Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing   (Total: 243 journals)

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Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Applied Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 142)
Advances in Computed Tomography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Internet of Things     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in J.ism and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Literary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Lung Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American J. of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
American J. of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American J. of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Art and Design Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Beijing Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CellBio     Open Access  
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Communications and Network     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Creative Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Urban Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Graphene     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
iBusiness     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InfraMatics     Open Access  
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Intl. J. of Clean Coal and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Intelligence Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Internet and Distributed Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Nonferrous Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Organic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Behavioral and Brain Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Biophysical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Biosciences and Medicines     Open Access  
J. of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Cancer Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Computer and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Crystallization Process and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Data Analysis and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Financial Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Geoscience and Environment Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Mathematical Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Modern Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Power and Energy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Quantum Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Service Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Software Engineering and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Low Carbon Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materials Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microscopy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Modern Chemotherapy     Open Access  
Modern Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Modern Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Modern Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Modern Research in Catalysis     Open Access  
Modern Research in Inflammation     Open Access  
Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Neuroscience & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New J. of Glass and Ceramics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Acoustics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Open J. of Air Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Open J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open J. of Apoptosis     Open Access  
Open J. of Applied Biosensor     Open Access  
Open J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Open J. of Biophysics     Open Access  
Open J. of Blood Diseases     Open Access  
Open J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open J. of Clinical Diagnostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Open J. of Depression     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Discrete Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Earthquake Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Energy Efficiency     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Open J. of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Genetics     Open Access  
Open J. of Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Open J. of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Open J. of Leadership     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Open J. of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open J. of Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Medical Psychology     Open Access  
Open J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Metal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Microphysics     Open Access  
Open J. of Modelling and Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open J. of Modern Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open J. of Modern Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology     Open Access  
Open J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open J. of Optimization     Open Access  
Open J. of Organ Transplant Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Organic Polymer Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open J. of Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open J. of Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Open J. of Physical Chemistry     Open Access  
Open J. of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open J. of Polymer Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Open J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access  

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Advances in Breast Cancer Research
Number of Followers: 19  

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ISSN (Print) 2168-1589 - ISSN (Online) 2168-1597
Published by Scientific Research Publishing Homepage  [243 journals]
  • Clinical Practice: Should we radically alter our sedation of critical care
           patients, Especially given the COVID-19 pandemics'

    • Abstract: The high number of patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus requiring care for ARDS puts sedation in the critical care unit (CCU) to the edge. Depth of sedation has evolved over the last 40 years (no-sedation, deep sedation, daily emergence, minimal sedation, etc.). Most guidelines now recommend determining the depth of sedation and minimizing the use of benzodiazepines and opioids. The broader use of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists (‘alpha-2 agonists’) led to sedation regimens beginning at admission to the CCU that contrast with hypnotics+opioids (“conventional“ sedation), with major consequences for cognition, ventilation and circulatory performance. The same doses of alpha-2 agonists used for ‘cooperative’ sedation (ataraxia, analgognosia) elicit no respiratory depression but modify the autonomic nervous system (cardiac parasympathetic activation, attenuation of excessive cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity). Alpha-2 agonists should be selected only in patients who benefit from their effects (‘personalized’ indications, as opposed to a ‘one size fits all’ approach). Then, titration to effect is required, especially in the setting of systemic hypotension and/or hypovolemia. Since no general guidelines exist for the use of alpha-2 agonists for CCU sedation, our clinical experience is summarized for the benefit of physicians in clinical situations in which a recommendation might never exist (refractory delirium tremens; unstable, hypovolemic, hypotensive patients, etc.). Because the physiology of alpha-2 receptors and the pharmacology of alpha-2 agonists lead to personalized indications, some details are offered. Since interactions between conventional sedatives and alpha-2 agonists have received little attention, these interactions are addressed. Within the existing guidelines for CCU sedation, this article could facilitate the use of alpha-2 agonists as effective and safe sedation while awaiting large, multicentre trials and more evidence-based medicine.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Lower, variable intrathecal opioid doses, and the incidence of prolonged
           fetal heart rate decelerations after combined spinal epidural analgesia
           for labor: A quality improvement analysis

    • Abstract: BackgroundCombined spinal-epidurals with low-dose intrathecal opioids and local anesthetics are commonly used to initiate labor analgesia due to the fast onset of analgesia and good patient satisfaction. Intrathecal fentanyl has been associated with fetal bradycardia, and the rate may be higher at doses of 25 mcg and above. As such, our institution limits intrathecal fentanyl doses to less than 15 mcg for labor. Prompted by a few incidents of prolonged fetal bradycardia at even these low doses, we sought to audit the side effects associated with varying low doses of intrathecal fentanyl.MethodsAfter IRB approval, a retrospective review was performed on 555 labor records from May–December, 2016. All the patients received combined spinal epidurals for labor analgesia. Intrathecal medication consisted of 1 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine, and varying fentanyl doses: 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 mcg. The incidences of prolonged fetal heart rate decelerations, emergent cesarean delivery, magnitude of pain reduction, pruritus requiring treatment, and hypotension were compared.ResultsDemographic variables were equivalent between the groups. There were no differences in the rates of prolonged fetal decelerations (in order of increasing fentanyl dose: 4.4%, 2.3%, 7.6%, 3.0%, p-value = 0.11), emergent cesarean delivery, magnitude of pain reduction, pruritus, or maternal hypotension.ConclusionsIn conclusion, the rates of prolonged fetal heart rate decelerations after combined spinal epidural with intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl does not differ for fentanyl doses of 15 mcg and below.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • General versus regional anesthesia for emergency cesarean delivery in a
           high-volume high-resource referral center: A retrospective cohort study

    • Abstract: ObjectiveThe choice of anesthesia for emergency cesarean delivery (CD) is one of the most important choices to make in obstetric anesthesia. In this study, we examine which type of anesthesia was used for emergency CD in our hospital, and how the choice affected the time from entry to the operation room until incision (TTI), time until delivery (TTD), and maternal/neonatal outcomes.MethodsRetrospectively, we examined all emergency CD’s performed in Shaare Zedek Medical Center between January–December 2018. Results: 1059 patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 7.7% underwent general anesthesia (GA), 36.2% – conversion from labor epidural analgesia to surgical anesthesia, 52% – spinal anesthesia and 4.1% – combined spinal epidural. We did not find a significant difference between the GA and conversion epidural groups in terms of TTI or TTD. Nevertheless, GA was found to be correlated to a high rate of blood-products requirement and ICU admission. The rate of newborns with an APGAR score of less than 7, in both first and fifth second after birth, was significantly higher in the GA group, as well as the need for NICU admission.ConclusionThis study clearly emphasizes that the TTI are shortest when using GA or conversion of labor epidural analgesia to surgical anesthesia. Meanwhile, GA is also linked to higher rates of admissions to ICU as well as poorer neonatal outcomes compared to the other groups. Additionally, our study uncovered a low rate of GA, and relatively low rate of regional anesthesia failure, which meets the accepted standards.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) rescue therapy in
           post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock: A case report

    • Abstract: Cardiogenic shock is a constant challenge for the intensivist when complicating a myocardial infarction, due to the high rate of associated morbidity and mortality, especially in the setting of mechanical complications such as papillary muscle rupture.We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by severe mitral valve insufficiency due to papillary muscle rupture. She was treated initially by medical optimization, followed by mitral valve replacement and complete surgical revascularization, requiring rescue mechanical circulatory support by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).ECMO proved to be a rescue therapy in a patient with refractory cardiogenic shock after urgent cardiac surgery.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • The clinical significance of fluctuations in the minute-to-minute urine
           flow rate and in its minute-to-minute variability during septic events in
           critically ill patients

    • Abstract: BackgroundSeptic events complicated by hemodynamic instability can lead to decreased organ perfusion, multiple organ failure, and even death. Acute renal failure is a common complication of sepsis, affecting up to 50-70 % of cases, and it is routinely diagnosed by close monitoring of urine output. We postulated that analysis of the minute-to-minute changes in the urine flow rate (UFR) and also of the changes in its minute-to-minute variability might lead to earlier diagnosis of renal failure. We accordingly analyzed the clinical significance of these two parameters in a group of critically ill patients suffering from new septic events.MethodsThe study was retrospective and observational. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the hospital records of 50 critically ill patients who were admitted to a general intensive care unit (ICU) and developed a new septic event characterized by fever with leukocytosis or leukopenia. On admission to the ICU, a Foley catheter was inserted into the urinary bladder of each patient. The catheter was then connected to an electronic urinometer – a collecting and measurement system that employs an optical drop detector to measure urine flow. Urine flow rate variability (UFRV) was defined as the change in UFR from minute to minute.ResultsBoth the minute-to-minute UFR and the minute-to-minute UFRV decreased significantly immediately after each new septic episode, and they remained low until fluid resuscitation was begun (p < 0.001 for both parameters). Statistical analysis by the Pearson method demonstrated a strong direct correlation between the decrease in UFR and the decrease in the systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP) (R = 0.03, p = 0.003) and between the decrease in UFRV and the decrease in the MAP (R = 0.03, p = 0.004). Additionally, both the UFR and the UFRV demonstrated good responses to fluid administration prior to improvement in the MAP.ConclusionWe consider that minute-to-minute changes in UFR and UFRV could potentially serve as early and sensitive signals of clinical deterioration during new septic events in critically ill patients. We also suggest that these parameters might be able to identify the optimal endpoint for the administration of fluid resuscitative measures in such patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Covid-19 pneumonia and ventilation-induced lung injury: A case report

    • Abstract: We present the case of a 67-year-old male patient, who was admitted to the intensive care unit for hypoxemic respiratory failure due to severe COVID-19 pneumonitis, requiring mechanical ventilation. Despite close monitoring using transpulmonary pressure measurements and interventions to pursue lung-protective ventilation, the patient developed extensive barotrauma including a right-sided pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum while on pressure support ventilation. We hypothesize that the high respiratory drive that COVID-19 patients seem to exhibit, combined with diffuse alveolar injury and increased alveolar pressure, resulted in gross barotrauma.ConclusionThe respiratory characteristics that COVID-19 patients seem to exhibit might expose those on mechanical ventilation to an increased risk of developing ventilation-induced lung injury. This case emphasizes that caution should be taken in the respiratory treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Metabolic shock in elderly pertrochanteric or intertrochanteric surgery.
           Comparison of three surgical methods. Is there a much safer'

    • Abstract: IntroductionTrochanteric fractures are a major trauma in the elderly population and represent a significant part of public health spending. Various fixation devices are used as treatment for these fractures. This study aimed to evaluate three surgical methods in the treatment of pertrochanteric femoral fractures.Materials and methodsFrom January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, 86 patients were divided into 3 groups. Fifteen patients were treated with osteosynthesis by reamed intramedullary nailing (RIMN), 15 patients were treated with unreamed intramedullary nailing (UIMN), and 13 patients were treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS) plate osteosynthesis. All patients were >75 years of age. They were evaluated with a clinical radiological follow-up and laboratory examination (LDH, CPK, IL-1-B, IL-8, TNF-α, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, ESR, CRP, and procalcitonin).ResultsIL-8, TNF-α, fibrinogen, D-dimer and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels were higher in the DHS group compared with the other two groups at 1 month after surgery (P<0.05). LDH, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were higher in the DHS group compared with the other two groups at 3 months after surgery (P<0.05). From 3 to 6 months after surgery, the TNF-α level was high in the DHS and RIMN groups (P<0.05). Infection markers did not demonstrate a difference among the 3 groups. Twelve patients died during the 12-month follow-up. Regardless of the method used, morbidity and mortality are linked to enticement and comorbidities rather than surgery within 48 hours after the trauma.ConclusionsFrom our study, we can affirm that the values of cytokines and interleukins observed remain high during the 12-month follow up, regardless of whatever fixation devices or surgery type was performed within 48 hours of injury. Inflammatory markers are higher in patients in the DHS group. This can probably be explained by the fact that DHS technique is performed by open surgery, and this can create a higher inflammation of soft tissue. Mortality is reduced in the first 30 days after surgery if patients are mobilized early. Therefore, mortality in our study population of patients aged >75 years is linked more to the chronic inflammatory state and comorbidities, rather than fixation device or surgical type used.However, future studies are needed to answer further questions that go beyond the scope of our study.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Role of anaesthetic choice in improving outcome after cardiac surgery

    • Abstract: Clinical backgroundVolatile anaesthetics (VAs) have been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against ischaemia and reperfusion injury in cardiac surgery.Clinical problemsVAs have been shown in multiple trials and meta-analyses to be associated with better outcomes when compared to intravenous anaesthesia in cardiac surgery. However, recent data from a large randomised controlled trial do not confirm the superiority of VA as compared to total intravenous anaesthesia in this population.Review objectivesThis mini review presents the VA cardioprotective effects, their clinical use in cardiac surgery and the most recent evidence that compares VA to intravenous anaesthesia for reducing perioperative morbidity. At present, there is no clear superiority of VA over intravenous anaesthesia in improving the outcome after cardiac surgery.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Biomarkers in cystic fibrosis lung disease – a review

    • Abstract: Cystic fibrosis is a polymorphic disease, marked by multiple and difficult-to-treat respiratory exacerbations with severe evolution. The lung disease dictates the disease’s evolution and it must be diagnosed early and treated accordingly, but the diagnosis is sometimes challenging because of the lack of a sensible tool. In the era of the biomarkers, the need for a sensitive and reliable one would be extremely important, considering that inflammation secondary to infections produce irreversible structural changes in the cystic fibrosis lungs. The present paper reviews the studied biomarkers in inflammation and infection with potential role in cystic fibrosis lung disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Validation of the scale of psychological evaluation specific to intensive
           therapy (IPAT) on a population of patients in Romania admitted to
           intensive care units

    • Abstract: ObjectiveThrough this study, we want to see to what extent the stress is present among the patients admitted in the intensive care units of the Fundeni Clinical Institute of Bucharest, outlining intervention strategies both individually and collectively and validating the psychological evaluation tool (IPAT) specific to the anesthesia and intensive care units in our population.MethodIntensive Psychological Assessment Tool (IPAT) with 10 items was used for stress assessment in the intensive care unit and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) with 14 items and two subscales, one for anxiety (7 items) and one for depression (7 items).ConclusionThe study demonstrates the validity of IPAT scale for the patients participating in the study; the results of the study provide the specialists in anesthesia and intensive care units directions to identify elements of stress, anxiety and depression – directions that can improve their daily work, communication with patients and possibly a better quality of life for all involved in the care of a patient.ResultsThe results of the study provide the specialists in anesthesia and intensive care units the directions to improve their daily work and possibly a better quality of life for all involved in the care of a patient.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Automated Quantitative Relaxometry for Deep Neuromuscular Blockade in
           Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    • Abstract: PurposeDuring pneumoperitoneum (PP) for robot-assisted prostatectomy, a deep neuromuscular block (NMB) is necessary. New relaxometry equipment permits maintenance of profound NMB in order to improve patient safety and surgical conditions.MethodsTwenty adult patients undergoing robot-assisted prostatectomy were included. Under automated quantitative relaxometry with the TOFcuffTM device, rocuronium dosing was adapted with the aim to keep NMB at deep levels. The time fractions with intense block (PTC 0), adequately deep block (PTC 1 to 3) and a not sufficiently deep block (PTC > 3) were quantified.ResultsAn optimally deep block (PTC 1–3) was achieved during 110 ± 38 min (50 ± 15%). Intense block was found during 60 ± 45 min (27 ± 18%) of total PP time. Values of PTC > 3 lasted 60 ± 45 min (23 ± 17%). Median PTC always remained between 1 and 3. Inadvertent movements during PP were never encountered, and operation conditions as reported by the surgeons were excellent.ConclusionOur technique of controlled profound NMB by repetitive bolus doses achieved its goal in 77% of PP time. Under automated quantitative relaxometry, an optimized rocuronium dosing strategy should be applied to maintain a high level of safety and adequate operation conditions without risking an unnecessary prolongation of NMB into the post-pneumoperitoneum period.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block and Sugammadex Use in a Paediatric
           Patient with Wolff–Parkinson–-White Syndrome

    • Abstract: BackgroundWolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome is a rare disease that can cause various patterns of tachyarrhythmias. The main goal of anaesthesiologists for the perioperative anaesthetic management of WPW patients must be to avoid sympathetic stimulation and prevent tachyarrhythmias.CaseA 9-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of WPW syndrome, who underwent emergency surgery for supracondylar humerus fracture, is presented. General anaesthesia in combination with infraclavicular brachial plexus (ICBP) block was performed successfully without any complications. For the reversal of neuromuscular block, sugammadex was uneventfully used. Intraoperative sympathetic discharge due to surgical intervention was prevented with ICBP block. The ICBP block has also provided good postoperative analgesia.ConclusionsSugammadex is a good alternative for the reversal of neuromuscular blocks to avoid the undesirable effects of cholinergic drugs. Peripheral regional blocks that require relatively large doses of local anaesthetics can be safely performed with utmost attention in paediatric WPW patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Complete Tracheal Transection in a 3-Year-Old after Blunt Neck Trauma: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Pediatric laryngotracheal injuries from blunt force trauma are rare but can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. In pediatric patients with severe laryngotracheal disruption, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used to improve oxygenation and ventilation until definitive repair can be performed. We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with blunt neck trauma secondary to an all-terrain vehicle accident in which her neck was clotheslined against a fence, leading to a complete tracheal transection at the C7-T1 level. Emergent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation was initiated. We discuss the evaluation and management of tracheal injuries and the requisite multidisciplinary team approach. Pediatric patients with laryngotracheal trauma require definitive airway management, which should be performed by skilled personnel.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Altered Thermoregulatory Responses Following Spinal Morphine for Caesarean
           Delivery: A Case Report

    • Abstract: ObjectiveSpinal anaesthesia interferes with physiological thermoregulatory responses, potentially leading to peri-operative hypothermia. Spinal morphine can further compound this by a paradoxical clinical presentation leading to poor patient outcome.Case ReportFollowing an uneventful caesarean delivery (CD) under spinal anaesthesia with intrathecal morphine for post-operative analgesia, a parturient presented in the recovery room with increasing somnolence, excessive sweating and a sensation of feeling hot. She was haemodynamically stable, but her temperature was 34.5°C. Active warming measures were implemented, and normothermia was achieved in 3 hours.ConclusionSpinal morphine can alter the clinical presentation of hypothermia by manifesting as excessive sweating and subjective sensation of warmth. Teams involved in the perioperative care of parturients should be aware of (a) the possibility of spinal anaesthesia causing perioperative hypothermia, (b) intrathecal morphine masking the clinical presentation of hypothermia and (c) the importance of monitoring temperature of patients who have received spinal anaesthesia with added morphine.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Underwater Anesthesia Machines' Well, Almost. Closed-Circuit Rebreathers
           and the Leap Forward for Advanced Diving, Exploration, and Discovery

    • PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Outcome of Peripartum Anesthesia in Women with Valvular Disease

    • Abstract: ObjectiveMaternal heart disease is one of the major causes for mortality among parturients. In our study, we surveyed 220 patients with different valvular disorders who gave birth in our medical center in the years 2012–2018. The aim of this study was to characterize various valvular pathologies and compare the results of different anesthetic approaches.MethodsIn this retrospective study, the computerized system and file archive were searched for maternal valvular pathologies according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). The women included in the study were defined as American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA)-II or more, who suffer from valvular heart disease.ResultsThe most common pathology was mitral valve regurgitation (57.73% of all cardiac patients). Most women were defined as having mild insufficiency, and 82.68% had normal vaginal delivery. In 17.3% of patients who had cesarean section, the main type of anesthesia was neuraxial anesthesia (95.45%). The second most common pathology was tricuspid valve regurgitation (22.73%). Most patients (78%) had normal vaginal delivery, and epidural analgesia was used in 64.1%. A minority of cardiac patients in our study were patients with stenotic heart diseases, such as aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis and pulmonic stenosis (8.18%, 4.55%, and 1.36%, respectively). No complications were observed in the peripartum period.ConclusionThe use of regional anesthesia is recommended for all valvular pathologies without exception, as we observed no cases in which the severity of cardiac condition had not allowed the use of various types of regional anesthesia, for surgery or vaginal delivery.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Prospective Double-Blind Comparative Clinical Study between Caudal
           Levobupivacaine (0.125%) with Clonidine and Ropivacaine (0.125%) with
           Clonidine on Post-Operative Analgesia in Paediatric Patients Undergoing
           Infra-Umbilical Surgery

    • Abstract: IntroductionCaudal epidural block is a reliable technique in paediatric patients but associated with various complications especially with higher concentration of drugs. We proposed a comparative study between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine at low concentration (0.125%) with clonidine at low dose (1 mcg/kg) taken as adjuvant. We aimed to see duration of post-operative analgesia, degree of motor blockade and other associated complications.Materials and MethodsEighty paediatric patients (1–6 years), American society of anaesthesiologists grade I and II, undergoing infra-umbilical surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups of 40 each. Group A patients were given caudal levobupivacaine (0.125%) and Group B patients were given caudal ropivacaine (0.125%). Clonidine (1 mcg/kg) was taken as adjuvant in both the groups. Post-operative pain, sedation and motor blockade were assessed at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours using Observational Pain Scale, modified Bromage Scale and four-point sedation score, respectively. Any other complications were also noted.ResultsMotor blockade was not associated with any of the patients. Duration of post-operative sedation was similar in both the groups. Duration of post-operative analgesia was significantly higher in Group A (p < 0.0001). Adverse effects and complications were negligible in both the groups.ConclusionBoth levobupivacaine and ropivacaine can be used safely at low concentration (0.125%) taking clonidine at low dose (1 mcg/kg) as adjuvant in paediatric caudal epidural block without significant motor blockade and other complications, duration of post-operative analgesia being significantly higher in the levobupivacaine group.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Ketamine Versus Tramadol as an Adjunct to PCA Morphine for Postoperative
           Analgesia after Major Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective, Comparative,
           Randomized Trial

    • Abstract: Background and aimsPatient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine is commonly used to provide analgesia following major surgery, but is not sufficient as a monotherapy strategy. This study aimed to compare the adjunctive analgesic effect of ketamine versus tramadol on postoperative analgesia provided via PCA-morphine in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgeries.MethodsForty-two patients undergoing elective major upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were allocated to receive either ketamine (load dose of 0.5 mg kg−1 followed by a continuous infusion of 0.12 mg kg−1 h−1 up to 48 postoperative hours; ketamine group, n = 21) or tramadol (load dose of 1 mg kg−1 followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 mg kg−1 h−1 up to 48 postoperative hours; tramadol group, n = 21) in addition to their standard postoperative analgesia with PCA-morphine. Postoperative data included morphine consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and side effects during the first 48 postoperative hours after PCA-morphine initiation.ResultsThere were no significant differences in patient demographic and intraoperative data between the two groups. Tramadol group had significantly less total morphine consumption during the first 48 postoperative hours (28.905 [16.504] vs 54.524 [20.846] mg [p < 0.001]) and presented significantly lower VAS scores at rest and mobilization (p < 0.05) than the ketamine group. No statistical difference was recorded between the two groups (p > 0.05) regarding postoperative cough, sedation, hallucinations, pruritus, urine retention, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, patients in the ketamine group reported dry mouth more frequently than patients in the tramadol group (p = 0.032).ConclusionsPostoperative administration of tramadol was superior to ketamine due to significantly reduced opioid consumption and better pain scores in patients receiving PCA-morphine after major upper abdominal surgery.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Oral Clonidine, Dexmedetomidine, and Melatonin
           as Premedicants in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Subumbilical Surgeries

    • Abstract: IntroductionSedative premedication is the mainstay of pharmacological therapy in children undergoing surgeries. This study compares preoperative melatonin, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine on sedation, ease of anesthesia induction, emergence delirium, and analgesia.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and five children, 3–8 years, either sex, ASA I/II, posted for infraumbilical surgery, randomized to receive clonidine 5 mcg/kg (Group C), dexmedetomidine 3 mcg/kg (Group D), and melatonin 0.2 mg/kg (Group M) 45 minutes before surgery. Preoperative Sedation/Anxiety and Child–Parent Separation Score (CPSS) were assessed. Identical anesthesia technique was utilized. Emergence delirium (Watcha score) and postoperative pain (Objective Pain Scale score) were monitored postoperatively.ResultsPatients were demographically comparable. Sedation score >Grade 3 was absent. Grades 1/2/3 were present in 10/19/6 (Group C), 2/26/7 (Group D), and 7/26/2 (Group M). Grade 1 CPSS was present in 42.6% (Group C), 37.1% (Group D), and 28.6% (Group M). Pediatric Anesthesia Behavior Score (PABS) was comparable between Groups C and D (p = 0.224; 95% CI −0.090 to 0.604) and Groups C and M (p = 0.144; 95% CI −0.633 to 0.061) while PABS was better in Group D compared to Group M (p = 0.0007; 95% CI −0.890 to −0.195). Watcha scores were 33/2/0/0 (Group C), 34/1/0/0 (Group D), and 32/2/1/0 (Group M) immediately after extubation. Scores were 31/4/0/0 (Group C), 33/2/0/0 (Group D), and 31/4/0/0 (Group M) at 30 minutes and 28/7/0/0 (Group C), 29/6/0/0 (Group D), and 24/11/0/0 (Group M) at 1 hour. The scores were comparable (p > 0.05). Objective Pain Scale scores were comparable between Groups C and D and Groups C and M (p > 0.05). Lower scores were present in Group D compared to M (p = 0.023).ConclusionMelatonin, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine are efficacious for producing preoperative sedation, reducing anxiety, postoperative pain, and emergence delirium.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Epidural Naloxone Attenuates Fentanyl Induced PONV in Patients Undergoing
           Lower Limb Orthopaedic Surgeries. A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind
           Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Background and aimEpidural administration of opioids with local anaesthetics is a popular choice for perioperative pain relief. But opioid induced side effects limit their use for postoperative analgesia. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of epidural naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, in reducing PONV in patients receiving epidural fentanyl.MethodsAfter obtaining the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed consent, 46 patients, between 18–80 years, of either sex, with ASA physical status 1–3, undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgeries were enlisted for this prospective, randomized, double blind comparative study. Subjects were allocated to one of the two groups and received epidurally, either fentanyl with bupivacaine (Group C, n = 23) or fentanyl with bupivacaine and naloxone 2 mcg (Group N, n = 25), for reducing postoperative pain. PONV score and Wong Bakers Scale (WBS) for pain score were recorded at 6, 12 and 18hrs, postoperatively.ResultsAll patients were comparable with respect to age, gender, ASA PS, height, body weight as well as duration of surgery. A statistically significant decrease in PONV score was observed in Group N at 6 and 12 hours, postoperatively. The patients who required rescue antiemetic were also significantly lower in Group N at 6 and 12 hours. The mean WBS score for pain also showed significant reduction in Group N at 6 hours, postoperatively.ConclusionConcomitant use of low dose epidural naloxone and fentanyl is effective in attenuating PONV, besides enhancing analgesia in the earlypostoperative period.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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