Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing   (Total: 230 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 243 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Applied Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 111)
Advances in Computed Tomography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Internet of Things     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in J.ism and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Literary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Lung Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American J. of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American J. of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American J. of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Art and Design Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Beijing Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CellBio     Open Access  
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Communications and Network     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Creative Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Urban Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Graphene     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
iBusiness     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InfraMatics     Open Access  
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Intl. J. of Clean Coal and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Intelligence Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Internet and Distributed Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Nonferrous Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Organic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Behavioral and Brain Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Biophysical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Biosciences and Medicines     Open Access  
J. of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Cancer Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Computer and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Crystallization Process and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Data Analysis and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Financial Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Geoscience and Environment Protection     Open Access  
J. of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Mathematical Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Modern Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Power and Energy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Quantum Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Service Science and Management     Open Access  
J. of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Software Engineering and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Low Carbon Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materials Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microscopy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Modern Chemotherapy     Open Access  
Modern Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Modern Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Modern Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Modern Research in Catalysis     Open Access  
Modern Research in Inflammation     Open Access  
Natural Resources     Open Access  
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Neuroscience & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New J. of Glass and Ceramics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Acoustics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Open J. of Air Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Open J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open J. of Apoptosis     Open Access  
Open J. of Applied Biosensor     Open Access  
Open J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Open J. of Biophysics     Open Access  
Open J. of Blood Diseases     Open Access  
Open J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open J. of Clinical Diagnostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Open J. of Depression     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Discrete Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Earthquake Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Energy Efficiency     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Open J. of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Genetics     Open Access  
Open J. of Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Open J. of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Open J. of Leadership     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Open J. of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open J. of Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Metal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Microphysics     Open Access  
Open J. of Modelling and Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open J. of Modern Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open J. of Modern Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology     Open Access  
Open J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Optimization     Open Access  
Open J. of Organ Transplant Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Organic Polymer Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Open J. of Physical Chemistry     Open Access  
Open J. of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open J. of Polymer Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Open J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access  

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Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2165-6681 - ISSN (Online) 2165-6711
Published by Scientific Research Publishing Homepage  [230 journals]
  • [Front cover]

    • Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • ComputingEdge

    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Get Published in the New IEEE Open Journal of the Computer Society

    • Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY JOBS BOARD

    • Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Microprocessor at 50: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    • Authors: Lizy Kurian John;
      Pages: 5 - 9
      Abstract: Presents the introductory editorial for this issue on the topic of microprocessors.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Microprocessor at 50: A Time to Celebrate and Energize for the Future

    • Authors: Lizy Kurian John;Vijaykrishnan Narayanan;
      Pages: 10 - 12
      Abstract: The articles in this special section focus on the history and future technological development of microprocessors. Microprocessors have become more pervasive than any other landmark invention of the entire human civilization including the wheel, in spite of arriving a few millennia later. Many pioneers who have helped shape this amazing journey of microprocessors from its birth in 1971 to its omnipresence today share their perspectives in this special issue. Industry leaders in commemorating the special anniversary are keen to continue these innovations to an even greater extent and broader societal impact. It has been a remarkable journey from a few hundred transistors to new machine learning engines that occupy an entire wafer with more than a trillion transistors. The journey has had its share of drama and intense competition, both technical and legal. However, in this issue, the entire industry has come together to celebrate this landmark event for microprocessors.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY: Call for Papers

    • Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Microprocessor at 50: Industry Leaders Speak

    • Authors: Lizy Kurian John;Vijaykrishnan Narayanan;
      Pages: 13 - 15
      Abstract: At this landmark event when the microprocessor turns 50, we asked leaders at major microprocessor companies to reflect on this remarkable achievement, their favorite processor, coolest features of microprocessors, or their special personal microprocessor memories. Please read on to find what NVIDIA, Intel, AMD, ARM, and TSMC leaders have to say. The year 2021 marks the 50th Anniversary of the 4004 chip. Few tech companies can even fathom reaching such a milestone. From a 4-bit CPU that clocked a whopping 740 kilohertz, capable of executing 92,000 instructions per second and accessing 4 KB of program memory and 640 bytes of RAM to a chip with two to eight cores, a 4.8-GHz CPU clock rate that can cache up to 12 MB, a quad-channel 3,200-MHz memory and high-definition immersive graphics.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IT Professional: CALL FOR ARTICLES

    • Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Birth of the Microprocessor

    • Authors: Federico Faggin;
      Pages: 16 - 19
      Abstract: The story starts in February 1968 when I joined Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Lab in Palo Alto, CA, USA. At that time, nearly all the integrated circuits (ICs) in production used bipolar technology. Metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) technology was up-and-coming but still had many problems: it was extremely slow and was not yet reliable. I believed that the future of digital electronics belonged to MOS technology because one could integrate in the same silicon area ten times more logic gates with half the number of manufacturing steps required by bipolar technology.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The 50 Year History of the Microprocessor as Five Technology Eras

    • Authors: John L. Hennessy;
      Pages: 20 - 21
      Abstract: The evolution of the microprocessor can be organized into five eras, each distinguished by common trends in the evolution of microprocessors. Most of these eras are around ten years and represent a shift from the previous era. I have had the privilege of being involved in some way for roughly 48 of the 50 years, so this is also a somewhat personal view.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Middle-Aged Microprocessor

    • Authors: Randy Steck;
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: From its birth with 4 bits, first stumbling 8-bit steps, no longer an adolescent 16-bit design, and well past the awkward 32-bit age, the microprocessor is finally mature and well into middle age! It is only those of us for whom the Fogey Factor is high who remember this lifecycle. It has certainly not been boring or lacking drama. We remember fondly the Milli Vanilli of semiconductors,1 the overhyped RISC v. CISC wars, and our first experience with “flame wars” on comp.arch. Not to be missed is the history of the “Brainiacs” and “Speed Demons”2 with special guest star “Fireball.”3
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • What Made Us Stronger: An Inside Look Back at the History of AMD
           Microprocessor Development

    • Authors: Dave Christie;Mike Clark;Mike Schulte;
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: AMD has transformed into an industry leader, overcoming decades of challenges that have made the company more competitive. In this article, we offer an overview of the history of AMD microprocessor development, with an insider's look at some of the engineering challenges, triumphs, and lessons along the way.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Origin of Intel's Micro-Ops

    • Authors: Robert P. Colwell;
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: It was a different computing world in the late 1980s. Many if not most researchers in the computer architecture area had become convinced that complex instruction sets such as the Intel x86 were doomed in light of the many advantages promised by reduced instruction set architecture publications. There were many voices within Intel urging upper management to abandon x86 and get started on some alternative. Even engineers who had worked on Intel's then-flagship 486 were expressing serious reservations about whether the x86 architecture could be “dragged further up the hill” to be, if not directly competitive with emerging RISC designs, at least close enough for x86 to remain profitable.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Evolution of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

    • Authors: William J. Dally;Stephen W. Keckler;David B. Kirk;
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Graphics processing units (GPUs) power today’s fastest supercomputers, are the dominant platform for deep learning, and provide the intelligence for devices ranging from self-driving cars to robots and smart cameras. They also generate compelling photorealistic images at real-time frame rates. GPUs have evolved by adding features to support new use cases. NVIDIA’s GeForce 256, the first GPU, was a dedicated processor for real-time graphics, an application that demands large amounts of floating-point arithmetic for vertex and fragment shading computations and high memory bandwidth. As real-time graphics advanced, GPUs became programmable. The combination of programmability and floating-point performance made GPUs attractive for running scientific applications. Scientists found ways to use early programmable GPUs by casting their calculations as vertex and fragment shaders. GPUs evolved to meet the needs of scientific users by adding hardware for simpler programming, double-precision floating-point arithmetic, and resilience.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Computing in Science & Engineering

    • Pages: 51 - 51
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Path to Successful Wafer-Scale Integration: The Cerebras Story

    • Authors: Gary Lauterbach;
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: There has been an impressive increase in single-chip processing power since the Intel 4004 was launched in 1971. This is usually attributed to Moore's law, but there are additional factors to consider. In understanding the components of prior improvements, we can gain insight into the potential for future improvements and potential limits to scaling.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Milestones That Define Arm's Past, Present, and Future

    • Authors: Richard Grisenthwaite;
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Much has been written of Arm's inception.1,10 Sophie Wilson and Steve Furber's original Acorn RISC Machine and the ARM1 microarchitecture in 1985. The restructuring into Advanced RISC Machines Ltd in 1990 that saw Acorn Computers, Apple, and VLSI invest together to advance this new architecture. How a small team of engineers working out of an 18th Century Turkey barn outside Cambridge, England, went on to create a business that, 30 years on, is considered a vital contributor to the global technology ecosystem.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Call for Papers: IEEE Transactions on Computers

    • Pages: 67 - 67
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Microprocessor Advances and the Mainframe Legacy

    • Authors: Charles Webb;
      Pages: 68 - 70
      Abstract: The microprocessor revolution, of which this issue marks the 50th anniversary, drove remarkable innovations in instruction set architecture, microarchitecture, and system design, some of which continue to evolve in current research and commercial products. Many of these features were indeed new, but others have their roots in a line of processor architectures that predates this revolution and that, alone among those ancient species, continues to thrive in modern information technology (IT) world: the IBM mainframe, launched in 1964 as S/360 and now continuing as IBM Z. This article will briefly describe some of the “modern” features that were pioneered there, then recount how the mainframe made the transition into the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microprocessor world.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE COMPUTING

    • Pages: 70 - 70
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The POWER Processor Family: A Historical Perspective From the Viewpoint of
           Presilicon Modeling

    • Authors: Pradip Bose;
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Presilicon modeling is a crucial and integral part of processor microarchitecture definition and optimization. In this article, I attempt to provide a retrospective view of IBM's POWER and PowerPC microprocessors, through the lens of someone who has been associated with such modeling in support of microarchitecture definition and optimization from the earliest days of this particular family of processors. The focus in the early/mid-1980s was on cycle-accurate performance modeling; much later, beginning in 1999 or so, the looming power wall triggered a new era of power-performance modeling at the microarchitecture level. Subsequently, temperature-aware and reliability-aware modeling were added dimensions that CMOS technology evolution drove us into. The problem of model validation is an unavoidable aspect of presilicon modeling. Without that mindset, the microarchitecture definition team can make serious mistakes, which results in unpleasant postsilicon surprises. I provide pointers to early approaches in addressing this issue. The article attempts to mention the contributions of many talented researchers and engineers that have, over the years, contributed immensely to the evolution of the POWER/PowerPC microprocessors from earliest research concepts through the recently announced POWER10—using model-based analysis to ensure competitive performance growth.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Advances in Microprocessor Cache Architectures Over the Last 25 Years

    • Authors: Ravi Iyer;Vivek De;Ramesh Illikkal;David Koufaty;Bhushan Chitlur;Andrew Herdrich;Muhammad Khellah;Fatih Hamzaoglu;Eric Karl;
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Over the last 25 years, the use of caches has advanced significantly in mainstream microprocessors to address the memory wall challenge. As we transformed microprocessors from single-core to multicore to manycore, innovations in the architecture, design, and management of on-die cache hierarchy were critical to enabling scaling in performance and efficiency. In addition, at the system level, as input/output (I/O) devices (e.g., networking) and accelerators (domain-specific) started to interact with general-purpose cores across shared memory, advancements in caching became important as a way of minimizing data movement and enabling faster communication. In this article, we cover some of the major advancements in cache research and development that have improved the performance and efficiency of microprocessor servers over the last 25 years. We will reflect upon several techniques including shared and distributed last-level caches (including data placement and coherence), cache Quality of Service (addressing interference between workloads), direct cache access (placing I/O data directly into CPU caches), and extending caching to off-die accelerators (CXL.cache). We will also outline potential future directions for cache research and development over the next 25 years.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • From Mainframes to Microprocessors

    • Authors: G. Glenn Henry;
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Being a 16-year-old kid going to UC Berkeley right before the 1960s was not conducive to academic success. That was my situation: Having graduated from high school early with no strong academic motivation, being immature, and with the distractions of Cal, I dropped out after one year of classes and two more years of goofing off. In retrospect, this disaster (my parent's words) led to a 57-year (and still counting) successful career in the computer industry where I participated in and contributed to the evolution from a few large computers to billions of personal computing devices.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIG DATA

    • Pages: 96 - 96
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • History of Microcontrollers: First 50 Years

    • Authors: K. Raghu Raghunathan;
      Pages: 97 - 104
      Abstract: To understand the impact of microprocessors and controllers one must dial back 50 years to when the computing machine that was most often seen was the store point-of-sale cash registers, which were popularized by the NCR Corporation. In the early 1960s, the integrated circuits (ICs) integration was making a steady progress from small to medium to large scale (SSI, MSI, LSI) densities and mostly standard products. The improvement in process technology brought in the era of very large-scale ICs with metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices and custom chip design. In 1971, Intel announced the 4004,1 the industry's first 4-bit microprocessor.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Motorola MC68332: One of the First True SoCs

    • Authors: Mark McDermott;
      Pages: 105 - 106
      Abstract: The late 1980s saw the beginnings of the System-on-Chip (SoC). One of the first true SoCs was the MC68332 from Motorola, Inc. In this chip, Motorola demonstrated simplified SoC integration with standardized physical and electrical interfaces. It was designed specifically for high-end engine controllers and utilized a fully static CMOS 68020 32-bit MPU with specialized table-lookup and interpolation instructions. Engine control functions were performed by a microcoded time-processing unit (TPU). The block diagram and die photo are shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Block diagram and die photo of the 68332.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Security & Privacy

    • Pages: 106 - 106
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Renesas Automotive Story in the History of the Microprocessor

    • Authors: Steven Van Singel;
      Pages: 107 - 108
      Abstract: Renesas Electronics has a long history of providing high-quality and reliable microcontrollers to the automotive industry for many years. Renesas is the consolidation of the semiconductor units of Hitachi, Mitsubishi, and NEC Electronics. Hitachi and Mitsubishi's semiconductor businesses were divested from each company and merged into Renesas Technology in 2003. NEC Electronics’ semiconductor business was divested in 2010 and merged into a combined Renesas Electronics in 2010. Each company had developed various 8-bit and 16-bit complex instruction set computer (CISC) architecture devices and 32-bit RISC architecture devices. Elements of all these previous architectures' devices are found in the newest Renesas devices available today, with the 32-bit RH850 being the highest selling automotive microcontroller for several years since its introduction.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Call for Articles: IEEE Pervasive Computing

    • Pages: 108 - 108
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • 8 Bits in an IoT World: Legacy Chips Simplify Advanced Architecture
           Interfaces

    • Authors: Bob Martin;
      Pages: 109 - 111
      Abstract: In the current frenzy to connect everything to the cloud from blenders to toothbrushes and everything in between, the Internet of Things (IoT) world is dominated by low-cost, integrated 32-bit microcontroller radio-frequency (RF) modules that provide compact footprint solutions for a low number of sensor inputs.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Hardware Specialization: From Cell to Heterogeneous Microprocessors
           Everywhere

    • Authors: Karthik Swaminathan;Augusto Vega;
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: With advances in device technologies, design methodologies, and programming paradigms, microprocessors of today have undergone a complete metamorphosis compared to their predecessors from the 1970s and 1980s. In particular, heterogeneity has become an all-pervasive feature of modern-day processors in device and packaging technologies, architectures, and programming interfaces, resulting in unprecedented enhancements in their performance, power efficiency, and functionality. We explore these heterogeneous designs, from their inception in the early 2000s, to their culmination into a whole new class of processors termed as Systems-on-a-Chip, and finally track their evolution into the microprocessors of tomorrow.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • How VLIWs Were Adopted as Digital Signal Processors

    • Authors: Ray Simar;Reid Tatge;
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: In an industry, where purported breakthroughs become fads and then rapidly fade away, very long instruction word (VLIW) technology has had a long and exceptionally successful life. Conceived by Joseph A. (Josh) Fisher more than 35 years ago,1 VLIW had limited commercial success in minicomputers and then was eclipsed by single-chip central processing units (CPUs)—the “killer micros.”
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Early History of Texas Instrument's Digital Signal Processor

    • Authors: Wanda Gass;
      Pages: 129 - 130
      Abstract: Reports on the history, development, and applications supported by Texas Instrument's digital signal processor. In the 1970s, Texas Instruments was an early player in the microprocessor industry. Its initial success as the microprocessor inside the consumer market products, calculators and digital watches, led to the development of two addition microprocessor families.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Interactions, Impacts, and Coincidences of the First Golden Age of
           Computer Architecture

    • Authors: John R. Mashey;
      Pages: 131 - 139
      Abstract: In their 2018 Turing Award lecture and 2019 paper, John Hennessy and David Patterson reviewed computer architecture progress since the 1960s. They projected a second golden age akin to the first, approximately 1986–1996, when new instruction set architectures, almost all reduced instruction set computers (RISCs), revolutionized the industry, eliminated most minicomputer vendors, rivaled mainframes, and began a takeover of supercomputing. The C language and derivatives came to pervade systems programming, whereas Unix derivatives came to run many servers, desktops, and smartphones. Such outcomes were not inevitable but depended on evolutionary interactions of computer architecture and languages, industry dynamics, and sometimes random coincidences.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • How Many VAXes Fit in the Palms of Your Hands'

    • Authors: John L. Henning;
      Pages: 140 - 143
      Abstract: During the early history of microprocessors, benchmarks were of interest to customers and important to marketing, but results and methods were not comparable. For example, a 1985 Performance SummaryaaThe 1985 Performance Summary is the third edition of a glossy, typeset, well-organized document with 164 pages and many tables and graphs. It includes work by multiple performance groups at a now-defunct computer manufacturer. The full title is not provided here because it is labeled “ For Internal Use Only,” although one suspects that customers may have routinely seen copies or excerpts. from a vendor of popular minicomputers contains results from a variety of benchmarks, with a variety of weaknesses as follows.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • From the Memory Lane!

    • Authors: Lizy Kurian John;
      Pages: 144 - 147
      Abstract: Reports on the technology of microprocessors, focusing on the history and development of the DEC Alpha 21164.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications

    • Pages: 147 - 147
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Last Chance: The Motorola Microprocessor Story

    • Authors: Murray Goldman;
      Pages: 148 - 149
      Abstract: Reports on the history, development, and applications supported by Motorola's microprocessor product line.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Birth of Arm Multicore Processing

    • Authors: John Goodacre;
      Pages: 150 - 152
      Abstract: Reports on the developent and applications supported by multicore processors.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Memories From IBM 370 to ARM

    • Authors: Pete Harrod;
      Pages: 153 - 154
      Abstract: Reports on the development of the microprocessor and discusses the launching and operations of the IBM 370 mainframe.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Special Memories From My Favorite TI Microprocessor Design Project

    • Authors: James O. Bondi;
      Pages: 155 - 155
      Abstract: Reports on the design and development of Texas Instrument's (x86) Pentium-successor-class chip product line. In the mid-1990s, Texas Instruments (TI) set about designing a (x86) Pentium-successor-class chip targeted at capturing a big chunk of the burgeoning PC market. A top-notch team was assembled from both existing TIers and key experienced hires. Our new team was given significant independence within TI to empower us to move quickly and think “out of the box” where appropriate. It was very exciting to work on this elite team. Team members would come to work early or leave late—or both—without even being asked.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Z80—The 1970s Microprocessor Still Alive

    • Authors: D. M. G. Preethichandra;
      Pages: 156 - 157
      Abstract: Reports on the history, development, and applications supported by Zilog Z80 microprocessor. The history of Zilog Z80 is fascinating. According to reliable sources,1 in late 1974, Federico Faggin, who was then best known as the designer of the first commercial microprocessor Intel 4004, and Ralph Ungermann, from the Intel 8080 team, left Intel to form their own company. Then, Masatoshi Shima, who was the transistor-level designer of Intel 8080, left Intel in April 1975 to join Faggin and Ungermann. At the beginning, Faggin intended to develop a single-chip computer (microcontroller), but soon realized that it is difficult to compete in the microcontroller market with a company who has its own semiconductor fabrication facility. In December 1975, Faggin came up with an idea of developing a 5-V microprocessor, which was machine core compatible with then popular Intel 8080, and adding most of the functionalities available in Motorola 6800, so that they could pinch both markets. Faggin, Ungermann, and Shima managed to find a venture capital from Exxon Enterprises for the development of a new microprocessor Z80 and formed their own company Zilog.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • NEC V20: Inspiring, Inconspicuous

    • Authors: Robert Ryszard Chodorek;
      Pages: 158 - 159
      Abstract: Reports on the history, development, and applications supported by NEC's V20 microprocessor product line.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • My Computer Journey

    • Authors: Ann Marie G. Maynard;
      Pages: 160 - 160
      Abstract: Discusses the experiences of the author with computers.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Atari's ANTIC: My Favorite Microprocessor

    • Authors: Cliff Young;
      Pages: 161 - 161
      Abstract: Reports on the history, development, and applications supported by the AlphaNumeric Television Interface Controller (ANTIC) microprocessor. ANTIC drove the display of my Atari 400, which debuted in 1979. I cannot find transistor counts, but ANTIC probably had a few thousand transistors like its host 6502 central processing unit (CPU). It lived on the processor daughterboard along with the 6502 and a suite of other display and sound chips. ANTIC ran a single-loop program at 60 Hz, matching the refresh rate of National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) televisions. Each instruction described how to draw 1–16 scan lines on my TV, with a variety of bitmapped and character-mapped modes (characters indirected to another set of bitmaps, allowing compact representation of 2-D game worlds). An ANTIC program was called a “Display List”; enterprising programmers could mix text and graphics vertically down the screen with the goal of conserving the machine’s precious 16– 48 KB of random access memory (RAM).
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Navigating the Seismic Shift of Post-Moore Computer Systems Design

    • Authors: Anindya Banerjee;Sankar Basu;Erik Brunvand;Pinaki Mazumder;Rance Cleaveland;Gurdip Singh;Margaret Martonosi;Fernanda Pembleton;
      Pages: 162 - 167
      Abstract: Reports on the history and development of computer aided design systems. In quick succession between 1964 and 1971, our field saw the proposal of Moore’s law,1 the coining of the term “computer architecture,”2 and the introduction of the first microprocessor.3 For much of the five decades since then, we have benefitted extraordinarily from both the dynamism of Moore’s law transistor scaling and the stable durability of the hardware–software abstractions of computer architecture. The dynamic duo of Moore’s law and computer architecture have allowed massive scaling to occur, and also to be navigated smoothly with relatively little software impact. For example, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, surges in power density occurred as we reached challenging limits in very large scale integration (VLSI) designs based on bipolar transistors; a technology transition from bipolar to complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) occurred with relatively little impact or awareness from the software portion of the computing community.4 Over the past 10–15 years however, more fundamental shifts have occurred. For example, Dennard scaling,5 a companion phenomenon to Moore’s law stating that power density could remain stable while transistor sizes shrank, is reaching physical limits. This means that further Moore’s law increases in transistor counts are becoming more complex and are only achieved with great effort and at higher power-density costs. Furthermore, as we reach fundamental physical limits in the functioning of small semiconductor transistors, Moore’s law itself is being challenged by the increased physical effort and financial expense required to maintain transistor scaling trends.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

    • Pages: 167 - 167
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Intel Wins in Four Decades, but AMD Catches Up

    • Authors: Bagus Hanindhito;Karthik Swaminathan;Vijaykrishnan Narayanan;Lizy Kurian John;
      Pages: 168 - 171
      Abstract: Reports on the history, development, and applications supported by Intel's microprocessor product line. Microprocessors have evolved substantially since the introduction of the Intel 4004 half a century ago. Over the years, several processors have stood out for their innovative designs, commercial successes, forays into new application domains, and significant performance and efficiency enhancements compared to their competitors. We polled the computer architecture community, and received votes from 254 processor designers and engineers, researchers from academia and industry, faculty, and graduate students, identifying their favorite processors from every decade since the 1970s, as well as their favorite processor of all time. The results of the poll are presented in this article.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Microarchitecture Patents Over Time and Interesting Early
           Microarchitecture Patents

    • Authors: Joshua J. Yi;
      Pages: 172 - 178
      Abstract: Presents an historical persepctive of microprocessor patents .
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Computer Society Has You Covered!

    • Pages: 178 - 178
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Apollo Guidance Computer

    • Authors: Michael Mattioli;
      Pages: 179 - 182
      Abstract: The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) is an engineering marvel. The AGC performed all of the necessary computation to successfully guide, navigate, and control the spacecraft, which carried Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to the surface of the moon back in 1969 as part of the Apollo 11 mission. Weighing in at a staggering 32 kg and featuring a blazing-fast 2.048-MHz clock, it was the first computer to use silicon integrated circuits (ICs). Mankind has made great strides and advances both in regards to space exploration as well as technology since the AGC made its debut. In light of those successes and this year being the 50th anniversary of the microprocessor, it is only fitting that the AGC be celebrated.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Computer Society

    • Pages: 183 - 183
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Virtuous Cycles

    • Authors: Shane Greenstein;
      Pages: 184 - 186
      Abstract: Reports on the development of microprocessors from an economic perspective. What shaped the economics of the microprocessor' In the beginning, replacement of components and redesign of equipment drove sales. Embedding logical instructions in the design of an integrated circuit changed calculators and scientific instruments. Those products found enthusiastic buyers in a generation of engineers and scientists raised on slide rules and vacuum tubes. The rise of personal computers changed the focus. Apple and IBM won a format war, which benefitted their respective suppliers, Motorola, Intel, and IBM’s semiconductor division. Third party software providers added applications. By 1985, IBM’s PC division achieved sales that would have made it the third largest computer company, had it been free-standing. Not long thereafter, IBM lost control over the design to clones such as Compaq.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 1 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 6 (2021)
       
 
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