-ecological injury prevention framework that combines injury data from health care, law enforcement, county services, and census data that can help to guide targeted firearm injury prevention interventions.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 08:18:15 PDT
  • Traumatic pediatric firearm injuries during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Kristin G. Crichton et al.
      Abstract: Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this study is to epidemiologically describe firearms injuries treated at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare them to injuries seen in the year prior.Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of patients seen by pediatric trauma surgery for a firearm injury between February 1, 2019 and March 30, 2021; the pre-pandemic time period included February 1, 2019 – March 9, 2020 and the pandemic period included March 10, 2020 – March 31, 2021. We excluded patients with firearms injuries that were not assessed by trauma surgery and patients with injuries from non-powder guns.Results: Twenty-eight patients were seen for firearm injuries in the pre-pandemic period; 22 (78.5%) were male, and the mean age was 13.3 years, with 17.8% of patients < 10 years old. Sixteen (57.1%) were black, 8 (28.6%) white, and 4 (14.3%) multiracial. The pandemic period included 80 patients with firearm injuries, with 59 (74%) male, and a mean age of 12.5 years. Seventeen (21.5%) were < 10 years old. Fifty-six (70%) of patients during the pandemic period were black, 15 (20%) white, 6 (7.5%) multiracial, and 2 (2.5%) Hispanic. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups demographically. No patients were identified as having an intentional self-inflicted firearm injury.Conclusion: While there was a nearly threefold increase in pediatric firearm injuries seen during the pandemic, the demographics of the victims have not changed compared to pre-pandemic patterns. This reflects a need for ongoing and targeted preventive measures to reduce these extremely high-risk injuries.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 08:18:03 PDT
  • A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Parents’ Perspectives on the Acceptability
           of the S.A.F.E. Firearm Program

    • Authors: Katelin Hoskins et al.
      Abstract: Statement of Purpose:Pediatric firearm access is a significant risk factor for unintentional injury and suicide. This study investigated parents’ perspectives on an adapted firearm safety program, S.A.F.E. Firearm, to ensure acceptability and optimize effectiveness prior to the launch of an upcoming hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial.Methods/Approach: We administered a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of U.S. parents to measure the acceptability of S.A.F.E. Firearm and other key variables (e.g., relationship with pediatrician) that may impact our implementation approach. The sample included 97 participants (52 firearm-owning and 45 non-owning) from across the country. We also conducted semi-structured interviews using a Think Aloud exercise with 11 survey participants that were analyzed with directed content analysis.Results:The mean acceptability score was 4.35 [SD 0.52] on a 1-5 Likert scale, indicating that participants viewed S.A.F.E. Firearm as highly acceptable. Most participants (84%) either agreed or completely agreed with recommending that a friend receive S.A.F.E. Firearm. No significant differences in acceptability scores were found by firearm ownership status, gender, race and ethnicity, or region of residence. Parent-pediatrician depth of relationship was associated with acceptability (r= 0.21, p=.038). Interviews indicated that a collaborative approach to decision-making, neutral messaging, and provision of tangible resources were key factors that contributed to the program’s overall high acceptability scores.Conclusion & Significance:The present study served as the final check in our process of adapting an evidence-based safe firearm storage program to increase reach and effectiveness as a universal suicide prevention strategy in pediatric primary care. Convergent parent feedback confirms that S.A.F.E. Firearm is highly acceptable and ready for implementation. Moreover, our findings suggest that family-centeredness may be enhanced through explicit integration of parents’ needs and preferences into program refinements. Use of qualitative Think Aloud exercises with end user groups can add value when actual implementation of firearm safety programs can only be approximated.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 08:08:26 PDT
  • Guest Editor's Introduction

    • Authors: Katelyn Jetelina
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 08:08:20 PDT
  • A Quantitative Look at Incarcerated Parents and their Parenting
           Responsibilities in an Urban County Jail

    • Authors: Nancy P. Correa et al.
      Abstract: An emerging body of research has shown that parental incarceration can negatively impact the emotional, social, and developmental health of children. However, most of the research has been conducted within prison populations. To better understand the scope and potential impact of parental incarceration in a large urban county jail, we surveyed 1,404 inmates in a county jail on their children, parenting responsibilities, and history of incarceration. Nearly half of respondents stated they were parents of at least one child under the age of 18. Over 90% of the incarcerated parents had been to jail or prison previously, 61% reported being the primary financial support for their child(ren), and 62% lived with their children prior to incarceration. Incarcerated mothers were more likely to be have lived with their children and been the primary financial support for their children prior to incarceration compared to incarcerated fathers. Public health officials should recognize the downstream effects of parental incarceration in local jails and ensure appropriate resources, programs, and policies are in place to meet the needs of impacted children.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Apr 2022 05:02:41 PDT
  • Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Children’s Mental Health

    • Authors: Wuyue Yu et al.
      Abstract: Climate change and air pollution are twin global public health challenges of high priority. Sharing linked causes and solutions, both climate change and air pollution are suggested by a growing body of research to inflict negative mental health outcomes through multiple mechanisms. However, there are still gaps in understanding the links between climate change, air pollution and mental health, especially in children and adolescents, who are particularly at-risk. Current findings are summarized and their implications for future research as well as public health policies are discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 05:03:42 PDT
  • Chronic Conditions and Pediatric Healthcare Utilization during Warm
           Weather Days in New York City

    • Authors: Li Niu et al.
      Abstract: Background: While literature on the overall health burden of high temperature exposures on children continues to grow, little is known about whether children with chronic diseases are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health impacts of extreme heat.Methods: We used New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) data on children aged 0-18 years admitted to emergency department and hospitals during the warm months (May-September) from 2005 to 2011. We identified children with specific chronic diseases or conditions that plausibly enhance susceptibility to heat (i.e., asthma, obesity, cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait, and mental health disorders). We also identified children with a complex chronic condition (CCC) defined using the Feudtner classification scheme. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for mean daily relative humidity, to derive estimates of excess risk of pediatric admissions associated with daily maximum temperature (Tmax).Results: There were 2,480,556 pediatric cases in New York City during the study period; 90.8% (n = 2,252,550) occurred in emergency departments; chronic conditions appeared in 0.1% (sickle cell trait) up to 8.3% (asthma). The average Tmax was 80.3F (range 50F-104F). While we found an increase in overall pediatric admissions associated with Tmax, we found decreased risks among children with some specific categories of chronic conditions, including asthma, obesity, and mental health disorders. For children with CCC, temperature was associated with increased admissions when considering only the summer months. Conclusions: We found that children with chronic conditions show a complex pattern of risk of healthcare utilization. With further replication, our findings can help inform preparedness of the health system for prevention measures.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Dec 2021 13:39:13 PST
  • Can the Hunger Vital Sign™ act as a prescreen for other social

    • Authors: Richard Sheward et al.
      Abstract: Background: Addressing health-related social needs is essential for improving health and reducing longstanding disparities. However, barriers to screening – including clinician and patient time burden of screening for multiple social needs – limit identification. To address this concern and promote the uptake of screening by clinicians, it is important that screening tools effectively and efficiently identify social needs’ presence and absence among patients.Objective: This study evaluated whether a validated and widely implemented 2-question food insecurity screening tool, the Hunger Vital Sign™ (HVS™), has adequate negative predictive value to serve as a pre-screen for other social needs.Methods: In 2007-2015, Children's HealthWatch interviewed 28,611 publicly insured caregivers from households with low incomes with children age 0-48 months at 5 pediatric clinic/emergency departments (AR, MA, MD, MN, PA). Caregivers self-reported information about their households. Descriptive data were used to describe the sample and negative predictive value was calculated between the Hunger Vital Sign™ and other household hardships.Results: A negative Hunger Vital Sign™ identified 18,259 households (63.8%) as food secure. The negative predictive value in these households was 77.4% (95% CI 76.7, 78.2) for housing instability, 82.4% (95% CI 81.9, 83.0) for energy insecurity, 87.2% (95% CI 86.7, 87.7) for foregone health care at the household level, and 97.5% (95% CI 97.3, 97.7) at the child level. Results demonstrate, at varying levels, high NPV of the HVS™ to correctly identify other hardships’ absence, indicating that families who do not endorse the HVS™ may not be the highest priority for screening for other hardships. However, clinicians should be aware that roughly 20% of families who do not endorse the HVS™ do, in fact, experience other hardships and would not be identified as warranting further hardship-specific screening by this method.Conclusions: This is the first paper to our knowledge that examines the NPV of a screening tool for other social needs. While acknowledging the limited amount of time during a clinical visit, we recommend clinicians choose a multi-domain screener to obtain a nuanced understanding of their patients’ unique challenges. To best inform screening tool selection, providers seeking to screen for and address health-related social needs should first and foremost achieve clarity of purpose - by identifying the social needs of concern, the institution's ability to suitably identify those needs, and what targeted actions will be taken. Further research to replicate and expand these findings in diverse samples of children of varying ages and more economically diverse circumstances as well as in other geographic regions is needed to develop a maximally efficient approach for clinical screening for social determinants of health. Beyond adopting a SDOH framework, providers and the health care sector can advocate for strong evidence-based policies that enable them to better address health inequities and improve health outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 05:18:20 PST
  • Pediatric Climate Change Advocacy: A Call to Action for Health Care

    • Authors: Pragya Rai et al.
      Abstract: Climate change already besieges us. Using specific examples this paper highlights the impacts of climate change affecting children today, particularly those who disproportionately experience those impacts and beseeches pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in all types of practice settings to engage in climate change advocacy. Examples of organizational, educational, legislative/policy, and cooperative/community advocacy are provided. Pediatricians have been quick to recognize the threat of climate change, but broader engagement is needed from all health professions.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Nov 2021 08:29:00 PST
  • Risk and Resilience of Somali Children in the Context of Climate Change,
           Famine, and Conflict

    • Authors: Charles Oberg et al.
      Abstract: Climate change is an existential threat to all of humanity. Its impact on the children of Somalia provides insights into the severity of risks posed by climate change to current and future generations. Globally, there has been a continuous increase in mean annual temperatures since 1991 and scientists anticipate an increase of up to 4.3 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. Concomitantly, Somalia has experienced a decrease in annual rainfall, resulting in recurrent droughts. According to the UN’s emergency aid coordination office, these droughts have grown in frequency and intensity over the past three decades, fueling increased frequency of famine and contributing to internal conflict and civil war. In this article, the impact of climate change on children, exemplified by the plight of Somali children, is viewed through the lens of cumulative adversity and related consequences of poverty on malnutrition, illness, disruptions of family systems, and displacement, with a diaspora around the globe. The paper promotes a multi-systems resilience framework that guides strategies for addressing the complex, cascading crises that accompany climate change, exploring the construct of resilience from the individual/interpersonal level through family systems and communities, including a reframing of the Somali diaspora. The paper concludes with a series of global transnational policy recommendations based on children’s rights, the promotion of resilience, and approaching climate change from a child sensitive perspective, encouraging youth engagement and leadership, along with peace-building.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Nov 2021 08:53:03 PDT
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