Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing   (Total: 243 journals)

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Open J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Open J. of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Open J. of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open J. of Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Stomatology     Open Access  
Open J. of Synthesis Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Open J. of Therapy and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Thoracic Surgery     Open Access  
Open J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open J. of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Optics and Photonics J.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Pain Studies and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Positioning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Social Networking     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sociology Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soft     Open Access  
Soft Nanoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spectral Analysis Review     Open Access  
Stem Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Surgical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Investment     Open Access  
Theoretical Economics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wireless Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Wireless Sensor Network     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
World J. of AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World J. of Cardiovascular Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World J. of Cardiovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
World J. of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
World J. of Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
World J. of Nano Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
World J. of Neuroscience     Open Access  
World J. of Nuclear Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World J. of Vaccines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Yangtze Medicine     Open Access  

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ISSN (Print) 2331-4222 - ISSN (Online) 2331-4249
Published by Scientific Research Publishing Homepage  [243 journals]
  • Risk factors of miscarriage among pregnant women attending Omdurman
           maternity hospital

    • Authors: Remaz B. Mahmoud, Sara A. Saeed, Rana N. Mustafa
      Pages: 1287 - 1292
      Abstract: Background: Around 56 million miscarriages are performed each year in the world, with about 45% are done unsafely. Miscarriage poses great risks and complications that contribute to long-term physical and psychological problems. Good knowledge and practice related to pregnancy follow-up and avoiding the causes of miscarriage will reduce its risks significantly. Aim of current study was to determine and identify the rate and risk factors of miscarriage and the common causes of miscarriage among women in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan. In addition, to evaluate the level of awareness of the risks and complications of miscarriage among women attending the maternity hospital, Sudan. Methods: A quantitative, cross sectional study using questionnaires (N=100) was used in this study to determine the risk factors of miscarriage in women attending the maternity hospital in Omdurman, Sudan Results: The study revealed that miscarriages were not very frequent, and there was no significant family history of miscarriages. However, those who had a miscarriage were in the first trimester of pregnancy. One of the main causes of miscarriage is the presence of severe stress from work, illness and food poisoning. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest different interventions to reduce the risks of miscarriages such as educating mothers about antenatal care and to take precautions during the first trimester to avoid miscarriages and educating families about the risks of being in consanguineous relationships. In addition, raising awareness about contraceptive methods to reduce the rates of induced miscarriages.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230901
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the COVID-19 anxiety

    • Authors: Alshomrani A. T., Ayman M. El-Ashkar, Adel M. Aboregela, Abdulaziz Nasser Alshahrani, Abdullah Hassan Alhalafi
      Pages: 1293 - 1297
      Abstract: Background: Marked dysfunctional psychological consequences of COVID-19 necessitate an invention of new tailored scales that can assess and monitor these manifestations. Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) is new reliable and validated scale constructed to measure COVID-19-related anxiety. Objectives were to make a well-structured CAS Arabic version and to assess its validity. Methods: Sousa and Rojjanasriratw scale adaptation guidelines were followed for CAS translation to Arabic language and a survey of sociodemographic data, CAS and validated COVID-19 fear scale Arabic-version distributed to cross-sectional university students’ sample. Internal consistency, factor analysis, average variable extracted composite reliability, Pearson correlation, and mean differences were calculated. Results: 233 students responded to the survey, and 44.6% were female. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.94, item-total correlations 0.891-0.905 and inter-item correlations 0.722-0.805. The factor analysis test showed one factor that explains 80.76% of the cumulative variances, average variance extracted 0.80 and composite reliability 0.95, and the two scales’ correlation r-value was 0.472. No significant difference between the scales regarding the score means when compared. The independent t-test showed no differences in means within each identified sociodemographic group. Conclusions: The translated Arabic version of CAS has high internal consistency reliability and convergent validity values, and factor analysis addressed unidimensional measures. So, the Arabic CAS version is a reliable and valid version that maintains the original English scale reliability and validity properties.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230902
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Association between BMI and plantar fasciitis among hospital staff in a
           selected hospital of Dhaka city

    • Authors: Mohammad Yaqub Al-Ansary, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Samena Akter Kakuli, Mohammad Feroz Kabir, Mohammad Ershad Ali
      Pages: 1298 - 1301
      Abstract: Background: Plantar fasciitis described as the inflammation of planter fascia, particularly hampering an individual’s daily living activities related to ankle and foot that impact on quality of life. The study aimed to identify the association between BMI and planter fasciitis among hospital staff in a selected hospital in Dhaka city. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Results: Mean±SD age of the respondents were 29.03±6.56 years. Among the hospital staff, the majority of the respondents were nurses 31.25%, 13.02% respondents were physician and 2.07% of respondents were physiotherapists, others were pharmacist, lab technician, administration staff, cleaner, security, information technologists and officers from the maintenance department of selected hospital. According to BMI scale the 65% were normal weight, 23% were overweight and only 12% were obese. In this study respondents who have only two family members, have strong relationships with BMI (p<0.00). Besides, the duration of work has a slightly significant relation with BMI (p<0.03) and BMI has a strong impact on level of pain (p<0.01) among respondents. Conclusions: The recommendation for risk variables that have a strong correlation with plantar fasciitis is the working status, duration, and BMI.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230903
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Exposure to respirable dust and factors associated with abnormal pulmonary
           function among stone diggers in Kayole quarries, Nairobi City County,

    • Authors: Fredah Wanjiku Mwangi, Peterson Warutere, Anthony W. Nyambura
      Pages: 1302 - 1307
      Abstract: Background: In Kenya, the quarry industry suffers several constraints: some quarry workers get injured, others get chronic diseases, while some die. This study assessed occupational exposure to respirable dust and factors associated with abnormal pulmonary function among quarry stone diggers in Mihang’o and Matopeni quarries in Kayole Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methods: The study was done in Mihang’o and Matopeni quarries. An analytical cross-sectional design was used and a sample size of 165 respondents was taken. An interviewer administered semi structured questionnaire. Spirometry tests were done by a qualified technician to assess pulmonary function. Respirable dust levels were determined with the aid of a particle counter. Descriptive statistics like frequency, means were used to summarize data and results were presented in frequency tables and graphs. Chi square tests and logistic regression were done. T tests were done to compare the means of dust levels in the two quarries. Results: This study found the daily mean levels of PM2.5 and PM10 were higher than the levels recommended by WHO. The age of the respondents, presence of respiratory symptoms, years of work experience, nostril covering, and smoking were factors associated with abnormal pulmonary function at (p≤0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, chronic exposure to quarry dust increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms and abnormal pulmonary function. This study recommended that routine particulate matter monitoring should be done in Nairobi quarries to provide data that can inform decisions on air pollution control actions.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230904
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among under-five children in
           Southwest, Nigeria

    • Authors: Kayode Ogunniyi, Akin Oyebade, James Atolagbe
      Pages: 1308 - 1315
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition refers to deficiencies or excesses in nutrient intake, imbalance of essential nutrients or impaired nutrient utilization. Around 45% of deaths among children under-five years are linked to undernutrition which mostly occurs in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assess determinants of undernutrition among under five children in South West of Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study design, multi stage sampling method and sample size of 327 under-five children were utilized for the study. Results: The prevalence of underweight was 30.6%, overweight was 2.1% and normal weight for age nutritional status was 67.3%. More males (19.6%) than females (11%) accounted for prevalence of underweight. Majority (25.7%) of underweight under five years children were in the age group of 0-11 months, 4.6% in age group 12-29 months and 0.3% in age group 30-39 months. This study revealed statistically significant association between underweight nutritional status and child’s sex (male, p=0.006), knowledge of importance of vaccination against vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) on nutrition (p=0.01) and presence of clinical signs of malnutrition (hair changes p=0.003, swelling of legs 0.006 and pallor of mucus membrane p=0.006). Conclusions: There is need to implement urgent nutritional intervention to reduce the high prevalence of malnutrition in Ede North LGA. Food security should be improved and high levels of inflation should be reduced to enable mothers to have access to food items. Health education should be intensified to educate mothers on prevention of early malnutrition and importance of vaccination against VPDs.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230905
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Multiple sexual abuse among children in Kaduna State, North-western
           Nigeria: Does victim’s gender play a role'

    • Authors: Auwal G. Suleiman
      Pages: 1316 - 1321
      Abstract: Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a human rights violation that affects millions of children globally. Many children continue to suffer sexual abuse, often due to non-disclosure of abuse. Disclosure is influenced by gender and the aim of this study was to assess whether gender was associated with multiple CSA experience. Methods: Data for this study came from a review of 420 medical reports retrieved from one of seven police area commands in Kaduna State, over a period of four years (2018-2021). Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to check for associations between multiple CSA experience and socio-demographic characteristics of the victims and their assailants at p value less than 0.05. Results: Among all victims, multiple CSA experience was significantly associated with male gender (χ2=11.99, p=0.001) and familiarity with assailant (χ2=13.63, p<0.001). Among male victims only, multiple CSA experience was not significantly associated with age of victim, familiarity with assailant, age of assailant or number of assailants (P>0.05). However, among female victims, multiple CSA experience was significantly associated with older age of victims (χ2=8.57, p=0.036), being familiar with the assailant (χ2=14.78, p<0.001) and older age of assailant (χ2 =8.13, p=0.017). Conclusions: Male gender was significantly associated with multiple CSA experience. Important associations between multiple CSA experience and socio-demographic characteristics of both the victims and their assailants were demonstrated among female but not male victims. More studies are needed to further understand these associations and provide recommendations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230906
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Influence of socio-cultural factors on hepatitis B infection in Mombasa
           County, Kenya

    • Authors: Jennifer M. Ndunda, Harun Kimani, George Orinda, Syprine Otieno
      Pages: 1322 - 1327
      Abstract: Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for causing a communicable liver disease that can be prevented through vaccination. Although the HBV vaccine was introduced in Kenya’s expanded immunization program in 2003, the incidence of HBV remains high in the country, especially among IDUs. Objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural factors on HBV infection in Mombasa County, Kenya. Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional analytical design. The study was purposely conducted in Mombasa County because the area is highly prevalent with drug users and people with hepatitis B. There are eight treatment centers in the county, 4 public and 4 privates where stratified random sampling was used. The sample size was proportionately distributed across the selected treatment centers. The study employed a mixed method of data collection, involved; self-administered questionnaire to the IDU’s, key informant interviews and focused group discussion with treatment care managers. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis B was 22%; with male (77.1%) most affected than women (22.9%). Bivariate analysis show that a history of drug abuse was significantly associated with prevalence of hepatitis B (χ2=2.485, df=1, p=0.046). Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatitis B is on the increase among injecting drug users. Having a history of drug abuse was a significant predictor to the prevalence of hepatitis B among injecting drug users in this study. Cultural practices such as piercing and tattooing were observed among study participants were established as a risk factor to hepatitis B infection among injecting drug users.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230907
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Knowledge, attitude, and practice study of Middle East respiratory
           syndrome Coronavirus in Oman

    • Authors: Jabir Al Araimi, Anbu Clemensis Johnson, Mohammed Juma Al Areimi
      Pages: 1328 - 1341
      Abstract: Background: In the 21st century, there has been an increase in the spread of various diseases. Middle East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) disease is one of them. In order to contain and eradicate the spread of MERS-CoV, assessing public knowledge, attitude, and practice is important. This public study was conducted in the eleven governorates of Oman for its assessment. Methods: A national level cross-sectional survey was conducted online for a period of nine days using a questionnaire that contained forty-one questions. The questions were designed to evaluate public perception and understanding of MERS-CoV disease. The acquired data were analysed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 505 people participated in the survey. The majority of the participants were males from the Muscat region (46%). The ages of the participants were between <20 to 60 years. The survey revealed that 60% of the participants were unaware about the disease (p<0.001) and about 48% (p=0.003) of them were unsure about the symptoms of the disease. Most people had a positive attitude towards preventing the spread of the infection. Adherence to precautionary measures was higher among the female participants (69%, p=0.021). Primary information source for the public was through social media. Conclusions: Overall, the surveyed population had a varied perspective about the disease and fair knowledge on the preventive measures. However, a large percentage of the participants were unclear about the epidemic situation and lacked knowledge on the disease, but showed a positive attitude towards curbing the spread of infection.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230908
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Effect of screen time use and digital technology on sleep pattern in
           Lebanese college students

    • Authors: Krystel Chahine, Annick Pelletier, Nathalie Chahine
      Pages: 1342 - 1349
      Abstract: Background: Communication technologies are tremendously expanding and disturbing our lifestyles, especially those of adolescents. Their misuse has been associated with negative consequences for sleep quality and school performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between times spent using a device with a screen, the quality of sleep, and the associated factors. Methods: 657 students were enrolled from 22 secondary colleges in greater Beirut (Lebanon) to participate in a cross-sectional descriptive observational study. The questionnaire was focused on the time spent on digital screens, lifestyle habits, sleep schedule, biometrics, and family data. SPSS 24 was used to analyse descriptive statistics, correlation and variance analysis. Results: 90% of students possess at least one screen in their bedroom. Mostly during weekdays, spending more than 4 hours daily in front of screens decreased duration and quality of sleep as well as the daytime fatigue, delayed bed time and increased low grades (p<0.05). This was significantly associated with having a screen device in the bedroom, using a screen before falling asleep, living in rich neighborhoods with a high family income, a divorced couple, and no extra-scholar sport. The average sleep duration of students was 6 hours 58 minutes during the week and 8 hours 55 minutes during the weekend trying to recover from sleep deprivation. Conclusions: The quality of sleep worsens with increasing levels of screen use. It is becoming imperative to develop prevention campaigns within colleges, and to foster rational use of screens that honors sleep hygiene.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230909
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Donor’s perspectives on blood donation and challenges of National Blood
           Center, Yangon, during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Yan L. Maung, Aye A. Win, Kyaw S. Mya
      Pages: 1350 - 1361
      Abstract: Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing major disruption at all levels of healthcare services, including blood bank services globally. The donors’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding blood donation in Myanmar are needed to be considered. Hence, we studied the perspectives of blood donors on their donation and the challenges faced by the National Blood Centre, Yangon (NBC), during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted the cross-sectional descriptive study using mixed methods among blood donors aged 20 years and above for quantitative approach and among three purposively selected blood bank experts for key informant interviews of qualitative portion. Results: Of the 240 donors, the mean age was 36.41±10.83 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.24:1. Overall, regarding blood donation, 57.1% had favorable knowledge, 59.2% had favorable attitude, and 31.3% had regular voluntary practice. The higher-income donors had more favorable knowledge (p=0.013). Male donors (p=0.037), donors aged 50 years and above (p<0.001), and who with favorable knowledge (p=0.002) had regular voluntary practice. The more knowledge and positive attitude the donors had, the more times they donated blood. Thematic analysis identified five key themes and during pandemic, NBC encountered reduced blood supply and demand, communication problems with donors, human resources shortage, poor adherence to safety precautions of COVID-19 among donors and staff, and difficulty in arrangement of continuous consumable supply and maintenance as main challenges. Conclusions: Policymakers and medical directors should have proper plans and policies to raise awareness, mobilize regular voluntary donors, especially youth and repeated donors, and recruit potential donors.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230910
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Technical factors influencing the use of data for evidence-based decision
           making amongst health workers at Kisumu County, Kenya

    • Authors: Morike Tom, Isaac Mwanzo, George Otieno, Peter Kamau
      Pages: 1362 - 1368
      Abstract: Background: Health information system is a system that integrates data collection, processing, reporting, and use to influence policy-making, program action, and research, but 43% lack data analysis and interpretation skills and 42% use data to influence budget preparation. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional design was used to study 205 HCWs in selected health facilities. Data was collected using a researcher-administered structured questionnaire and Key Informant Interview. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 26.0 and involved univariate and bivariate analysis. Chi-square were used to test the significance of the association between the dependent and independent variables (p<0.05). Qualitative data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results: Over a third of respondents 77 (37.6%) rarely used routine data for decision making. Additionally, 66 (32.2%) and 62 (30.2%) sometimes and always use the routine data/health information generated for decision making. The results indicate statistically significant association between extent of training on data utilization (ꭓ2=8.690, df=2, p=0.008), overall levels of competency (ꭓ2=14.340; df 3; p=0.026) and access to routine data (ꭓ2=11.823; df 1; p=0.003) with the use of routine data for decision making. Conclusions: Healthcare workers use routine health information for decision making, but information culture is not yet achieved due to decisions based on health needs, cost, personal liking and superiors' directives. To create organizational culture, hospital management, donors and other stakeholders should provide continuous training to health workers with specific focus on use of routine health information.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230911
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Comparison of perioperative outcomes of different routes of
           hysterectomies- total abdominal, vaginal and laparoscopic, in a tertiary
           care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

    • Authors: Sarah Rehman, Munazza Akhtar, Mahnoor Niaz, Muhammad Mussab Khakwani, Saif Ullah Khan, Muhammad Bin Hammad, Uzma Chishti
      Pages: 1369 - 1374
      Abstract: Background: This study was conducted to compare the perioperative findings among women undergoing hysterectomy by abdominal (TAH), vaginal (VH) and laparoscopic (TLH) routes. Methods: A 5-year cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2015-December 2020 to compare perioperative outcomes of the different routes of hysterectomies. Medical record review of 385 patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign conditions were reviewed and analysed, out of which 195 (50.6%) underwent TAH, 96 (24.9%) VH and 94 (24.4%) were operated laparoscopically. Patients with uncontrolled medical comorbid, history of 2 or more abdominal surgeries and uterine size of more than 14 weeks were excluded from the study. Results: revealed significant difference between the mean hospital stay of patients with TAH having the highest mean stay in days (TAH=4.8±1.01, VH=4.4±0.7 and TLH=3.9±0.82 in days; p<0.01) TLH took comparatively significantly longer operating time than TAH (p=0.0005) and VH groups (p=0.004) however, median estimated blood loss was significantly lower in women who underwent TLH as compare to TAH [median (25th-75th percentile); 100 (50-200)] versus 300 (200-500); p<0.01] and VH [100 (50-200)] versus 250 (100-400); p<0.01]. The incidence of post-operative complications was less than 3% and these were observed in women underwent TAH. Conclusions: VH and TLH have lesser complications and hospitalization days as compared to TAH, making these 2 methods superior. Informed decision making by patient and surgeon’s training together can account for choosing the best method of hysterectomy suitable to the patient.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230912
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Patients’ perception of quality of tuberculosis healthcare service
           in South West Nigeria

    • Authors: Akin Oyebade, Olatoun Adeola, Timothy Akinmurele, Olaniyi Taiwo, Adeniyi Oginni, Isiaka Adekunle, Maroof Gbadamosi
      Pages: 1375 - 1382
      Abstract: Background: Nigeria has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa and is among the 14 countries in all the 3 world health organization global high-burden countries for TB, TB/HIV and MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ perception of the quality of TB healthcare in Southwest Nigeria Methods: The study utilized the cross-sectional design, and data was collected from drug-sensitive TB clients receiving care at health facilities providing TB healthcare services Results: The average time clients spent to get to TB facilities from home was 23 minutes, the average waiting time was 6.7 minutes, and the average medical visit time was 17 minutes. Sixty-seven percent of respondents strongly agreed that doctors explained medical test result with them and 68.7% strongly agree that they wanted the medical doctors to spend more time with them. The mean score for convenience of accessing drugs was 4.8±0.5 mins, mean score for convenience of accessing laboratory test was 4.7±0.6 mins and mean score for convenience of accessing chest x-ray was 3.8±1.4 mins. Overall, the quality of TB care was perceived to be good. Conclusions: Overall, the quality of TB services is very good from the perspectives of the patient, however, there is need to improve integrated patient-centered TB healthcare services by medical doctors. In addition, access to chest x-ray services should be improved to enhance quality of TB services.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230913
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A community-based study on the sociodemographic factors and knowledge
           regarding cervical cancer among women residing in an urban slum of Patna

    • Authors: Shivani Sinha, Sanjay Kumar, Aman Kumar, Tajwar Yasmeen
      Pages: 1383 - 1386
      Abstract: Background: Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a major health problem faced by the Indian women. Every year approximately 120000 women develop this disease. India accounts for 15.2% percent of the total cervical cancer deaths globally. Objective to assess the sociodemographic factors and knowledge regarding cervical cancer and associated risk factors among women of age group 20-60 years. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 20-60 years residing in the urban field practice area attached to the department of community medicine of a tertiary care centre from June 2018 to May 2019 that is for a span of 12 months. The survey included demographic data such as age, education level, occupation, religion, socioeconomic status, parity, age of marriage, age at birth of first child. Results: In the present study about 60% of the female had knowledge that menstrual abnormality is also a risk factor for cancer cervix. Only 60% of the female in our study reported that early marriage is also a risk factor for cancer cervix. A lower (30%) percent of the female in our study had knowledge that vaginal discharge is also a risk factor for cancer cervix. Conclusions: The present study aimed to assess the socio-demographic factors and knowledge regarding cervical cancer among women of age group 20-60 years residing in an urban slum of Patna district. With prior knowledge of risk factors, cervical cancer can be identified. Identification of high‑risk populations and starting early screening was found to be effective in early recognition of cervical cancer.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230668
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Maternal satisfaction with childbirth services among postnatal mothers at
           a primary health center

    • Authors: Himanshu Vyas, Mariam Odathakkal Joseph, Pankaj Bhardwaj
      Pages: 1387 - 1390
      Abstract: Background: Primary health centers (PHC) are the first point of contact among the public and structured health services. Maternal satisfaction is an indicator of the quality of services received by the mother during their childbirth experience at the primary health centers. This study aimed to assess the maternal satisfaction of postnatal mothers with childbirth services at a primary health center. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken at a conveniently selected 24-hour functional primary health center. Maternal satisfaction of mothers delivering at the selected PHC was assessed by using the standardized SMMS tool. 36 mothers selected by convenience sampling were interviewed. Results: All (100%) mothers were satisfied with their childbirth experience (overall mean score 143.3 and SD 5.68). Mothers expressed their highest level of satisfaction with the childbirth experience as one of their best experiences (4.9±.3), they agreed that doctors did all interventions they could do (4.8±0.4) and also, they said that doctors and nurses explained them about all new situations related to labor (4.4±0.5). Mothers were least satisfied with the management of labor pain (1.9±1), nurses could have given them a little more time to start their breast feed (3.1±0.8) and if they could have started breast-feeding a little early (3.2±1.2). Conclusions: Maternal satisfaction is an important indicator of maternal and newborn services provided at any health care facility. Assessing the mother’s perspective is a good determinant of their expectations and can help improve the quality of services at the primary health centers.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230678
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Depression among elderly and their perceived social support in a community
           development block of Purba Bardhaman district, West Bengal: a cross
           sectional study

    • Authors: Anagh Banerjee, Pramit Goswami, Sutapa Mandal, Pranita Taraphdar
      Pages: 1391 - 1398
      Abstract: Background: Elderly depression is major public health concern. It causes significant morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. The study aimed to estimate prevalence of elderly depression in a rural area of Purba Bardhaman district, West Bengal and to ascertain their level of perceived social support. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Bhatar community development block of Purba Bardhaman district, West Bengal, during period of August 2022 to January 2023. A calculated sample of 238 elderly people were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed with a predesigned, pretested schedule containing geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) for assessing depression, Katz index for independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and multidimensional scale for perceived social support (MSPSS) to assess level of perceived social support. Multivariable logistic regression was done to find out predictors of elderly depression. Results: Out of 238 study participants, 160 (67.2%) were suffering from depression. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depression was 49.2%, 14.6% and 3.4% respectively. Low, medium and high level of perceived social support was found in 36.6%, 44.1% and 19.3% study participants, respectively. Impairment in ADL [AOR: 5.045 (2.145-11.868)], presence of financial dependence [AOR: 2.977 (1.330-6.665)], pre-existing one or more co-morbidities [AOR: 2.044 (1.114-3.749)] and educational status below secondary level [AOR: 0.379 (0.199-0.720) were found to be significant predictors of elderly-depression. Conclusions: Prevalence of depression is high among elderly, along with low perceived social support. Health promotion, awareness generation about social security schemes and family support are crucial to prevent elderly depression.
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230695
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A clinico-epidemiological study of mucocutaneous disorders in geriatric

    • Authors: Vidya Basavaraju, Chetan Bukanakere Lakshmikantha, Lata Radhakrishna Kollur
      Pages: 1399 - 1404
      Abstract: Background: The study was done to determine clinical patterns and frequency of mucocutaneous manifestations in the elderly. Objectives to study the demographic profile of geriatric patients attending the dermatology outpatient department, JJM medical college, Davanagere and to study the clinical pattern of various mucocutaneous disorders in the geriatric population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on geriatric patients. A detailed history and mucocutaneous examinations were done. Skin changes were classified into physiological and pathological changes. Results: Out of 409 patients, 69.4% were males and 30.6% were females. The age range was from 60 to 74 years, with the mean age being 73.34±6.230 years. Pruritus was the most common complaint. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), physiological changes, and wrinkling were the associated findings. Conclusions: This study gives an understanding of the pattern of geriatric dermatoses that aid in early diagnosis and management.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230914
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Understanding the linkages between sustainable development goal 3 and
           other sustainable development goals in India

    • Authors: Deepika Phukan, Kaushalendra Kumar
      Pages: 1405 - 1409
      Abstract: Background: Despite sustainable development goals (SDG) accounting for numerous goals and targets, all of them are interconnected. Methods: Using NITI (National institution for transforming India) Aayog's SDG indexes and indicators, the current study examines the interlinkage between SDG 3 indicators-neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) and other SDGs indicators in India. Results: Spearman's correlation suggests SDG 3 has a synergetic relationship with SDG 7 (Affordable and clean energy), SDG 1 (No poverty), and SDG 5 (Gender equality). On the other hand, significant negative correlations have been seen between zero hunger (SDG 2), quality education (SDG 4), no poverty (SDG 1), and industry, innovation, and infrastructure (SDG 9) with neonatal, and U5MR. It suggested that reducing poverty, improving quality education, and taking action to address climate change are statistically linked with progress in SDG 3. Conclusions: The study confirms the relevance of interactions between the SDGs. The study suggested more research and interlinked policies will be needed to achieve SDG 3 by 2030.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230915
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Smartphone based 12 lead ECG as decision support in STEMI: a prospective,
           cross sectional study, non-randomised, single blinded and single-center

    • Authors: Sahil Mahajan, Salil Garg, Richa Sharma, Yogendra Singh, Nitin Chandola, Tanuj Bhatia, Basundhara Bansal
      Pages: 1410 - 1414
      Abstract: Background: When a severe heart attack called a ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is not treated, heart muscle is killed per minute. Hence, early detection and treatment are essential for patient survival. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy for detection of (a) the ST elevation myocardial infarction of smartphone 12 lead ECG system in comparison to 12 lead gold standard hospital ECG machine; and (b) classification of STEMI in smartphone ECG and hospital ECG. Methods: This prospective, cross sectional study, non-randomised, single blinded and single-center study was carried out at Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital (SMIH), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India from 30 May 2022 to 17 January 2023. All patients (n=154) with chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitation under the observations before and after the Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) like Coronary angioplasty, bypass surgery were enrolled from Critical care unit (CCU) and intensive critical care unit (ICCU). Results: Mean age (SD) was 53.90±11.7 years. The male gender (83.12%) shows the maximum frequency than female gender. True positive cases derived from confusion matrix for 12 lead standard ECG and smartphone ECG in comparison to cardiologist diagnosis was 113 as compared to 129 from 12 lead Gold standard. Sensitivity of smartphone Spandan ECG (87.5%) was comparable to gold standard 12 lead ECG (98.4%). And, specificity and PPV of smartphone Spandan ECG was recorded to be better than gold standard 12 Lead ECG. STEMI was detected correctly in 132 (86.3%) cases and 141 (80.85%) cases by smartphone ECG and 12 lead Gold standard, respectively. Conclusions: Spandan ECG device scored a high accuracy and sensitivity. The overall accuracy of smartphone ECG in detecting the STEMI increased by 5.45%, i.e. the significance rise in accuracy of computer interpretation when compared to the cardiologists’ diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230916
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Knowledge regarding breast self-examination among middle aged women of

    • Authors: Divya Kothiyal, Geetika Pokhriyal, Mukul Payal, Raveena Rawat, Shagun Juyal, Sheetal Rathi, Namrata Pundir, Sonia Rawat
      Pages: 1415 - 1418
      Abstract: Background: Breast self-examination involves the women herself looking at the mirror and feeling each breast for possible lumps and distortion or swelling. It is seen that more than 10% to 20% breast cancer is detected by breast self-examination. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge regarding breast self-examination among middle aged women in a selected community setting of Uttarakhand. A total of 62 samples were selected through systematic randomized sampling technique. A structured knowledge questionnaire was administered through interview technique to assess the knowledge. Results: Most of the (49%) women had poor knowledge regarding breast self-examination. There was significant association between age of the samples, education status, family income and previous information regarding breast self-examination with knowledge score. Conclusions: The study concluded that there was inadequate knowledge regarding breast self-examination among middle aged women in Uttarakhand. There is a need for educational programs to create awareness and improve knowledge regarding routine breast self-examination.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230917
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A study to explore patterns and factors of depression, anxiety and stress
           among students preparing for competitive exams in central India

    • Authors: Neeti Pachole, Aditya Thakur, Manish Menon, Kunal Peepre
      Pages: 1419 - 1425
      Abstract: Background: Depression, stress and anxiety among students is being increasingly recognized as a major mental health problem. Depression is a common but grave mood disorder. Many chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children. Objectives of current study were to explore the level of depression, anxiety and stress and to identify various factors associated with it. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study on 400 students preparing for competitive exams, using a questionnaire having socio demographic profile and DASS 21 scale was carried out. Then data was entered in MS excel and SPSS Software was used for relevant inferential statistical tests of associations. Results: 65.8 % of participants were less than 18 years of age and 57.3 % were males.20.3 % of students were found to be having moderate depression, 8.8 % having severe depression, 17.8 % having moderate anxiety, 27.3% having severe anxiety, 14.8 % having moderate stress, 12 % having severe stress. Stress was found to be significant in females and those having more than 2 siblings. Significant anxiety was found in those having non supportive teachers. Significant depression was found in those having non supportive teachers and parents, those who sleep for less than 6 hours and those spending less than 2 hours on study. Conclusions: Study highlighted common factors leading to depression anxiety and stress among students. Parents and teacher are recommended to develop proper communication and be aware of this problem.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230918
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Spousal violence among consanguineous marriage in India: a
           social-ecological analysis using nationally representative cross-sectional

    • Authors: Jeetendra Yadav, Rajan Ram, Savita Devi, Mahesh Nath Singh, Anjali Saxena, Gajraj Singh
      Pages: 1426 - 1437
      Abstract: Background: Marriage is a second most event after birth. Wikipedia states consanguinity marriage as the property of being from the same kinship as another India is a socially and culturally diverse country, which is also reflected in considerable variation in the prevalence of IPV across regions. The aim of study to identify the prevalence and the factors influencing the spousal violence among consanguineous marriage in India. Methods: The present study utilised the fourth wave of the National family health survey (2015-16), the Indian version of the demographic and health survey. Descriptive, bivariate with Chi-square tests and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses were done to determine the extent of association between spousal violence and various predicter variables. Results: The study established the prevalence of spousal violence among consanguineous marriage were higher (33.0%) compared with spousal violence among non-consanguineous marriage (26.0%). Women those who get married with any blood relation experienced more physical violence (16.6%), emotional (27.7%), sexual (7.6%) compared with women those who get marriage with non-blood relation, physical violence (11.0%), emotional (22.4%), sexual (5.5%) respectively. Conclusions: The finding is expected to contribute to formulating an appropriate policy to combat Spouse violence in consanguineous marriage among women at the national level of India. The study also showed a significant association between consanguinity and experience more emotional as compared to physical and sexual violence. The results argue for manipulating contextual factors to empower women to challenge gender-related equations and investing in education for gender sensitization at the higher-level social ecologies.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230919
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A cross sectional study on health status of adolescents in urban field
           practice area of tertiary care hospital in central India

    • Authors: Ashish T. Nimje, Avinash V. Gawande, Uday W. Narlawar, Wandana H. Padole
      Pages: 1438 - 1442
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is defined by WHO as the age group of 10-19 years. In India, adolescents (10-19 years) constitute about 21.4 percent of the population, comprising one fifth of the total population. Adolescents are apparently healthy people but they may also have various kinds of problems. If they are to reach adulthood in a healthy state, then it’s necessary to analyze the common health problems prevalent in this age-group so that targeted and concerted services could be provided to them. Objective of current study was to assess the health status of adolescents in urban field practice area of tertiary care hospital in Central India. Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in urban field practice area of Government Medical College and Hospital Nagpur. House to house survey was conducted among 330 adolescents out of which 214 (64.84%) were male and 116 (35.16%) were female. Results: In present study most common morbidity found was dandruff in 127 (38.48%) adolescents followed by acne vulgaris in 102 (30.90%). Anemia was present in 52 (15.75%) of study subjects. Out of 237 morbid study subject, 114 (48.10%) study subjects had single morbidity followed by 2 and 3 morbidities in 52 (21.94%) and 63 (26.59%) respectively. About 8 (3.37%) study subjects had more than 3 morbidities. Conclusions: The present study shows that adolescents experience various health problems. Predominant morbidities observed in study subjects are dandruff (pityriasis capitis), acne vulgaris, anaemia, dental carries.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230920
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Has childlessness rate increased in India' Evidence from national
           family health surveys

    • Authors: Adrita Banerjee, Ajeet K. Singh
      Pages: 1443 - 1451
      Abstract: Background: In the recent years developing countries have been experiencing an increase in the number of women without children. Is India also one of them' This paper tries to analyse whether childlessness has increased in India and what are the factors which determine childlessness. Methods: The present paper uses cross sectional data from the fourth and fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS 4 and NFHS 5). The analysis is based on complete childlessness which includes women above 40 years of age. Bi-variate analysis and binary logistic regression has been used. Results: The results indicate that overall, 7% of women were childless in India in 2015-2016 which increased to 12% in 2019-2021; the increase was statistically significant. Childlessness was positively associated with level of education, age at marriage, body mass index (BMI) level, and presence of thyroid. Urban women were more prone to experience childlessness. Conclusions: Although childlessness is less in India compared to the developed world, the percentage of childless women is likely to rise given the increasing trends of woman’s schooling, age at marriage, media exposure, etc. This would in turn increase the demand on reproductive health care services.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230921
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A comparative study to assess hypochondrial attitude among nursing and
           other department students of Eternal University Baru Sahib, Himachal

    • Authors: Kavita Verma, Kirti Mehta, Bipasha Rawat, Kritika Sharma, Manasvi, Manju Rathoure
      Pages: 1452 - 1458
      Abstract: Background: Hypochondrial attitude is a cognitive and thought process in which person lives with the fear that they have some kind of serious illness but undiagnosed condition. The aim of this study was to examine the sample of students in order to assess and compare the degree of hypochondrial attitude among nursing and other department student. Methods: Total sample size was 310, among them 155 nursing student and 155 other department students were recruited through a convenient sampling technique. Online survey was employed using socio-demographical questionnaire and Whiteley index. Results: Among all participants, hypochondrial attitude prevalence is higher among nursing students then other department students. In the present study, mild (55% in nursing students while 65% in other department students), moderate (43% in nursing students while 34% in other department students) and severe (2% in nursing student and 1% in other department students) hypochondrial attitude was assessed. Furthermore, nursing students are significantly associated with hypochondrial attitude. The highly significant association was assessed among age (0.000), academic year (0.000), diagnose with serious illness (0.000) and the significant once was the number of sibling (0.13), personality (0.015), visit to physician (0.005) and fear of getting covid 19 during pandemic (0.002), there was no significant association between demographic variable and hypochondrial attitude in other department students i.e., p<0.01. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study shows that there is higher prevalence of hypochondrial attitude among nursing students. At last it was suggested that counseling and support services are necessary for nursing students.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230922
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A non-surgical conservative management of congenital dacryostenosis

    • Authors: Namrata Srivastava, P. N. Dwivedi, Haleema Sadiya
      Pages: 1459 - 1463
      Abstract: Background: Congenital canaliculus stenosis often occurs in about 25-30% of all new born. In many cases, a narrowing of the Nasolacrimal duct can be seen due to a persistent of Hasner membrane. Conservative treatment begins with lacrimal sac massage in the first month of life. This study was conducted to determine non-surgical conservative treatment for congenital lacrimal stenosis in infants and young children. Study design: prospective observational study. The settings are the “Satya eye hospital and research institute”, Kanpur UP from December 2015 to October 2017. Methods: Nasal sac massage (Crigler massage) with or without topical antibiotics was recommended for 281 children less than 10 months of age diagnosed with congenital canaliculus stenosis. Resolution of lacrimal stenosis was assessed at 4 and 7 months and was defined as the absence of any clinical signs of NLDO. At 7 months, at visits, 244 eyes (83%) of 281 patients showed conservative treatment. Results: Conservative treatment of CNLD with Crigler massage was successful in most cases treated in 281 (84%) of 335 eyes with congenital canaliculus stenosis. The remaining 54 (16%) eyes were examined. Age (p=0.001) and unilaterality (p=0.001) were found to be associated with the loss of clinical signs. Conclusions: In this study, we conclude that nonsurgical conservative treatment has a high overall success rate for congenital canaliculus stenosis and that this form of treatment can be considered one of the best options in infants and young children.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230923
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Evaluation of transmission capacity of houseflies and cockroaches for
           pathogenic human intestinal parasites

    • Authors: Ashok J. Patil
      Pages: 1464 - 1468
      Abstract: Background: Household insects like houseflies and cockroaches are found in close proximation with human and animal habitations. These insects act as mechanical vectors for medically important pathogens and parasites. The present study aimed to identify the presence of human intestinal parasites transmitted by these insects in the present study area. Methods: Collection of these insects were carried out for a period of six months (June to November, 2021) from areas like kitchen, college canteen, garbage piles, fish and meat shops. Microscopic examination showed presence of pathogenic human intestinal parasites and pathogens. Results: Of the total collected flies and cockroaches, 157 (61.3%) flies and 72 (52.2%) cockroaches were found to be carriers of medically important parasites and pathogens. A total of three protozoan (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Balantidium coli) and three helminth parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm) were isolated from these insects. The most common protozoan and helminth parasites were Giardia intestinalis and Ascaris lumbricoides. There is significant difference between number of protozoan and helminth parasite on a single housefly and cockroach. Similarly, females of both the insect were found to be more vectorial than males. There was also correlation between the incidence of diarrhea and gastrointestinal tract infection and number of positive flies. Conclusion: These findings imply that both insects in the current study area should be considered as possible mechanical vectors of human intestinal parasites.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230924
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • The impact of telemedicine services on primary health care - before and
           after analysis- Jharkhand digital dispensary model

    • Authors: Santos Das, Akhila Kosuru, Tamil Maran, Vikram Thaploo
      Pages: 1469 - 1473
      Abstract: Background: The service utilization at primary health cares (PHCs) by the rural population is challenging considering the lack of service availability and health care practitioners. Telemedicine and digitization of services have high potential to address the service provision gaps. Government of Jharkhand and Apollo tele health services-initiated PPP project to provide digital healthcare (digital dispensary) services at 100 rural PHCs in the state of Jharkhand. Methods: The research study seeks to explore before and after impact of telemedicine services at the government run PHCs at Jharkhand. This retrospective analysis of health management information system (HMIS) and Jharkhand digital dispensary (JHDD) project data was performed for 19 PHCs out of 100 where JHDD project has been initiated. A pre-post study design was used to understand the impact of JHDD project implementation and uptake of outpatient department (OPD) utilization. The 19 centers were randomly selected using selective sampling, considering the data availability and travelling restrictions. Primary baseline data was analyzed in the excel sheet and secondary data- was entered, verified, and analyzed with statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 25. Results: Patients have to travel up to 75 kms to visit a doctor and avail health services. Medical officer was adequate, but not available for eight hours and every day. JHDD project data have highlighted the prevalence of NCDs in rural areas with significant increase in the diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension. The availability of general physician and specialist doctors virtually, with laboratory tests and medicines were the enabling factors in addressing the NCDs for the rural areas. Conclusions: Telemedicine is strong enabler in addressing NCDs in remotest inaccessible areas. The study has pointed out the importance of available remote workforce, basic infrastructure and technology can strengthen the healthcare system by reaching the unreached.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230925
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A triple-blinded randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness
           of hydrotherapy versus land-based exercises outcome on pain among patients
           with rheumatoid arthritis

    • Authors: Rajendra Kumar Jinjwaria, Rashmi P. John, Arvind Kumar, Sanjay Kumar
      Pages: 1474 - 1481
      Abstract: Background: The goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy versus land-based exercise outcomes to reduce pain in chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A triple-blinded, randomized controlled, parallel-group, multiple arm trial was conducted between 29/09/2019 to 30/09/2021. Single centre, the study was done at the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, KGMU (India). Eligible 90 patients were adults aged from 17 to 75 years old suffering from chronic RA) and randomization through the SNSOE method. The intervention (RJHLERA) administered was hydrotherapy exercise (Weekly 30-minute for 6 weeks exercises in a hydrotherapy bathtub, and land-based exercises (Weekly 30-minute for 6 weeks of exercises on land and 11 minutes of active exercise for the control group. NRPS scale was used for pain assessment. Results: The result revealed that pain score, In the pre-test, all the subjects had almost the same average pain score for selected subjects in each group. In the post-test, the hydrotherapy exercise group showed the maximum response with an average pain score of 3.64±1.89. the land-based exercises group showed the next to maximum response with an average pain score of 5.88±1.37 while the clear control group showed the least/poor response with an average pain score of 7.63±1.41. Hall et al and conclusion of the study is hydrotherapy produced the greatest improvement. Conclusions: The study recommends hydrotherapy and land-based exercise as safe, inexpensive interventions. Amongst hydrotherapy exercises and land-based exercises, Hydrotherapy showed the maximum (much better) to reduce the pain.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230926
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Assessment and intervention of a health education programme regarding
           medicine among school children

    • Authors: Soumya S. Morabad, Chandrashekhar Venkaraddi M., Mudakappa G. Keshannavar, Kalpana R. Kulkarni, Manasa Reddy, Pradeep S. Mannikatti, Bharath Jain
      Pages: 1482 - 1488
      Abstract: Background: The current study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines among school children of age group 12-16 years. Methods: This was an educational interventional study. The children’s attending private/ tertiary school, at Bagalkot were interviewed individually with a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Results: In basal assessment, the mean knowledge, attitude and practice scores were found to be 9.11±0.11, 5.72±0.83 and 6.92±0.05 respectively. However, there was significant difference (p=0.0001) between pre and post study of knowledge, attitude and practice towards medicine. Conclusions: Study concluded that children have limited knowledge about medicine and some negative attitude towards medicine which was improved after educational interventional study. This type of study will help to improve their insight towards medicine in school children.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230927
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A study to assess the knowledge regarding the care of newborns among
           postnatal mothers at AIIMS Jodhpur, Rajasthan

    • Authors: Priyanshi Dixit , Preeti Sharma , Preeti Verma , Priya Rathore, Rajini, Rinkal Jangir, Ritika Sahotra, Remiya Mohan
      Pages: 1489 - 1493
      Abstract: Background: The health of future children depends on the nurturing practice in the initial years of life. Knowledge about the care of newborns among mothers plays a major role in reducing neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Therefore, the objective of the study was to assess the knowledge among postnatal mothers about newborn care. Methods: A descriptive study was done among 60 purposively selected post-natal mothers admitted at AIIMS, Jodhpur. Data was collected through self-structured questionnaires. The reliability of the self-structured knowledge questionnaire was determined by the KR-20 method and found reliable (0.81). Data collected was analyzed for frequency, mean, and standard deviation. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compute the data. The Chi-square (Fisher’s Exact Test) was used to determine the relationship between selected socio-demographic variables and knowledge scores of post-natal mothers. Results: Findings showed that most (73%) of the respondents were from the age group 20-27 years. The mean knowledge score was 26.783±3.9234. Most of the respondents (60%) had excellent knowledge, whereas 28.33% had good knowledge levels. None of the participants was in the range of poor knowledge. Knowledge of participants about newborn care was found to have a significant association with the level of education, area of living and occupation. Conclusions: The result of this study provided information that postnatal mothers have adequate knowledge of newborn care. Some socio-demographic factors like occupation, literacy and area of residence were found to be associated with the knowledge of the mothers.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230928
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Food taboos during pregnancy and lactation among tribal population of
           south India

    • Authors: Anju Damu Ade, K. V. Jyothi Pratheeka
      Pages: 1494 - 1501
      Abstract: Background: Good nutrition paves the way for a fair chance in life. Food taboos exist in all the communities and do vary from one community to another. Objectives of current study were to study the socio-demographic profile of the tribal pregnant women, to explore food taboos during pregnancy and lactation among the tribal pregnant women and to assess association between sociodemographic characteristics and food taboo among pregnant women. Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted from July 2022 to August 2022 in tribal area among tribal pregnant women from selected area. They were interviewed for which pre-tested structured format was used. Sample size calculated was 303.SPSS version 26.0 was used to calculate statistics. Results: 265 (87.4%) study respondents reported that they include certain special food items during pregnancy. 263 (86.7%) respondents reported that they include certain special food items during lactation. 219 (72.3%) pregnant mothers reported that they avoid certain foods during pregnancy while 149 (49.2%) mothers reported that they avoid certain foods during lactation. Educational level, socio-economic status, occupation, type of housing of the study respondents was significantly associated with the avoidance of food items during pregnancy and lactation (food taboo practices). Conclusions: Study respondent’s cultural belief in food practices are major reason for their avoidance of certain food items during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrition education and awareness will bring behavioural change among these tribal mothers.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230929
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Incidence density and relative rate assessment of knee osteoarthritis with
           respect to BMI, age and gender conducted in a tertiary care hospital in
           Hyderabad, India

    • Authors: Syed Aseem, Fouqia Mahnaz Khanam, Syed Hafeezuddin Ghori, M. D. Sufiyanuddin, M. A. Malik Yaseen
      Pages: 1502 - 1505
      Abstract: Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis associated with limitation in mobility. Weight bearing joints of axial and peripheral skeleton are primarily affected. Prevalence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among men and women is 10% and 13%. Ageing and obesity epidemic are the leading causes for development of osteoarthritis in a given population. Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad, India. Data was gathered from orthopedic department on a daily basis during the study duration. Patients with any grade of Kellgren-Lawrence scale of knee osteoarthritis were included in the study and incidence density, relative rate, p-value were assessed. Results: During the study course, a total of 100 patients were enrolled. Overweight, obese and healthy patients contributed to 51%, 33% and 16% of incidence density with relative rate as 1.04, 0.49 and 0.19 respectively (p-value=0.042). Incidence density of patients ≥45 years and <45 years was 83% and 17% with relative rate as 4.9 and 0.2 (p value<0.0001). Incidence density in males and females was 34% and 66% with relative rate as 1.94 and 0.51 (p-value<0.0001). The data analyzed is statistically significant. Conclusions: A direct proportionality between people exceeding normal BMI range and progression of knee osteoarthritis is observed due to strain manifested on diarthrodial joint by overweight patients. Increase in age is associated with onset of knee osteoarthritis because of age related-changes seen in cartilage and loss of chondrocytes. Women are more affected with knee osteoarthritis when compared to men due to irregularities in hormones post-menopause.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230930
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Profile of injury cases before, during and after lockdown of COVID-19
           pandemic: a hospital based study

    • Authors: Aishwarya R. G., Pallavi Sarji Uthkarsh, Suresh Krishnarao
      Pages: 1506 - 1512
      Abstract: Background: Injuries show a significant burden of morbidity, disability and mortality throughout world, especially in lower-middle income nations. Injuries result from road traffic crashes, falls, burns, and acts of violence against oneself or others, among other causes. Road Traffic Accidents are especially dominant among injuries, which are unintentional. The lockdown has resulted in dramatic changes in service provision from emergency departments and hospitals. And the pattern of the injuries has differed because of different reasons being reduced mobility, isolation at home, boredom and so on. The aim of this study was to assess the type of injury cases reaching a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore before, during and after lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic and its profile. Methods: The data was collected from the hospital records of all inpatients of selected tertiary care hospitals. Results: Incidence of RTA and Assaults are observed to be high constituting 52.5% and 31.4% respectively. The change in trend of injuries indicated a dropdown in injury cases during lockdown and the increase of cases after lockdown relaxations. Conclusions: Road traffic accidents was the most common cause of injury observed in this study, with specifically 2-wheeled vehicles were most involved. The development of trauma registries all over the country containing minimum epidemiologically desired data is the need of the time for India. The data in the hospital records should be standardized and centralized.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230931
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A study on utilization of maternal and infant health services in rural
           area of district Kanpur Nagar

    • Authors: Rajeev Rathore, Seema Nigam, Santosh Kumar Barman
      Pages: 1513 - 1516
      Abstract: Background: There is a pressing need to identify and address the grass root determinants of maternal health care utilization to steer the health services toward achieving the ambitious SDG target of reducing the global MMR to <70 per 100 000 births by 2030. Objective of current study was to assess the utilization of health services provided to mothers and infants. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted by the department of community medicine GSVM Medical College Kanpur using multistage random sampling technique including women having children less than 1 years of age and Infant (less than one year) born to these eligible women in rural blocks of district Kanpur Nagar for evaluation mother and infant care services from February 2021 to September 2022. Results: 94.17% participants had at least one antenatal visit, 85.06% of delivery were take place at CHC, 83.80% post natal care provided by doctor, 30.76% infant were treated properly for Acute respiratory symptom 21.31% infant received ORT and Zinc for treatment of diarrhea. Similar results were found as per NFHS-5 in rural Uttar Pradesh in previous published research work. Conclusions: Utilization of health care services require more improvement for infant disease treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230932
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Validation of three age based weight formulae for estimating weight among
           Indian children

    • Authors: Saurabh Sharma, Shah Huzaifa Feroz, Jeetendra Yadav, M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao
      Pages: 1517 - 1520
      Abstract: Background: Weight estimation in paediatric emergencies is often required to calculate drug dosages, fluid therapy and defibrillation. The ‘gold standard’ of actually weighing the patient is not practically possible in emergency conditions. Many formulae have been developed in an attempt to accurately estimate a child’s weight using age like advanced paediatric life support (APLS), Luscombe, and Argall’s modification. However, these formulae might not be applicable in the Indian context. This study aims is to validate standard age-based formulae (APLS, Luscombe, and Argall’s) and their accuracy in estimating the weight of Indian children. Methods: The study used secondary data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (2015-16). The estimated weights as computed by the APLS guidelines, the Luscombe and the Argall formulae were compared to their respective measured weights during the survey. Results: All three formulae (APLS, Luscombe, and Argall) overestimated the weights. The APLS formula exhibited the least weight difference among the different age groups (-3.51±2.08 kg). The average percentage difference between the estimated weights using the APLS, Luscombe, and Argall formula and the actual weights was 23%, 38%, and 28%, respectively. Conclusions: All the three age-based weight formulae, namely APLS, Argyll, and Luscombe, overestimated the weight among the Indian children, clearly showing the need to adjust the formulae for accurate weight estimation of Indian children.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230933
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Effect of core stabilization exercises on balance, physical performance
           and quality of life in post-menopausal women

    • Authors: Prachita Walankar, Raveena Kini, Vrushali Panhale, Mokshada Kawale
      Pages: 1521 - 1524
      Abstract: Background: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of core stabilization exercises on balance, physical performance and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Methods: An interventional study was conducted in 30 postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Group 1 (N=15) received core stabilization exercises along with conventional therapy and Group 2 (N=15) conventional therapy alone. The assessments were made using one leg stance test, Y balance test, short physical performance battery and menopause specific quality of life questionnaire at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. Results: In Group 1 and Group 2, there was a statistically significant difference seen in one leg stance test, Y balance test, short physical performance battery and menopause specific quality of life questionnaire pre and post intervention (p<0.05). A significant difference was seen in dynamic balance in Group 1 (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference seen in one leg stance test, short physical performance battery and menopause specific quality of life questionnaire scores between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Core stabilisation exercises have proven to be more effective than conventional exercises alone for improving dynamic balance in post-menopausal women. However, both are equally effective in improving static balance, physical performance and quality of life in postmenopausal women.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230934
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Phytochemical screening of Acacia nilotica extract: an in vitro study

    • Authors: Padma K. Bhat, Abhilasha S. Byakod, Sushma S. G.
      Pages: 1525 - 1529
      Abstract: Background: The present study aim was to identify the presence of phytochemical screening of flower extract of Acacia nilotica. Methods: The flower extract of Acacia nilotica was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanol flower of Acacia nilotica was carried out by using simple chemical tests and compared with ethanol and aquesous extract of the same plant. The antimicrobial testing was done using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was carried out by micro dilution assay and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was done using colony forming unit (CFU) method. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results of phytochemical screening of methanol flower extract of Acacia nilotica showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, steroids whereas ethanol shows the presence of flavonoid, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, saponin, steroids and aqueous extract shows presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, saponin, steroids. The antibacterial activity of the (flower) extract of Acacia nilotica showed relatively high zone of inhibition (21 mm,19 mm) at 40 mg/ml against S. mutans and L. acidophillus. The MIC OD at 600 nm showed maximum inhibition at 40 mg/ml against S. mutans and L. acidophillius was about 78% and 91% respectively. Conclusions: The present study signifies the phytochemical screening of Acacia nilotica which could be considered in the evolution of an indigenous herbal mouth rinse or toothpaste as the formulation inhibited all the micro-organisms tested in this study at low concentrations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230935
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Prevalence of stress and burnout among information technology
           professionals during COVID-19 pandemic due to work from home situation

    • Authors: Ashwini Padmashali
      Pages: 1530 - 1536
      Abstract: Background: To prevent the transmission of COVID-19 infection, lockdown and social distancing was imposed across various countries. The people working in the information technology (IT) sector started working remotely. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of stress and burnout among the IT professionals due to sudden transition to work from home situation. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study an online questionnaire was used for data collection from the software professionals who worked from home for a minimum duration of 1 year during the pandemic. The study sample was collected using convenience sampling and sample size attained was 40. The data analysis was done with statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Percentages, means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated. For analytical purpose Chi-square test was used to measure the significance. Results: The study population consisted of 24 (60%) males and 16 (40%) females. The mean of the years of experience was 10.5 years (SD=5.5). 47.5% of the study population agreed that they worked up to 8 hours and 12 hours per day. 57.5% reported of finding work from home more stressful due to increase in responsibilities of household as well as child care. 87.5% developed moderate stress and 47.5% experienced moderate burnout due to personal issues. Conclusions: To conclude, the prevalence of stress due to work from home situation was much higher than burnout among the IT professionals. Although they had the perks of reduction in travel time, the other responsibilities of increased domestic workload caused considerable stress.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230936
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sleep quality index among the elderly population in selected areas of
           Delhi: a community-based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Chirag Sandooja, Manasi Panda, Vinod Kumar, Jugal Kishore
      Pages: 1537 - 1542
      Abstract: Background: Studies have shown that effects of low sleep quality can include cognitive decline, sleepiness during the day, and decreased quality of life. Problems with sleep have also been associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and increased mortality. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to assess the sleep quality index and the factors associated with it among the elderly. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural and urban setting of Delhi. We selected 115 participants in each area using systematic random sampling. We used a semi structured questionnaire and validated sleep quality index to collect the data. Results: In the present study, only 41 (17.8%) out of 230 individuals were having normal sleep quality and 189 out of 230 individuals were having poor sleep quality. 105 (55.5%) in the rural area (Fatehpur Beri), and 84 (44.5%) in the urban area (Aliganj) were having poor sleep quality respectively. In the rural area, taking sleeping pills and depression were significantly associated with higher scores of sleep quality index. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was found in 82.2% of elderly participants which was associated with a rural locality, depression, and not taking sleep pills. There is a need to start a sleep hygiene program for the elderly population, particularly in rural area.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230937
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Burden of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors in rural
           areas of Jharkhand

    • Authors: Bharath Jagadeesh
      Pages: 1543 - 1546
      Abstract: Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming a greater burden in India. The onset of NCDs occurs ten years earlier (around age 45) in India than it does in many developed nations. This study was conducted in 5 blocks of East Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharsawan districts of Jharkhand to determine the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in the rural population. Methods: Community based cross sectional study was conducted between April 2022 to Jan 2023 among individuals residing in rural areas of Jharkhand using multi-stage sampling with a sample size of 4579 individuals, who were 30 years and above. Results: Prevalence of diabetes amongst the study population was 16.3% (750) and prevalence of hypertension amongst the study population was 21.3% (977). Conclusions: High prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension increase the burden on existing health care system. Primary prevention using health education, lifestyle modification etc. and secondary prevention using early diagnosis by screening in the community and referral to nearby health centers for treatment prevents the complications of NCDs.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230938
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • An analytical survey among academic satisfaction and mental stress of
           students’ in COVID-19

    • Authors: Neha Negi
      Pages: 1547 - 1550
      Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has shown a significant impact on the psychological wellbeing of health care workers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological health of allied health sciences students in Bangalore. During the months of January and April 2022, 200 completed a survey containing measures of depression, anxiety and stress [using depression anxiety and stress-21 scale (DASS-21)] and questions regarding potential predictors such as the role of COVID-19 perception, availability of mental health support and study-related factors. The student t-test revealed factors associated with the presence of significant psychiatric symptoms. Methods: An online survey of a sample consisting of 140 students assessed sociodemographic, DASS 21 and their emotions and concerns during the outbreak. Results: Among the participants, 63,6% screened positive for moderate depression, 25% for moderate and sever anxiety and 35% and 64.7% for mild stress. Girls reported significantly more depression, anxiety, and stress than boys. Those who received mental health support reported significantly lesser depression, anxiety, and stress. Those who felt that quality of life was heavily impacted due to COVID-19 reported significantly high depression, anxiety, and stress. Most of the students were having mild degree of depression, anxiety and stress. Conclusions: Poor psychological well-being was prevalent in allied health sciences students; however, mental health measures have been shown to significantly reduce the mental health burden academically.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230939
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A comparative study of antenatal health care at Anganwadis in five rural
           areas at Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam

    • Authors: Vijayalakshmi Chandrasekhar
      Pages: 1551 - 1555
      Abstract: Background: Maternal morbidity and mortality are directly linked to the quality of the antenatal care provided at the grassroot level in rural India. Methods: A total of 76 pregnant women attending 5 Anganwadi centres at Yendada 1 and 2, Gollalapalem, Vadapalem and Rushikonda were followed up through their confinement. The data collected were with respect to their height, weight, blood pressure, number of visits, antenatal complications and treatment, post-natal course including breast feeding and difficulties faced by clients during the course of their pregnancy. Results: The five Anganwadi centres were observed to be doing a commendable job in promptly registering pregnant women and ensuring proper antenatal care looking after their nutritional supplements and immunization throughout the course of their client’s pregnancies. There was not a single complication from among the study population due to timely referrals to higher centres. Conclusions: The Anganwadi workers have a good insight into the health problems in their community and were able to communicate effectively in the local dialect. They are doing a commendable job in promptly registering pregnant women, and ensuring that they regularly attend for antenatal visits. They are the backbone of the community and are responsible for positive pregnancy outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230940
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Comparison of orthopedic trauma patterns in geriatric patients during
           COVID-19 pandemic led lockdown and non-lockdown periods

    • Authors: Arpit Singh, Shubhajeet Roy, Vaishali Singh, Ravindra Mohan, Kumar Shantanu, Abhishek Agarwal, Narendra Singh Kushwaha , Abhishek Kumar, Devesh Srivastava, Shikhar S. Gupta
      Pages: 1556 - 1560
      Abstract: Background: Lockdown had hindered persons’ ability to engage in regular physical activity. Our study analysed bone trauma patients who visited the orthopedic department based on the mode of injury, kind of extremity involved, and the bone implicated. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients visiting the orthopedic surgery department of a North Indian tertiary health care centre. Patient data was recorded from the case sheets. Results: A total of 792 patients’ data was collected, out of which 250 patients were those of during lockdown, and 542 patients were of non-lockdown phase. During the lockdown phase, the patients who have undergone RTA were 37 (14.8%), those admitted for domestic trauma were 128 (51.2%), and those for miscellaneous causes were 85 (34%). During the non-lockdown phase, RTA were 145 (26.739%), domestic were 318 (58.608%) and miscellaneous were 79 (14.652%). During lockdown, the site of injury was upper limb in 59 patients, lower limb in 154 patients, vertebrae in 37 patients. In the non-lockdown phase, the upper limb was injured in 95 patients, lower limb in 377 patients, vertebrae in 52 patients and hip bone in 17 patients. Femur was the most affected bone. Conclusions: There was a decrease in the number of instances during the lockdown. During both the periods, the majority of geriatric patients were from rural areas. Domestic trauma cases were most prevalent in the older age range, and the most common extremity implicated appeared to be the lower limb, with the femur being the most involved bone in both stages.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230941
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Health and social burden of alcohol use disorders in an industrial
           population of India

    • Authors: Gautam Ray
      Pages: 1561 - 1567
      Abstract: Background: In the last two decades the rate of alcohol consumption has substantially increased in India but the socioeconomic burden of alcohol use disorders (AUD) is understudied. Methods: 48613 patients admitted from January 2009 to December 2018 for diseases directly or indirectly related to alcohol use (40.1% of total admission) were analysed. Retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data was used as current study design. Diagnosis were arrived at by history, clinical examination and relevant investigations. Social data included demography, alcohol related information, social, emotional, psychological aspects and occupation related issues. Results: There was a rising trend of both direct (59.3%) and indirect (40.7%) alcohol related disorders over the years with the following rates: injuries (30.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (16.7%), AUD (6.2%), other substance abuse (4.1%), seizures (1.7%), infections (16.7%), only diabetes mellitus (1.9%), gastrointestinal cancer (4%), cardiovascular disease (4.3%), neurovascular disease (8%) and chronic kidney disease (5.8%). 39.7% patients had pulmonary tuberculosis. This entailed a yearly hospital expenditure of INR 165.54 million and an additional INR 10.3 million for work absenteeism. 37.6% died whereas disability and poor work productivity led to relocation and premature retirement in 7.2%. Social aspects revealed early initiation of drinking (73% at <30 years of age) at instances of family/ friend in a conducive setting of easy availability and permissive “drinking environment” furthered by vissisitudes in later life. Heavy consumption of spirits (average 118 gm/day), often in binges, fortends serious health consequences. Conclusions: Alcohol related socioeconomic burden is rapidly rising in India and needs urgent attention.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230942
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • A cross sectional study on pattern of animal bites and their post exposure
           management in a tribal district of Mayurbhanj, Northern Odisha, India

    • Authors: Amrita Kumari, Abinash Tripathy, Sucharita Dutta, Rakesh Kumar
      Pages: 1568 - 1572
      Abstract: Background: Rabies is an enzootic and epizootic disease of worldwide. Rabies is a fatal but preventable viral disease. Rabies is one of the neglected tropical diseases that predominantly affects poor and vulnerable populations who live in remote rural locations. Objectives of current study was to assess the prevalence of animal bite cases and its associated factors in a tribal district of Northern Odisha and to study the first aid management of people after dog bite. Methods: It was a cross sectional study. This study was conducted at PRM medical college, Baripada, Odisha in anti-rabies vaccination (ARV) OPD clinic. The study period was March 2021 to September 2021. The sampling techniques was consecutive sampling. The study population was all animal bite case attending ARV clinic. Data was analyzed by appropriate statistical tool. Results: Majority 54.9% victims are dog bite victims and the most common site of bite was lower limb (53.6%). The main source of information was family and friends followed by doctors and health workers. Conclusions: Majority of people especially in rural and tribal area were illiterate and they don’t have any knowledge about animal bite or its management. This study had found that those who are literate had done a proper wound management before coming to ARV clinic. So, literacy proved to have a major impact on wound management. Behavior changes communication (BCC) along with health education is a vital weapon for controlling rabies especially in developing country like India.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230943
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Study of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding hepatitis B infection
           in first-degree relatives of patients suffering with hepatitis B infection

    • Authors: Ajay Kumar Jain, Amit D. Joshi, Deepika Jain, Shohini Sircar
      Pages: 1573 - 1577
      Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem in third-world countries, including India. The risk of infection among close family members of patients infected with chronic HBV infection is four to six times higher than in the general population. However, literature is scarce regarding the Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward HBV infection among the first-degree relatives of patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B. Hence, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding hepatitis B virus infection among first-degree relatives of hepatitis B patients. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted amongst the 354 first-degree relatives of HBsAg-positive patients. A validated questionnaire consisted of twenty questions of knowledge, seven questions of attitude, and ten practice questions were employed to gather information. Results: The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) were significantly better amongst participants aged 55-65 years and those who were educated. There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r=0.58, p value<0.05) and knowledge and practice (r=0.64, p value<0.05). Conclusions: There is insufficient knowledge regarding hepatitis B, its common symptoms, modes of transmission, and preventive tools among close relatives of patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230944
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Effectiveness of lockdown to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 pandemic
           during its first wave in India

    • Authors: Vani Srinivas
      Pages: 1578 - 1584
      Abstract: Background: Countries across the globe had adopted various prevention and control measures ranging from social distancing and isolation, to shutting down of nonessential services and countrywide lockdowns. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the nation-wide lockdown to prevent or delay the spread of COVID-19 in India. Methods: This was a cross sectional and descriptive study. We used the secondary data from WHO website, from 01 January to 30 October 2020. We calculated mean, median number of new cases, deaths reported per day and case fatality rate, using Microsoft excel spreadsheet. Results: There was a steady rise in number of cases and deaths in India, during the lockdown and unlock period from phase-1 to phase-4. Approximately 10-fold increase in death was reported in the duration of 68 days of lockdown from phase-1 to Phase 4. The number of cases reported in unlock phase-4 were approximately 6 times more compared to unlock phase 1. The case fatality rate per day had declined during the lockdown period, from 3 .4% to 2 .5% deaths per day. The case fatality rate was lowest during the peak of pandemic, 1.27% in September 2020. Indicating good care of hospitalized patients compared to initial stage of pandemic in India. Conclusions: Indian government had imposed complete sudden lockdown at the right time. The peak of pandemic was delayed or slowed down. Indicating the timing of lockdown is an essential step to save the lives in pandemic, in resource limited settings.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230945
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Linear and zosteriform lichen planus in a tertiary care centre: a case

    • Authors: Neerja Puri, Neetu Verma, Sukhmani Kaur Brar
      Pages: 1585 - 1588
      Abstract: Lichen planus (LP) is a common mucocutaneous condition, but its distribution in a zosteriform and linear pattern is rare. Zosteriform LP is a rare variant with dermatomal distribution and can occur at trauma prone sites. Linear distribution of the disease has been described in less than 1% of patients. Treatment options are topical corticosteroids and systemic antihistamines. We hereby present a case series of four cases with linear and zosteriform patterns in which the biopsy findings were corroborative of lichen planus. In the first case report of a 25-year-old female presented to dermatology OPD of tertiary health Centre with hyperpigmented patches confined to left half of trunk, left arm and left leg for 6 months. Brownish black macules involving left breast and adjoining back and abdomen were seen in zosteriform pattern. In the second case report, a 25-year-old male presented for evaluation of hyperpigmented raised and pruritic lesion over the right axilla of 5 months’ duration Third case was of a 26-year-old female patient who presented with pruritic violaceous macules on left leg extending from mid part of leg to medial aspect of knee and medial side of thigh in a discontinuous pattern for last 3 years. A 34-year-old female presented with history of pruritic rash over the left side of trunk in the fourth case report. The case series is rare and hence being reported.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230946
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Dermatomyositosis: a rare case report

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar Behera, Divya Amaravadi, Merugoju Alekhya, Rakham Sneha
      Pages: 1589 - 1592
      Abstract: Dermatomyositis (DM) is a connective tissue disorder and is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by skin manifestations. Diagnosis is based on progressive muscle weakness, skin rashes, elevated serum muscle enzymes, muscle biopsy, and abnormal electromyography. In this case study we report a case of classic DM without co-existing malignancy. Timely diagnosis and administration of corticosteroids and physiotherapy led to a better prognosis for the patient. Corticosteroids are the foundation of the treatment. However, the patient remained generally weak and treatment was advised to be continued on discharge.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230947
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Literature review of dry socket: etiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and

    • Authors: Afrah Akram
      Pages: 1593 - 1596
      Abstract: Dry socket/alveolar osteitis is a detrimental and excruciatingly painful post-extraction condition of the socket caused by the breakdown of a clot leading to the denudation of the socket that exposes underlying bone that is not protected by a blood clot or healing tissue and persists within or around the alveolus for days after the surgical tooth extraction with or without halitosis and suppuration. It is inevitable that dry socket will develop during routine oral surgery or dental procedures. The common factors that cause dry socket are smoking, poor oral hygiene, traumatic extractions caused by inexperienced dentists, previous bacterial infection, inflammation, fibrinolysis, and systemic disorders, in conjunction with oral contraceptives, menstrual cycle, and rapid irrigation of the socket after extraction with normal saline. The management of dry socket is directed towards palliative care. A substantial amount of research is required to provide a definitive treatment choice for dry socket. This literature review focuses on the pathogenesis, prevention, and management of dry socket.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230948
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • The impact of COVID-19 on residential rehabilitation programs for
           individuals with substance use disorder

    • Authors: Imesha H. N. Hemasinghe, Akila R. Jayamaha, Nimesha D. M. Herath, Nadeeka D. K. Ranadeva, Nishadi D. Dharmarathna, Bhadrani Senanayake, Thamara Darshana, Nilani Renuka, Kerstin L. Samarasinghe, Neluka Fernando
      Pages: 1597 - 1602
      Abstract: According to UNODC and WHO global estimates, only one in six individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) has access to residential rehabilitation programmes. This proportion further declined as a result of COVID-19 pandemic, which caused devastating problems to the individuals with SUD. The provision of residential treatment for individuals with SUD was interrupted due to COVID-19, in the aspects of the rehabilitation program, recruitment and service provision for rehabilitees or clients, staff and the infrastructural facilities. Further, individuals with SUD are known to have a greater risk of being infected with COVID-19 virus and developing post COVID complications due to their unstable psychological state, weakened immunity, malnutrition and other health related complications which have arisen with the prolonged use of substances. There is a timely need to provide a substantial emphasis on individuals with SUD during COVID-19 pandemic and to undertake the necessary steps to deliver the needed treatment. Critical appraisal of the available empirical evidence is instrumental prior to the laying-out and providing residential rehabilitation amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, the current review intended to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residential rehabilitation for individuals with SUD by scrutinizing the latest empirical evidence in order to battle against the future pandemic situations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230949
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • The unmet need of psycho-oncology services for integrated cancer care in
           India: a review

    • Authors: Twinkle Brahmbhatt, Gunjan Desai
      Pages: 1603 - 1608
      Abstract: Cancer has varied effects on mental health of the patients, their family and friends as well as the caregivers. The emotional, social, interpersonal, rehabilitative and psychological effects of cancer on all of them can contribute to psycho-social distress. Appropriately addressing psychological, social and behavioral issues through psycho-oncology services improves the physician-patient relationship, increase satisfaction to the ongoing treatment, create a positive attitude towards treatment and outcomes and improve the quality of life. It also has a role in preventive oncology as well as in cancer rehabilitation. Global recognition of the need of psycho-oncology services has led to establishment of a lot of international organizations and societies in the developed countries. On the other hand, there are no societies or standard guidelines for psychosocial care in India. Also, due to lack of awareness and cancer education, the stigma associated with this care compounded by the stigma associated with cancer is a major hindrance to availing mental health care in India. Identifying this unmet need, creating awareness about the need of distress management during key transitions in cancer care pathway and providing training and research opportunities in this field in India will pave the way to improve the outcomes of cancer treatment delivery and patient compliance as well as satisfaction to the provided care. Psycho-oncology services need to be integrated into the existing cancer care pathways in a structured manner so as to enable ease of availability of these services for the patients and their families when in need.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230950
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Re-emergence of human monkeypox 2022: its ecology and public health
           significance-short review article

    • Authors: Rahama Sanusi Karama, Ajoke Akinola, John Kama
      Pages: 1609 - 1615
      Abstract: Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is one of Orthopoxvirus subfamily, it’s refers to a zoonotic disease caused by MPXV. Human monkeypox, on the other hand, has a much lower morbidity and fatality rate than smallpox. Reference to the current resurgence, monkeypox outbreaks have been reported over the past 5 decades, 10 countries in Africa was initially discovered to be affected by the outbreak and subsequently 4 countries apart from Africa. Additionally, re-emergence of monkeypox in African countries, especially Nigeria about forty 40 years of the initial outbreak, midst 2010-2019. Climate change, deforestation, lack of proper health and research advance infrastructure among the society and uncontrol intake of bush meat in the African countries could have been the reason for the recent re-emergence of monkeypox within the communities. Public health significance of monkeypox outbreak could be the factors related to the vulnerability of the population towards MPXV when smallpox vaccination was stopped. Due to the rapid global outreach of monkeypox endemic, it should be therefore considered as a very serious re-surging pathogen in the world. However, detail and proper observational research could bring more light on the influence of MPXV on overall human population, together with the advancement in qualitative and quantitative of outbreak data collection, research in the current situation is crucial and need an emergency treat in order to encourage the researchers to improve more findings on the monkeypox outbreak, which will subsequently enhances appropriate case management and public health response.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230951
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Conflicting ethical issues in dentistry

    • Authors: Afrah Akram
      Pages: 1616 - 1621
      Abstract: Dentists, like any other profession that deals with human rights and liberties, owe a duty to their patients and the communities in which they practice. The American Dental Association's (ADA) code of dental ethics provides a standard to which all dental professionals are expected to comply. It emphasizes that each dental professional is accountable for "maintaining and strengthening" their profession. There are set rules for this, and all dentists should follow these principles when performing their duties to patients, the public, the profession, and their colleagues. This article focuses on the fundamental principles of ethics and conflicts among them.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230952
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Contact tracing of health care workers as a part of health system
           strengthening: lessons learnt from field experience

    • Authors: Vineet Kumar Pathak, Sunil Kumar Panigrahi, Utsav Raj, Anjan Kumar Giri, Anubhuti Kujur
      Pages: 1622 - 1624
      Abstract: Health care workers (HCWs) are the frontline workers working tirelessly during the pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The same HCW, after duty, is exposed to his/ her community which again increases the risk of infection. Hence, with an increased risk of exposure, we cannot afford to lose our frontline workers due to sickness or more. In the absence of any definitive antiviral treatment, unclear modes of transmission, burnout working hours, fatigue, societal stigma related to disease etc., a HCW is exposed to psychological distress and many a time develops an anxiety/panic condition which can increase the chances of work-place error and thus can increase the likelihood of infection. In this article, we have shared our experience with contact tracing among HCWs, what we have learned in the past two years, and proposed a way forward.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230953
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Use of a participatory learning appraisal tool in AIDS awareness programme

    • Authors: Ruchita R. Khandre, Vaishali P. Bansod, Shraddha S. Kulkarni, Ashish S. Banginwar, Pawan N. Chavhan
      Pages: 1625 - 1627
      Abstract: The Participatory Learning Appraisal (PLA) is an effective tool for engaging audiences in health awareness campaigns, as it can provide insight into the community's existing knowledge and misconceptions, as well as provide opportunities to conduct health activities with active community participation. We celebrated "World AIDS Day" at UHTC (Urban Health Training Centre) with health education using the PLA tool "Rating and Ranking." The use of the PLA tool turned a basic awareness session into an interesting learning process. Positive feedback from this activity motivates the facilitator to conduct health education programmes on various topics by using different innovative tools in an interesting way to enhance the active participation of the audience.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230954
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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